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You are on page 1of 3

We are going to solve the equations for an unsteady isentropic flow through a

convergent-divergent nozzle using the MacCormack technique. This problem is

described in detail in Anderson chapter 7.

The governing equations on conservative form are, (see Anderson equations

(7.15), (7.93) and (7.96))

∂U ∂G

+ =F

∂t ∂x

where

ρA ρAv 0

U = ρAv , G = ρAv 2 + pA , F = p ∂A

∂x

ρ(e + v 2 /2)A ρ(e + v 2 /2)Av + pAv 0

L = 3 is the length of the nozzle. We also need relations from thermodynamics;

p = ρRT and e = RT /(γ − 1) where R = 288.7J/kg/K is the gas constant and

γ = 1.4.

Initial conditions:

v(0, x) = 0 (1)

x

p(0, x) = p0 + (pe − p0 ) (2)

L

T (0, x) = T0 (3)

exit (back) pressure. The size of the pressure ratio p0 /pe determines the flow

through the nozzle, so pe has to be chosen differently depending on the flow

case. To compute ρ(0, x) and e(0, x) the given initial conditions can be used

together with the thermodynamical relations given above.

Boundary conditions:

To determine the number of boundary conditions required at each boundary

we use the method of characteristics.

The inflow will always be subsonic, i.e. there are two in-going characteristics

and one outgoing. Therefore, we specify the value of two of the variables, e.g.

p0

ρ(t, 0) = ρ0 = (4)

RT0

RT0

T (t, 0) = T0 ⇒ e(t, 0) = (5)

γ−1

For the third variable, v, we need a numerical boundary condition which is

obtained by linear extrapolation.

Computational Fluid Dynamics SG2212, Spring 2008 2

For supersonic outflow all characteristics are going out from the domain and

no physical boundary conditions are required. Values of the flow variables at

the boundary are obtained by linear extrapolation.

For subsonic outflow we have one in-going characteristic and we prescribe the

pressure to be equal to the exit pressure

p(t, L) = pe . (6)

The other two boundary conditions are obtained by using conditions that are

compatible with the physical behavior of the flow. For inviscid flow,

p

=s

ργ

is constant along a stream line. We also know that along one of the outgoing

characteristics the quantity

2c

R2 = u +

γ−1

is transported at velocity u + c where R2 is called a Riemann invariant. These

facts are used to construct numerical boundary conditions. We extrapolate the

values of the entropy and the Riemann invariant at the boundary by using their

values inside the domain as

R2m = 2R2m−1 − R2m−2 (8)

where m is the number of grid points. From these relations we can compute ρ,

ρv and ρ(e + v 2 /2) at the boundary.

1

pe γ

ρm =

sm

q

2 γpρm

e

vm = R2m −

γ−1

pe

em =

ρm (γ − 1)

It is your job to write a code and to run the three different cases:

Computational Fluid Dynamics SG2212, Spring 2008 3

The MacCormack scheme should be used and the code can either be based on

the code handed out for the Shock tube or you can write a code completely on

your own.

For each case you should run the code until you obtain a steady solution and

present the results, see e.g. Figure 1 (b). Be sure to run enough time steps to

reach convergence to steady state (around 5000 to 10000). Check the density

residual, kρn − ρn−1 k/kρn k, where kρn k is the norm of the vector containing

ρnj , j = 1, 2, . . . , m, (use norm in MATLAB), and make sure it has decreased

at least five orders of magnitude, see Figure 1 (a).

We know from Homework 2 that artificial viscosity is needed to obtain a solution

free from oscillations and that it should be implemented using a conservative

formulation,

U t + G(U )x + (KU x )x = F

Use the same artificial viscosity model as in the Homework 2 but use a pressure

switch instead of the density.

Experiment with the amount of artificial viscosity to obtain the ”best” result.

−2

Residual of density Purely subsonic case

10 1

0.9

−3

10

0.8

0.7

−4

||ρn−ρn−1||/||ρn||

10

0.6

0.5

−5

10

0.4

0.3

p/p

−6 0

10

0.2 ρ/ρ

0

Mass flux

0.1

−7

10

Mach number

0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000

time step 0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

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