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The 2016 International Conference on Science and Technology

Numerical Simulation of Ship Collision to the Quay

Ronad Mangasi Hutauruk1 and Pareng Rengi2
Fishing Technology Department, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science
University of Riau
Fishing Technology Department, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science
University of Riau

Abstract—Flooding on vessel occur due to various hull of the ship will occur [4].
causes for instance impact event between ship to ship, ship To minimize effect of collision to the ship, the ship
to berth/break water, ship to bottom, explosion and is strengthened with longitudinal strength and
material failure. The goal of the research is to make transverse strength [5]. When working load of the
collision simulation of small boat construction to dealing
with flooding triggered by damage hull after impact. Boat
ship is below the design load, ship structureswill be
is transform to be a model with complete structure and safe and do not undergo buckling/plasticcollapse
imposed water velocity in rough water. Then the vessel is [6],[7],[8].
simulated by ANSYS Explicit Dynamics to perform Generally class provides load calculation to ensure
damage of structure in the hull of the boat. Maximum the ship is safety from buckling and other failure of
stress occur around the draft of the boat right at the site of structure as well as the ship is not in jeopardy
impact. Maximum stress reach 290 MPa and effect any
condition though to the extreme condition as sagging
related structure as frame, stringer, bracket and shell. To
minimize damage by impact, the structure of the vessels and hogging.
must be supported with more efficient girder as regulated
by class as BKI.
Keywords—Stress, collision, damage, ANSYS Explicit

When the ship berths to the port of destination, it
needs a good commucation with the ship master to
the port operator to avoid ship damage as a result of
collision to the quay. In addition, in the case of severe
wind and bad weather as external force of ship, some
vessels in the port tend to crash toward the wharf orto
other vessels. Its collision willdamage the vessels due Fig.1 Illustration of Ship Berthing [9]
to tremendous forces created by slamming with the
quay or other vessel. The most common and This research simulates the ship when collided with
expensive damage occurs on the ship hull. the quay by using Finite Element Analysis(FEA)
Sometimes, the collision literally ripped the hull and software to describe the effect of collision at the
allows water to flood ship compartments and stiffners and others ship construction.The finite
eventually make it sinking.It caused by material element analysis or sometimes it is called finite
properties of quay much stronger than a ship. The element method (FEM), is a computational technique
quay is designed with robust construction [1] to used to obtain approximate solutions of boundary
withstand heavy loads as load from seaside, load from value problemsin engineering. Common FEA
deck, load from landside [2]. Meanwhile when the applications are used to solve problems of mechanical
ship is berthing to the port, the quay receive action engineering, structural (stress analysis),
which is caused by ship berthing, ship motion and static/dynamic, linear/nonlinear, fluid flow etc.
due to traction of the ship (Fig 1). Action caused by FEA can be used to optimize the weight of offshore
ship berthing is calculated from the berthing energy vessels [10]. In addition, it can be used to analyze
of ships, meanwhile action caused by ship motion is global strength of offshore vesssel [11]. Meanwhile,
calculated by motion calculation by appropriately FEA in the fluids field usingCFD approach for
setting wave forces, wind pressure forces, and water instance to analize ship resistance of ship [12], to,
current pressure forces [3].If the contact of the ship in simulate free surface flow in container [13]. Related
the area of unsupported fender, hence the damage to FEA analysis in fluid has been conductedby Geeri, et
The 2016 International Conference on Science and Technology

al. [14], Gordo, et al. [16], and Kim, et al. [15]. regions of the twobodies. The total elastic potential
energy of the two bodies canbe expressed, in their
II. RELATED WORKS nodal displacements, as (4)
Researchers have been conducted some researchs  
 
 1 T  K1   1    1 T  C1  1   1 T 
regarding collision between two object, but colllision
betwen ship hull to the quay is still a little discussion.  
M 1   1  . 1  2 T  K 2   2    2 T  C 2 
Recently, Liu and Soares estimate strength of outer
  
hull of tanker due to minor collision [16]. Meanwhile
. 2  2   M 2  2   P d
T 
Prabowo et al. analize the influence parameter using 0
finite element methods in the case of collsion To solve nodal displacement use (5) [23]
between ship to ship [17]. The effect of collision of
underwater Glider-ship is analized by using finite K~   
i i t t  Ri t t (5)
elementby Drucker et al. [18]. Then to understand the
impact of explotion underwater to ship hull,
Szturomki reveal that at pressure ranging 12 Mpa will
cause deformation and crack on a ship. If the pressure K~   θ
Δt 2
M i   3 Ci   K i ,
increase to 16 MPa, extensive crack will occur and
Ri t t   Pt  ( 1) t Li   M i 
the ship can sink [19]. This effects cause a serious
stability problems due to the damage in the hull [20],  6
  2 2  i t 
6 
    
 i t  i
 
[21]. Collision in the ocean also occur in the offshore θ Δt
structure for example between ship to jacket leg [22].  3
 C i   
 i t  2 i t  θΔt   
i t
 θΔt 2 
The main reason of losses when berthing where For the computation of the impact force use (6)
either part or whole energy gives off in the area of [23]
contact ship- berth is impact [4]. The quay absorbs a L1 T  1 t t  L2 T   2 t t   Pt t  (6)
part of ship’s kinetic energy as (1) and simplified in
(2) [3]. To calculate the nodal displacement column vector
 1 t t , velocity column vector 1 t t , and
  m 0
mV 2 a2 K2
E 1  2   mV 0 2  acceleration column vector 1 t t , at instant t  t 
2  K  r2  K r 2
, we use (7) to (9).
K 2r 2
K 2  r2
 
1 t t 
 3 t 2
  i t t   i t  -
 2 t
  i t
E fk   3
 
M sk Vbk C mk C ek C sk C ck (2)  1   i t , (7)
2 
 

Besides, the wind loads acting on ship is affect the  

1 t t  
 i t 

   
i t t  i t , (8)
energy transferred to the ship. The wind load is
calculated by using (3).  1 t t  
  i t  t i t 
t 2 
 
 i t t  2 i    (9)

RX k   aU k 2 AT C X All the equations will be used to predict the force
acts in the ship. The ship dimension refer to previous
  aU k AL CY
RYk (3) research [21] as follow:
  aU k AL L pp C M
RYk Length Over All (LOA) = 49.73 m
Length Perpendiculars (LPP) = 45.00 m
The deformation ontwo colliding bodies is Breadth (B) = 9.00 m
generated from the transformation oftheir initial Height (H) = 4.00 m
kinetic energy into deformation energy Draft (T) = 2.60 m
[23].Deformation first occurs on the local contact Service Speed (Vs) = 12.00 knot
The 2016 International Conference on Science and Technology

Fig. 2 Lines plan of ship [21]

The lines plan of the ship is given in Fig. 2. Then
A collision accident can effect and lead to costly
The parallel middle body of the ship is modelled and
consequences in loss of lives, damage to property
developped by using ANSYS Design Modeler. It is
and/or environment [29]. Human error is the cause of
assumed that the parallel middle body is the largest
the majority of ship collision accidents. Contact
part effected by the collision to the quay. Paralel
damage to the parallel middle body side structures
middle body equipped with stiffeners where its
occurs in the form of local denting of plating
dimension’s is obtained and calculated from the rules
between stiffeners, buckling of deck beams,
given in the class. The midship section is shown in
permanent deformation in side frames, stringers
Fig. 3.
and local buckling in decks, frames and web
frames. To obtain the information of effect of the
collision to the quay, the the entire parallel middle
body shall be modelled including all structural
Statistic of mesh to the parallel middle body of the
ship is Nodes 83214 and element 77927. The mesh
size should be decided considering proper stiffness
representation and load distribution [27]. The
meshing process is given in Fig. 4.

Fig. 3 Midship Section of the ship

The magnitude of force exerted to the parallel

middle body calculated by using equation (3). Before
the force is given to the model, FEA be checked
systematically for the following possible errors: Fig. 4 Typical mesh used for global finite element analysis
 fixed nodes and nodes without stiffness
 intermediate nodes on element edges not Maximum stress due to collision of the ship to the
connected to the element quay is 290 MPa and effect any related structure as
 trusses or beams crossing shells frame, stringer, brackets. Meanwhile Equivalent
 double elements Stress (von-Misses) at the incident reach 1,45 x 103
 extreme element shapes (element edge aspect Mpa. The effect of the stress can be seen in the side
ratio and warped elements) of the shell to the quay as shown in Fig. 5. The graph
 incorrect boundary conditions of Masimum Principal Stress is given in Fig. 6.
The 2016 International Conference on Science and Technology

Fig. 6 Maximum Principal Stress during collision

According to this theory failure will occur when the

maximum principal stress in a system reaches the
value of the maximum strength at elastic limit in
simple tension. For this case when the vessel in the
bad weather conditions, the vessel suffers damage
and required extensive repairs. A collision with low
kinetic energy can result in permanent deformations
of side structures instead of rupture of side shell [29].
Then the ship must take into account the class rule to
keep the ship is not in dire condition.

A collision accident can effect and lead to costly
consequences in loss of lives, damage to property
and/or environment. Human error is the cause of the
majority of ship collision accidents.Acknowledgment.
During severe wind, the ship sufferred naximum
stress 290 MPa and effect any related structure as
frame, stringer, bracket and shell. Equivalent Stress
(von-Misses) at the incident reach 1,45 x 103 Mpa.
The effect of the stress can be seen in the side of the
shell to the quay. To minimize damage by impact, the
structure of the vessels must be supported with more
efficient girder as regulated by class as BKI.

This research are financially supported by Ministry
of Research Technology and Higher Education of
Indonesian under PNBP (Non-Tax Revenue) Fund of
University of Riau, 2016.
Fig. 5 Equivalent Stress Distribution (A). Equivalent Elastic
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