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Material Science.

Textile and Clothing Technology

_______________________________________________________________________________________________2012 / 7

The Role of the Latest
Clothing CAD/CAM System Applications in the
Educational Process
Inga Dabolina1, AusmaVilumsone2, 1-2Riga Technical University

Abstract – Modern computer-aided designing software knowledge of designing and other projecting stages along with
provides the possibility to improve precision, productivity and to the usage of CAD/CAM systems.
organize the information flow. Computer systems allow making
two-dimensional and three-dimensional product illustrations and
visualizations. To learn how to use the CAD/CAM systems, there
are several systems taught at the Institute of Textile Materials EDUCATIONAL PROCESS
Technologies and Design. The systems providing full garment The students of the Institute of Textile Materials
development and production cycle are important for the Technologies and Design, Riga Technical University are
manufacturing and, hence, for educational purposes.
enrolled with different levels of training – with and without
Keywords – CAD/CAM, clothing design, pattern making, knowledge in garment designing. Often it turns out that the
garment virtual try-on. preliminary knowledge is weak or superficial and needs to be
improved. Therefore, all students have to master apparel
I. INTRODUCTION designing – sketching, constructing, designing and gradation
Modern computer-aided designing software provides of templates before the acquiring of the CAD/CAM system.
possibility to avoid small operations and manual work, to raise To learn how to use CAD/CAM systems, there are several
precision, productivity and organize information flow [1]. The systems taught at the Institute of Textile Materials
usage of garment designing systems excludes the time- Technologies and Design: Grafis, Comtense, Staprim, Lectra,
consuming manual preparation of patterns, creation of layouts Gerber and Koppermann.
and relocation of written information. The computer systems 3D virtual garment imitation is provided by the CAD
are meant for the execution of every single process and the system Lectra. Goals and objectives of the study course are to
integration of all processes into one joint flow, for the provide students with knowledge and skills necessary to work
organization of logistics and the mobility of work tasks [2]. with the CAD system Lectra, as well as introduce students to
The computerization of different processes in the garment 3D garment designing.
industry is necessary to reduce the costs of a product and raise Students should acquire knowledge on the structure of the
the competitiveness. Computer-Aided Design (CAD) is the clothing CAD system Lectra; development principles and
usage of computers for technical elaboration. Computerized functions on the basis of Modaris V6R1; the principles of
designing systems usually work in the dialog mode and use garment pattern design; the rules of pattern grading by size;
software specifically designed for the development of industry the definition of a style and its versions; marker making
specific objects, input/output of graphics, scanners and other subsystem Diamino V5R4; choice of styles and sizes; creating
remote devices. markers on fabrics with definition and changing parameters;
Computer systems allow making two-dimensional and preproduction garment specifications using KaledoStyle
three-dimensional product illustrations and visualizations [3]. V2R2; preparation of pattern blocks for 3D imitation in CAD
It is possible to create computer-aided garment patterns, LectraModaris 3D Fit V5R2 (Fig.1).
gradations, and a virtual first pattern of the model – such The acquisition of systems takes place together with
computer-aided operations significantly decrease the time practical apparel designing – the manually executed tasks are
consumption and costs necessary to design a product. The performed on the computer afterwards with the help of the
costs of a product can be calculated with the help of the CADCAM systems. Thereby, the existent knowledge is
product management systems following the development extended, new knowledge is acquired and work productivity
parameters, the layout of patterns, textile expenditures, model and the usage of CAD/CAM systems is favored.
complexity and specification, as well as previous experience The systems used so far have allowed executing all
of the company stored in a database. designing tasks – creating a drawing of garment, deriving
Although computer systems significantly facilitate the versions of it, creating visualizations, developing, deriving and
development of a product, the knowledge and skills of the user drawing up patterns, creating patterns, making markers.
are still very important [4] [5] [6]. However, recently with the demand for made-to-measure
Since the CAD/CAM systems do not solve apparel garment design, it becomes a trend to extend 2D clothing
designing in terms of knowledge, it is important to acquire CAD systems into 3D CADs [7] [8] [9]. 3D garment virtual
display is one of the most interesting branches in the clothing


the ease constructing. Diamino. and a virtual first pattern of the style. development of a personalized mannequin in the CAD LECTRA. To obtain external pattern blocks (from the CAD system Grafis). development of the template layout. internal lines. Imitation of all It is not only the theoretical basis that is extended during the models in a 3D environment in the CAD LECTRA. inserted. to be chosen for the particular assortment. calculation of ease allowances. students are able to acquire the basics of CAD/CAM systems (for example. catalogues. acquisition of CAD/CAM systems. creation of different variations in the CAD LECTRA. The preparation of pattern blocks for 3D imitation in the CAD Lectra Modaris 3D Fit and the simulation of fabric design are acquired. Students receive samples. Lectra – Modaris. for educational purposes [14] [15]. patterns by printing them and sewing garments. the measurement table with individual body One of the most important garment creation stages is measures necessary for the CAD GRAFIS usage. The acquisition of anthropometrical data has to be described briefly. comparison of photographs of the imitation and the model. choice of the textile material (one or more patterns). etc. garment development and marketing: garment CAD system Lectra and its structure are described. made to measure. • Input of anthropometrical data for the parameterization of a #D mannequin. the development processes in the potential for design. The study course starts with the introductory lecture: the Fig. and the process can be divided into the following stages: • Acquisition of anthropometrical data. 2. • Development of model drawings. The choice has to III. Development of model constructions. first of all. Material Science. Imitation of the basic construction in the 3D environment in the CAD LECTRA. development of the basic construction in the CAD GRAFIS. an compared and conclusions have to be drawn regarding the appropriate designing methodology in the CAD GRAFIS has system operation. decoration. saving data to the CAD LECTRA Fig. THE ROLE OF CAD/CAM SYSTEMS IN EDUCATION be justified. A basic construction has to be chosen for the hence. Textile and Clothing Technology 2012 / 7__________________________________________________________________________________________________ field – as 3D virtual representation of clothing provides high Within the next lectures. Apparel designing tasks are carried out sequentially within a semester. [10] [11] [12] [13]. and seams are also described. instructions and tasks to do in order to achieve the learning outcomes (to be familiar with the CAD system). Kaledo. but practical testing of evaluation of the appearance of models. development of the model to verify the construction. as well as A. The systems providing full garment development allowance calculation according to the assortment have to be and production cycle are important for the manufacturing and. Export of the graphic data items of the basic construction into the CAD LECTRA. pattern and colour solution. The structure of clothing CAD system Lectra • Processing of graphical data to prepare for work with a 3D imitation in the CAD LECTRA. 1. Modaris 3D Fit) [16]. By fulfilling these tasks. • Development of schematic images of model constructions. e-commerce. Import and Export of Templates designing in a virtual environment – these results have to be To develop basic construction templates. Export of patterns from the CAD GRAFIS to the CAD/CAM LECTRA (the author Natālija Truskovska) description of CAD systems and garment 3D development. 64 . import and export of pattern blocks in different CAD systems are considered. Tasks for the students working with the CAD systems are combined manufacturing tasks: to create computer-aided garment patterns. gradations. The editing of graphical objects in the CAD system Lectra module Modaris and the creation of graphical objects in the CAD system Lectra module Modaris.

Material Science. A sewn seam definition has to be carried out through this subsystem in the subsystem 3D Fit Stitching (Fig. the defined Slip on Points are tested. and back view). Print pattern (pencils). Fig. an individualized mannequin is created in the system MODARIS 3D Fit. 3). women and children of different ages. as a result. 5. model verification is carried out and. without seam over-measures have to be designed – this way. an individualized parametric mannequin is developed. 4). The created templates are printed (to cut the sewn model) and exported to the CAD/CAM LECTRA (to create the virtual model) (Fig. 3. the prepared model is opened. an appropriate fabric is chosen (preferably similar to the sewn garment by its fibre Fig. At first. the parts are automatically allowances. It is necessary to evaluate the appearance and fit of every model (real or imitated) and compare them mutually (Fig. For the3D parameterization of a mannequin. The imitation of the basic construction in a 3D environment in the CAD LECTRA is a result of sequential activities. Model Verification To create a model in a virtual environment. the input of anthropometrical data is carried out and. several activities have to be carried out. templates different angles and the tautness and fit can be measured. The system reflects the steps of the 65 . Templates have to be processed according to the requirements of the 3D imitation system. a personalized mannequin is created in the CAD LECTRA. if appropriate. At first. Textile and Clothing Technology _______________________________________________________________________________________________2012 / 7 developed individual measurement table/size and the ease virtual fitting process. B. if necessary. the neck hole and others. its reduced picture and colour variations structure and colour). 2). Seam definition – a fragment (the author Inese Pazāne) created one. a version is chosen with defined seam connections and Slip on Points. interactive designing has to be carried out for ease placed onto the mannequin (according to the defined Slip on allowance usage. The finished garment can be viewed from construction. To be able to compare the sewn garment and the virtually Fig. After the development of templates. The system offers differently built mannequin models for men. side view. 4. then the cloth draping is carried out (according to the the basic model of the planned collection is not a basic chosen parameters). The template set has to be defined in the system. Model comparison – back view (author Annija Ķesele) real sewn model photographs. as well as it is necessary to define Slip on Points for all body parts. corrections are implemented. The developed imitation images have to be compared to the templates can be exported to the CAD/CAM LECTRA without graphically changing the templates. modeling has to be carried out. The comparison has to be done from three angles (front view. and a template number and symmetry definition have to be performedin its subsystem variant. ease allowance values have to be justified. If Points).

It can be concluded that a particular error definition has to be given. 2-3 colour versions have to be created for the prepared • Essential difficulties appear if the garment imitation print versions (Fig. dotted. It is partially. CONCLUSIONS disadvantages. its characteristics have to during imitation. a majority of garment. The number of to the material characteristics (fusing fabric or prints depends on the inspiration and the specifics of the carcass). mannequins. textures into the model drawings integrated possibility to “undress” the virtual according to the concept. all students admit that working Apparel designing is the development of a technical with 3D imitation systems is important in the CAD/CAM documentation complex that ensures the production of a system development process. etc. large pattern. seam cutting mannequin is suitable. possibility to undo the latest action several times in a D. checkered. According to the topic of the • It is possible to sew on a ruffle in the middle of a inspiration source. Training Benefits row. Material Science. it is difficult to input the precise ones. the apparel model is students also notice the following disadvantages: described in a graphical. it is very difficult to create particular Fig. is cancelled during the process because there is no Insert colours. a connection between parts has to be created in different stages. sewing together the back part The choice has to be justified. a pattern has to be scanned and added. 5). style step by step: first. Such industrial modeling and model verification (where computer-aided operations significantly decrease the time standard body mannequins are used). The prepared model has to be mannequin and start the imitation again (there is a demonstrated in all colour variations (Fig. and a virtual first pattern of the model. The costs of a product can be calculated with the help of the 66 . but it is created in the CAD LECTRA – striped. horizontal wrinkles. An appropriate textile fabric (or several) has to successful after several attempts. causes can be searched by sewing a be described briefly. After that sleeves or yokes can be found. jacket etc. A picture. If problems appear be chosen for the developed model. If it is necessary to sew two crinkled garment parts or two ply parts. model. several (at least 3) print patterns have to be garment (as a second level imitation detail). not possible to define a detail that resists gravity due floral design.). Visual Design of a Model advertising material. In the technical documentation. created at all. the existing parametric Technical drawings. the narrowness looks like holes or gaps. schemes and specifications have to be developed for the • Imitations of model constructions are mostly chosen model. colour version collection. • It is impossible to sew gatherings or plies into a seam as an additional pattern is necessary. 6). added and the imitation can be repeated. numerical and verbal way. besides. As a result. a model description. Nevertheless. Since all seams are sewn (including the front fastener seam). 6. it is necessary to design a separate template that is sewn between the crinkled/plied parts as a narrow ribbon. • The system does not foresee shoulder padding. Print pattern versions – the technical drawing and the 3D model assortment garments (coat. They obtain knowledge and skills necessary to compare and analyze the accomplished tasks. That way the problem and a solution can be found. as well as for consumption and costs necessary to design a product. But it has to be admitted that for gradations. an object (its and the front part and then trying to imitate them in a picture). Textile and Clothing Technology 2012 / 7__________________________________________________________________________________________________ C. prints. thereby. a landscape or another inspirational object have to be 3D environment. an asymmetric figure cannot be possible to create computer-aided garment constructions. • Narrowness looks different on the screen from the sewn garment. systems. CAD has • When defining the measures of parametric a significant role in the creation of this documentation. CAD systems allow making two-dimensional and three- similarly posture features can be defined only dimensional product illustrations and visualizations. • A ribbon or band loosely knotted or tied into a bow The picture colouring has to be selected in the CAD or decorative elements are impossible within a 3D LECTRA to use it for the creation of the textile material imitation. small pattern. but the computer capacity is sometimes The students learn how to work with the latest CAD/CAM insufficient for this procedure). The students also identify the advantages and IV. a deformed armhole or other detail on the screen – trying on any too tight garment it would be impossible to pin down.

Senior Researcher Research interests include the development and REFERENCES optimization of garment design technological process. Str.UK: Blackwell Publishing. 240 -254.116. Latvia. -Cambridge. Dāboliņa Inga and Viļumsone Ausma Trīsdimensiju antropometriskā experience of the company stored in a data base. 15. II. RazdomahinsNikolajs. 1999. . In the study project. . . - Ottawa. . innovative 2004. . 120 . augstāka produktivitā . Switzerland: Hometrica Consulting. integration of all processes into one joint flow.] Building Symbolic Information for 3D Human Body productivity and organize information flow. Within the study project. . 14-319. England :WoodheadPublishingLimited.Riga : 2007. 240. environment reproduction is the key that allows evaluating the article during the designing phase. procesu kontrole.o.p.IEEE Computer Society. application to the apparel industry [Article] // Journal of Fashion After the study course. for the 11. . . 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Assistant Professor. Beazley Alison un Bond Terry Computer-aided pattern design Materials Technologies and Design. . 2. .ISBN 0-8493-2594-3. Inga Dabolina Dr. Hunter L.Henry Stewart Publications 1361-2026. 2008. Inga Dāboliņa.1108/09556220710717017. export pattern blocks in different CAD systems. 1. Latvia.dabolina@rtu.17. elastīgāka ražošana. 2003. 220. 3D body measurements. Beazley Alison & Bond Terry Computer-aided pattern design & CAD/CAM systems in product design.1. Technology and Designof Textile Materials. 161 . Canada: [no title]. Hannelore Eberle.

CAD/CAM sistēmu apguvē notiek ne tikai teorētiskās bāzes padziļināšana un paplašināšana. улучшаются условия труда. Tā. все студенты признают. piemēram. Обучая САПР не только расширяются и углубляются теоретические знания. Material Science. некоторые предлагают возможные способы совершенствования. kā arī maketēšana virtuālajā vidē – šie rezultāti jāsalīdzina un jāizdara secinājumi par sistēmu darbību. Comtense. Инга Даболиня. приобретают навыки сравнивать и анализировать результаты. Использование новейших САПР одежды в процессе обучения. а также виртуальным макетированием. то их использование при обучении проектированию имеет большое значение. Studenti iemācās darboties ar jaunākajām CAD/CAM sistēmām. необходимо будущих специалистов ознакомить с новейшими технологиями уже в процессе обучения. ka darbs ar 3D imitācijas sistēmām ir nozīmīgs solis apģērbu CAD/CAM sistēmu attīstībā. что системы симулирования 3Д являются значительным шагом в развитии САПР одежды. В анализе студент выявляет преимущества системы. однако многие замечают недостатки в работе системы. Преимущества САПР по сравнению с традиционным проектированием: улучшается качество продукции. САПР обеспечивающие полный цикл производства очень важны для оптимизации производства. Gerber и Koppermann. tad topošos speciālistus ir jāiepazīstina ar jaunākajām tehnoloģijām jau studiju procesā. осваиваются новые знания на базе САПР. Аусма Вилюмсоне. Так как изготовление первичных образцов промышленных коллекций дорогой и трудоёмкий процесс. Таким способом углубляются ранее приобретённые знания и. Lectra. tās izdrukājot un šujot maketus. daļa dod iespējamos risinājumus un/vai ieteikumus. Tā kā apģērbu pirmparauga izstrāde rūpnieciskajās kolekcijās ir ļoti dārga un virtuālās vides reālistisks attēlojums ir tas. осуществляется контроль над процессами. Результаты сравниваются и делаются выводы о работе системы. В Институтe технологий текстильных материалов и дизайна Рижского технического университета для обучения используются несколько САПР: Grafis. производство становится более эластичным. повышается производительность. tomēr vairums saskata nepilnības. в контексте с повышением производительности. Осваивание работы с системами проводится одновременно с практическим проектированием одежды. tā trūkumus. а использование виртуальной среды позволяет делать начальную оценку моделей одежды. 68 . например.ранее освоенные ручные приёмы выполняются при помощи компьютера. visi studenti atzīst. Студенты осваивают приёмы работы с новейшими САПР. integrēti apgūtas jaunas zināšanas un veicināta darba ražība un CAD/CAM sistēmu lietojums. Staprim. а также их недостатки. Результатом САПР могут быть 2D или 3D проект или изображение изделия. существует возможность быстро реагировать на требования заказчиков. Так. но и практическая проверка макетированием распечатанных конструкций. kas ļauj novērtēt izstrādājumu vēl projektēšanas posmā. bet arī konstrukciju praktiska pārbaude. Textile and Clothing Technology 2012 / 7__________________________________________________________________________________________________ studējošajiem mācību procesā arī ir ļoti nozīmīgs. Analizējot studenti identificē kā sistēmas priekšrocības. Sistēmu apguve notiek līdztekus praktiskai apģērbu projektēšanai – iepriekš apgūtie manuāli izpildītie darbi tiek izpildīti datorizēti – ar CAD/CAM sistēmu palīdzību. tādējādi tiek padziļinātas esošās zināšanas. iemācās salīdzināt un analizēt paveikto.