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IMPACT: International Journal of Research in

Humanities, Arts and Literature (IMPACT: IJRHAL)

ISSN (P): 2347-4564; ISSN (E): 2321-8878
Vol. 6, Issue 5, May 2018, 259-266
© Impact Journals



Akmal Shernazarov
Teacher, Samarkand State University, Uzbekistan

Received: 30 Apr 2018 Accepted: 17 May 2018 Published: 26 May 2018


This article deals with genre sings, content, compositional and artistic features of the Tajik folk song
“Salomnoma” of the Kashkadarya region.

KEYWORDS: “Salomnoma” Song, Tajik Folklore, Wedding Rituals, “Greeting of a Bride” Ritual, Kashkadarya Region,
Folk Songs


In the folklore of the people belonging to the Tajik nationality living side by side with the Uzbeks in the territory
of Kashkadarya region, the ceremonial songs have a big role. Especially, wedding ceremonies of wedding – loving
population attract attention with their ebullience and merry songs, they charm by their antiquity and traditional character,
the transition from generation to generation and permanent acquiring ideological and creative perfectness.
Besides, these songs have such a stable place in the spirit of people that it is essential to learn social – psychological basis
of this phenomenon.

It is necessary to learn the poetry of wedding ceremonies which have historical and theoretical significance from
the point of view of ethno - folklore traditions of the nation. Because the creativity, meaning content, ideological motives
are closely connected with customs and traditions, national notion and values, characteristic lifestyle, conviction, believes,
historical fate, dreams, hopes and aspirations of the local population.

“SALOMNOMA” – “GREETING” song is one of the traditional wedding songs, differing from other types of
wedding ceremony songs by its meaning content, internal and external creative structure, addressing and some poetical
signs. We can even say, that it has a significant role among the wedding songs of Tajik folklore of Kashkadarya region.

The famous Uzbek folklore – learner О.Safarov says, that singing greeting songs has a special place in wedding
ceremonies of Bukhara region also, it forms colloquial wordplay of wedding, it is performed as a song having social –
aesthetical motives, it gives spiritual – religious lesson to the young couple about the sacredness of marriage,
thus consequently becoming aesthetical factor for providing stability of the family, after the greeting song the bride and
the groom are led to “chimildik” [ 6,99 ].

In Tajik folklore – studying it is essential to mention some ideas about these kinds of songs. Particularly, folklore
– learner F.Zehnieva expressing important ideas about the performance place and performance style, meaning content, the
melody of “Salomnoma” songs, says, that they are included to congratulation songs group. “…the copies, put down in

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260 Akmal Shernazarov

Bukhara, Samarkand, Kashkadarya, Surkhandarya regions proves that these kinds of songs had a significant role in the
wedding parties of the neighborhood”[ 1,99 ].

Folklore – learner scientist R.Kadirov has put down two variants of “Salomnoma” from the folklore of
Kashkadarya Tajiks consisting of 117 lines and included them into the collection “Folklore of Tajiks of Kashkadaya
valley” [3,305-310].

Also, R.Rajabiy put down example of “Salomnoma” song 30 lines having religious meaning from the folklore of
Kashkadarya Tajiks and published them in “Some examples of folklore of Tajiks of Shahrisabz and Kitab” collection.
This song seriously differs from other this type of “Salomnoma” songs with its form, style, description object, ideological
meaning and style of performing:

Boisi ijodi olam omadi ey nuri haq,

Oyati “tabro” omad az jamoat yak varaq.

Bulbulon xondandu vasfash dar guliston yak sabaq,

As-sari angushti xud qursi qamarro kard (shar) tabaq.

(You, the Ray of Truth, you have come to create the world, your beauty has brought a list of “tabro” poem.
The nightingales learn lessons from his flower garden, You have described the Moon as a plate by only one sign of yours,
Greetings to you!) [5,105 – 106].

It is clear that “Salomnoma” type songs have separate definite creative structure and their specific features must
be learned thoroughly.

“Salomnoma” songs are performed in Shahrisabz, Kitab districts of Kashkadarya region in the ceremony of
“Opening the face of a bride”, in Dehkanobod, Kamashi, Guzor, Koson districts – in the ceremony “Greeting of a bride”.
Folklore – learner R.Kadirov mentions that : “This ceremony is held shortly after the wedding party”, the women
participate in it to see the face of the bride and greet her. The order of this ceremony is not the same everywhere in
accordance with the historical view. For example, in Koson district the following day after the wedding the women stand
in a circle. The leader gets the bride out of the “chimildik” and sings the traditional wedding song – “Salomnoma” [ 4, 73 ].

The history of the origin and formation of “Salomnoma” songs is clear from the meaning and content of the song.
This kind of songs came into existence in Central Asia after the accepting the Islamic religion and they have a special place
in the weddings of Samarkand, Bukhara, Kashkadarya Tajiks. Though “Salomnoma” is completely devoted to greeting and
praising the Islamic religion, Allah and prophets, in the definite period time in accordance with the require of the time the
researchers were made to analyze it from the point of view of Soviet ideology. Particularly, as it is mentioned by
F.Zehnieva : “…the long and boring part of the song with religious meaning was omitted and the part with praising of the
bride and groom was chosen and performed ”[ 2, 103 ]. We can conclude that the researchers analyzed the whole song not
gradually, step – by – step, but in general. Besides, some parts of the song were intentionally spoiled with novelties in
accordance with the demands of that period. “ The song was changed and praised the new lifestyle, Soviet period ” [ 2, 103
]. We think that elements praising Soviet period were added into this type of songs later, because at that time it was
impossible to perform the real original variant of the song and face the national values and religious traditions.

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Some Features of “Salomnoma” (Greeting) Song in the Folklore of Kashkadarya Tajiks 261

From the geographical point of view Kashkadarya region originally was situated near such centers of science and
culture as Samarkand and Bukhara cities, and the influence of culture, science, literature and folklore of these cities can
naturally be seen in all spheres of life. This influence can be noticed in the example of “Salomnoma” songs.
Particularly, the impact of written literature is clearly visible in this song. The song which is being researched has
characteristic stylistic and poetical features and it is mostly created in “mukhammas” literary form ( but not all lines of the
song suit this form ). The song is performed in slow and touching style, sometimes in solemn way and listening to it is a
real pleasure. The leader singer woman “kayvonazan” or “kayvoni” sings a couplet and all the others join her, saying
“Hazoraleyk” – “thousands of greetings”. It is repeated over and over at the end of every couplet. Every couplet of the
song consists of five ( sometimes four ) lines and “hazoraleyk” has a function of a refrain.

The performance of “Salomnoma” song is an important condition of sacred ceremonies in weddings. Local people
pay a special attention to this song. Especially, the singers put down the text in Arabic alphabet and they write it down and
learn by heart. Particularly, the text of the song written in Arabic letters is especially sacred and dear.
The singer ( bibikhalifa ) is a woman highly respected and authorized among the people, was supposed to have good
knowledge of Islamic religion science. Performers of “Salomnoma” song are famous as professional singers.
That is why they play an important role during wedding ceremonies and are included into the list of prominent guests. All
the wedding ceremonies are held under their leadership. They play an important role not only in weddings, but also in such
religious character ceremonies as “Mushkilkusho” – for getting easiness from difficulties, “Bibiseshanbe” – which is held
on Tuesday, “Surfakushoyon”.

Introduction part of “Salomnoma” begins with praising Allah, and after that the names of Adam, Noah, prophet
Moses, prophet Khalil Ibrahim, prophet Muhammad and his family members and companions with great respect.
Their role in the history of the development of the religion is mentioned.

Also in the introduction part of “Salomnoma” there are words about the creation of the world and the man,
miracles and wonders of Islamic religion, its famous representatives. Particularly, the stories from the Koran – the Flood,
surviving of prophet Noah and his family and animals, prophet Moses, who was an interlocutor of Allah in the Sinay
mountain, the Fire of Namrud – Babylonian city, the ruler of which Ibrahim Khalilullah was to be burnt in the fire,
but the fire turned into flower garden by the order of the great Allah and Ibrahim was rescued were performed on the basis
of artistic “talmeh” style.

As it was noticed, the above mentioned, stories serve to identify poetical – historical roots of the song.
In the given song there are some signs of pre – Islamic religions and mythological and historical events concerning Islam.
Particularly, there are lots of historical and mythological events about Adam, Noah, Moses, Khalil Ibrahim,
Muhammad, other prophets, Bibi Fatima and Zuhra, Ali and his sons Hasan and Huseyn, which express deep respect and
esteem towards them and their religious views. This fact proves the antiquity and historical value of songs of this type.

N.Masumi tells about religious views the followings: “ the performers of “Salomnoma” song express their stable
belief and concern weddings as aid and gift of the God and described the fate of youths directly with religious views” [5,43
– 44].

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262 Akmal Shernazarov

In order to prove the above mentioned views we can bring forward some examples from “Salomnoma” song:

“Salomnoma”- singer:

Zi bahri Nuhi Nabi dodaast tufonro,

Ki buyi halokati kuffor doda Ummonro,

Salom karda chu Muso Kslimu rahmonro.

Xudoi ruzi kunad bar hfmf chun imonro,

Ba zoti Quddusi pokash salom meguyem!

Everybody in chorus: – Hazor aleyk!

“Salomnoma”- singer:

Ki shohzoda Hasan nuri didai u,

Ba haqqi on labi lali chu zahrxurdai u.

Ki shahzoda Husayn balokashidai u,

Zi bahri xuni shahidon ba haq rasidai u.

Ba on du soqii kavsar salom meguyem!

Everybody in chorus: – Hazor aleyk!

“Salomnoma”- singer:

Ki ba ham bayot kuchi Muhammad Xadichai Kubro,

Ki joni xesh fido karda dar rahi mavlo.

Kanizaki harami ust Fotimai Zahro,

Ki qurbi manzalati u ba hazrati Ali.

Ba kuchi oxiri hazrat salom meguyem!

Everybody in chorus: – Hazor aleyk! [3, 307-308].

We cheerfully greet Noah and those who survived in The Flood, prophet Moses, who talked to Him, may He give
everyone clear conscious and belief, Prince Hasan is His beloved one and was poisoned and Prince Husseyn who fell
victim in Karbala desert. Greetings to them all and our deep respect and esteem. We also greet Hadiche Kubro, Bibi Fatima
and Zuhra, we always remember their names and speak of them and keep in mind!“ and all the others say: Thousands of

In the main part of “Salomnoma” song there given praising of the bride and groom, singing about their love,
beauty and glory, wishing them to live a happy and bright life, comparing the bride with bibi Fatima and Zuhra.
This kind of comparison is quite characteristic for Islam women and expressed with great respect and esteem to the spirits
of bibi Fatima and Zuhra.

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Some Features of “Salomnoma” (Greeting) Song in the Folklore of Kashkadarya Tajiks 263

The main idea and moral, life philosophy of the songs of this type are to value and make propaganda of the
sacredness of marriage, family. Here the marriage is said to be blessed by the God. The people address to the God asking
for the happiness, religious faith, protection and realization of their good aims. That is why in the song we can often see
such words and expressions as “ ilohim, let us pray, we pray for” and others having the character of begging for the mercy
of God:

“Salomnoma”- Singer: Duo kunem harduyashon salomat kun,

Ki davri saltanatash inchunin davomat Kun,

Sahar ba toat ruzona bosharofat Kun,

Ba u fazalati tavfiqro karomat kun,

Ba on rasuli Muhammad shalom meguyem.

Everybody in chorus: – Hazor aleyk!

“ Let us pray, May He bless these two with health, lasting reign, let their day begun with good wishes and worship
be beneficial, give them the features of the best, our special greetings to the beloved prophet Muhammad” – all the others
say in chorus : “Hazor Aleyk – Thousands of greetings!”[3,304].

The song being researched gradually has educational – aesthetical significance. It its lines there are words,
wishing the bride and groom good human features: religious faith, conscientiousness, honor, favor and devotion.

The second part of the song is devoted to praising the bride and groom, their wishes and best wishes and blessings
of their close relatives and friends, their joy and happiness – all these are performed in a beautiful poetic way

It should be mentioned, that meaning and gradual perfectness of the content of the song based on the talent,
view, spiritual mood, creative – aesthetical views with the wishes and praising towards those who take part in the wedding.
This factor caused some changes and additions to the text of the song which is especially vivid in the last lines of the song.

The meaning, idea of the content of “Salomnoma” song consists of the greeting the bride and groom, description
of the joy and the happiness ruling in the wedding party, praising the parents of the young couple, challenging the people
to value every minute of life because it would not be repeated and life is a great gift of the God. For example:

“Salomnoma”- Singer: Iloho, sabzu munavvar shavand in har du,

Davom ba shiravu sharbat shavand in har du.

Iloho, ba hama sarvar shavand in har du,

Ba hamdigar jura shavand in har du,

Ba jami buzurgoni olam salom meguyem!

Everybody in chorus: – Hazor aleyk!

“Let these two have a bright and happy life, let their speech be as sweet as honey, let them be leaders for the
others and best assistants and companions to each other, We greet all the Greatest ones of this world !!” After these words,

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264 Akmal Shernazarov

all the others exclaim : “Thousands of greetings !”[3,303-304]

In all the songs of this type such epithets as “young and bright, honey sweet” expressing wishes to the young
couple and praising them and their relatives and friends increases the creative sensitiveness and aesthetic value of the song.

In another couple of “Salomnoma” song wishes for the young couple to be always healthy, respected, realize all
their goals and dreams are expressed:

“Salomnoma”- singer: Ilohi kelinu domod surxru bosh and,

Chunin ba ayshnishinu ba obru boshand.

Miyoni xalqi jahon az hama naku boshand,

Mudom xotiri jamu ba justuju boshad.

Ba on du navguli xandon salom meguyem!

Everybody in chorus: – Hazor aleyk!

“Let these two be respected, “red faced” – “never be ashamed’, calm and joyful and beautiful as red roses” All the
others say: “Thousands of greetings!” [3,304].

We consider, in the given couplet the best wishes of people to the young couple is expressed be means of creative
art of people. Such epithets as “surkhru – red faced, ba obru – respected, az hama naku – the best ones” serve well to reveal
the main meaning of the content of the song and have a function of forming the rhythm. Thus, “Salomnoma” song as well
as having the aim of greeting and congratulating has a function of praising, describing and is suitable to literary genres.

The expression of joy and happiness of the wedding party, the beauty and glory of the bride and the groom,
sincere wishes to them, dreams, joy and happiness of their relatives in the process of the ceremonies, excellent mood is one
of the main and important tasks of the given song and causes the using of description more often. In the songs performed in
weddings, especially in “Salomnoma” song it is quite natural. Particularly, the young girl ( bride ) is described as

“Salomnoma”- Singer: Rivoju ravnaqi gulzori jannat ast duxtar,

Ba soni g`unchai bog`I latofat ast duxtar,

Chu mohi chahordah dar ayni holat ast duxtar,

Carig`i majlisi xushnazokat ast duxtar,

Ba husni talati kelin salom meguyem!

Everybody in chorus: – Hazor aleyk! [3, 306].

“A girl is a flower of the paradise garden, the charming rosebud, as glorious as a moon on the fourteenth day of
appearing, the brightest ray of the meeting, beautiful and slender creature beloved by everyone, ”[ 3,306 ].

F.Zehnieva connected the lines of the song and wrote: “the lines of the song are mutually connected. One
completes the other. They serve to form a structure and provides logical connection. This connection is particularly seen in

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Some Features of “Salomnoma” (Greeting) Song in the Folklore of Kashkadarya Tajiks 265

the conclusion of the last line and the chorus: Thousands of Greetings! But this ending line sometimes covers religious
meaning ”[ 2, 101 – 102 ].

Really, sometimes the final lines of “Salomnoma” songs had religious meaning greeting the greatest
representatives of the Islamic religion and deep respect to them is observed. Besides, there are special greetings to all those
gathered in the ceremony : old and young, tutors, parents, grandparents, mothers and fathers – in – law, uncles, aunts – all
the relations, those who are serving at the wedding, as well as to the honor of the young couple, just rulers and many

Greetings to the teachers, old and young,

Greetings to all the relatives we have,

Greetings to the relations – in – law,

Greetings to bride’s uncle!

Everybody in chorus: Thousands of greetings! [3,306]


As a conclusion, we can say, that in “Salomnoma” song besides creating the image of a bride and groom, praising
their features, there expressed respect and honor to those who made it possible for the young couple to be together,
supported them, their relatives, friends, neighborhood and other people. Their role in the life of the young couple is shown
to be very important. The young people take responsibilities to value and esteem them to the end of their lives.
With these characteristics ,“Salomnoma” song has educational significance and played an important role in the spiritual
and social life of people and structure of national values.


1. F.Zehnieva. Songs of wedding ceremonies of Tajiks. – Dushanbe: Donish, 1978.

2. R.Kadirov, R.Ahmadov. Folklore of Tajiks of Kashkadarya region. – Dushanbe: Amri Ilm, 2000.

3. R.Kadirov. Pre – revolution folklore of ceremonies of Tajiks of Kashkadarya region. – Dushanbe, 1963.

4. N.Masumi. Tajik folklore. Second edition. – Dushanbe, 2005.

5. Sruthi. P & Geetha R. Pai, Folkloric Elements in the Novel Kocharethi by Narayan, International Journal of
English and Literature (IJEL), Volume 7, Issue 4, July-August 2017, pp. 137-144

6. R.Rahman. some examples of the folklore of Tajiks of Shahrisabz and Kitab. Dushanbe, 2001.

7. O.Safarov, M.Mahmudov. Wedding is an oath connecting fates/ moral of family. – Toshkent: Ma’naviyat, 1998.

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