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GENERAL PROCEDURES Section : 22

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CASING DESIGN STANDARD

DRAFT

1 Introduction

Present manual defines standards for the design of casings at Sonatrach.

2 Definitions

Conductor pipe : used in some cases to cover unstable surface soils.

Surface casing : casing used to isolate shallow zones and to install a BOP prior for drilling
lower zones.

Production Casing / Liner: the last Casing / Liner in the well. It isolates the different zones
during testing and production operations. For an exploratory well a casing / liner set before
drilling an objective is considered as a production casing / liner.

Intermediate Casing / Liner: Casing / Liner installed while drilling the well, to get a
competent shoe for a BOP of required capacity and/or to isolate zones such lost circulation
zones or unstable zones.

Critical service:

if maximum burst pressure can be higher than 350 bars


if there is a risk of corrosion by CO2 or H2S.

otherwise: normal service.

3 Casing design criteria

Casings are designed to withstand the loads that can be imposed on them during the
lifetime of the well. The expected loads are multiplied by a safety design factor, because of
the uncertainty of actual loads. The load multiplied by the design factor has to be lower
than the casing's strength.

For example if the design tension for a casing string is 150 t and the safety design factor is
1.60, then the tension strength has to be more than 150 * 1.60 = 240 t.

In the following sections are explained the different load cases used in the oil industry. The
calculation method, design factors and load cases selected by Sonatrach are also defined.

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ING / DOF Date : 09/07
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Important Note: for a special operation such as: BOP pressure test, DST, FRAC, side-
track, etc.., the engineer in charge will insure that the casing will withstand the
loads which will be applied.

Connection type

A NEW VAM or similar connection must be used whenever the connection has to be gas
tight, particularly:
for production casings in case of critical service as defined above
for casings where gas is injected in gas lift wells.

4. Different load cases used in the oil industry

Here are some of the load cases used in the oil industry.
The name of the cases in StressCheck software is in italics.

Burst loads

- Well full of gas (Displacement to gas).


For gas gradient the conservative value: equivalent density 0.23 sg is commonly used. A
more accurate gas gradient might be used according well datas: gas composition, depth,
pressure, temperature, if previous gradient appears too conservative .

- Frac at shoe with gas (Frac@Shoe with Gas Gradient Above)

- Circulate a typical gas kick (Gas Kick Profile).Calculated pressure will depend on kick
intensity, mud weight and drilling depth.
Typically:
- for a development well, a gas kick of 11 m3 requiring an increase in mud weight of
+0.06 sg
- for an exploration well, a gas kick of 17 m3 requiring an increase in mud weight of
+0.24 sg

- Frac at shoe with water (Lost Returns With Water)

- Leak on top of the tubing while producing (Tubing Leak)

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Collapse loads

- hydrostatic pressure due to the cement slurry at the end of primary cement job
(Cementing)

- drop of mud level inside the casing when losing circulation while drilling (Lost Returns
With Mud Drop)

- casing totally or partially empty in production (Full/Partial Evacuation)

- in case of salt and plastic shales: with temperature and pressure salt and shales can
exhibit plastic flow and exert with time a pressure equal to the weight of soils above them,
with an equivalent density around 2.3 sg (1 psi/ft). They often have a dissymmetrical and
destructive effect (point loading) if the cement sheath is not uniform.The best solution is
often to reinforce the casing by a concentric casing / liner, with good centralization and
good cement.

Dissymmetrical action of salt with non Reinforcement of casing by concentric liner


uniform cement

Tension loads

- tension while pressure testing the casing at the end of the cement job (Green Cement
pressure Test).

- weight while running the casing + 45 t (Overpull Force)

- weight while running the casing (Running In Hole)

Compression loads

- weight on surface casing of casing strings which will be suspended on the first Casing
Head Housing

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5 Calculation method to be used

Several calculation methods are available:

- uni axial calculation: strengths are calculated independently for each load case. This
calculation can be done manually, or with a software (StressCheck, WellCat, etc..)

- tri axial calculation: strengths in tension/compression, and burst/collapse are calculated


simultaneously, taking into account dog legs, temperature effect, etc…This is usually done
with a software (StressCheck, WellCat or equivalent) ; it can be done by hand in simple
cases.

Perform a tri axial calculation if there are problems such as important doglegs, great
variations of pressure or temperature, particularly for:

- horizontal wells
- gas wells
- wells drilled UBD
- casings run after a side track

Otherwise a uni axial calculation is satisfactory. Uncertainties on load conditions are much
higher than the few percent of inaccuracy of the calculation.

For HP/HT wells the stability of the production casing has to be checked against pressure
and temperature effects. Stress-Check can't do this calculation, use Wellcat or equivalent.

6. Design factors

Design factors to be used at Sonatrach :

Surface casing
Production
Intermediate
casing / liner
casing / liner

Collapse 1.0 1.1

Burst
- normal service 1.1 1.1
- critical service N/A 1.25

Tension 1.6 1.6

Tri axial calculation 1.25 1.25

Compression 1.2 N/A

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7 Well's main characteristics.

The most important step in casing design is to collect the well's main characteristics, in
cooperation with geologists and production engineers, and studying the offset wells.

The Project Engineer will fill in this table and attach it to the Well Program.

Fill in values:

WELL : WELL'S CARACTERISTIKS

Exploration Producer Oil Injector Oil


Type of Well Delineation Producer Gas Injector Gas
Development
Maximum depth
………….m TVD Presence of H2S or CO2 Yes/No

Maximum Anticipated Surface Pressure :


BOP drilling- WP :…………..
…………
Presence of plastic yes / no From…………m TVD
salt or shales to…………..m TVD
Deviated well,
UBDrilling,
Particular
External Casing Packer,
conditions
Gas-lift producer
7’’ tie back to be set before production
……………………………………

RESERVOIR'S CARACTERISTIKS

Objectif 1 Objectif 2 Objectif 3

Etage géologique ……….. ……….. ………..

Depth ……….. ……….. ………..


Expected Fluid Oil Gas Oli Gas Oil Gas
GOR …..….m3/m3 …..….m3/m3 …..….m3/m3
Initial pressure ……bars at ……m ……bars at ……m ……bars at ……m

Present pressure ……bars at ……m ……bars at ……m ……bars at ……m

8 Exemption

A exemption must be requested of the Directeur de la Division Opération Forages if design


standards as defined in this manual could not be met.

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9 Design conditions

Load cases and design factors for Sonatrach :

Conductor pipe

Design factor Load case


Collapse 1.0 1) End of primary cementing :
- external pressure: cement slurry
- internal pressure: mud

2) Total losses while drilling


- external pressure: mud
- internal pressure: mud at equilibrium with pore
pressure in loss zone

Burst
Tension N/A
Compression

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Surface casing.
Intermediate casing / liner

Design factor Load case


Collapse 1.0 1) End of primary cementing :
- external pressure: cement slurries (and mud if any).
- internal pressure: mud
2) Total losses while drilling
- internal pressure: mud at equilibrium with pore
pressure in loss zone
3) UBD drilling (in case of UBD)
- internal pressure: according to UBD conditions
External pressure for case 2) and 3):
- mud of preceding phase,
- gradient 2.3 EqMW in front of plastic salt/ shale :
zones. (See note below).
Burst 1) Circulation of a kick
1.1 Normal 11 m3 of gas which requires + 0.06 kg/dm3 increased
Service mud weight ( development well)
17 m3 of gas which requires + 0.24 kg/dm3 increased
mud weight ( exploration well)
2) If a Frac would occur at shoe while circulating a gas kick
as above, including in the case of Horizon B:
FRAC at shoe with the fluid which would invade the wellbore
(either water, gas, salt water 1.25 sg in case of horizon B).
3) Exploration well: Gas blow out above the gas producing
zone.
Gas gradient
Default EqMW = 0.23sg. Use actual anticiated
gradient if previous value seems too conservative

- Outside pressure : Fluid gradients with pore pressure.


Tension 1.6 1) Running the casing : weight while running the casing
Uni axial 2) Tension while pressure testing the casing at the end of the
calculation cement job (Green Cement pressure Test).
Tension. 1.25 1) Running the casing with overpull + 45 t (Overpull Force)
Tri axial 2) Tension while pressure testing the casing at the end of the
calculation cement job (Green Cement pressure Test).
Compression 1.2 Weight on surface casing of casing strings which will be
suspended to the first Casing Head Housing

Note : in case of concentric casings, the 2.30 collapse external gradient will apply to the
external casing, but not to the internal casing / liner.

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Production casing / liner


Design factor Load case
Collapse 1.1 1) End of primary cementing :
- external pressure: cement slurries (and mud if any).
- internal pressure: mud
2) Total losses while drilling
- internal pressure: mud at equilibrium with pore
pressure in loss zone
3) UBD drilling (in case of UBD)
- internal pressure: according to UBD conditions
4) Partial evacuation in production
- internal pressure:
evacuation up to 2500 m
fresh water below 2500 m.
Section of a casing/ liner which will be covered by a
concentric casing /liner before production of the well
has not to withstand this load.
External pressure for case 2) 3)and 4):
- mud of preceding phase, gradient 2.3 EqMW in
front of plastic salt/ shale : zones.
(seer note at bottom of preceding page)
Burst 1.10 normal 1) Circulation of a gas kick
service 11 m3 of gas which requires + 0.06 kg/dm3 increased
mud weight ( development well)
1.25 critical 17 m3 of gas which requires + 0.24 kg/dm3 increased
service mud weight ( exploration well)
2) ) If a Frac would occur at shoe while circulating a gas kick
as above, including in the case of Horizon B:
FRAC at shoe with the fluid which would invade the wellbore
(either water, gas, salt water 1.25 sg in case of horizon B).
3) Exploration well: Gas blow out above the gas producing
zone
4) Leak on top of the tubing while producing (Tubing Leak),
tubing / casing annulus filled with brine 1.25 sg.
Gas gradient
Default EqMW = 0.23sg. Use actual anticiated
gradient if previous value seems too conservative
5) Acid Frac of perforations, with a packer at 100 m above the
top of the liner.
Section of a casing/ liner which will be covered by a
concentric casing /liner before production of the well
has not to withstand the load cases 4) and 5).

- Outside pressure : Fluid gradients with pore pressure.


Tension 1.6 1) Running the casing / liner
Uni axial 2) Tension while pressure testing the casing / liner at the end
calculation of the cement job (Green Cement pressure Test).
Tension 1.25 1) Running the casing / liner with overpull + 45 t (Overpull
Tri axial Force).
calculation 2) Tension while pressure testing the casing / liner at the end
of the cement job (Green Cement pressure Test).

Préparé par: Visa : DOF Approbation : SH/FOR Révision N° : 0


ING / DOF Date : 09/07