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3.3.

2 Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI) Happiness of secondary school students was measured by
using Oxford Happiness Inventory developed by Argyle (2001). The scale contains 29 items which
cover six dimensions viz. life Satisfaction, joy, self-esteem, calm, control, and efficacy. (Dimension
wise distribution of 95 OHI is given in table No. 3.6). It is likert type five points rating scale. Each item
has five response alternatives namely not at all true, slightly true, true, very true, and extremely
true. It is a self administering tool with instructions printed on the first page of the scale. Space for
alternative response is also provided in the format against each question. TABLE 3.6 DIMENSION
WISE DISTRIBUTION OF ITEMS (OHI) Sr.No. Dimensions of OHI Sr. no. of items Total 1 Life
Satisfaction 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, 14, 17, 24 8 2 Joy 1,2,19,21,22,23,26,29 8 3 Self- esteem 7,13,16,25,28 5 4
Calm 12,15,18 3 5 Control 4,10,11,27 4 6 Efficacy 20 1 The Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI) is a 29-
item questionnaire measuring trait happiness. High scores indicate high state happiness. Reliability
Reliability of OHI is shown in table no. 3.7. Some of the items are almost identical to the Beck
Depression Inventory but reversed on content, and it includes personal achievement, enjoyment and
fun in life, and vigour and good health. TABLE 3.7 RELIAIABILITY OF OXFORD HAPPINESS INVENTORY
(OHI) Sr. no. Type of reliability values 1 Cronbach’s alpha 0.90 2 Test–retest 0.78 96 3.3.3 Academic
Achievement Motivation Test (AAMT)

Model 7

APPENDIX-C Grit Scale Directions for taking the Grit Scale: Please respond to the following 12 items.
Be honest – there are no right or wrong answers.

1- Not like me at all,

2- Not much like me,

3- Somewhat like me,

4- Mostly like me, and 5- Very much like me

S.No ITEMS 1 2 3 4 5

1 I have overcome setbacks to conquer an important challenge 1 2 3 4 5

2 New ideas and projects sometimes distract me from previous ones 1 2 3 4 5

3 My interests change from year to year 1 2 3 4 5

4 Setbacks don’t discourage me 1 2 3 4 5

5 I have been obsessed with a certain idea or project for a short time but later lost interest 1 2 3 4 5

6 I am a hard worker 1 2 3 4 5

7 I often set a goal but later choose to pursue a different one 1 2 3 4 5

8 I have difficulty maintaining my focus on projects that take more than a few months to complete 1
2345
9 I finish whatever I begin 1 2 3 4 5

10 I have achieved a goal that took years of work 1 2 3 4 5

11 I become interested in new pursuits every few months 1 2 3 4 5

12 I am diligent 1 2 3 4 5

Grit Scale (GS) Grit Scale (GD) developed by Duckworth, Peterson, Matthews and Kelly (2007),
consisted of 12 items. Among the 12 items, Duckworth, Peterson, Matthews and Kelly considered
the possibility that there were two factors which an artifact of positively and negatively scored items
but were convinced that the factor structure reflected two conceptually distinct dimensions. The
first factor contained 6 items indicating “Consistency of Interest” and the second factor contained 6
items indicating “Perseverance of Effort”. These two factors were correlated at r = .45. Items in both
the factors are rated on a 5-point scale from 1 = not at all like me, (not at all gritty) to 5 = very much
like me (extremely gritty). The resulting 12-item Grit Scale demonstrated high internal consistency (α
= .85) for the overall scale and for each factor (Consistency of Interests, = .84; Perseverance of Effort,
=.78). In the present study, the alpha values obtained for Consistency of Interest, Perseverance of
Effort and Grit Scale as a composite trait were found to be.70, .59 and .68 respectively.