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Copyright © 1998 ASM International®

Metals Handbook Desk Edition, Second Edition All rights reserved.


J.R. Davis, Editor, p 153-173 www.asminternational.org

Structure/Property
Relationships in Irons and Steels
Bruce L. Bramfitt, Homer Research Laboratories, Bethlehem Steel Corporation

Basis o f Material Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153


Role o f Microstructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Ferrite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
Pearlite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Ferrite-Pearl ite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
Bainite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
Martensite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...................... 164
Austenite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Ferrite-Cementite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
Ferrite-Martensite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
Ferrite-Austenite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
Graphite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
Cementite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172

This Section was adapted from Materials 5election and Design, Volume 20, ASM Handbook, 1997,
pages 3 5 7 - 3 8 2 . Additional information can also be found in the Sections on cast irons and steels w h i c h
immediately f o l l o w in this H a n d b o o k and by consulting the index.

THE PROPERTIES of irons and steels are structure-sensitive properties, for example, yield in both theoretical and practical terms, with par-
linked to the chemical composition, processing strength and hardness. The structure-insensitive ticular focus on the role of microstructure.
path, and resulting microstructure of the material; properties, for example, electrical conductivity,
this correspondence has been known since the are not discussed in this Section. Processing is a
early part of the twentieth century. For a particular means to develop and control microstructure, for Basis of Material Selection
iron and steel composition, most properties depend example, hot rolling, quenching, and so forth. In In order to select a material for a particular
on microstructure. These properties are called this Section, the role of these factors is described c o m p o n e n t , the designer m u s t have an intimate

" "o" - grade 50). 2% nital + 4% picral etch. 200x Fig. :2 Microstructu
r e p e a r linterlamellar°f
ite a typicalspacing.fUllY2%pearlitiC
+ni4%rai
tal steel
l picralShowingetch.
500xthecharacteristic fine
154/Structure/Property Relationships in Irons and Steels

k n o w l e d g e o f w h a t p r o p e r t i e s are r e q u i r e d . C o n - Table I Mechanical properties of selected steels


s i d e r a t i o n m u s t b e g i v e n to the e n v i r o n m e n t
( c o r r o s i v e , h i g h t e m p e r a t u r e , etc.) a n d h o w the Tensile Yield Elongation
c o m p o n e n t w i l l be f a b r i c a t e d ( w e l d e d , b o l t e d , strength strength iaS0muma, ReductionHardness,
etc.). O n c e t h e s e p r o p e r t y r e q u i r e m e n t s are es- Steel Condition MPa ksi MPa kd
t a b l i s h e d the m a t e r i a l s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s c a n be-
Carbon steel bar(a)
g i n . S o m e o f the p r o p e r t i e s to b e c o n s i d e r e d
are: 1006 Hot rolled 295 43 165 24 30 55 86
Colddrawn 330 48 285 41 20 45 95
1008 Hot rolled 305 44 170 24.5 30 55 86
Mechanical properties Other properties/ Colddrawn 340 49 285 41.5 20 45 95
Strength characteristics 1010 Hot rolled 325 47 180 26 28 50 95
Tensile strength (ultimate Formability Cold drawn 365 53 305 44 20 40 105
strength) Dmwability 1012 Hot rolled 330 48 185 26.5 28 50 95
Yield strength Stretchability Colddrawn 370 54 310 45 19 40 105
Compressive strength Bendability 1015 Hot rolled 345 50 190 27.5 28 50 101
Hardness Wear resistance Cold drawn 385 56 325 47 18 40 111
Toughness Abrasion resistance 1016 Hot rolled 380 55 205 30 25 50 110
Notch toughness Galling resistance Cold dmwn 420 61 350 51 18 40 121
Fracture toughness Sliding wear resistance 1017 Hot rolled 365 53 200 29 26 50 105
Ductility Adhesive wear resistance Cold drawn 405 59 340 49 18 40 116
Total elongation Machinability 1018 Hot rolled 400 58 220 32 25 50 116
Reduction in area Weldability Cold drawn 440 64 370 54 15 40 126
Fatigue resistance 1019 Hot rolled 405 59 225 32.5 25 50 116
Cold drawn 455 66 380 55 15 40 131
1020 Hot rolled 380 55 205 30 25 50 l 1l
Cold drawn 420 61 350 51 15 40 121
Table 1 lists m e c h a n i c a l properties of selected s t e e l s 1021 Hot rolled 420 61 230 33 24 48 116
in v a r i o u s h e a t - t r e a t e d or c o l d - w o r k e d c o n d i t i o n s . Colddrawn 470 68 395 57 15 40 131
In the s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s , w h a t is r e q u i r e d for 1022 Hot rolled 425 62 235 34 23 47 121
one a p p l i c a t i o n m a y be t o t a l l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e for Colddrawn 475 69 400 58 15 40 137
a n o t h e r a p p l i c a t i o n . For e x a m p l e , steel b e a m s for 1023 Hot rolled 385 56 215 31 25 50 111
a r a i l w a y b r i d g e r e q u i r e a t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t set o f Cold drawn 425 62 360 52.5 15 40 121
p r o p e r t i e s than the s t e e l r a i l s that are a t t a c h e d to 1524 Hot rolled 510 74 285 41 20 42 149
Cold drawn 565 82 475 69 12 35 163
the w o o d e n ties on the b r i d g e deck. In d e s i g n i n g
1025 Hot rolled 400 58 220 32 25 50 116
the b r i d g e , the steel m u s t h a v e s u f f i c i e n t s t r e n g t h
Colddrawn 440 64 370 54 15 40 126
to w i t h s t a n d s u b s t a n t i a l a p p l i e d l o a d s . In fact, 1026 Hot rolled 440 64 240 35 24 49 126
the d e s i g n e r w i l l g e n e r a l l y s e l e c t a s t e e l w i t h Colddrawn 490 71 415 60 15 40 143
h i g h e r s t r e n g t h than a c t u a l l y r e q u i r e d . A l s o , the 1527 Hot rolled 515 75 285 41 18 40 149
d e s i g n e r k n o w s that the s t e e l m u s t h a v e f r a c t u r e Colddmwn 570 83 485 70 12 35 163
t o u g h n e s s to r e s i s t the g r o w t h and p r o p a g a t i o n o f 1030 Hot rolled 470 68 260 37.5 20 42 137
c r a c k s a n d m u s t be c a p a b l e o f b e i n g w e l d e d so Cold drawn 525 76 440 64 12 35 149
that s t r u c t u r a l m e m b e r s can be j o i n e d w i t h o u t 1035 Hot rolled 495 72 270 39.5 18 40 143
sacrificing strength and toughness. The steel Colddrawn 550 80 460 67 12 35 163
1536 Hot rolled 570 83 315 45.5 16 40 163
b r i d g e m u s t a l s o be c o r r o s i o n r e s i s t a n t . T h i s can
COlddrawn 635 92 535 77.5 12 35 187
be p r o v i d e d b y a p r o t e c t i v e l a y e r o f p a i n t . I f 1037 Hot rolled 510 74 280 40.5 18 40 143
p a i n t i n g is not a l l o w e d , s m a l l a m o u n t s o f c e r t a i n Cold drawn 565 82 475 69 12 35 167
a l l o y i n g e l e m e n t s s u c h as c o p p e r and c h r o m i u m 1038 Hot rolled 515 75 285 41 18 40 149
can be a d d e d to the s t e e l to i n h i b i t or r e d u c e Colddrawn 570 83 485 70 12 35 163
c o r r o s i o n rates. Thus, the s t e e l s e l e c t e d for the 1039 Hot rolled 545 79 300 43.5 16 40 156
b r i d g e w o u l d be a h i g h - s t r e n g t h l o w - a l l o y Cold drawn 605 88 510 74 12 35 179
( H S L A ) s t r u c t u r a l s t e e l s u c h as A S T M A 5 7 2 , 1040 Hot rolled 525 76 290 42 18 40 149
g r a d e 50 or p o s s i b l y a w e a t h e r i n g s t e e l s u c h as Colddrawn 585 85 490 71 12 35 170
1541 Hot rolled 635 92 350 51 15 40 187
A S T M A 5 8 8 . A t);pical H S L A s t e e l h a s a f e r r i t e -
Cold drawn 705 102.5 600 87 10 30 207
p e a r l i t e m i c r o s t r u c t u r e as s e e n in Fig. 1 and is
Annealed, cold drawn 650 94 550 80 10 45 184
m i c r o a l l o y e d w i t h v a n a d i u m a n d / o r n i o b i u m for 1042 Hot rolled 550 80 305 44 16 40 163
s t r e n g t h e n i n g . (Microalloying is a t e r m u s e d to Colddrawn 6!5 89 515 75 12 35 179
d e s c r i b e the p r o c e s s o f u s i n g s m a l l a d d i t i o n s o f Normalized, cold drawn 585 85 505 73 12 45 179
carbonitride forming elements--titanium, vana- 1043 Hot rolled 565 82 310 45 16 40 163
d i u m , and n i o b i u m - - t o s t r e n g t h e n s t e e l s by g r a i n Cold drawn 625 91 530 77 12 35 179
r e f i n e m e n t and p r e c i p i t a t i o n h a r d e n i n g . ) Normalized, cold drown 600 87 515 75 12 45 179
On the o t h e r hand, the s t e e l r a i l s m u s t h a v e 1044 Hot rolled 550 80 305 44 16 40 163
high strength coupled with excellent wear resis- 1045 Hot rolled 565 82 310 45 16 40 163
Colddmwn 625 91 530 77 12 35 179
tance. M o d e m rail s t e e l s c o n s i s t o f a f u l l y p e a r l i -
Annealed, cold drawn 585 85 505 73 12 45 170
tic m i c r o s t r u c t u r e w i t h a fine p e a r l i t e i n t e r l a m e l - 1046 Hot rolled 585 85 325 47 15 40 170
l a r s p a c i n g , as s h o w n in Fig. 2. P e a r l i t e is u n i q u e Cold drawn 650 94 545 79 12 35 187
b e c a u s e it is a l a m e l l a r c o m p o s i t e c o n s i s t i n g o f Annealed, cold drawn 620 90 515 75 12 45 179
88% soft, d u c t i l e ferrite a n d 12% hard, b r i t t l e 1547 Hot rolled 650 94 360 52 15 30 192
c e m e n t i t e (Fe3C). The h a r d c e m e n t i t e p l a t e s pro- Cold drawn 710 103 605 88 10 28 207
vide excellent wear resistance, especially when Annealed, cold drawn 655 95 585 85 10 35 187
e m b e d d e d in soft ferrite. P e a r l i t i c s t e e l s h a v e 1548 Hot rolled 660 96 365 53 14 33 197
h i g h s t r e n g t h and are f u l l y a d e q u a t e to s u p p o r t Colddrawn 735 106.5 615 89.5 10 28 217
h e a v y a x l e l o a d s o f m o d e m l o c o m o t i v e s and Annealed, cold drawn 645 93.5 540 78.5 10 35 192
(continued)
f r e i g h t cars. M o s t o f the l o a d is a p p l i e d in c o m -
pression. Pearlitic steels also have relatively
(a) All values are estimated minimum values; type 1100 series steels are rated on the basis of 0.10% max Si or coarse-grain melt-
p o o r t o u g h n e s s and c a n n o t g e n e r a l l y w i t h s t a n d ing practice; the mechanical properties shown are expected minimums for the sizes ranging from 19 to 31.8 mm (0.75 to 1.25
i m p a c t l o a d s w i t h o u t f a i l u r e . T h e rail s t e e l c o u l d in.). (b) Most data are for 25 mm (1 in.) diam bar. Source: Ref 1
not m e e t the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f the b r i d g e b u i l d e r ,
Structure/Property Relationships in Irons and Steels / 155

Table I (continued) and the HSLA structural steel could not meet the
requirements of the civil engineer who designed
the b r i d g e o r the r a i l s y s t e m .
Tensile Yield Elongation
strength strength in 50 ram, Reduction Hardness, A similar case can be made for the selection of
Steel Condition MPa ksi MPa ksi % ~a area, % HB cast irons. A cast machine housing on a large
lathe requires a material with adequate strength,
C a r b o n steel bar(a) (continued) r i g i d i t y , a n d d u r a b i l i t y to s u p p o r t t h e a p p l i e d
1049 Hot rolled 600 87 330 48 15 35 179 l o a d a n d a c e r t a i n d e g r e e o f d a m p i n g c a p a c i t y in
Cold drawn 670 97 560 81.5 10 30 197 o r d e r to r a p i d l y a t t e n u a t e ( d a m p e n ) v i b r a t i o n s
Annealed, cold drawn 635 92 530 77 10 40 187
f r o m the r o t a t i n g p a r t s o f t h e l a t h e . T h e c a s t i r o n
1050 Hot roned 620 90 340 49.5 15 35 179
Cold da'awn 690 100 580 84 10 30 197 jaws of a crusher require a material with substan-
Annealed, cold drawn 655 95 550 80 10 40 189 tial w e a r r e s i s t a n c e . F o r t h i s a p p l i c a t i o n , a c a s t -
1552 Hot rolled 745 108 410 59.5 12 30 217 i n g is r e q u i r e d b e c a u s e w e a r - r e s i s t a n t s t e e l s a r e
Annealed, cold drawn 675 98 570 83 10 40 193 v e r y d i f f i c u l t to m a c h i n e . F o r the m a c h i n e h o u s -
1055 Hot rolled 650 94 355 51.5 12 30 192 i n g , g r a y c a s t i r o n is s e l e c t e d b e c a u s e it is r e l a -
Annealed, cold drawn 660 96 560 81 10 40 197 tively inexpensive, can be easily cast, and has the
1060 Hot rolled 675 98 370 54 12 30 201 a b i l i t y to d a m p e n v i b r a t i o n s as a r e s u l t o f t h e
Spheroidized annealed, cold drawn 620 90 485 70 10 45 183 g r a p h i t e f l a k e s p r e s e n t in its m i c r o s t r u c t u r e .
1064 Hot rolled 670 97 370 53.5 12 30 201
These flakes are dispersed throughout the ferrite
Spheroidized annealed, cold drawn 615 89 475 69 10 45 183
1065 Hot rolled 690 100 380 55 12 30 207 a n d p e a r l i t e m a t r i x ( F i g . 3). T h e g r a p h i t e , b e i n g a
Spheroidized annealed, cold drawn 635 92 490 71 10 45 187 m a j o r n o n m e t a l l i c c o n s t i t u e n t in the g r a y i r o n ,
1070 Hot rolled 705 102 385 56 12 30 212 p r o v i d e s a t o r t u o u s p a t h f o r s o u n d to t r a v e l
Spheroidized annealed, cold drawn 640 93 495 72 10 45 192 t h r o u g h t h e m a t e r i a l . W i t h so m a n y f l a k e s , s o u n d
1074 Hot rolled 725 105 400 58 12 30 217 w a v e s a r e e a s i l y r e f l e c t e d a n d the s o u n d d a m p -
Spheroidized annealed, cold drawn 650 94 505 73 10 40 192 ened over a relatively short distance. However,
1078 Hot rolled 690 1130 380 55 12 30 207 f o r t h e j a w c r u s h e r , d a m p i n g c a p a c i t y is n o t a
Spheroidized annealed, cold drawn 650 94 500 72.5 10 40 192 r e q u i r e m e n t . In this c a s e , a n a l l o y w h i t e c a s t i r o n
1080 Hot rolled 770 112 425 61.5 10 25 229
is s e l e c t e d b e c a u s e o f its h i g h h a r d n e s s a n d w e a r
Spheroidized annealed, cold drawn 675 98 515 75 10 40 192
1084 Hot rolled 820 119 450 65.5 10 25 241 resistance. The white cast iron microstructure
Spheroidized annealed, cold drawn 690 100 530 77 10 40 192 s h o w n in F i g . 4 is g r a p h i t e f r e e a n d c o n s i s t s o f
1085 Hot rolled 835 121 460 66.5 10 25 248 m a r t e n s i t e in a m a t r i x o f c e m e n t i t e . B o t h o f t h e s e
Spheroidized annealed, cold drawn 695 100.5 540 78 10 40 192 constituents are very hard and thus provide the
1086 Hot rolled 770 112 425 61.5 10 25 229 r e q u i r e d w e a r r e s i s t a n c e . T h u s , in t h i s e x a m p l e
Spheroidized aimealed, cold drawn 670 97 510 74 10 40 192 the g r a y c a s t i r o n w o u l d n o t m e e t t h e r e q u i r e -
1090 Hot rolled 840 122 460 67 10 25 248 ments for the jaws of a crusher and the white cast
Spheroidized annealed, cold drawn 695 101 540 78 10 40 197
i r o n w o u l d n o t m e e t the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e
1095 Hot rolled 825 120 455 66 10 25 248
lathe housing.
Spheroidized annealed, cold drawn 680 99 525 76 10 40 197
1211 Hot rolled 380 55 230 33 25 45 121
Colddrawn 515 75 400 58 10 35 163 Role of Microstructure
1212 Hot rolled 385 56 230 33.5 25 45 121
Cold drawn 540 78 415 60 10 35 167 In s t e e l s a n d c a s t i r o n s , t h e m i c r o s t r u c t u r a l
1213 Hot rolled 385 56 230 33.5 25 45 121 constituents have the names ferrite, pearlite,
Cold drawn 540 78 415 60 10 35 167 b a i n i t e , m a r t e n s i t e , c e m e n t i t e , a n d a u s t e n i t e . In
12L14 Hot rolled 395 57 235 34 22 45 121 m o s t a l l o t h e r m e t a l l i c s y s t e m s , the c o n s t i t u e n t s
Cold drawn 540 78 415 60 10 35 163
a r e n o t n a m e d , b u t a r e s i m p l y r e f e r r e d to b y a
1108 Hot roUed 345 50 190 27.5 30 50 101
G r e e k l e t t e r (ct, 13, Y, e t c . ) d e r i v e d f r o m t h e l o c a -
Colddrawn 385 56 325 47 20 40 121
1109 Hot rolled 345 50 190 27.5 30 50 101 tion of the constituent on a phase diagram. Fer-
Cold drawn 385 56 325 47 20 40 121 r o u s a l l o y c o n s t i t u e n t s , o n the o t h e r h a n d , h a v e
11i7 Hot roned 425 62 235 34 23 47 121 b e e n w i d e l y s t u d i e d f o r m o r e t h a n 1 0 0 y e a r s . In
Colddrawn 475 69 400 58 15 40 137 the e a r l y d a y s , m a n y o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r s w e r e
1118 Hot rolled 450 65 250 36 23 47 131 petrographers, mining engineers, and geologists.
Colddrawn 495 72 420 61 15 40 143 Because minerals have long been named after
1119 Hot roned 425 62 235 34 23 47 121 t h e i r d i s c o v e r e r o r p l a c e o f o r i g i n , it w a s n a t u r a l
Colddrawn 475 69 400 58 15 40 137 to s i m i l a r l y n a m e the c o n s t i t u e n t s in s t e e l s a n d
1132 Hot roUed 570 83 315 45.5 16 40 167
cast irons.
Cold drawn 635 92 530 77 12 35 183
~1137 Hot roiled 605 88 330 48 15 35 179 It c a n b e s e e n t h a t t h e f o u r e x a m p l e s d e s c r i b e d
Colddrawn 675 98 565 82 10 30 197 above have very different microstructures: the
1140 Hot rolled 545 79 300 43.5 16 40 156 structural steel has a ferrite plus pearlite micro-
Colddrawn 605 88 510 74 12 35 170 structure; the rail steel has a fully pearlitic mi-
1141 Hot roned 650 94 355 51.5 15 35 187 c r o s t r u c t u r e ; the m a c h i n e h o u s i n g ( l a t h e ) h a s a
Colddrawn 725 105.1 605 88 10 30 212 ferrite plus pearlite matrix with graphite flakes;
1144 Hot rolled 670 97 365 53 15 35 197 and the jaw crusher microstructure contains
Colddrawn 745 108 620 90 10 30 217
m a r t e n s i t e a n d c e m e n t i t e . In e a c h c a s e , the m i -
1145 Hot rolled 585 85 325 47 15 40 170
c r o s t r u c t u r e p l a y s the p r i m a r y r o l e in p r o v i d i n g
Colddrawn 650 94 550 80 12 35 187
1146 Hot roUed 585 85 325 47 15 40 170 the properties desired for each application. From
Cold drawn 650 94 550 80 12 35 187 t h e s e e x a m p l e s , o n e c a n see h o w m a t e r i a l p r o p e r -
1151 Hot rolled 635 92 350 50.5 15 35 187 ties c a n b e t a i l o r e d b y m i c r o s t r u c t u r a l m a n i p u l a -
Colddrawn 705 102 595 86 10 30 207 tion or alteration. Knowledge about microstruc-
t u r e is t h u s p a r a m o u n t in c o m p o n e n t d e s i g n a n d
(continued) a l l o y d e v e l o p m e n t . In the p a r a g r a p h s t h a t f o l l o w ,
e a c h m i c r o s t r u c t u r a l c o n s t i t u e n t is d e s c r i b e d
(a) All values are estimated minimum values; type 1100 series steels are rated on the basis of 0.10% max Si or coarse-grain melt- w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e to the p r o p e r t i e s t h a t
ing practice; the mechanical properties shown are expected minimums for the sizes ranging from 19 to 31.8 mm (0.75 to 1.25 can be developed by appropriate manipulation of
in.). (b) Most data are for 25 mm (1 in.) diam bar. Source: Ref 1 the m i c r o s t r u c t u r e t h r o u g h d e f o r m a t i o n ( e . g . , h o t
and cold rolling) and heat treatment. Further de-
156 / Structure/Property Relationships in Irons and Steels

t a i l s a b o u t these m i c r o s t r u c t u r a l c o n s t i t u e n t s can ]'able 1 (continued)


be f o u n d in R e f 2 to 6.
Tensile Yield Elongatba
Ferrite strength strength inSOnma, l~lt~tion Hardm~
Steel Condition MPa ksi MPa ksi % ~aarea, % lib
A w i d e v a r i e t y o f s t e e l s and c a s t i r o n s f u l l y
Low-alloy steels(b)
e x p l o i t the p r o p e r t i e s o f ferrite. H o w e v e r , o n l y a
1340 Normalized at 870 °C (1600 °F) 834 121 558 81 22.0 63 248
f e w c o m m e r c i a l s t e e l s are c o m p l e t e l y f e r r i t i c . A n
Annealed at 800 °C (1475 °F) 703 102 434 63 25.5 57 207
e x a m p l e o f the m i c r o s t r u c t u r e o f a f u l l y f e r r i t i c , 3140 Normalized at 870 °C (1600 oF) 889 129 600 87 19.7 57 262
u l t r a l o w c a r b o n s t e e l is s h o w n in Fig. 5. Annealed at 815 °C (1500 °F) 690 100 420 61 24.5 51 197
F e r r i t e is e s s e n t i a l l y a s o l i d s o l u t i o n o f iron 4130 Normalized at 870 °C (1600 °F) 670 97 435 63 25.5 59.5 197
c o n t a i n i n g c a r b o n or o n e or m o r e a l l o y i n g ele- Annealed at 865 °C (1585 °F) 560 81 460 67 21.5 59.6 217
m e n t s s u c h as s i l i c o n , c h r o m i u m , m a n g a n e s e , Water quenched from 855 °C (1575 °F) 1040 151 979 142 18.1 63.9 302
a n d n i c k e l . T h e r e are t w o t y p e s o f s o l i d solu- and tempered at 540 °C (1000 °F)
4140 Normalized at 870 °C (1600 oF) 1020 148 655 95 17.7 46.8 302
tions: i n t e r s t i t i a l and s u b s t i t u t i o n a l . In an i n t e r -
Annealed at 815 °C (1500 °F) 655 95 915 60 25.7 56,9 197
stitial solid solution, elements with small atomic
Water quenched from 845 °C ( 1550 °F) 1075 156 986 143 15.5 56,9 311
d i a m e t e r , for e x a m p l e , c a r b o n and n i t r o g e n , oc- and tempered at 540 °C (1000 °F)
c u p y s p e c i f i c i n t e r s t i t i a l sites in the b o d y - c e n - 4150 Normalized at 870 °C ( 1600 °F) 1160 168 731 106 11.7 30,8 321
t e r e d c u b i c (bcc) i r o n c r y s t a l l i n e l a t t i c e . T h e s e Annealed at 830 °C (1525 °F) 731 106 380 55 20.2 40,2 197
sites are e s s e n t i a l l y the o p e n s p a c e s b e t w e e n the oil quenched from 830 °C (1525 °F) 1310 190 1215 176 13.5 47.2 375
l a r g e r iron a t o m s . In a s u b s t i t u t i o n a l s o l i d s o l u - and tempered at 540 °C (1000 °F)
tion, e l e m e n t s o f s i m i l a r a t o m i c d i a m e t e r r e p l a c e 4320 Normalized at 895 °C (1640 oF) 793 115 460 67 20.8 51 235
Annealed at 850 °C (1560 °F) 580 84 425 62 29.0 58 163
or s u b s t i t u t e for iron a t o m s . The t w o t y p e s o f
4340 Normalized at 870 °C (1600 oF) 1282 186 862 125 12.2 36.3 363
s o l i d s o l u t i o n s i m p a r t d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to Annealed at 810 °C (1490 oF) 745 108 470 68 22.0 50.0 217
ferrite. For e x a m p l e , i n t e r s t i t i a l e l e m e n t s l i k e Oil quenched from 800 °C (1475 °F) 1207 175 1145 166 14.2 45.9 352
c a r b o n and n i t r o g e n can e a s i l y d i f f u s e t h r o u g h and tempered at 540 °C (1000 °F)
the o p e n bcc l a t t i c e , w h e r e a s s u b s t i t u t i o n a l ele- 4419 Normalized at 955 °C (1750 oF) 515 75 350 51 32.5 69.4 143
ments like manganese and nickel diffuse with Annealed at 915 °C (1675 °F) 450 65 330 48 31.2 62.8 121
g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y . T h e r e f o r e , an i n t e r s t i t i a l s o l i d 4620 Normalized at 900 °C (1650 oF) 570 83 365 53 29.0 66.7 174
s o l u t i o n o f iron and c a r b o n r e s p o n d s q u i c k l y dur- Annealed at 855 °C (1575 oF) 510 74 370 54 31.3 60.3 149
4820 Normalized at 860 °C (1580 oF) 758 110 485 70 24.0 59.2 229
ing heat t r e a t m e n t , w h e r e a s s u b s t i t u t i o n a l s o l i d
Annealed at 815 °C (1500 °F) 685 99 460 67 22.3 58.8 197
s o l u t i o n s b e h a v e s l u g g i s h l y d u r i n g h e a t treat- 5140 Normalized at 870 °C (1600 oF) 793 115 470 68 22.7 59.2 229
m e n t , s u c h as in h o m o g e n i z a t i o n . Annealed at 830 °C (1525 °F) 570 83 290 42 28.6 57.3 167
A c c o r d i n g to the i r o n - c a r b o n p h a s e d i a g r a m Oil quenched from 845 °C (1550 °F) 972 141 841 122 18.5 58.9 293
(Fig. 6a), v e r y l i t t l e c a r b o n ( 0 . 0 2 2 % C) can dis- and tempered at 540 °C (1000 °F)
s o l v e in ferrite (ctFe), e v e n at the e u t e c t o i d t e m - 5150 Normalized at 870 °C (1600 oF) 869 126 530 77 20.7 58.7 255
p e r a t u r e o f 727 °C ( 1 3 3 0 °F). (The i r o n - c a r b o n Annealed at 825 °C (1520 oF) 675 98 360 52 22.0 43.7 197
p h a s e d i a g r a m i n d i c a t e s the p h a s e r e g i o n s that Oil quenched from 830 °C (1525 °F) 1055 159 1000 145 16.4 52.9 311
and tempered at 540 °C (1000 °F)
e x i s t o v e r a w i d e c a r b o n and t e m p e r a t u r e r a n g e . 5160 Normalized at 855 °C (1575 oF) 1025 149 650 94 18.2 50.7 285
The d i a g r a m r e p r e s e n t s e q u i l i b r i u m c o n d i t i o n s . Annealed at 815 °C (1495 oF) 724 105 275 40 17.2 30.6 197
F i g u r e 6(b) s h o w s an e x p a n d e d i r o n - c a r b o n dia- Oil quenched from 830 °C (1525 °F) 1145 166 1005 146 14.5 45.7 341
g r a m w i t h b o t h the e u t e e t o i d and e u t e c t i c re- and tempered at 540 °C (1000 oF)
g i o n s . ) At r o o m t e m p e r a t u r e , the s o l u b i l i t y is an 6150 Normalized at 870 °C (1600 oF) 938 136 615 89 21.8 61.0 269
o r d e r o f m a g n i t u d e l e s s ( b e l o w 0 . 0 0 5 % C). H o w - Annealed at 815 °C (1500 oF) 670 97 415 60 23.0 48.4 197
ever, e v e n at t h e s e s m a l l a m o u n t s , the a d d i t i o n o f Oil quenched from 845 °C (1550 °F) 1200 174 1160 168 14.5 48.2 352
and tempered at 540 °C (1000 oF)
c a r b o n to p u r e iron i n c r e a s e s the r o o m - t e m p e r a -
8620 Normalized at 915 °C 0675 °F) 635 92 360 52 26.3 59.7 183
ture y i e l d s t r e n g t h o f i r o n by m o r e t h a n five Annealed at 870 °C (1600 oF) 540 78 385 56 31.3 62.1 149
t i m e s , as s e e n in Fig. 7. If the c a r b o n c o n t e n t 8630 Normalized at 870 °C (1600 oF) 650 94 425 62 23.5 53.5 187
e x c e e d s the s o l u b i l i t y l i m i t o f 0 . 0 2 2 % , the car- Annealed at 845 °C (1550 °F) 565 82 370 54 29.0 58.9 156
bon f o r m s a n o t h e r p h a s e c a l l e d c e m e n t i t e (Fig. Water quenched from 845 °C (1550 °F) 931 135 850 123 18.7 59.6 269
8). C e m e n t i t e is a l s o a c o n s t i t u e n t o f p e a r l i t e , as and tempered at 540 °C (1000 °F)
s e e n in Fig. 9. The r o l e o f c e m e n t i t e and p e a r l i t e 8650 Normalized at 870 °C (1600) 1025 149 690 100 14 45.0 302
on the m e c h a n i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f s t e e l is d i s c u s s e d Annealed at 795 °C ( 1465 °F) 715 104 385 56 22.5 46.0 212
oil quenched from 800 °C (1475 °F) 1185 172 1105 160 14.5 49.1 352
below.
and tempered at 540 °C ( 1000 °F)
The i n f l u e n c e o f s o l i d - s o l u t i o n e l e m e n t s on the 8740 Normalized at 870 °C (1600 oF) 931 135 605 88 16.0 47.9 269
y i e l d s t r e n g t h o f ferrite is s h o w n in Fig. 10. H e r e Annealed at 815 °C (1500 oF) 696 101 415 60 22.2 46.4 201
one c a n c l e a r l y see the s t r o n g e f f e c t o f c a r b o n on Oil quenched from 830 °C ( 1525 °F) 1225 178 1130 164 16.0 53.0 352
i n c r e a s i n g the s t r e n g t h o f ferrite. N i t r o g e n , a l s o and tempered at 540 °C (1000 oF)
an i n t e r s t i t i a l e l e m e n t , has a s i m i l a r effect. P h o s - 9255 Normalized at 900 °C ( 1650 oF) 931 135 580 84 19.7 43.4 269
p h o r u s is also a f e r r i t e s t r e n g t h e n e r . In fact, there Annealed at 845 °C (1550 oF) 779 113 485 70 21.7 41.1 229
are c o m m e r c i a l l y a v a i l a b l e s t e e l s c o n t a i n i n g Oil quenched from 885 °C (1625 °F) 1130 164 924 134 16.7 38.3 321
and tempered at 540 °C ( 1000 oF)
p h o s p h o r u s (up to 0 . 1 2 % P) for s t r e n g t h e n i n g .
9310 Normalized at 890 °C (1630 °F) 910 132 570 83 18.8 58.1 269HRB
T h e s e s t e e l s are the r e p h o s p h o r i z e d s t e e l s ( t y p e Annealed at 845 °C (1550 oF) 820 119 450 65 17.3 42.1 241HRB
1211 to 1215 series). M e c h a n i c a l p r o p e r t y data
Ferritie stainless steels(b)
for t h e s e s t e e l s can be f o u n d in T a b l e 1.
In Fig. 10, the s u b s t i t u t i o n a l s o l i d s o l u t i o n ele- 405 Annealed bar 483 70 276 40 30 60 150
ments of silicon, copper, manganese, molybde- Cold draw n bar 586 85 483 70 20 60 185
409 Annealed bar 450 65 240 35 25 75HRB
n u m , n i c k e l , a l u m i n u m , and c h r o m i u m are s h o w n
430 Annealed bar 517 75 310 45 30 --65" 155
to h a v e far l e s s e f f e c t as ferrite s t r e n g t h e n e r s (confnued)
than the i n t e r s t i t i a l e l e m e n t s . In fact, c h r o m i u m ,
n i c k e l , and a l u m i n u m in s o l i d s o l u t i o n h a v e very
(a) All values are estimated minimum values; type 1100 series steels are rated on the basis of 0.10% max Si or coarse-grain melt-
l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e on the s t r e n g t h o f ferrite.
ing practice; the mechanical properties shown are expected minimums for the sizes ranging from 19 to 31.8 mm (0.75 to 1.25
In a d d i t i o n to c a r b o n ( a n d o t h e r s o l i d - s o l u t i o n in.). (b) Most data are for 25 mm (1 in.) diam bar. Source: Ref I
e l e m e n t s ) , the s t r e n g t h o f a f e r r i t i c s t e e l is a l s o
Structure/Property Relationships in Irons and Steels / 157

Table 1 (continued) d e t e r m i n e d b y its g r a i n size a c c o r d i n g to t h e


Hall-Petch relationship:
Tensile Yield Elongation
strength strength in 50ram, Reduction Hardness, Gy = Go + kyd -1/2 (Eq 1)
Steel Ccmdition MPa ksi MPa ksi % in area, % HB

Ferritic stainless steels(b) (continued)


430 (cont'd) Annealed and cold drawn 586 85 483 70 20 65 185 w h e r e Oy is the y i e l d s t r e n g t h (in M P a ) , ~ o is a
442 Annealed bar 515 75 310 45 30 50 160 c o n s t a n t , ky is a c o n s t a n t , a n d d is t h e g r a i n d i a m e -
Annealed at 815 °C (1500 °F) and cold 545 79 427 62 35.5 79 92HRC t e r (in m m ) .
worked T h e g r a i n d i a m e t e r is a m e a s u r e m e n t o f s i z e o f
446 Annealed bar 550 80 345 50 25 45 86HRB the f e r r i t e g r a i n s in the m i c r o s t r u c t u r e , f o r e x a m -
Annealed at 815 °C (1500 °F) and cold 607 88 462 67 26 64 96HRB p l e , n o t e the g r a i n s in the u l t r a l o w c a r b o n s t e e l in
drawn F i g . 5. F i g u r e 11 s h o w s t h e H a l l - P e t c h r e l a t i o n -
Martensilic stainless steels(b) s h i p f o r a l o w - c a r b o n f u l l y f e r r i t i c steel. T h i s
403 Annealed bar 515 75 275 40 35 70 82HRB r e l a t i o n s h i p is e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t f o r u n d e r -
Tempered bar 765 111 585 85 23 67 97HRB standing structure-property relationships in
410 Oil quenched from 980 °C ( 1800 °F); 1085 158 1005 146 13 70 ... steels. Control of grain size through ther-
tempered at 540 °C (1000 °F);.16 nun momechanical treatment, heat treatment, and/or
(0.625 in.) bar m i c r o a l l o y i n g is vital to the c o n t r o l o f s t r e n g t h
Oil quenched from 980 °C (1800 °F); 1525 221 1225 178 15 64 45HRB a n d t o u g h n e s s o f m o s t steels. T h e r o l e o f g r a i n
tempered at 40 °C (104 °F); 16 mm s i z e is d i s c u s s e d in m o r e d e t a i l b e l o w .
(0.625 in.) bar
620 90 20 60 235 T h e r e is a s i m p l e w a y to s t a b i l i z e f e r r i t e ,
414 Annealed bar 795 115
Cold drawn bar 895 130 795 115 15 58 270 t h e r e b y e x p a n d i n g the r e g i o n o f f e r r i t e i n t h e
Oil quenched from 980 °C (1800 °F); 1005 146 800 116 19 58 ... iron-carbon phase diagram, namely by the addi-
tempered at 650 °C (1200 oF) t i o n o f a l l o y i n g e l e m e n t s s u c h as s i l i c o n , c h r o -
420 Annealed bar 655 95 345 50 25 55 195 mium, and molybdenum. These elements are
Annealed and cold drawn 760 110 690 100 14 40 228 called ferrite stabilizers because they stabilize
431 Annealed bar 860 125 655 95 20 55 260 f e r r i t e at r o o m t e m p e r a t u r e t h r o u g h r e d u c i n g t h e
Annealed and cold drawn 895 130 760 110 15 35 270 amount of y solid solution (austenite) with the
Oil quenched from 980 °C (1800 °F); 831 121 738 107 20 64 ...
f o r m a t i o n o f w h a t is c a l l e d a y - l o o p a s s e e n at the
tempered at 650 °C (1200 oF)
1140 166 17 59 45HRC f a r l e f t in F i g . 12. T h i s i r o n - c h r o m i u m p h a s e d i a -
Oil quenched from 980 °C (1800 °F); 1435 208
tempered at 40 °C (104 °F) gram shows that ferrite exists up above 12% Cr
440C Annealed bar 760 110 450 65 14 25 97HRB a n d is s t a b l e u p to t h e m e l t i n g p o i n t ( l i q u i d u s
Annealed and cold drawn bar 860 125 690 100 7 20 260 temperature). An important fully ferritic family
Hardened and tempered at 315 °C 1970 285 1900 275 2 10 580 o f s t e e l s is the i r o n - c h r o m i u m f e r r i t i c s t a i n l e s s
(6OO°F) s t e e l s . T h e s e s t e e l s a r e r e s i s t a n t to c o r r o s i o n , a n d
Austenitle stainless steels(b) a r e c l a s s i f i e d as t y p e 4 0 5 , 4 0 9 , 4 2 9 , 4 3 0 , 4 3 4 ,
380 55 52 ... 87HRB 436, 439, 442, 444, and 446 stainless steels.
201 Annealed 760 110
50% hard 1035 150 760 ll0 12 ... 32HRC T h e s e s t e e l s r a n g e in c h r o m i u m c o n t e n t f r o m 11
Full hard 1275 185 965 140 8 ... 41HRC to 3 0 % . A d d i t i o n s o f m o l y b d e n u m , s i l i c o n , n i o -
Extra hard 1550 225 1480 215 1 ... 43HRC bium, aluminum, and titanium provide specific
202 Annealed bar 515 75 275 40 40 ...... properties. Ferritic stainless steels have good
Annealed sheet 655 95 310 45 40 ...... d u c t i l i t y ( u p to 3 0 % t o t a l e l o n g a t i o n a n d 6 0 %
50% hard sheet 1030 150 760 110 10 _ ... r e d u c t i o n in a r e a ) a n d f o r m a b i l i t y , b u t l a c k
301 Annealed 725 105 275 40 60 70' ... strength at elevated temperatures compared with
50% hard 1035 150 655 95 54 61 ...
austenitic stainless steels. Room-temperature
Full hard 1415 205 1330 193 6 ...
275 40 55 ... 80HRB y i e l d s t r e n g t h s r a n g e f r o m 1 7 0 to a b o u t 4 4 0 M P a
302 Annealed strip 620 90
25% hard strip 860 125 515 75 12 _ 25HRC ( 2 5 to 6 4 k s i ) , a n d r o o m - t e m p e r a t u r e t e n s i l e
Annealed bar 585 85 240 35 60 70" 80HRB s t r e n g t h s r a n g e f r o m 3 8 0 to a b o u t 5 5 0 M P a (55
303 Annealed bar 620 90 240 35 50 55 160 to 8 0 ksi). T a b l e 1 lists t h e m e c h a n i c a l p r o p e r t i e s
Colddrawn 690 100 415 60 40 53 228 of some of the ferritic stainless steels. Type 409
304 Annealed bar 585 85 235 34 60 70 149 s t a i n l e s s s t e e l is w i d e l y u s e d f o r a u t o m o t i v e e x -
Annealed and cold drawn 690 100 415 60 45 ... 212 haust systems. Type 430 free-machining stainless
Cold-drawn high tensile 860 125 655 95 25 ... 275 s t e e l h a s the b e s t m a c h i n a b i l i t y o f all s t a i n l e s s
305 Annealed sheet 585 85 260 38 50 _ 80HRB
steels other than that of a low-carbon, free-ma-
308 Annealed bar 585 85 205 30 55 65' 150
c h i n i n g m a r t e n s i t i c s t a i n l e s s s t e e l ( t y p e 41.6).
309 Annealed bar 655 95 275 40 45 65 83HRB
310 45 45 _ 85HRB Another family of steels utilizing a ferrite sta-
310 Annealed sheet 620 90
Annealed bar 655 95 275 40 45 65' 160 bilizer (y-loop) are the iron-silicon ferritic alloys
314 Annealed bar 689 100 345 50 45 60 180 c o n t a i n i n g u p to a b o u t 6 . 5 % Si ( c a r b o n - f r e e ) .
316 Annealed sheet 580 84 290 42 50 _ 79HRB These steels are of commercial importance be-
Annealed bar 550 80 240 35 60 70" 149 cause they have excellent magnetic permeability
Annealed and cold-drawnbar 620 90 415 60 45 65 190 and low core loss. High-efficiency motors and
317 Annealed sheet 620 90 275 40 45 ... 85HRB transformers are produced from these iron-sili-
Annealed bar 585 85 275 40 50 ... 160 con electrical steels (aluminum can also substi-
321 Annealed sheet 620 90 240 35 45 _ 80HRB
t u t e f o r s i l i c o n in t h e m ) .
Annealed bar 585 85 240 35 55 65' 150
O v e r t h e p a s t 2 0 y e a r s o r so, a n e w b r e e d o f
Annealed and cold-drawn bar 655 95 415 60 40 60 185
260 38 40 ... ... very-low-carbon fully ferritic sheet steels has
330 Annealed sheet 550 80
Annealed bar 585 85 290 42 45 ... 80HRB emerged for applications requiring exceptional
347 Annealed sheet 655 95 275 40 45 _ 85HRB f o r m a b i l i t y ( s e e F i g . 5). T h e s e a r e the i n t e r s t i -
Annealed bar 620 90 240 35 50 65" 160 t i a l - f r e e (IF) s t e e l s f o r w h i c h c a r b o n a n d n i t r o -
(continued) g e n a r e r e d u c e d in t h e s t e e l m a k i n g p r o c e s s to
very low levels, and any remaining interstitial
(a) All values are estimated minimum values; type 1100 series steels are rated on the basis of 0.10% max Si or coarse-grain melt- c a r b o n o r n i t r o g e n is t i e d u p w i t h s m a l l a m o u n t s
ing practice; the mechanical properties shown are expected minimums for the sizes ranging from 19 to 31.8 mm (0.75 to 1.25 of alloying elements (e.g., titanium or niobium)
in.). (b) Most data are for 25 mm (1 in.) diam bar. Source: Ref 1
that form preferentially carbides and nitrides.
158/Structure/Property Relationships in Irons and Steels

Table I (continued) pearlite forms. Pearlite is formed by cooling the


steel through the eutectoid temperature (the tem-
perature o f 727 °C in Fig. 6) by the following
qI~mBe Yield Elongation
inS0mm, ReductionHardness, reaction:
st~ngth strength
Sted Cand~laa MPa k~ MPa I~ % in area, % liB
Austenilic stainless steels(b) (continued) Austenite ~ cementite + ferrite ffXl2)
347 (eont'd) Annealedandcolddrawnbar 690 100 450 65 40 60 212
384 Annealed wire 1040 °C (1900 °F) 515 75 240 35 55 72 70HRB The cementite and ferrite form as parallel plates
Maraging steels(b) called lamellae (Fig. 13). This is essentially a
18Ni(250) Annealed 965 140 655 95 17 75 30 HRC c o m p o s i t e m i c r o s t r u c t u r e c o n s i s t i n g o f a very
Aged bar 32 mm (1.25 in.) 1844 269 1784 259 11 56.5 51.8 HRC hard carbide phase, cementite, and a very soft and
Aged sheet 6 mm (0.25in.) 1874 272 1832 266 8 40.8 50.6HRC ductile ferrite phase. A fully pearlitic microstruc-
18Ni(300) Annealed 1034 150 758 110 18 72 32HRC ture is formed at the eutectoid composition of
Aged bar 32 mm (1.25 in.) 2041 296 2020 293 11.6 55.8 54.7 HRC 0.78% C. As can be seen in Fig. 2 and 13, pearlite
Aged sheet 6 mm (0.25 in.) 2169 315 2135 310 7.7 35 55.1HRC forms as colonies where the lamellae are aligned
18Ni(350) Annealed 1140 165 827 120 18 70 35 HRC in the s a m e orientation. The properties of fully
Aged bar 32 mm (l.25 in.) 2391 347 2348 341 7.6 33.8 58.4 HRC pearlitic steels are determined by the spacing be-
Aged sheet 6 mm (0.25 in.) 2451 356 2395 347 3 15.4 57.7 HRC
tween the ferrite-cementite lamellae, a dimension
(a) All values are estimated minimumvalues; type 1100 series steels ate rated on the basis of 0.10% max Si or coarse-grain melt- called the interlamellar spacing, X, and the colony
ing practice; the mechanical properties shown are expected minimums for the sizes ranging from 19 to 31.8 mm (0.75 to 1.25 size. A simple relationship for yield strength has
in.). (b) Most data are for 25 mm (1 in.) diam bar. Some: Ref 1 been developed by Heller (Ref 10) as follows:

fly = -85.9 + 8.3 (X-t/2) (Eq 3)


T h e s e steels have very low strength, but are used tions, that is, the stacked steel layers in the rotor
to produce c o m p o n e n t s that are difficult or im- and stator o f the motor.
where fly is the 0.2% offset yield strength (in
possible to form from other steels. Very-low-car- As noted previously, a n u m b e r of properties
MPa) and X is the interlamellar spacing (in mm).
bon, fully ferritic steels (0.001% C) are n o w be- are exploited in fully ferritic steels:
Figure 14 s h o w s Heller's plot of strength versus
ing m a n u f a c t u r e d for automotive c o m p o n e n t s interlamellar spacing for fully pearlitic eutectoid
that harden during the paint-curing cycle. These • Iron-silicon steels: Exceptional electrical steels.
steels are called bake-hardening steels and have properties It has also been s h o w n by Hyzak and Bernstein
controlled a m o u n t s o f carbon and nitrogen that • I r o n - c h r o m i u m steels: Good corrosion resis- ( R e f 11) that strength is related to interlamellar
c o m b i n e with other elements, s u c h as titanium tance spacing, pearlite colony size, and prior-austenite
and niobium, during the baking cycle (175 °C, or • Interstitial-free steels: Exceptional forma- grain size, according to t h e following relation-
350 °F, for 30 min). The process is called aging, bility ship:
and the strength derives from the precipitation o f • Bake-hardening steels: Strengthens during
paint cure cycle
t i t a n i u m / n i o b i u m carbonitrides at the elevated
• L a m i n a t i o n s t e e l s : Good electrical properties YS = 52.3 + 2.18 (~-1/2) - 0 . 4 (de-L'2) - 2 . 8 8 (d-1/2)(Eq 4)
temperature.
Another form of very-low-carbon, fully ferritic
steel is motor lamination steel. The carbon is re- where YS is the yield strength (in MPa), d e is the
m o v e d from these steels by a process known as pearlite colony size (in mm), and d is the prior-
PearlRe
decarburization. The decarburized (carbon-free) austenite grain size (in mm). From Eq 3 and 4, it
ferritic steel has good permeability and suffi- As the carbon content of steel is increased be- can be seen that the steel composition does not
ciently low core loss (not as low as the iron-sili- yond the solubility limit (0.02% C) on the iron- have a major influence on the yield strength of a
con alloys) to be used for electric motor lamina- carbon binary phase diagram, a constituent called fully pearlitic eutectoid steel. There is s o m e solid-

Fig, 3 Microstructure of a gray cast iron with a ferrite-pearlite matrix. Note the graphite Fig. 4 Microstructure of an alloy white cast iron. White constituent is cementite and the
flakes dispersed throughout the matrix. 4% picral etch. 320x. Courtesy of A.O. darker constituent is martensite with some retained austenite. 4% picral etch.
Benscoter, Lehigh University 250x. Courtesy ofA.O. Benscoter, Lehigh University
Structure/Property Relationships in Irons and S t e e l s / 1 5 9

steel will typically have a total elongation of austenite grain size. Unfortunately, these three
more than 50%, whereas a fully pearlitic steel factors are rather difficult to measure. To deter-
(e.g., type 1080) will typically have a total elon- m i n e interlamellar spacing, a scanning electron
gation of about 10% (see Table 1). A low-carbon m i c r o s c o p e (SEM), or a t r a n s m i s s i o n electron
fully ferritic steel will have a room-temperature m i c r o s c o p e (TEM) is needed in order to resolve
Charpy V-notch impact energy of about 200 J the spacing, Generally, a magnification of
(150 f t . lbf), whereas a fully pearlitic steel will 10,000x is adequate, as seen in Fig. 13. Special
have room-temperature impact energy of under statistical procedures have been developed to de-
10 J (7 f t . lbf). The transition temperature (i.e., termine an accurate m e a s u r e m e n t o f the spacing
the temperature at which a material changes from ( R e f 12). The colony size and especially the
ductile fracture to brittle fracture) for a fully prior-austenite grain size are very difficult to
pearlitic steel can be approximated from the fol- m e a s u r e and require a skilled metallographer us-
lowing relationship (Ref 11): ing the light microscope or SEM and special
etching procedures.
B e c a u s e of poor ductility/toughness, there a r e
TT = 217.84 - 0.83 (de-1/2) - 2.98(d -1"~) (Eq5)
only a few applications for fully pearlitic steels,
including railroad rails and wheels and high-
strength wire. By far, the largest tonnage applica-
where TT is the transition temperature (in °C).
tion is for rails. A fully pearlitic rail steel pro-
From Eq 5, one can see that both the prior-
austenite grain size and pearlite colony size con- vides excellent wear resistance for r a i l r o a d
Fig. 5 Microstructure of a fully ferritic, ultralow carbon trol the transition temperature of a pearlitic steel. wheel/rail contact. Rail life is m e a s u r e d in mil-
steel. Marshalls etch + HF, 300x. Courtesy of lions of gross tons (MGT) of travel and current
A.O. Benscoter, Lehigh University Unfortunately, the transition temperature of a
fully pearlitic steel is always well above r o o m rail life easily exceeds 250 MGT. The wear resis-
temperature. This m e a n s that at room tempera- tance of pearlite arises from the unique morphol-
ture the general fracture mode is cleavage, which ogy of the ferrite-cementite lamellar composite
solution strengthening of the ferrite in the lamel- is associated with brittle fracture. Therefore, where a hard constituent is embedded into a soft-
lar structure (see Fig. 10). fully pearlitic steels should not be used in appli- ductile constituent. This m e a n s that the hard ce-
The thickness of the cementite lamellae can cations where t o u g h n e s s is important. Also, pear- m e n t i t e plates do not abrade away as easily as the
also influence the properties of pearlite. Fine ce- litic steels with carbon contents slightly or mod- rounded cementite particles found in other steel
mentite lamellae can be deformed, compared erately higher than the eutectoid c o m p o s i t i o n microstructures, that is, tempered martensite and
with coarse lamellae, which tend to crack during (called hypereutectoid steels) have even poorer bainite, which is discussed later. Wear resistance
deformation. toughness. o f a rail steel is directly proportional to hardness.
Although fully pearlitic steels have high From Eq 4 and 5, one can see that for pearlite, This is s h o w n in Fig. 15, which indicates less
strength, high hardness, and good wear resis- strength is controlled by interlamellar spacing, weight loss as hardness increases. Also, w e a r re-
tance, they also have poor ductility and tough- colony size, and prior-austenite grain size, and sistance (less weight loss) increases as inter-
ness. For example, a low-carbon, fully ferritic t o u g h n e s s is controlled by colony size and prior- lamellar spacing decreases, as s h o w n in Fig. 16.

Carbon, at.%
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1180 I I I I I I
1154°C - ~...~ 2125
1140
Fe-C equilibrium (experimental)
I
2.08 ~
"'"
J., ~1,,/8 °C-'~ 2050
1100 - - Fe-Fe3C equilibrium (experimental)
.o"Y 211 -- 1975
1060
• *' Y
• .~ -- 1900
1020

(~Fe) -- 1825
980
auatenite u-
o
-- 1750
940
¢D AUS tenite + cementite -- 1700
O. 900 ~ 9 1 2 °C , / "
E E
~ ~0¢F.) ferrite . ,-~ -- 1625
86O
-- 1550
820 %~ 770 °C (Curie temperature) -*°~
.../ -- 1475
780
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~-- - ' - ~ 0.68 7 738 °C - 1400
I ~ 0.0206 ~ ~, .'°"
740
I 1325
727 °C --

700 /
0.0218 I
I Ferrite + cementite I - 1250
66O I I I I
Fe 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2
Carbon, wt%
Fig. 6 ( a ) Iron-carbon phasediagram showing the austenite (y Fe)and ferrite (ocFe)phase regions and eutectoid composition and temperature. Dotted lines representiron-graphite equi-
librium conditions and solid lines representiron-cementite equilibrium conditions. Only the solid lines are important with respect to steels.Source: Ref 2
160/Structure/Property Relationships in Irons and Steels

Thus, the m o s t important microstructural pa- processes where steel parts are continuously the rod is transformed at a temperature of about
rameter for controlling hardness a n d wear resis- cooled, that is, air cooled, and so forth. 540 °C (1000 °F) by passing it through a lead or
tance is the pearlite interlamellar spacing. Fortu- As s h o w n in Fig. 17, the p e a d i t e transforma- salt bath at this temperature. This develops a
nately, interlamellar spacing is easy to control tion temperature (indicated by the pearlite-start microstructure with a very fine pearlite inter-
and is d e p e n d e n t solely on transformation tem- curve, Ps) decreases with increasing cooling rate. lamellar spacing because the transformation
perature. The hardness of peaflite increases with decreas- takes place at the n o s e of the C C T diagram, that
Figure 17 shows a continuous cooling transfor- ing transformation temperature. Thus, in order to is, at the lowest possible pearlite transformation
mation (CCT) d i a g r a m for a typical rail steel. A provide a rail steel with the h i g h e s t hardness and temperature (see Fig. 17). The rod is then cold
C C T d i a g r a m is a time versus temperature plot wear resistance, one m u s t cool the rail from the drawn to wire. B e c a u s e o f the very fine inter-
s h o w i n g the regions at which various constitu- austenite at the fastest rate possible to obtain the lamellar spacing, the ferrite and cementite lamel-
c n t s - - f e r d t e , pearlite, bainite, and m a r t e n s i t e - - lowest transformation temperature. This is done lae b e c o m e aligned along the wire axis during
form during the continuous cooling of a steel in practice by a process known as head harden- the deformation process. Also, the fine ccmentite
component. U s u a l l y several cooling curves are ing, which is simply an accelerated cooling proc- lamella tend to bend and deform as the wire is
s h o w n with the associated start and finish trans- ess u s i n g forced air or water sprays to achieve elongated during drawing. The resulting wire is
formation temperatures of each constituent. the desired cooling rate (Ref 15). Because only one of the strongest commercial products avail-
T h e s e diagrams should not be confused with iso- the head of the rail contacts the wheel of the
able; for example, a commercial 0.1 m m (0.004
thermal transformation (IT or T T T ) diagrams, railway car and locomotive, only the head re-
in.) diam wire can have a tensile strength in the
which are derived by rapidly q u e n c h i n g very thin quires the higher hardness and wear resistance.
range of 3.0 to 3.3 GPa (439 to 485 ksi), and in
s p e c i m e n s to various temperatures, and maintain- A n o t h e r application for a fully pearlitic steel is
ing that temperature (isothermal) until the speci- h i g h - s t r e n g t h wire (e.g., piano wire). Again, the special cases a tensile strength as h i g h as 4.8
m e n s begin to transform, partially transform, and composite m o r p h o l o g y of lamellar ferrite and ce- G P a (696 ksi) can be obtained. These wires are
fully transform, at which time they are quenched mentite is exploited, this time during wire draw- used in m u s i c a l instruments because of the sound
to room temperature. An IT d i a g r a m does not ing. A fully pearlitic steel rod is heat treated by a quality developed from the high tensile stresses
represent the transformation behavior in m o s t process k n o w n as patenting. During patenting, applied in stringing a piano and violin and are
also used in wire rope cables for suspension
bridges.

1~M 3270 Ferrite-Pearlite


The m o s t c o m m o n structural steels produced
1~ 3090
have a m i x e d ferrite-pearlite microstructure.
Their applications include b e a m s for bridges and
2910
high-rise buildings, plates for ships, and rein-
forcing bars for roadways. These steels are rela-
1! 2730 tively inexpensive and are produced in large ton-
GFe nages. They also have the advantage o f being
1~ 2550 able to be produced with a wide range of proper-
ties. The microstructure of typical ferrite-pearlite
2370 steels is s h o w n in Fig. 18.
In m o s t ferrite-pearlite steels, the carbon con-
2190 tent and the grain size determine the micro-
structure and resulting properties. For example,
Fig. 19 s h o w s the effect of carbon on tensile and
11 2010
impact properties. The ultimate tensile strength
steadily increases with increasing carbon con-
lC 1830 ~ tent. This is caused by the increase in the volume
fraction o f pearlite in the microstructure, which
has a strength m u c h higher than that of ferrite.
Thus, increasing the volume fraction o f pearlite
E
i~ E 1470 has a profound effect on increasing tensile
strength.
7 1290 However, as seen in Fig. 19, the yield strength
is relatively unaffected by carbon content, rising
rILE[ from about 275 MPa (40 ksi) to about 415 MPa
(60 ksi) over the range of carbon content shown.
This is because yielding in a ferrite-pearlite steel
-~ 930
is controlled by the fcrrite matrix, which is gen-
erally considered to be the continuous phase (ma-
4 750

3 570 O3

"~ 35 241 ~:

-'~ 25 ~' ..... 172


I P_~
"N,
30 / 103=
Fe 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0
0
Carbon, wt% o~ 10 ~
o. 0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 o
Fig. 6(b) Expanded iron-carbon phase diagram showing both the eutectoid (shown in Fig. 6a) and eutectic regions.
o
Carbon, wt%
6
Dotted lines represent iron-graphite equilibrium conditions and solid lines represent iron-cementite equilib-
rium conditions. The solid lines at the eutectic are important to white cast irons and the dotted lines are important to gray Fig, 7 Increase in room-temperature yield strength of
cast irons. Source: Ref 2 iron with small additions of carbon. Source: Ref 7
Structure/Property Relationships in Irons and Steels / 161

Fig. 8 Photomic.rograph of an annealed low-carbon sheet steel with grain-boundary ce- Fig. 9 Photomicrograph of pearlite (dark constituent) in a low-carbon steel sheet. 2% ni-
mentite. 2% nital + 4% picral etch. 1000x tal + 4% picral etch. 1000x

trix) in the microstructure. Therefore, pearlite has no effect on yield strength, whereas the yield pact energy versus test temperature, the shelf en-
plays only a minor role in yielding behavior. strength in Fig. 19 i n c r e a s e s somewhat with car- ergy decreases from about 200 J (150 ft • lbf) for
From Fig. 19, one can also see that ductility, as bon content. According to Eq 6, m a n g a n e s e , sili- a 0.11% C steel to about 35 J (25 f t . lbf) for a
represented by reduction in area, steadily de- con, and nitrogen have a pronounced effect on 0.80% C steel. Also, the transition temperature
creases with increasing carbon content. A steel yield strength, as does grain size. However, in increases from about - 5 0 to 150 °C ( - 6 0 to 300
with 0.10% C has a reduction in area of about most ferrite-pearlite steels nitrogen is quite low °F) over this s a m e range o f carbon content. The
75%, whereas a steel with 0.70% C has a reduc- (under 0.010%) and thus h a s m i n i m a l effect on effect of carbon is due mainly to its effect on the
tion in area of only 25%. Percent total elongation yield strength. In addition, as discussed below, percentage of pearlite in the microstructurc. This
would show a similar trend, however, with values nitrogen has a detrimental effect on impact prop- is reflected in the regression equation for transi-
m u c h less than percent reduction in area. erties. tion temperature below (Ref 16):
Much work has been done to develop empirical The regression equation for tensile strength for
equations for ferrite-pearlite steels that relate the s a m e steels is as follows (Ref 16):
strength and t o u g h n e s s to microstructural fea- TT = - 1 9 + 44(Si) + 700(N~/2)
tures, for example, grain size and percent of + 2.2(P) - 11.5 (d -1/2) (F_.q8)
pearlite as well as composition. One such equa- TS = 294,1 + 27.7(Mn) + 83.2(Si)
+ 3.9(P) + 7.7(d -lt2) (F-47)
tion for ferrite-pearlitc steels under 0.25% C is as
follows (Ref 16): It can be seen in all these relationships that
where TS is the tensile strength (in MPa) and P is ferrite grain size is an important parameter in
pearlite content (%). Thus, in distinction to yield i m p r o v i n g both strength and toughness. It can
YS = 53.9 + 32.34 (Mn) + 83.2(Si)
+ 354.2(Nf) + 17.4(d-U2) strength, the percentage o f pearlite in the micro- also be seen that while pearlite is beneficial for
(Eq 6)
s t r u c t u r e h a s an i m p o r t a n t e f f e c t on t e n s i l e increasing tensile strength and nitrogen is benefi-
strength. cial for increasing yield strength, both are harm-
where Mn is the m a n g a n e s e content (%), Si is the T o u g h n e s s of ferrite-pearlite steels is also an ful to toughness. Therefore, m e t h o d s to control
silicon content (%), Nf is the free nitrogen content important consideration in their use. It has long the grain size of ferrite-pearlite steels have rap-
(%), and d is the ferrite grain size (in mm). Equa- been k n o w n that the absorbed energy in a Charpy idly evolved over the past 25 years. T h e two m o s t
tion 6 shows that carbon content (percent pearlite) V-notch test is decreased by increasing carbon important m e t h o d s to control grain size are con-
content, as seen in Fig. 20. In this graph of im- trolled rolling and microalloying. In fact, these

4-375
I 600
C and N 80
500
+225 80
Si & 400
.--~_m+150

"~ +75
/ ~ 300

200 "N.
y - - Ni and AI 20 |
o 0
100
-75
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 I I I I I I I I I I I I
Alloy content, wt% 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Fig, 1 0 Influence of solid-solution elements on the Grain diameter (d-l~), mm -1~
changes in yield stress of low-carbon ferritic
steels. Source: Ref 5 Fig. 11 Hall-Petch relationship in low-carbon ~mtic steels, souse: Ref 8
162 / Structure/Property Relationships in Irons and Steels

Chromium, at.% acicular morphology and the carbides are dis-


0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 crete particles. Because of these morphological
20OO I I I i I I I I I differences, bainite has much different property
characteristics than pearlite. In general, bainitic
1863 °C steels have high strength coupled with good
1800 toughness, whereas pearlitic steels have high
strength with poor toughness.
Another difference between baiaite and pearl-
1600 1538 °C 1516 °: ~ ...... ite is the complexity of the bainite morphologies
compared with the simple lamellar morphology
21
1400 - 1394 °C of pearlite. The morphologies of bainite are still
oo being debated in the literature. For years, since
the classic work of Bain and Davenport in the
1200 - ~ (~Fe,Cr) 1930s (Ref 18), there were two classifications of
(9
¢:L bainite: upper and lower bainite. This nomencla-
E
1000 _ ( ~ F e ) / / _ 1 2 . 7
ture was derived from the temperature regions at
which bainite formed during isothermal (constant
oc/I temperature) transformation. Upper bainite
oc formed isothermally in the temperature range of
8001:-- -.7 400 to 550 °C (750 to 1020 °F), and lower
bainite formed isothermally in the temperature
I
~nn I Magnetic
-/
" ~ • "---- . . . . .
(I o I, "* ". range of 250 to 400 °C (480 to 750 °F). Exam-
Itransformabon.- ,, : 475 o C "-.. ples of the microstructure of upper and lower
/ o.'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . =.." . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ".,.. bainite are shown in Fig. 21. One can see that
400 i r'1°° I I I I I I I t "'~ both types of bainite have an acicular morphol-
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 ogy, with upper bainite being coarser than lower
Fe Chromium, wt% Cr bainite. The true morphological differences be-
tween the microstructures can only be deter-
Fig. 12 Iron-chromium phase diagram. Source: Ref 9 mined by electron microscopy. Transmission
electron micrographs of upper and lower baiaite
are shown in Fig. 22. In upper bainitc, the iron
carbide phase forms at the lath boundaries,
methods are used in conjunction to produce in retarding austenite recrystallization, thus al-
whereas in lower bainite, the carbide phase forms
strong, tough ferrite-pearlite steels. lowing a wide window of rolling temperatures
on particular crystallographic habit planes within
Controlled rolling is a thermomechanical for controlled rolling. Without retarding recrys-
the laths. Because of these differences in mor-
treatment in which steel plates are rolled below tallization, as in normal hot rolling, the pancake-
phology, upper and lower bainite have different
the recrystailization temperature of aastcnite. type grains do not form and a fine grain size
mechanical properties. Lower bainite, with a fine
This process results in elongation of the austenite cannot be developed. Microalloyed steels are
acicular structure and carbides within the laths,
grains. Upon further rolling and subsequent cool- used in a wide variety of high tonnage applica-
has higher strength and higher toughness than up-
ing to room temperature, the austenite-to-ferrite tions including structural steels for the construc-
tion industry (bridges, multistory buildings, per bainite with its coarser structure.
transformation takes place. The ferrite grains are Because during manufacture most steels un-
restricted in their growth because of the "pan- etc.), reinforcing bar, pipe for gas transmission,
dergo continuous cooling rather than isothermal
cake" austeaite grain morphology. This produces and numerous forging applications.
holding, the terms upper and lower baiaite can
the fine ferrite grain size required for higher become confusing because "upper" and "lower"
strength and toughness. Bainite are no longer an adequate description of mor-
Microalloying is the term applied to the addi- phology. Bainite has recently been reclassified
tion of small amounts of special alloying ele- Like pearlite, bainitc is a composite of ferrite by its morphology, not by the temperature range
ments (vanadium, niobium, or titanium) that aid and cementitc. Unlike pearlite, the ferritc has an in which it forms (Ref 19). For example, a recent
classification of bainite yields three distinct
types of morphology.

Class 1 (B1): Acicular ferrite associated with


intralath (plate) iron carbide, that is, cemcn-
tite (replaces the term "lower bainite")

Interlamellar spacing (Sp), nm


300 200 100 80 60
I I f I
900
O.
8O0 S
. j ¢ ,-
~ 7oo
.~>6OO
~.500
0

400
60 80 100 120 140
Reciprocal root of
Interlamellar spacing (Sp-1/2), mm-1/2

Fig. 14 Relationship behveen peadite interlamellar


spacing and yield strength for eutectoid steels.
Fig, 13 SEM micrograph of pearlite showing ferrile and cementite lamellae. 4% picral etch. 10, O00x Source: Ref I0