RF Design Process - Flowchart

Gather Coverage and Capacity Requirements • • • RFP / RFI / ITT Meeting with Customer Clarifications

High Level RF Design

• •

RF Dimensioner / Asset RF Proposal write-up

Drive Test

• •

Model Tuning Site Verification

Site Survey

• •

Search Ring Site Visit

RF Design Implement

Gathering Requirements

Capacity Requirements  Coverage Requirements
- Spectrum - GOS (Grade Of Service) - Erlang / Subscriber - Projected Subscribers - GSM900 or GSM1800 - Area Requiring coverage - Coverage Area Probability i.e. 80%, 90%. - Coverage Type i.e. in-building, in-car, etc. - Coverage level i.e. in-building -75dBm, etc.

Tools Required
- RF Dimensioner or RF Planning tools i.e. Asset - Terrain / Clutter Database

High Level RF Design Process Procure Terrain and Clutter database Setup database in Propagation Tool Drive Test to Tune Model If time permits ? Fade margin & LinkBudget Calculation To calculate BTS maximum transmit power Service Level Assumptions If customer doesn’t provide ? Put Sites into Asset Based on Clutter\Terrain info Grid Design (up to certain extent) RF write-up Fade Margin Fast Fading Signal Drive Test + = • Fast Fading (Rayleigh) experienced at the scale of • sub-wavelengths Slow Fading (Shadowing and Blockage) experienced over 10’s of wavelengths .

Budget . dB -3 -2.1 dB 9.5 0 0.5 1 1.The standard deviation σ of the lognormal fading Cell edge probability 50 75 86 90 95 % % % % % Sub-Urban Environment σ ~ 5 to 8 dB Rural Environment σ ~ 8 to 11 dB Cell area probability 77 91 95 97 99 % % % % % M argin for σ dB = 9 0.Budget Fade Margin Calculation Shadow Fade Margin depends on: Link .0 dB 6.5 -1 -0.The desired coverage probability Fade Margin Calculation .5 dB 14.8 dB .5 3 Standard Deviations from Median Signal Strength Urban Environment σ ~ 5 to 7 dB Link .7 dB 11.5 2 2.Log Normal Distribution σ .5 -2 -1.

Path Loss In-building Penetration Loss Fade Margin (80% Cell Area) Body Loss Antenna Gain MS (dBi) Cable Loss Diversity Gain MS Receiver Sensitivity (dB/dBm) 41 3 1 18 133 21 3 2 2 0 0 -102 Service Level Assumption • Coverage Threshold at Cell Edge For Outdoor Criteria -102 dBm +2 dB +6 dB +2 dB -96 dBm Field strength at sensitivity level Body Loss Fade margin (95% Cell area) MS antenna gain Planned outdoor threshold at cell edge for coverage plan • Coverage Threshold at Cell Edge For In-car Criteria -102 dBm +2 dB +6 dB +2 dB -8 dB -88 dBm Field strength at sensitivity level Body Loss Fade margin (90% Cell area) MS antenna gain In-car Penetration Loss Planned outdoor threshold at cell edge for coverage plan • Coverage Threshold at Cell Edge For Indoor Criteria Field strength at sensitivity level Body Loss Fade margin (80% Cell area) MS antenna gain Indoor Penetration Loss Planned outdoor threshold at cell edge for coverage plan -102 dBm +2 dB +3 dB +2 dB -21 dB -78 dBm .Link . Path Loss In-Building Penetration Loss Fade Margin (80% Cell Area) Antenna Gain BTS (dBi) ACE Loss (Duplexer) Cable Loss Diversity Gain BTS Receiver Sensitivity (dB/dBm) 30 0 2 2 133 21 3 18 0 3 4 -108 In-Building Power Budget Downlink BTS Transmit Power Cable Loss ACE Loss Antenna Gain BTS (dBi) Max.Budget Fade Margin Calculation  Essential to balance the uplink and downlink path In-Building Power Budget Uplink MS Transmit Power (CLASS 1) Cable Loss Antenna Gain MS (dBi) Body Loss Max.

etc. antenna type.  Essential to impress upon real estate people the closer the site to the center of the search ring.  Evaluate site  . antenna placement issue. surrounding area.site obstruction.Search Ring Search Rings need to be created around the high level design sites.  Site Visit RF Evaluation Bring along all equipment necessary in conducting site survey . existing mast or tower.  Note pertinent information .e GPS. etc.Site Survey .  Dense Urban/Urban areas need to have smaller Search Ring than outskirts area. the better it is. in the site search ring form. compass. etc.i.  Include pertinent information such as antenna (building) height.