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3 Nitric acid

3.1 Production process

The nitric acid production is with a share of 21% at present the largest source of CO2 / N2O
emissions in the European chemical industry. According to Table 3 in Chapter 2, European
nitric acid installations accounted for 41 Mt CO2-equivalents in 2006.

The following table lists all nitric acid plants in Europe with the corresponding operators and
locations. Capacities and site-specific N2O emissions are not available for all plants.

Table 5 Europe installations for nitric acid: production, capacities and N2O emission are given
according to the reference document on BAT (EFMA 2009a)

kg N2O /
Capacity Capacity
Company Location Country t 100%
[t/y] [t/d]
HNO3
1 Agro Linz Melamin GmbH Linz Austria 300000 0.12 - 0.25
2 Agro Linz Melamin GmbH Linz Austria 18000 3.4 - 4.9
3 BASF Antwerpen Antwerpen Belgium 1890
4 BASF Antwerpen Antwerpen Belgium 650
5 BASF Antwerpen Antwerpen Belgium
6 BASF Antwerpen Antwerpen Belgium
7 Yara, Tertre (Be) Tertre (Hainaut) Belgium 750 7.2
8 Yara, Tertre (Be) Tertre (Hainaut) Belgium 550 7.1
9 Yara, Tertre (Be) Tertre (Hainaut) Belgium 850 0.2
10 Agrobiochim Stara Zagora Bulgaria
11 Agropolychim Devnya Bulgaria 1100 5.3
12 Neochim Dimitrovgrad Bulgaria
13 Petrokemija Kutina Croatia
14 Lovochemie AS Lovosice Czech Rep. 300000 5.5
15 Lovochemie AS Lovosice Czech Rep.
Vychodoceske
16 Chem.Zavody Synthesia Pardubice-Semtin Czech Rep.
Uusikaupunki 2
17 Yara incl. vrm IFI Finland
Uusikaupunki 2
18 Yara incl. vrm IFI Finland
Siilinjaervi
19 Yara (Kuopio) Finland
Grand-Quevilly
20 GPN , Rouen (Fr) (Rouen) France
Grand-Quevilly
21 GPN , Rouen (Fr) (Rouen) France
Grand-Quevilly
22 GPN , Rouen (Fr) (Rouen) France
23 GPN Mazingarbe France
24 GPN Mazingarbe France

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Continuation Table 5

kg N2O /
Capacity Capacity
Company Location Country t 100%
[t/y] [t/d]
HNO3
25 Pec-Rhin, Mulhouse (Fr) Ottmarsheim France
50% GPN / 50% Yara
26 France Oissel France
Grandpuits
27 Gde.Paroisse Nangis (Nangis) France
Mulhouse /
28 Rhone-Poulenc Chimie Chelampe France
29 Rhone-Poulenc Chimie Roussillon France
30 Rhone-Poulenc Chimie Saint Fons France
Ambes ( Gironde) /
31 Yara Bordeaux France
Montoir de
Bretagne (Loire
32 Yara Atlantique) France
Pardies (Pyrenees
33 Yara , Pardies (Fr) Atlantique) France
34 Yara Rostock Germany
35 BASF, Ludwigshafen Ludwigshafen Germany
36 BASF, Ludwigshafen Ludwigshafen Germany
37 BASF, Ludwigshafen Ludwigshafen Germany
38 BASF, Ludwigshafen Ludwigshafen Germany
39 BASF, Ludwigshafen Ludwigshafen Germany
40 BASF, Ludwigshafen Ludwigshafen Germany
41 BP, Koln Koln Germany
42 BP, Koln Koln Germany
43 Kali und Salz Krefeld Germany 1500
44 Petrolchemie u. Kraftstoffe Schwedt Germany
45 Ruhr Oel GmbH Gelsenkirchen Germany
46 SKW Piesteritz Piesteritz Germany
NEA Karvali /
47 PFI , Kavalla (Gr) Kavalia Greece
48 Aeval SA Ptolemais Kozanis Greece
Petfuerdoe /
49 Pet Nitrogenmuvek Ltd varpalota Hungary
Ravenna Emilia-
50 Yara Romagna Italy
51 Enichem Porto-Marghera-S Italy
Nera Montoro /
52 Yara, Nera Montoro (It) Umbria Italy
53 Yara Terni Terni Italy
54 Achema JSC Jonava UKL7 1,2,3, Lithuania
55 Achema JSC Jonava UKL7 4 Lithuania
56 Achema JSC Jonava UKL7 5 Lithuania
57 Achema JSC Jonava UKL7 6 Lithuania
58 Achema JSC Jonava UKL7 ,7 Lithuania
59 Achema JSC Jonava UKL7 ,8 Lithuania
60 Achema JSC Jonava GP Lithuania
61 DSM Geleen Netherlands 500000 9.0
62 DSM Geleen Netherlands 210000 7.1

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Continuation Table 5

kg N2O /
Capacity Capacity
Company Location Country t 100%
[t/y] [t/d]
HNO3
63 DSM IJmuiden Netherlands 255000 5.7
64 DSM IJmuiden Netherlands 245000 9.0
65 Yara, Sluiskil Sluiskil Netherlands
66 Yara, Sluiskil Sluiskil Netherlands
67 Yara Glomfjord Norway
68 Yara Glomfjord Norway
69 Yara, Porsgrunn (No) Porsgrunn Norway
70 Yara, Porsgrunn (No) Porsgrunn Norway
71 Yara, Porsgrunn (No) Porsgrunn Norway
72 Zaklady Azotowe (ZAK) Kedzierzyn Poland
73 Zaklady Azotowe (ZAT) Tarnow Poland
Zaklady Azotowe Anwil
74 AG (ZAW) Wloclawek Poland
75 Zaklady Azotowe (ZAP) Pulawy Poland
76 AdP Alverca do Ribatejo Portugal 126000
Adubos de Portugal SA
77 (Quimigal) Barreiro Portugal
Adubos de Portugal SA
78 (Quimigal) Lavradio Portugal 360
Adubos de Portugal SA
79 (Quimigal) Estarrejo Portugal
80 Azomures Targu Mures Romania
81 Azomures Targu Mures Romania
82 Azomures Targu Mures Romania
83 Amonil Slobozia Romania
84 doljchim Craiova Romania
85 doljchim Craiova Romania
86 turnu magurele Turnu Magurele Romania
87 turnu magurele Turnu Magurele Romania
88 Azochim Savinesti Romania
89 HIP Azotara PANCEVO Pancevo Serbia
90 HIP Azotara PANCEVO Pancevo Serbia
91 HIP Azotara PANCEVO Pancevo Serbia
92 Chemko Strazske Strazske Slovakia
93 Duslo Chem. Zavody Sala Nad Vahom Slovakia
94 Fertiberia Aviles Spain
95 Fertiberia Puertollano Puertollano Spain
96 Fertiberia Sagunto Sagunto Spain
97 Fertiberia Luchana-B Luchana-Baracaldo Spain
98 Erkimia SA Tarragona Spain
99 Dyno Nitrogen Ljungaverk Sweden
Landskrona
100 Yara (Malmohus) Sweden
Koeping
101 Yara (Vastmanland) Sweden 105000
Koeping
102 Yara (Vastmanland) Sweden 136500

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Continuation Table 5

kg N2O /
Capacity Capacity
Company Location Country t 100%
[t/y] [t/d]
HNO3
103 Lonza AG Visp Switzerland
United
104 Du Pont (UK) Ltd Wilton Kingdom
Imperial Chemical Stevenson United
105 Industries ICI (Scotland) Kingdom
Grow How UK ltd, Ince Ince Marshes United
106 (UK) (Cheshire) Kingdom
Ince Marshes United
107 Grow How UK ltd (UK) (Cheshire) Kingdom
RGrowHowal Ordnance
Division of Lambson United
108 Fine Chemicals Bridgewater Kingdom
United
109 Richardsons Fertilizers Belfast Kingdom
Grow How UK ltd United
110 Billingham Billingham Kingdom
Grow How UK ltd United
111 Billingham Billingham Kingdom
Grow How UK ltd United
112 Billingham Billingham Kingdom
Grow How UK ltd United
113 Billingham Billingham Kingdom
Grow How UK ltd Redwick United
114 Severnside Severnside (Bristol) Kingdom
Grow How UK ltd Redwick United
115 Severnside Severnside (Bristol) Kingdom
92 Chemko Strazske Strazske Slovakia
93 Duslo Chem. Zavody Sala Nad Vahom Slovakia
94 Fertiberia Aviles Spain
95 Fertiberia Puertollano Puertollano Spain
96 Fertiberia Sagunto Sagunto Spain
97 Fertiberia Luchana-B Luchana-Baracaldo Spain
98 Erkimia SA Tarragona Spain
99 Dyno Nitrogen Ljungaverk Sweden
Landskrona
100 Yara (Malmohus) Sweden
Koeping
101 Yara (Vastmanland) Sweden 105000
Koeping
102 Yara (Vastmanland) Sweden 136500
103 Lonza AG Visp Switzerland
United
104 Du Pont (UK) Ltd Wilton Kingdom
Imperial Chemical Stevenson United
105 Industries ICI (Scotland) Kingdom
Grow How UK ltd, Ince Ince Marshes United
106 (UK) (Cheshire) Kingdom
Ince Marshes United
107 Grow How UK ltd (UK) (Cheshire) Kingdom
RGrowHowal Ordnance
Division of Lambson United
108 Fine Chemicals Bridgewater Kingdom
United
109 Richardsons Fertilizers Belfast Kingdom

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Continuation Table 5

kg N2O /
Capacity Capacity
Company Location Country t 100%
[t/y] [t/d]
HNO3
Grow How UK ltd United
110 Billingham Billingham Kingdom
Grow How UK ltd United
111 Billingham Billingham Kingdom
Grow How UK ltd United
112 Billingham Billingham Kingdom
Grow How UK ltd United
113 Billingham Billingham Kingdom
Grow How UK ltd Redwick United
114 Severnside Severnside (Bristol) Kingdom
Grow How UK ltd Redwick United
115 Severnside Severnside (Bristol) Kingdom

Nitric acid production:


Nitric acid is produced in different concentrations:

• weak acid 30-65% (weight) HNO3


• strong acid 70% or more

The strong acid is produced by concentrating weak nitric acid in downstream extractive
distillation units being very energy intensive. The worldwide nitric acid market is represented
mainly by weak acid while the strong acid market covers only 10% of the total nitric acid
production. However, all strong acid units are downstream the weak acid units so
benchmarking weak acid plants will cover all nitric acid plants within the EU ETS.

A high-strength nitric acid (98-99%) can be obtained by concentrating the weak nitric acid in
additional extractive distillation units with the help of dehydrating agents (sulphuric acid).

The benchmark study includes both direct emissions and steam export but due to the
unavailability of the steam export data for nitric acid production, a benchmark is developed
only for the N2O emissions and steam was not accounted for in the benchmark analysis. The
specific emissions are given as N2O figures. N2O has a greenhouse gas potential of 310 CO2-
equivalents.

In Europe two types of nitric acid plants are common; single pressure plants and dual pressure
plants. If the oxidation and absorption processes happens at the same pressure they are called
single pressure plants, if it is different they are called dual pressure plants. Then the
absorption process happens at a higher pressure than the oxidation. Based on the 2007-2008
data from AC Fiduciaire for 88 plants their classification and Europe–wide share is as follow:

• Low pressure plants (pressure below 1.7 bar) cover 13% of all nitric acid plants.
• Medium pressure plants (pressure between 1.7 and 6.5 bar) cover 80% of all nitric
acid plants.
• High pressure plants (pressure between 6.5 and 13 bar) cover 7% of all nitric acid
plants.

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