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CRITERIA FOR TERMINATION OF PILES

By definition, SPT = no. of blows / 30 cms penetration of a split spoon sampler by


impact of a hammer of 63.5Kg falling freely from a height of 76cm.

Hence, N = 50 means 50 blows / 30cms penetration

Energy imparted during this process = 50 x 0.0635 x 0.76 T-m

= 2.413 T-m for 30cms penetration

The area of cross section of a split spoon = 0.7854 x 0.042

= 0.00125 m2

Hence, Energy / m2 / cm penetration = 2.413 / (0.00125 x 30)

= 64.35 T-m / m2 / cm penetration

i. e. N = 50 implies Energy level of 64.35 T-m / m2 / cm penetration

Now, From Cole – Stroud Scale:

For UCS = 200 Kg/cm2, Cu = qu /2 = 100 Kg/cm2 implies N = 500

Hence, For N= 500, Energy level of stratum = 64 x 500 / 50 = 640 T-m / m2

Using AF-180 machine


Energy = 2 N T t / ( /4 X D2 x p)
Where,
N = Number of revolutions per minute of cutting tool during boring operation.
T = Torque applied by machine (T.M.)
t = Observed time period (Min.)
D = Diameter of pile (Mtrs.)
p = Penetration during observed time period (Cm)
Applying the above co-relation the penetration rate (p) can be calculated since the other
parameters can be noted during boring operation.
Once this penetration rate is established the subsequent piles can be terminated by
observing such penetrating rate.
Max. Torque = 16 T-m at an r.p.m. = 10
Time period = 10 Min. then,
1) For soft rock, with N = 100 and Energy level of 128.7 T-m / m2 / cm penetration
Penetration, p = 2 x 3.142 x 10 x 16 x 10 / (0.2827 x 128.7) = 276 cm / 10 Minutes.
 Hence, soft rock may be deemed to have encountered if the observed
penetration rate is less than 27cm / min for 600mm dia pile and AF-180 Rig.

 And an adequate socketing may be considered depending upon the


improvement of the stratum with the depth or as per soil report.

2) For termination of pile with N = 300, and Energy level of stratum= 64 x 300 / 50 =
384 T-m/m2
Penetration, p = 2 x 3.142 x 10 x 16 x 10 / (0.2827 x 384) = 92.6 cm/ 10 Minutes.
 The hard rock may be deemed to have encountered if the observed
penetration rate is less than 9 cm / min for 600mm dia pile and AF-180 Rig
and the pile may be terminated in such strata.

Thus, using the above relation, SPT may be correlated to penetration rates of different
machines for different diameter of piles as shown in the Table below.

PENETRATION RATE, mm/ Min


Rig AF-180 AF-130 AF-100
Pile Dia 600mm 500mm 600mm 500mm 600mm 500mm
SPT 100 276 400 207 300 159 231
200 138 200 103 150 80 115
300 92 133 69 100 53 77
500 55 80 42 60 32 46