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RF Design Process - Flowchart

Gather Coverage • RFP / RFI / ITT


and Capacity • Meeting with Customer
Requirements • Clarifications

High Level • RF Dimensioner / Asset


RF Design • RF Proposal write-up

Drive • Model Tuning


Test • Site Verification

• Search Ring
Site Survey
• Site Visit

RF Design -
Implement

Gathering Requirements
 Capacity Requirements  Coverage Requirements
- Spectrum - GSM900 or GSM1800
- GOS (Grade Of Service) - Area Requiring coverage
- Erlang / Subscriber - Coverage Area Probability i.e.
- Projected Subscribers 80%, 90%.
- Coverage Type i.e. in-building,
 Tools Required in-car, etc.
- RF Dimensioner or RF - Coverage level i.e. in-building
Planning tools i.e. Asset -75dBm, etc.
- Terrain / Clutter Database
High Level RF Design Process
Procure Terrain Setup database in Propagation Tool
and Clutter database

Drive Test to If time permits ?


Tune Model

Fade margin & Link-


Budget Calculation To calculate BTS maximum transmit power

Service Level
Assumptions If customer doesn’t provide ?

Put Sites into Based on Clutter\Terrain info


Asset Grid Design (up to certain extent)

RF write-up

Fade Margin
Fast Fading Signal Drive
Test

+ =

• Fast Fading (Rayleigh) experienced at the scale of


sub-wavelengths
• Slow Fading (Shadowing and Blockage) experienced
over 10’s of wavelengths
Log Normal Distribution

σ ,
dB

-3 -2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3


Standard Deviations from
Median Signal Strength

Urban Environment Sub-Urban Environment Rural Environment


σ ~ 5 to 7 dB σ ~ 5 to 8 dB σ ~ 8 to 11 dB

Link - Budget
Fade Margin Calculation
Shadow Fade Margin depends on:
Link - Budget
- The desired coverage probability
- TheFade Margin
standard Calculation
deviation σ of the log-
normal
fading
Cell edge Cell area M argin for
probability probability σ=
9 dB
50 % 77 % 0.0 dB
75 % 91 % 6.1 dB
86 % 95 % 9.7 dB
90 % 97 % 11.5 dB
95 % 99 % 14.8 dB
Link - Budget
Fade Margin Calculation
 Essential to balance the uplink and downlink path
In-Building Power Budget In-Building Power Budget

Uplink (dB/dBm) Downlink (dB/dBm)


MS Transmit Power (CLASS 1) 30 BTS Transmit Power 41
Cable Loss 0 Cable Loss 3
Antenna Gain MS (dBi) 2 ACE Loss 1
Body Loss 2 Antenna Gain BTS (dBi) 18
Max. Path Loss 133 Max. Path Loss 133
In-Building Penetration 21 In-building Penetration 21
Loss Loss
Fade Margin (80% Cell Area) 3 Fade Margin (80% Cell Area) 3
Antenna Gain BTS (dBi) 18 Body Loss 2
ACE Loss (Duplexer) 0 Antenna Gain MS (dBi) 2
Cable Loss 3 Cable Loss 0
Diversity Gain 4 Diversity Gain 0
BTS Receiver Sensitivity -108 MS Receiver Sensitivity -102

Service Level Assumption


• Coverage Threshold at Cell Edge For Outdoor Criteria
Field strength at sensitivity level -102 dBm
Body Loss +2 dB
Fade margin (95% Cell area) +6 dB
MS antenna gain +2 dB
Planned outdoor threshold at cell edge for coverage plan -96 dBm

• Coverage Threshold at Cell Edge For In-car Criteria


Field strength at sensitivity level -102 dBm
Body Loss +2 dB
Fade margin (90% Cell area) +6 dB
MS antenna gain +2 dB
In-car Penetration Loss -8 dB
Planned outdoor threshold at cell edge for coverage plan -88 dBm

• Coverage Threshold at Cell Edge For Indoor Criteria


Field strength at sensitivity level -102 dBm
Body Loss +2 dB
Fade margin (80% Cell area) +3 dB
MS antenna gain +2 dB
Indoor Penetration Loss -21 dB
Planned outdoor threshold at cell edge for coverage plan -78 dBm
Site Survey - Search Ring

 Search Rings need to be created around the high


level design sites.
 Dense Urban/Urban areas need to have smaller
Search Ring than outskirts area.
 Include pertinent information such as antenna
(building) height, antenna type, etc. in the site search
ring form.
 Essential to impress upon real estate people the
closer the site to the center of the search ring, the
better it is.

Site Visit RF Evaluation


 Bring along all equipment necessary in conducting
site survey .i.e GPS, compass, etc.
 Note pertinent information - site obstruction, existing
mast or tower, antenna placement issue, surrounding
area, etc.
 Evaluate site