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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

IMPACT
OF
BRAND IMAGE AND CONSUMER
PERCEPTION
ON
BRAND LOYALTY: A STUDY IN
CONTEXT OF PATANJALI AYURVEDA
LTD. AMONG THE PEOPLE OF JAMMU

SUBMITTED BY:
IVANI KATAL 27-MBA-15

MANHAR MALHOTRA 29-MBA-15

MITALI SHARMA 31-MBA-15


CONTENTS
S.NO. TOPIC PAGE NO.
1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
2 ABSTRACT
3 CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION
1.1 OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
1.2 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
1.2.1 BRAND IMAGE
1.2.2 BRAND LOYALTY
1.2.3 CONSUMER PERCEPTION
4 CHAPTER II: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 HYPOTHESIS FORMATION


2.1.1 BRAND IMAGE AND BRAND
LOYALTY
2.1.2 BRAND IMAGE AND CONSUMER
PERCEPTION
2.1.3 CONSUMER PERCEPTION AND
BRAND
LOYALTY
2.1.4 GENDER AND LOYALTY INTENTIONS
2.1.5 GENDER AND CONSUMER
PERCEPTION
2.1.6 GENDER AND BRAND IMAGE
2.1.7 BRAND IMAGE, CONSUMER
PERCEPTION AND LOYALTY
INTENTIONS
2.2 RESEARCH BACKGROUND
2.3 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
2.4 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
2.5 METHODOLOGY
5 CHAPTER III: COMPANY PROFILE

3.1 PATANJALI YOGPEETH


3.2 HERBAL PRODUCTS IN PATANJALI
YOGPEETH

3.3 PRODUCT LINE AND PORTFOLIO OF

PATANJALI YOGPEETH

3.4 PRODUCT MIX OF PATANJALI YOGPEETH

3.5 MARKETING AND NETWORK OF


PATANJALI YOGPEETH

3.6 PRODUCT: INTRODUCING THE VALUE

DISCIPLINE

3.7 COMPLETE PACKAGE FOR VARIOUS

DISEASES

3.8 PRICING STRATEGY

3.9. PROMOTIONAL STRATEGY

6 CHAPTER IV: DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

7 CHAPTER V: FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND


SUGGESTIONS

9 APPENDIX A: ONLINE SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE


10 BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCES
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

With immense pleasure, we would like to present this project report for Patanjali Ayurveda
Ltd. We take the opportunity to express our gratitude to all of them who in some or the other
way helped us to accomplish this project. The study cannot be completed without your
guidance, assistance, inspiration and co-operation.

We owe our gratitude to respondents of the survey, without their help we would have been
unable to complete our project. These people have really been kind enough to help us by
filling the questionnaire.

We would also like to thank with a deep sense of gratitude to Dr. Vinay Chauhan to shape our
understanding towards the project. It was because of his immense help and support that this
project has been duly completed.

However, we accept the sole responsibility for any possible error and would be extremely
grateful to the readers of this project if they bring such mistakes to our notice.
ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to check the effect of brand image on brand loyalty and the
role of customer perception in it. Quantitative study was conducted in Jammu. Sample of 59
local people from different regions were selected and surveyed through questionnaires.
Pearson Correlation and t-tests were run to analyze the data. Finding reveals that positive and
significant relation exists between Brand Image and Brand loyalty and Customer perception
also has a positive moderating effect on this relation. The sample size was too short. This
study can be replicated with a large sample size in similar sector or context. The impact of
marketing communications and consumers’ knowledge on brand loyalty can also be studied
to enhance the study. Organizations ought to pay special attention to the building of brand
image, achieving customer satisfaction. And through this they would also be successful in
achieving brand loyalty.

The study was carried on to observe the brand image of products of Patanjali Yogpeeth in
Jammu. Nowadays there is witnessed a heavy change in the FMCG sector, people are getting
more inclined towards the ayurvedic and herbal products as well as they are more cautious
towards their health issues. More of yoga and consumption of herbal product is creating
revolution in the society. It was found that in small cities people have heavy faith on Patanjali
products as a medicine.
The different books and magazines are also published of Patanjali Yogpeeth which are
concentrating on the health of the people as well as different aasanas and pranayama are
more effective as well as popular within the people all over the places in
country.CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

Given a much broader array of product choices offered in the current market and ubiquitous
marketing efforts, consumers often turn to a favorite brand to facilitate their purchase
decisions. A brand includes a name, symbol, design, or experience that help consumers
identify products, services, or differentiate offerings among competitors (Aaker, 1991; Keller,
2008; Neumeier, 2006). Brand identity, which is a group of associations developed by firms,
communicates with consumers what a brand provides (Aaker, 2007; Keller, 2008).

Academic literature clearly addressed the importance of building a strong emotional


relationship between consumers and brands (Carroll & Ahuvia, 2006; Keller, 2001, 2008;
Taylor, Cluch, & Godwin, 2004). According to Keller‘s (2001) more recent conceptual
framework, consumers‘ positive brand feelings lead to favorable responses towards a brand,
such as attitudinal attachment and behavioral loyalty. Similarly, recent literature on branding
has argued that an emotional brand experience is important to foster brand loyalty and
purchase intentions (Albert, Merunka, & Valette-Florence, 2008; Carroll & Ahuvia, 2006;
Chaudhuri & Holbrook, 2001; Esch et al., 2006; Nowak, Thach, & Olsen, 2006; Pawle &
Cooper, 2006; Taylor, Celuch, & Goodwin, 2004; Thomson, MacInnis, & Park, 2005).
Moreover, brand consulting and advertising industry literature (Gobé, 2001; Lindstrom,
2005; Neumeier, 2006; Riesenbeck & Perrey, 2007; Roberts, 2004, 2006) has illustrated the
importance of building deep emotional connections with consumers to augment brand
loyalty.

1.1. OBJECTIVES OF
STUDY

This Project work has certain objectives behind it. Without any proper objective one cannot
plan its implementation. If the objective of the study is not proper then the whole research is
of no use.
In India there are many sectors where the different companies or Frganization functions
within, we have chosen the Patanjali, ayurvedic and herbal sector which directly deals with
people issues.

Basically our main objective was to see that the bend of the Indian people towards Patanjali
is because of it being a swadeshi brand, herbal and ayurvedic brand or some of the other
factors.

Along with this there are some objectives of this study:

 To study Patanjali as a brand and its product mix.

 To analyze consumer perception about Patanjali as a brand and its products.

 To analyze impact of brand image on loyalty intentions.

 To analyze and identify important factors influencing Patanjali as a brand.

1.2. DEFINITIONS OF TERMS

The following definitions are the major terms investigated in the present study.

1.2.1. BRAND IMAGE: Akaah, (1988) conclude that consumers are more likely to
purchase well-known brand products with positive brand image as a way to lower
purchase risks. This argument is also supported by Rao and Monroe, (1988) that a
brand with a more positive image does have the effect of lowering consumers’
product perception risks and increasing positive feedback from consumers. Therefore,
consumers generally believe they can make a satisfying purchase by choosing well-
known brands and also lower any purchase risks by doing so. How much is a brand
worth? How does a brand represent the product? Keller, (1993) defines a brand image
as an association or perception consumers make based on their memory toward a
product. Thus, brand image does not exist in the technology, features or the actual
product itself, but is something brought out by promotions, advertisements, or users.
Thakor et al. (1997) said that through brand image, consumers are able to recognize a
product, evaluate the quality, lower purchase risks, and obtain certain experience and
satisfaction out of product differentiation. When it comes to experiential product
evaluation, a positive brand image may make up for an inferior image of the origin
country and raise the possibility of the product being selected. According to Grewal
et al. (1998) the better a brand image is, the more recognition consumers give to its
product quality. Consumers are usually limited in regards to the amount of time and
product knowledge to make an informed purchase decision when facing similar
products to choose from. As a result, brand image is often used as an extrinsic cue to
make a purchase decision.

Kotler, (2000) contends that brand is a name, term, symbol, design or all the above,
and is used to distinguish one’s products and services from competitors. For example,
Nike adopts a check mark as its brand image, which creates a positive effect
indicating approval. According to Kotler, (2000) image is the way that public
perceives the company or its product. Image is affected by many factors beyond the
company’s control. The consumer develops a set of brand beliefs about where each
brand stands on each attribute. The set of or its product. Image is affected by many
factors beyond the company’s control. The consumer develops a set of brand beliefs
about where each brand stands on each attribute. The set of beliefs about a brand
make up brand image. The consumer’s brand image will vary with his or her
experiences as filtered by the effects of selective perception, selective distortion and
selective retention.

Romaniuk, (2003) studied the relationship between association of a brand with


different types of image attributes and subsequent purchase of the brand. The image
attributes incorporated were based on the product categories, situations and benefits
offered. While mention of the brand for an image attribute was positively related to
future purchase, this relationship did not vary between attributes once brand and
attribute size was taken into account. However, a positive relationship was found
between the number of attributes associated with the brand and future purchase.
1.2.2. BRAND LOYALTY: The most elaborate conceptual definition of brand loyalty was
presented by Jacoby et al. (1978). We will use and discuss this definition, because it
covers the most important aspects of brand loyalty, & since it enjoys widespread
support in the marketing literature, either in its original form or in slightly modified
versions (Wilkie, 1990). Jacoby et al. (1978) defined brand loyalty, according to this
definition, brand loyalty is: “The (a) biased, (b) behavioral response, (c) expressed
over time, (d) by some decision making unit, (e) with respect to one or more
alternative brands out of set of such brand, and (f) is a function of psychological
process.

Rethinking Brands from the Customer “Point of View”: According to Jim, (2003)
many of the less successful experience brands are not meeting the challenge of a
largely time-starved audience. Our research confirms that in most societies today,
time has become more desired than money. Increasingly, people value experiences
more than things. Consumers are really looking for ways to make the most of
everyday “lived” experiences. So marketers need to constantly ask themselves, is our
brand part of the problem or part of the solution? A brand’s role in becoming a
solution for its audience can make it stand out for customers. In that sense, the
meaning of brand is its use. Profitable customers are born when a powerful brand
promise is fulfilled by a brand experience that exceeds expectations.

1.2.3. BRAND PERCEPTION: Perception is a process by which individuals organize and


interpret their sensory impressions to give meaning to their environment (Robbins &
Judge, 2013). In marketing, perceptions are more important than reality because
perceptions affect consumers‟ actual behaviour (Kotler, Keller, Koshy, & Jha, 2014).
Information processing model have four major steps or stages. It starts with exposure
followed by attention, interpretation and lastly retention. The first three of these
establish perception (Hawkins, Best, Coney, & Mookerjee, 2007). All this takes place
inside the mind or black box of the consumers simultaneously, and it changes from
person to person. Perception is highly subjective and therefore easily distorted.
Moreover, perception is the meaning that an individual attributes to the incoming
stimuli that gathered through the five senses that are taste, smell, touch, hearing and
sight. According to Kurtz and Boone, (2006) different people have different
perceptions of objects or events based on the interactions of two types of factors that
are stimulus factors and individual factors.
CHAPTER II: LITERATURE REVIEW

This chapter provides the relevant literature and theoretical framework for the present study.

2.1. HYPOTHESIS FORMATION

2.1.1. BRAND IMAGE AND BRAND LOYALTY

Keller‘s (1993, 2001) conceptual research suggested a strong connection between a


positive brand image and brand loyalty. Keller (1993) explained that consumers’
repeated buying behavior represents brand loyalty, which reflects a favorable attitude
towards a brand. Esch et al.‘s (2006) empirical research supported Keller‘s
proposition by showing a statistically significant effect of positive brand image on
current/future purchases. Thus, the present research posits:

H1. Brand image will not be positively associated with brand loyalty.

Co
m
mi
tte
d
Buthe
Likes
ye
Brand,
r
Considers it a
Friend
Satisfied Buyer with
Switching Costs

Satisfied/Habitual buyer
No Reason to Change

Switchers/Price sensitive No Brand Loyalty


Figure 1.1 The Brand Loyalty Pyramid (Aaker, 1991, p. 40)

2.1.2. BRAND IMAGE AND CONSUMER PERCEPTION

Past literature revealed that a successful brand image enables consumers to identify
their desired need which ultimately helps a company from its competitors Hsieh et
al., (2004). On the other hand Tarofder and Haque (2007) had given importance on
supplier selection based on their brand image. In fact the findings of Jiang et al.
(2011) revealed that apart from brand image price discount and complementary
products may have positive impact on customer loyalty. Furthermore, Linder and
Seidenstricker (2010) agreed that brand image is one of the company’s core
competencies. Mishra and Datta (2011) revealed that brand name has strong influence
on customer based brand equity. Kotler (2001) defined brand image as a set of beliefs,
ideas and impression that a person holds regarding an object. On the other
hand, Keller (1993) considered brand image as a set of perceptions about a brand on
consumer’s memory. Na et al. (1999) connected brand image with customer’s
perception as they mentioned that image cannot be measured by attribute
measurements alone but must include measurements of consumers' perceptions of the
value and benefits attainable from using the brand. Thus, it posits:

H2. Brand image will not be positively associated with consumer perception.

consumer perception
brand image
towards patanjali

Figure Conceptual framework

2.1.3. CONSUMER PERCEPTION AND BRAND LOYALTY

Humans unlike machines can have the ability to Perceive. It is a feeling which is
based on the conclusion formed with the given information around and the mindset of
the consumer which is responsible of processing the information. Perception gives
humans the right to make important decisions or can reflect their important decisions.
It all leads to the most important decision of purchasing. Purchasing means to invest
in a brand, for making it a greater brand.

Underlying research will focus on concluding the fact that how much is the impact of
brand perception on brand awareness and brand loyalty of these brands. Several
conclusions can be drawn if consumer perception plays any role and there is a relation
among the consumer perception, brand awareness and brand loyalty of these brands.
The project is intended to fulfill the needs of marketing research which is quite
important for present marketing trend. Total sales turnover of the brand depends on
the consumer purchase decision. If the consumers perceive positive about the brand, it
means he carriers more loyalty and will remain potential customer, until he keeps on
getting the right value for his money. Thus, it posits:

H3. Consumer perception will not be positively associated with Brand loyalty.

2.1.4. GENDER AND LOYALTY INTENTIONS

Customer loyalty has been the object of intense interest in both the business and
academic worlds (Oliver 1999; Reichheld 2001). At the same time, academic research
has discovered important differences in cognitive processes and behavior of male and
female consumers (Fisher and Dubé 2005; Meyers-Levy 1988, 1989; Meyers-Levy
and Maheswaran 1991; Meyers-Levy and Sternthal 1991). These differences are
reflected in the widespread use of gender as a segmentation variable in marketing
practice. Despite the importance of customer loyalty on the one hand, and gender
differences on the other hand, little is known about the existence and nature of gender
differences in customer loyalty. This is surprising because if male and female
loyalties differ, men and women might require a different selling approach, has
different levels of customer value, and may respond differently to loyalty programs
and other actions aimed at enhancing customer loyalty. Common stereotypes, perhaps
based on widely publicized findings showing that males exhibit lower levels of
loyalty than females (e.g., Blumstein and Schwartz 1983; Hansen 1987), suggest that
females are more loyal customers than males. Thus, it posits:

H4. Gender will not be positively associated with loyalty intentions.

2.1.5. GENDER AND CONSUMER PERCEPTION

Self-congruency theorists suggest that consumers tend to purchase products and


brands consistent with their self-images (Rosenburg, 1979; Ross, 1971; Sirgy,
1982/1986). Perhaps the most important and central part of self-image is one’s gender
identity (Kates, 2002; Palan, 2001), and this gender-self generates strong congruency
effects with regard to one’s brand perceptions and choices (Sirgy, 1982/1986). The
gender-self is solicited across a wide variety of marketing practices. Marketers not
only use sex as an important segmentation variable but also develop implicit
meanings by factoring gender-related cues into a brand. Furthermore, consumers’
gender identity and sexual orientation have been used to target consumers in
emerging gender-market segmentations such as “Metrosexual:” males who are
heterosexual, hip, concerned with their appearance, and in touch with their feminine
side. However, the marketing literature is replete with studies that only report
biological sex and treat this as the sole determinant of gender-related behavior.
Gender is often used interchangeably with sex because such a dichotomous variable
provides a comfort zone for researchers when measuring and interpreting the
consumerist implications of gender. This approach overlooks the important
differences between sex and gender and leads to biased research and distorted
representations of complex gender-related marketing phenomena (Hirchman, 1993;
Palan, 2001). Since the 1960s some researchers have begun to investigate how gender
identity (which includes a combination of sex, psychological gender, and gender
attitudes) would contribute to a consumer’s product- and brand-consumption (Gould
and Stern, 1989; Fischer and Arnold, 1990/1994; Palan, 2001). However, research
results have been mixed. For example, individuals with a higher masculine-gender
identity exhibit stronger information processing (Kempf, Palan, and Laczniak, 1997;
Palan, 2001), while individuals with a higher feminine-gender identity develop more
positive attitudes toward and get more personally engaged with products and brands
(Gainer, 1993; Jaffe and Berger, 1988; Worth, Smith, and Mackie, 1992). As such, a
critical question becomes whether or not gender identity can consistently predict any
of the many facets of consumer-based brand equity. It has been suggested that
consumer involvement may be an important link between gender and consumer
perception (Fischer and Arnold, 1994; McCabe, 2001; Sirgy, 1982), so this study
addresses the research gap between gender identity and brand loyalty through the lens
of a consumer’s level of product involvement. Thus, it posits:

H5. Gender will not be positively associated with consumer perception.

2.1.6. GENDER AND BRAND IMAGE

The perception of consumers towards a certain brand can cover a variety of measures,
including attitude towards a brand (Monga & John, 2007; Shen & Chen, 2007);
attitude towards an advertisement or communication of the brand ( Shen & Chen,
2006; Lee & Labroo, 2004); perceived quality of the brand (Keller & Lehmann,2006;
Essoussi & Merunka, 2007); memorability (Volckner & Sattler, 2007); brand value or
equity (Buchanan et. al. 1999); brand image (Lee & Labroo, 2004; Essoussi &
Merunka, 2007); brand personality (Aaker, 1997); purchase intentions (Lee &
Labroo, 2004) and choice (Shiv et. al., 1997). Brand image is the first word or image
that comes to mind when a certain brand is mentioned. It is fragile and can be altered
by new information or damaged by media commentators (O’Shaughnessy, 2003).
Brand image is the representation of the brand in the mind of the consumer. In
western cultures, brand image can be like a human being with unique characteristics.
In collectivistic culture like Malaysia, it can be quality and the representation of trust
in a firm. Consumers will attribute to the brand characteristics that fit their own
mental maps and from there develop a brand image (De Mooij, 2005). Thus, it posits:

H6. Gender will not be positively associated with brand image.

2.1.7. BRAND IMAGE, CONSUMER PERCEPTION AND LOYALTY


INTENTIONS
The ever changing marketing scenario and competition over the globe has amplified
the role of brand at unparalleled level. Every person is a consumer of different brands
at the same time. The choice and usage of a particular brand by the consumer over the
time is affected by the quality benefits offered by the brand especially when it comes
to brand of eatables and cosmetics. Consumer satisfaction is derived when he
compares the actual performance of the product with the performance he expected out
of the usage. Philip Kotler (2008) observed that satisfaction is a person's feelings of
pressure or disappointment resulting from product's perceived performance (outcome)
in relation to his or her expectations. If the perceived benefits turned out to be almost
same as expected, customer is highly satisfied and that is how the company achieves
loyalty of the customer towards the products. Thus, it posits:

H7. There will not be positive relationship between brand image, consumer
perception and loyalty intentions.

2.2. RESEARCH BACKGROUND

This survey research has utilized both primary and secondary data and information from
different sources including Patanjali Ayurveda ltd., text books, magazines, journals and
websites about different variables of the study.

Various studies were consulted for collecting data. A study on Patanjali is also available of
consumer perception toward the brand. These studies include:

1. A study of consumer perception of herbal products in Bhopal: International


Journal of Management Studies ISSN (Print) 2249-0302 ISSN (Online)2231-2528

AUTHORS: Md. Irshad Ali, Research Scholar, FPM, Indian Institute of Forest
Management, India and Manmohan Yadav, Professor, Indian Institute of Forest
Management, India

The Indian herbal market is flooded with numerous well-known and recognised herbal
brands. Vindhya Herbal is an initiative of Madhya Pradesh government to provide
unadulterated ayurvedic products to the people and for generating gainful employment for
the vulnerable and downtrodden section of the society. The study is to examine existing state
of Vindhya Herbal in Bhopal, its birthplace. Besides, this study talks about other parameters
like benefits/attributes consumer acquaintances with herbal products, awareness, preferential,
source of knowledge, usage and attitude related to herbal products.

The research design consisted of an exploratory phase followed by a descriptive cross-


sectional, close-ended questionnaire-based survey in Bhopal. As the study has been
conducted in a Hindi belt, the questionnaire was kept bilingual; Hindi and English. Sampling
was done on the basis of two criteria; 1) such regions were selected where almost major
herbal brands are available and 2) Respondents have used at-least one of the herbal brands.

Only 23 percent consumers responded to have used Vindhya herbal. Those who have used
Vindhya herbal have preference it, if available in a nearby store. Most of the respondents
mentioned that herbal products are prepared from the natural ingredient, as a result faced no
side effect. Purchase of herbal products primarily takes place on a monthly basis and use on a
daily basis. Doctors, family members and mass media were reliable sources and the
respondents trust on their recommendations for buying fresh herbal products. Desirability for
further information was high among consumers related to herbal products.

2. Customer Perception towards Brand: A Study on ‘Patanjali’: Global Journal of


Management and Business Research: E-Marketing, Volume 15 Issue 9 Version 1.0
Year 2015, Type: Double Blind Peer Reviewed International Research Journal,
Publisher: Global Journals Inc. (USA), Online ISSN: 2249-4588 & Print ISSN: 0975-
5853

AUTHOR: Miss Rupali Khanna, Chandigarh University, India

This paper carries out a study on what factors PATANJALI. “Patanjali “- a brand set up by
PATANJALI AYURVEDA LTD is backed by robust preaching and promotion of World
renowned Guru Swami Ramdevji and an international authority on Ayurveda and Traditional
Herbs. The company is set up with an objective to provide superior quality of products at fair
price and to get their customers rid off the chronic diseases by providing products which are
organic and natural. This concept of Herbal and Pure has gained momentum in India and
across the world since people now a days are more centered towards keeping themselves near
to Nature due to their commercialized routines. PATANJALI AYURVEDA LTD has more
than 100 different products in the catalogue for Skin, Hair, Heart, Eyes and Kidney diseases.
Patanjali’s recent tie up with Future Group to enter into FMCG segment through Big Bazaar
Retail stores is another big advantage towards the availability of Patanjali Products near to
their consumers. The Patanjali Products have rightly been placed at advantage by the very
concept of “Marketing through Spirituality”.

3. Effect of Brand Image on Brand Loyalty and Role of Customer Satisfaction in it:
World Applied Sciences Journal 26 (10): 1364-1370, 2013, ISSN 1818-4952, ©
IDOSI Publications, 2013, DOI: 10.5829/idosi.wasj.2013.26.10.1343, Published on
Nov 30, 2013

AUTHORS: Rashid Saeed, Rab Nawaz Lodhi, Amna Mehmood, Urooj Ishfaque, Fareha
Dustgeer, Amna Sami, Zahid Mahmood and Moeed Ahmad

The purpose of this study was to check the effect of brand image on brand loyalty and the
moderating role of customer satisfaction in it. Brand attributes and Brand benefits were
studied as dimensions of Brand Image. Quantitative study was conducted in wireless
Telecommunication sector of Pakistan. Sample of 150 students and teachers, from different
colleges and universities of Sahiwal, were selected and surveyed through questionnaires.
Pearson Correlation and Regression were run to analyze the data. Finding reveals that
positive and significant relation exists between Brand Image and Brand loyalty and Customer
Satisfaction also has a positive moderating effect on this relation. The sample size was too
short. This study can be replicated with a large sample size in similar sector or context. The
impact of marketing communications and consumers’ knowledge on brand loyalty can also is
studied to enhance the study. Organizations ought to pay special attention to the building of
brand image, achieving customer satisfaction. And through this they would also be successful
in achieving brand loyalty.

4. The Impact of Brand Image on Consumer Behavior: A Literature Review: Open


Journal of Business and Management, 2015, 3, 58-62. Published Online, January
2015 in SciRes.

AUTHOR: Yi Zhang, Department of Marketing, Management School, Jinan University,


Guangzhou, China
The concept “brand image” has drawn significant attention from academics and practitioners
since it was put forward, because it played an important role in marketing activities.
Although brand image was recognized as the driving force of brand asset and brand
performance, few studies have elaborated on the relationship between brand image and brand
equity. Based on the brand image theories, this study reviewed extant studies about the
impact of brand image on consumer from perspective of customer equity. It also presented
the shortcomings of current research and pointed out the trends for future study.

2.3. SCOPE OF THE STUDY: This research focused on respondents of Jammu. The
research provided fruitful information about Patanjali’s product line users and brand
perception they have about Patanjali.

2.4. LIMITATION OF THE STUDY: In this research, we examined factors


responsible for brand loyalty of the product to brand image of the Patanjali. The study
focuses on only the consumers in Jammu. The Jammu region was chosen due to easy
accessibility and profound understanding of the market. Another reason is that we had a
thorough understanding of the background information necessary to do the survey and could
easily use networking to obtain the sample.
2.5. METHODOLOGY: A single cross-sectional research design was used for the survey
and quantitative analysis was used for the obtained dataset.

The answering scale for the questions related to brand image and brand loyalty is a 7-item
Likert scale. Data collection was done through the online website using an online-based
questionnaire. MS Excel was used for analyzing the information in the obtained dataset. The
types of analysis that were performed are t-test analysis, ANOVA and Pearson Correlation.
By doing it, the main factors that influence brand loyalty were examined.
CHAPTER III: COMPANY PROFILE

3.1. PATANJALI YOGPEETH

Patanjali Yogpeeth in Haridwar, Uttarakhand is one of the largest Yoga institutes in India.
Named after the Ancient Yog Guru Patanjali, the Institute is Ramdev's flagship project & has
been set up for treatment, research & development in Yoga and Ayurveda, as well as the
manufacturing of ayurvedic medicines.

It is a center of Yoga and Ayurveda activities in India built on the name of Maharishi
Patanjali who invented Yoga 5000 years ago. The ashram is run under the guidance of Swami
Ramdev Ji Maharaj who has revived Yoga and spreading it all over the world. Patanjali Yog
peeth is open to everybody. Located on the Haridwar-Delhi highway at Kankhal, very near to
Roorkee, Patanjali Yogpeeth offers treatment for all and has residential accommodation.

At Mahatma Dharamveer's Gurukul in Kisangarh Ghasera where Baba Ramdev met


philanthropist Archarya Balkrishan. With the help of Balkrishan, Baba Ramdev has
established Divya Yog Mandir in 1995. Archarya Karamveer was also one of the pillars
of Divya Yog Mandir. In almost 3 years, Divya Yog Mandir and Baba Ramdev have
galvanized the world into turning ardent practitioners of Yoga. Baba Ramdev and trust run
spearhead, all his activities which include Yoga camps, manufacturing ayurvedic medicine
and treatment of patients with help of Yoga and Pranayama. Baba Ramdev TV programmes
and Yoga camps have proved to be immensely popular. Swami Ramdev put lots of emphasis
on teaching Pranayam as compared to Yoga. According to Shri Shri Ravi Shankar, a world-
renowed spritial leader "If an individual can be credited with reviving Yoga in India, it is
solely Baba Ramdev". Millions of people all over the world attend Baba Ramdev's free Yoga
camps (shivir). Ramdev Baba has also conducted Yoga camp at Rashtrapati Bhavan - the
residence of the President of India.

Yoga has ability to cure even fatal diseases and Baba Ramdev has proved it many times.
Ramdev Baba has spread Yoga to such an extent that sooner or later, everyone has to embrace
it. Patanjali YogPeeth Trust is the dream project of Baba Ramdev. It was inaugurated on
August 6, 2006. Baba Ramdev's aim was to build the world's largest center of Ayurveda,
Yoga and Pranayama. Patanjali YogPeeth provides facility for treatment for diseases, research
and a teaching University for Yoga and Ayurveda. This trust is located 13kms from Haridwar.
The estimated cost of the project was 10 billion. During inauguration, Sudarshan Agarwal,
Governor of Uttrakhand, said "Patanjali Yog Peeth will soon be the ambassador of Yoga for
entire world”.

According to associated news press, The Patanjali YogPeeth project was divided into 3
phases. Phase one was basic construction. The second stage comprises of serviceable
guesthouses, herbal gardens, yajnashala, meditation caves and many other facilities. It will be
the biggest Yoga and Ayurvedic center in the world. Third stage is opening a University of
Yoga and Ayurveda. Baba Ramdev wants to flow river of Yoga in each and every region,
whether in a village or city. The confidence which Baba Ramdev exuberates compels people
to at least give his Yoga a try. Millions of people practice Baba Ramdev's Yoga and
Pranayama. Ramdev Baba's TV programs broadcast in several countries including America,
Europe, Australia, Asia and Africa. Viewership is quoted as being 20 millions regular
viewers. Followers of Baba Ramdev have claimed relief from a variety of ailments such as
Diabetes, Blood Pressure, Hepatitis, Spondylitis and Obesity. He is the real hero who devoted
his whole life to help people by giving them unknown knowledge of Yoga and Pranayama.

Swami Ramdev medicines are manufactured in branches well equipped with modern
equipments, certified by the international standards GMP, GLP & ISO 9001. Swami
Ramdev's pharmacy makes the medicines pure and rich in quality. Medicines manufactured
go through quality control and quality assessment tests. Patanjali Yogpeeth is operating
Patanjali Hospitals in every nook and corner of India, where one can get life saving Swami
Ramdev’s medicines which are affordable to all rich and poor.

Patanjali Yogpeeth medicines are also available for health care, oral care, hair care and skin
care. Many of the critical ailments such as Cancer, Diabetes, arthritis etc. can be cured by
Swami Ramdev's Medicines. These medicines are low cost, very effective and available at
Ramdev Chikitsalaya. Some of very effective Ramdev medicines are Mukta Vati for high
blood pressure, Madhunashini Vati for Diabetes, Medohar Vati for Obesity.
Swami Ramdevji Maharaj is a historic personality. He has written new history in the areas of
yoga-prananyam and ayurvedic treatment methods. In this regard the work done by the
organization established by him namely Patanjali Yogpeeth (Trust), Divya Mandir (trust),
Patanjali Yog Samitis, Divya Yog Pharmacy Trust and branches, will be written in golden
letters on the pages of history. The ambition of these establishments are to reach yoga and
Ayurveda to the 700 crore global population along with Indian culture and words of the
sages. To encourage the use of Ayurvedic medicine, Swamiji manufactures superior quality
and proven medicines in Divya Yog Pharmacy.

Swami Ramdev's medicines are manufactured in branches well equipped with modern
equipments mostly in Haridwar and other places, certified by the international standards
GMP, GLP & ISO 9001. Swami Ramdev also has a botanical garden near Patanjali Yog Peeth
where the herbs and medicinal plants are grown. Here research is carried out on rare herbs
and they are grown here by putting in great efforts. Under Swami Ramdev's guidance an
industrial unit is also established called Patanjali Ayurved Limited which produces pure and
high quality minerals and plants products through scientific methods. Swami Ramdevji and
Acharya Balkrishna ji have tried to combine the ancient knowledge with ultramodern
technology.

Some people could not digest the increasing fame of Swami Ramdev and they started
negative campaigning against Swami Ramdev with the help of media. The qualities of
Swami Ramdev’s medicines were doubted. When these medicines were tested in the lab all
the allegations proved baseless and Swami Ramdev came out spotless amidst the acid test.
This resulted in unexpected increase in the demand of medicine of Swami Ramdev. Baba
Ramdev's pharmacy puts in all the efforts to make the medicines pure and rich in quality. All
the medicines manufactured go through strict quality control & quality assessment tests,
Toxicological study - Animal trials, clinical tests.

Swami Ramdev is working towards the goal of establishing the ayurvedic products at par
with the international standards and to make it known across the world. To encourage the use
of Ayurvedic medicine and amongst Swami Ramdev's revolutionary thoughts, one is that the
farmers of India should adopt the cultivation of medicinal herbs and plants along with fruits
and vegetables.

Patanjali Yogpeeth is a renowned name in the field of medical science, rendering free
services to millions of people across the globe through Yoga and Ayurveda.

3.2. HERBAL PRODUCTS IN PATANJALI YOGPEETH

Divya Yog Mandir (Trust), started “Brahamkalp Chikitsalaya” at Kripalu Bagh Ashram,
Kankhal in 1995 where patients suffering from various diseases were cured using Ayurvedic
medicines and practices of Yoga. Need was felt to provide quality Ayurvedic medicines to the
patients to seek optimum results as results of Ayurvedic treatment are directly proportional to
the quality of prepared medicines. Hence a small scale manufacturing unit of Ayurvedic
medicines was established in the campus of Kripalu Bagh Ashram, Kankhal. This was the
beginning of Divya Aushadhi Nirmanshala (Divya Pharmacy), which was totally based on
traditional methods.

Divya Pharmacy has had the exalted vision to bring Ayurveda to society in a contemporary
form and to unravel the mystery behind this haloed and revered, Indian system of medicine
by exploring and selecting indigenous herbs, ancient Ayurvedic literatures and subjecting the
formulations to modern pharmacological, toxicological safety tests and clinical trials to
create new drugs and therapies.

Divya Pharmacy tries that medicines should possibly be available to common man at the
minimum cost price. In the year 2002-03, modernization of the pharmacy has been done. A
new expanded unit of the pharmacy has been established well equipped with machines based
on modern techniques.

PLC controlled herbal extraction plant commissioned in the pharmacy is used for extracting
from the various parts of the medicinal plant like the leaves, The salient feature of this plant
is the production of medicine using latest SCADA technology under controlled
environmental conditions of temperature and pressure. The extract concentration is achieved
under vacuum drying preserving the maximum valued contents of the herbs.
Quality of the medicines so produced is of the highest level. This unit has the capacity of
extracting from 10,000 kgs. of raw herbs. The desired fluid component is added to this
extract in the process of making the medicines.

For the manufacturing processes in Divya Pharmacy automatic high speed spray drier unit,
for quick liquification a fluid wed processor, tablet compressing device with the capacity for
preparing one lac tablet per hour, high speed auto-coater for coating the tablets, high speed
mixer-grinder, fluid wed driers and cleaning, crossing & pulverizing units have been
established.

In the modern packing section of Divya Pharmacy PLC controlled packing equipment having
the capacity of 300 volts per minute with automatic blister packing equipment has been
installed. A utility center has been set up in this production unit which has two 500 KVA
generators, softeners & cooling towers including boilers & air compressors having the
capacity to produce 300 ton steam.

As a result of this Divya Pharmacy has become the first medicine manufacturing unit of
Uttarakhand to get ISO-9001 and WHO-GMP certifications. In the Pharmacy the
international standards like Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP), Good Packaging Practices
(GPP), Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) and Good Harvesting Practices(GHP) are being
strictly followed.

Under the learned guidance of H. H. Yogrishi Swami Ramdevji, Vaidyaraj Acharya


Balkrishna and Swami Muktanand, Patanjali Herbal Garden & Agro Research Department
has been established at following few sites- Patanjali Herbal Garden site Nursery, Patanjali
Herbal Garden site Gurukul Gaushala Farm, situated nearby Patanjali Yogpeeth at Maharishi
Dayanand Gram, Bahadrabad, Delhi-Haridwar highway. These Herbal Gardens have
beautiful collections of more than 200 medicinal herbs, shrubs, trees, climbers and
ornamental plants. Since, 1997 it was a great effort with high spirit to collect the valuable
medicinal plant and to ensure to grow in Garden, a Divya Vanaushadhi Vatika has been
earlier established in the Ashram at Kankhal. Thereafter, to explore more possibilities of a
large number of wide collections, exposition and research of medicinal, aromatic and
ornamental plants in a organized way in the Patanjali Herbal Garden has been established. A
team of Scientists from Botany and Agriculture and a number of swayam sevak are engaged
for research and management.

It is all about economically processing organic farm produce into daily use consumables
ranging from Ayurvedic health supplements to Foods and cosmetics and then supplying them
largely to the urban world. The produce will be picked up right from the farms, thereby
increasing the effective income of the farmers. The health based products will then be made
available to a large population in the urban areas that is reeling under the scourge of polluted
food items and artificial drinks that make them vulnerable to a variety of cronic diseases. And
all this at a cost that is unmatched in the market.

The consequential benefits are no less crucial to the mankind. Backed by a robust preaching
and promotion on the popular Astha channel by the world renouned Yog Guru Swami
Ramdevji and an international authority on Ayurved and traditional herbs Acharya
Balkrishanji, it is all about reinventing our traditional knowledge of Yog and Ayurved,
rejuvenation of rural economy,arrest of the flight of rural job seekers to the more demeaning
urban slums, strengthening the health grid of the nation and the world, mending the
environmental imbalance…and finally fighting the tirade of western culture on Indian
panorama.

PATANJALI AYURVED Ltd. is a company that functions like all other companies under the
regulations of the company law affairs, yet is constantly striving for nation building more
than the profit accumulation.

At micro level the challenge is no less herculean. Along with PRANAYAM, the wisdom of
our ancient sages, the organic food products and herbal medicines churned out of this unit,
undertake to fight out the dreaded and incurable diseases like CANCER and AIDS. Claim for
having found a lasting cure for many other relatively more rampant but equally tormenting
diseases like Diabetes, Arthritis and Thyroid is already established with thousands of patients
cured with satisfaction.
Superior quality of our products at a fair price is not the only concern that we have. Getting
our patients rid of their diseases is again too limited a goal for us to seek. A holistic approach
to improvement in the quality of life of all beings, world over, is the purpose behind our
being. Getting rid the food we consume of the pollutants in the form of poisonous pesticides
and chemical fertilizers that our farmers use, is a goal that we strive to achieve by providing
our people the eatables that are cultivated in organic and natural manures and pest repellents.

Amalika- also known as amala or Aavla (Latin –Emblica officinalis) is Indian gooseberry. It
is probably the most famous Ayurvedic herbs used in dozens of classical Ayurvedic formulae
& in hundreds of patent Ayurvedic formula. The herb of Amalaki is used for many purposes
such as delaying the aging cycle, rejuvenating the body, revitalizing body systems & top of
all, building immune levels. The herbal fruit of Indian gooseberry (amalaki) contains active
levels of tannins that help in rejuvenating the body cells & concerned organs. Amalaki
contains abandon amounts of Vitamin C – ascorbic acid & is likely to possess richest
amounts of it as compared to any edible on this planet.

Avipattikar Churna is recommended for complete cure of your acidity, burning stomach and
indigestion problems. This is natural digestive tonic which helps in regularizing digestion
process & cures acidity problem. A regular course of this ayurvedic medicine gives good
results & generally no further medication is required. Avipattikar acidity remedy control acid
secretion from stomach walls and helps in easy and timely movement of food from stomach
to intestines. Avipattikar Churna is traditionally used to remove excess Pitta (Fire) from the
stomach and small intestine. This ayurvedic remedy alleviates acidity, Heartburn and
Indigestion. High Pitta (Fire) produces the problem of Acidity or Hyper Acidity. To reduce
High Pitta (Fire) in the abdomen, Avipattikar Churna is very good. For hyper acidity and
abdominal aches being a mild laxative it makes the stool soft, helps to check mild
constipation and improve the appetite.

These days most of the people are suffering from constipation. The failure to excrete the
feces from the intestine is termed as constipation. There are many reasons for this disease,
like shortage of fiber in diet, insufficient intake of fluid, stress, wrong food habit, appetite,
inadequate exercise, use of too much laxative, enema abuse etc. Constipation can affect
digestion, the clearing of toxins from the system is hampered, energy levels and the
absorption of nutrients will get altered.

3.3. PRODUCT LINE AND PORTFOLIO OF PATANJALI YOGPEETH

Products of patanjali ypgpeeth are as follows:

 Divya Amla Churna for Eyes, Digestion and General Health

 Divya Arogyavardhani Vati

 Divya Arshakalp Vati for Piles

 Divya Ashmarihar Ras for Kidney Stones

 Divya Ashwagandha Churna for Stress, Fatigue and General Health

 Divya Chandraprabha Vati for Urinary Disease

 Divya Churna for Constipation

 Divya Dant Manjan Tooth Powder

 Divya Gashar Churna for Removal of Gas

 Divya Giloy Sat for Swine flu, Bird flu, Pyrexia of unknown origin (fever)

 Divya Hridayamrita Vati for Heart Disease

 Divya Kanti Lep for Increasing Skin Splendour

 Divya Kayakalp Tail Oil for Skin Problems, Cracks and Burns

 Divya Kayakalp Vati for Skin Disease, Acne and Pimples


 Divya Kesh Tail Hair Oil for Hair Loss, Dandruff and Headache

 Divya Madhu Nashini Vati for Diabetes

 Divya Madhukalp Vati for Diabetes

 Divya Medha Kwath for Headache and Memory Enhancement

 Divya Medha Vati for Memory Loss and Improving Intelligence

 Divya Medohar Vati for Weight Loss

 Divya Mukta Vati for High Blood Pressure

 Divya Peya Herbal Tea

 Divya Pidantak Ras for Joint Pain and Arthritis

 Divya Pidantak Tail Massage Oil for Joint Pain and Arthritis

 Divya Punarnavadi Mandur for Kidney Problems and Anemia

 Divya Sanjivani Vati for Cold, Fever and Flu

 Divya Shilajeet Rasayan Vati for Impotency

 Divya Shilajeet Sat for Gout and Weak Immune System

 Divya Singhnaad Guggulu for Rheumatism

 Divya Stri Rasayan Vati for Menstruation

 Divya Swasari Ras for Lung Problems, Bronchitis and Asthma


 Divya Triphala Churna for Rejuvination and Detoxification

 Divya Triphala Guggulu for Joint Pain, Piles and Weight Loss

 Divya Udaramrita Vati for Digestion and Stomache Problems

 Divya Udarkalp Churna for Indigestion and Constipation

 Divya Vatari Churna for Arthritis

 Divya Yauvanamrita Vati for Weak Bodies and Impotency

 Divya Yograj Guggulu for Joint Pain

3.4. PRODUCT MIX OF PATANJALI YOGPEETH

Swami Ramdev's Divya Medicines are 100% natural, made from potent herbs such as the
ashtavarga healing plants of the Himalayas. They have proven extremely effective for
combating all forms of sickness and disease. Along with these medicines, Swamiji
recommends patients to also adopt the practice of Pranayama, which will strengthen the
immune system and quicken the healing process.

 Abhrak Bhasm - Divya

 Ajamodadi Choorna - Divya

 Aloevera Gel

 Aloe Vera Juice - Patanjali 1 Lt. or Aloe Vera 30 Capsules

 Amla Churna - Divya (for Eyes, Digestion and General Health)

 Amlki Rasayan - Divya


 Amrit Rasayan - Divya(for Brain, Eyes, Strength and over all nourishment)

 Anti Wrinkle Cream - Patanjali Tejus

 Arjuna Kvath - Divya(for Coronary Artery Disease)

 Arshakalp Vati - Divya(for Piles)40 grams

 Arshkalp Vati - Divya(for Piles) 20 Grams

 Ashmarihar Kvath - Divya / Vrikkdosh Har Kwath - Divya

 Ashmarihar Ras - Divya

 Ashvagandha Capsule - Patanjali

 Ashvagandha Churna - Divya (for Stress, Fatigue and General Health)

 Ashvashila Capsule - Patanjali

 Avipattikar Choorna - Divya

 Awala Choorna - Divya

 Amla / Awala Juice 1 Liter - Patanjali (Juice of Emblica Officinalis) / Divya Amalki

 Rasayana 100 gm

 Awala - Divya (Amla) Murabba - Divya(Dry Spicy)

 Awala - Divya (Amla) Murabba - Divya (Dry Sweetened)

 Awala / Amla Murabba Wet - Divya


 Badam Pak - Divya

 Badam Rogan - Divya

 Bael Candy - Divya

 Bael Murabba - Divya

 Balm - Patanjali

 Bang Bhasma 5gm - Divya

 Bavaci Choorna - Divya(for Leucoderma)

 Beauty Cream 50 gm - Patanjali Tejus

 Bilwadi Churna - Divya

 Body Lotion - Patanjali Tejus

 Body Massage Oil 100ml - Patanjali

 Chatpata Choorna

 Chandraprabha Vati - Divya (for Urinary Disease & diabetes)

 Churna - Divya (for Constipation)

 Chyawanprash - Divya with Ashtavarga Healing Plants (1 Kilogram)

 Crack Heal Cream - Patanjali

 Daliya : Patanjali Arogya Daliya


 Dant Manjan - Divya (Tooth Powder)

 Dant Kanti - Patanjali (Tooth Paste)

 Divya Dhara

 Drishti Eye Drop - Patanjali

 Gangadhar Choorna - Divya (for Diarrhoea , Sprue Syndrome, Ama)

 Gashar Churna - Divya (for Removal of Gas)

 Giloy Ghan Vati - Patanjali 40gm

 Godanti Bhasm - Divya (for Migraine, Chronic Headache, Depression & Hernia)

 Gokshuradi Guggulu - Divya (for Chronic Renal Failure)

 Gulab Jal - Divya

 Honey - Divya (Pure Himalayan Honey)

 Hridayamrita Vati - Divya (for Heart Disease) 20 Grams

 Hridayamrita Vati - Divya (for Heart Disease) 40 Grams

 Kachanar Guggulu - Divya

 Kaisara Guggulu - Divya (Psoriasis & Eczema)

 Kanti Lep - Divya (for Increasing Skin Splendour)

 Kayakalp Kwath - Divya (for Skin Problems)


 Kayakalp Tail - Divya (for Skin Problems, Cracks and Burns)

 Kayakalp Vati - Divya (for Skin Disease, Acne and Pimples) 20 Grams

 Kayakalp Vati - Divya (for Skin Disease, Acne and Pimples) 40 Grams

 Kesh Tail - Divya (Hair Oil for Hair Loss, Dandruff and Headache)

 Lavan Bhaskar Churna - Divya

 Lauki Juice - Patanjali

 Lauki - Amla Juice - Patanjali

 Madhu Nashini Vati - Divya (for Diabeties)

 Madhukalp Vati - Divya (for Diabetes)

 MahaYograja Guggulu - Divya (for Osteoporosis)

 Medha Kwath - Divya(for Headache and Memory Enhancement)

 Medha Vati - Divya (for Memory Loss and Improving Intelligence) 40 grams

 Medohar Vati - Divya (for Weight Loss)

 Mukta Pishti - Divya

 Mukta Vati - Divya (for High Blood Pressure)

 Mukta-shukti Bhasm - Divya

 Ojas Multani Mitti - Patanjali


 Nimb Ghan Vati - Patanjali 60 Gr.

 Panchakol Choorna - Divya

 Peedantak Cream 50 gm - Patanjali

 Peya (Herbal Tea) - Divya 100 Grams

 Peya (Herbal Tea) - Divya 300 Grams

 Pidantak Kwath - Divya (for Joint Pain and Arthritis)

 Pidantak Ras - Divya (for for Joint Pain and Arthritis)

 Pidantak Tail - Divya (Massage Oil for Joint Pain and Arthritis)

 Praval (branch) Pisthi- Divya

 Praval Panchamrit- Divya

 Punarnavadi Mandur - Divya (for Kidney Problems and Anemia)

 Sanjivani Vati - Divya (for Cold, Fever and Flu)

 Saptavimshati Guggulu - Divya

 Sarvakalp Kwath - Divya (for Liver Problems and Jaundice)

 Shadbindu Tail - Divya

 Shatavar Choorna - Patanjali

 Shampoo - Patanjali
 Shankh Bhasm - Divya

 Shilajit Capsule - Patanjali

 Shilajeet Rasayan Vati - Divya (for Impotency)

 Shilajeet Sat - Divya (for Gout and Weak Immune System)

 Shilajeet Sat - Divya (for Gout and Weak Immune System) 50 gm

 Singhnad Guggulu - Divya

 Sitopaladi Choorna - Divya

 Soap Kanti Aloevera Body Cleanser - Patanjali

 Soap Gomutra Kanti - Body Cleanser - Patanjali

 Soap Somya - Body Cleanser - Patanjali

 Soap Ojas Aquafresh - Body Cleanser - Patanjali

 Soap Ojas Aquafresh - Mogra Body Cleanser - Patanjali

 Soap Patanjali Somya Haldi Chandan Body Cleanser - Patanjali

 Stri Rasayan Vati - Divya

 Swasari Ras - Divya (for Lung Problems, Bronchitis and Asthma)

 Tejus Tailum For Women

 (Tooth Powder) Divya Dant Manjan


 (Tooth Paste) Dant Kanti Patanjali

 Trayodashang Guggulu Divya

 Trikuta Choorna Divya

 Triphala Churna Divya (for Rejuvination and Detoxification)

 Triphala Guggulu Divya (for Joint Pain, Piles and Weight Loss)

 Tulsi Ghan Vati Patanjali 40 Gr.

 Udaramrita Vati Divya (for Digestion and Stomache Problems)

 Udarkalp Churna Divya (for Indigestion and Constipation)

 Vatari Churna Divya (for Arthritis)

 Yauvanamrita Vati Divya (for Weak Bodies and Impotency)

 Yograj Guggulu Divya (for Joint Pain) 20 Grams

 Yograj Guggulu Divya (for Joint Pain) 40 grams

 Wheat Grass Powder Organic 1 Month Doses

 Chatpata Choorna

 For Gastric troubles and taste

 Divya Jeera Goli

 Divya Anardaana Goli


 Divya Chatpata Chuara

 Divya Nimbu Vati

From nowhere to everywhere, Brand Baba seems to be pervasive. Yoga has been there in
India since time immemorial, it has been synonymous with sadhus( saints) who usually after
relinquishing their mundane world in search of God or Nirvana used to keep them healthy,
fit, let them channelize their energy and control their inner self toward a single goal. In
marketing parlance we can think of it as a product which was restricted to a very small
segment of society, had some exclusivity attached to it, expertise of saint in performing it and
a luxury which could only be afforded by the disciples of saints.
Nobody could have thought of commercializing it, leave aside the thought of popularizing it
among the masses. Entrepreneurs are not only risk bearers, organizers and managers of the
enterprises but they are also great visionaries who not only anticipate the future needs but
also keep a check on the present requirements. We are sure Baba must have worked tirelessly
on his mission away from the glare of media, completing all his defined tasks, keeping a
check on the preparations and one day he must have decided to appear on the big stage and
take the world by storm that seems to be a meticulously planned launch of the “Brand Baba”.

The epithet “He came , He saw, He conquered”. is supposed to be rightly described as the
arrival of Baba and his infectious popularism among the masses. Suddenly everyone was
seen rubbing his/her nails walking by the road side, waiting for a train at the platform, while
travelling, while working in an office or for that matter whenever people found themselves
free, he was there everywhere in the life of people. Yoga, which used to be considered
Generic till now was well known by “Baba Ramdev Brand of Yoga”. People were looking for
a solution to their stressful life, an alternative form of medicine. He as a true entrepreneur
anticipated this need before anyone could and sold his idea of a complete health to the
masses. As a good marketer would do he made himself available for the masses through his
“Yoga Shivers”, listened to their problems & tried to solve them, connected with them
personally, had a product which was well researched, had variants of products in terms
of different Yoga Aasans for different ailments, meant for different age groups of people
based on their ability to perform a particular aasan, had all the medium of advertisement to
support his Brand.

His journey didn’t stop with his Brand of Yoga, when big business houses were struggling to
launch and operate Branded Medical Stores, he was once again there bang on launching his
own Brand of Ayurvedic Medicine Stores ( Patanjali) all over India…Franchising model also
included. His name has become synonymous with Yoga and Ayurveda. There might be other
before he appeared on scene, there are many in his era also but no one could make an impact
like him. His presence was so infectious that people from different walks of life were cashing
on his popularity….Filmstars like Shilpa Shetty and Bipasha Basu came with their own
version of Yoga CD’s but could not pose a challenge to his leadership, infact they ended up
following his footsteps…even the corporate world found a big market for herbal
products..the consumers were looking for products which were close to nature. His USP is
that he made himself approachable, common man identified with him and he positioned his
product as a “ Total Health Solution” unlike the craze generated by the Filmstars to develop
bulging biceps, curved body, zero figure which could be defined as a fad bound to fade away
without notice. His product promise for a lifelong solution ( durability), can be used
anywhere anytime( operational convenience), available through different channels based on
your convenience( like T.V., Books, Shivers ), his product emphasizes on precaution rather
than cure….a feature which make his product standout from the rest of crowd and even if any
ailment need to be cured he has the natural therapies and his own brand of ayurvedic
medicine to compliment his main product. He has made his brand ambassadors out of his
own followers who very religiously vouch for his claims and motivate people who come in
contact with them to practice Yoga. He is in his unique way different from other gurus who
only give spiritual discourses. He is different in terms of the practicality and objectivity of his
product unlike the subjective nature of the discourses delivered by spiritual gurus. He run his
trust as a big corporate house generating employment, profit and his initiative has not only
pumped a new lease of life to ayurveda but has also indirectly helped people to find out an
employment as yoga instructors in schools, colleges and corporate houses. He is ubiquitous,
wherever you go you find his hoardings announcing the date of his Shivers, he has not only
reached to the interiors of the places but he is also there in the mind of the people enjoying
the share of his own, which is a sign of a big brand. People, organizations, institutions
involve in any kind of traditional thing in India can take a lesson or two from Baba, that how
marketing can help in reviving the traditional form of things that too with a handsome profit
and one need not to be an American or someone from a developed world to market a product
and lay a claim on it. There has been lot of yoga gurus and they are there today also who can
challenge him in the art of yoga but there is only one Baba Ramdev the Yoga Guru turned out
to be a Great Marketing Guru. And finally look what he is doing, he has taken the
responsibility to bring back the black money to the nation and eradicate the corruption from
the country. It seem that after achieving the leadership position in his form of business he
want to diversify to the business of politics. There is always a risk of diluting your brand if
you think of entering into a totally different field and Baba has taken that risk. His Brand
seems to be in crisis these days and there is a need of second thought to be given to the
diversification. I feel he should have thought of Co-Branding with Anna, this could have
made it easy for him to diversify into the business of politics. It’s still not too late , he must
think strategically on his move and rethink of launching his brand of movement again with
new energy and a new look.

3.5. MARKETING AND NETWORK OF PATANJALI YOGPEETH

Human beings are governed by ideas and beliefs. Consumers of this day no longer buy
merchandise and services but experiences. Mass Customization is the new paradigm that
replaces old ideology of market segmentation; an idea which is no longer found suitable for
today's turbulent markets, changing customer needs and growing product variety. Mass
customization proactively manages product variety in the environment of rapidly evolving
markets, products and services. This study attempts to study the reasons which have lead to
the phenomenal success of Baba Ramdev's marketing strategy of Mass customization and
that also in an era of high individual customization.

The dictum of Mass Customization is "Aham Brahamasmi"; meaning that I am omnipresent


and omnipotent. Catering to the needs of all, irrespective of gender, age, caste, creed, culture,
religion, nationality the potion of mass customization is believed to work wonders.
Companies choose from mainly three value disciplines to frame their value propositions:
product leadership, operational excellence, and customer intimacy. The product leadership
discipline leads to the `best product' value proposition-an assertion that the company's
products have the greatest performance impact or experiential impact for its customers. The
operational excellence discipline leads to the `best total cost' bid- an assertion that the
combination of the company's prices, product reliability, and hassle-free service is matchless.
The customer familiarity discipline leads to the `best total solution' scheme – an assertion that
the company helps its customers identify their exact problem and the best solution, and then
takes charge of implementing it. Baba Ramdev addresses all the three value disciplines and
he has developed a unique blend of Ayurveda and Vedic philosophy to cater to create value
for his customers.

3.6. PRODUCT: INTRODUCING THE VALUE DISCIPLINE

The society in which we live today is a brand- obsessed society. Name a product or service
and the brands relating to them are inestimable so many that cannot be counted on fingers.
Thus, creating, developing, implementing and maintaining successful brands are frequently
at the heart of marketing strategy. (McEnally,M . and Chernatony,L. de 1999) Successful
branding requires a strategic perspective (de Chernatony 1998) whereby strong brand
concepts are presented and communicated to target segments resulting in favorable brand
images which reflect the brand's identity (Gardner and Levy 1955, Reynolds and Gutman
1984, Kapferer 1997). This brand of Baba Ramdev has a universal appeal, is sharing and
collaborative, and the customers range hail from all age groups and regions. This Brand is a
result of consistent hard work and carefully and meticulously followed strategy.

The service that Baba Ramdev is selling is the product. To deliver quality service, it is
essential to understand customers' expectations. To assess the quality of service, customers
compare their expectations with perceptions of the service providers' performance. Hence it
becomes vital for the service providers' to understand and meet consumers' needs and wants.
Customer expectations of service can be of two types; desired service and adequate service.
Desired service is the service that a customer desires and expects to get. Whereas an adequate
service is one which is the minimal level of service which a customer is willing to accept
based on his perception of service acceptability.
The service that is being provided by Baba Ramdev is well orchestrating with the desired
service expectations. Patanjali Yogpeeth, a multi-million rupee venture, Ramdev's dream
project, set as a rival to World Health Organization only on the basis of sound service that it
boasts of providing. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust in Haridwar, Uttaranchal is armed with all the
latest and most sophisticated gadgets sees a regular stream of devotees who wait to be called
by a doctor in the Out Patient Department (OPD). There are forty doctors in the OPD who
deal with 2,000 people every day. Some days the dispensary sells medicines worth Rs. 3,000
a minute. And again this can only be possible if the waiting tie is reduced by quality service.
The ambiance of Patanjali Yogpeeth is world class. Constructed in almost 100 acres; it has
been designed to have buildings, car parks, and a landscape to rival the best of Delhi's
housing projects. The entire value proposition can be said to be a hard work and the result of
determination of this one man army.

To add to this we know that looking good is everyman's dream. In the era when cosmetic
surgery is the order of the day; getting good looks by just adjusting the way one inhales and
exhales is something everyone would prefer doing. With his deep-seated credence that we all
are a part of beauty conscious world, Swamiji's unique contribution has been in helping
ordinary people solve their problems and lead a healthy life through the practice of simple
breathing exercises. The product "pranayama" is well suited for all irrespective of class,
creed, culture and hence this success.

3.7. COMPLETE PACKAGE FOR VARIOUS DISEASES

Swami Ramdev's Divya Medicines are claimed to be one hundred percent natural, made from
potent herbs available in the Himalayas and no or very little side effects. They have proven
extremely effective for combating all forms of sickness and disease. Along with these
medicines, Swamiji recommends patients to also adopt the practice of Pranayama, which will
strengthen the immune system and quicken the healing process. Ramdev Baba opines that
Pranayama Yoga is the complete Ancient Indian Therapy, which is a Medical Science in itself
that cures any Physical or Mental medical condition completely, without any side effects.
Swami Ramdev has proved and declared on Indian & International TV Channels,
"Pranayama Yoga is the complete natural cure for all Physical and Mental Ailments". But if
medicines are required they are also available and these packages of medicines are available
at a very low cost. The medicines can cure all the diseases from a simple cold to cancer. In a
bid to promote Ayurveda, Ramdev's Trust has tied up with 600 qualified Ayurvedic
practitioners who are offering treatment to masses for a variety of diseases, some of them
termed incurable by the modern system.

3.8. PRICING STRATEGY

Developing an effective pricing strategy remains the most important and difficult part of the
marketing process. For instance, a nominal 1 per cent increase in price realization will boost
net income by 6.40 per cent for Coca-Cola and 28.70 per cent for Philips. The price-
positioning and the value-delivery mechanisms should be done with one rule in mind: the
performance of the product, or the value associated with it should always be higher than the
price. For instance, a company that has either a product or a service whose performance or
value is medium would do well to follow a low-cost pricing strategy.

Well in tune with this, Baba Ramdev's potion of Pranayama is cheap. He urges people not to
lose hope or suffer and depend on expensive treatments. Indian Pranayama Yoga is there to
help treat all the ailments completely without costly medicines, operations or surgery. It is
amazing, but it is claimed to be true that this is the cheapest and the only complete cure to
most of the so called incurable diseases like Diabetes, Cancer, HIV & AIDS too.

3.9. PROMOTIONAL STRATEGY

Edwin L. Artzt quoting the chairman and CEO of P& G has likened advertising to exercising
saying that "Think of advertising and promotion as exercise and recreation. Advertising is
exercise. It's something you need and it provides long-term benefits, but it's awfully easy to
either cut or postpone because there's no immediate penalty for not exercising. When you
want your brand to be fit, it's got to exercise regularly." And here's a situation when
exercising in itself becomes the object of promotion.

It is a well established fact that advertising affects consumers. The literature on advertising
has traditionally emphasized the persuasive nature of advertising: its purpose is to alter
consumers' tastes for established brand names or company reputations (Bagwell, 2007, Dixit
and Norman, 1978). But there is a difference in opinion and Stigler and Becker (1977) and
Becker and Murphy (1993) argue that advertising is part of consumers' preferences in the
same way as goods and that there are complementarities between advertising and goods.
Hence, a more-advertised good is ceteris paribus preferred over a less-advertised good.
Whatever be the case, Baba Ramdev has hit both the opinions as he is advertising and at the
same time not advertising. Baba Ramdev's live yoga classes became a passion.

And it all began in the year 2002 when Sanskar television channel started airing Baba
Ramdev's yogic classes; overnight, Baba Ramdev became a sensation he had hundreds of
followers who morphed into thousands. Then Sanskar channel's rival Astha channel signed
him. In two years time he was a hit and with him also the channel benefited. His TV
shows have the largest TRP. Today, he is one of the biggest draws on Indian television. He
can be seen not only on religious channels like Aastha, but also news and features channels
like India TV and Sahara One. Millions around the country follow his programmes
religiously and use ayurvedic medicines prescribed by him.

There was an eight-month waiting period before one could see Ramdev, he was being booked
that far ahead by television channels for his live yoga classes each morning. His yoga
sessions were beamed live into 170 countries (Bijay Simha, 2007)

Also, Baba Ramdev's pack one DVD, two Video CDs written three books on Yoga,
Pranayama Herbal Remedies and Magazines are available. This set of four promotional
material with a Research Oriented Monthly Magazine of Yog, Spiritualism, Ayurveda,
Culture And Tradition-Yog Sandesh available in 5 languages can do much to lure customers.
Even healthy people are following his Yoga Pranayama regimen, as available in his DVDs,
VCDs, Books & magazines etc., to keep fit.

It is a well established fact that; "brands set the product and the producer of that product apart
from the competition". There are special though very obvious facts that this Brand has also
mass customized itself to satiate all and thus have made a distinct place for itself. In an era
when the marketers are faced with the challenge of getting their message heard by consumers
who are hard to find and even harder to influence, this Brand has worked wonders and all
because of its all inclusive image.
CHAPTER IV: DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

LOYALTY INTENTIONS

# Question Total Mea Frequen Varianc Standar


Respons n cy e d
es deviati
on
1 I intend to buy products of this 59
brand in the near future
2 I intend to buy other products of 59
this brand
3 I consider this brand my first 59
choice in its different product
categories
4 I say positive things about this 59
brand to other people
5 I have or would recommend this 59
brand to someone who seeks my
advice
6 I don’t bother looking at 59
alternative brands; this brand is
good enough for me
7 If this brand were to raise their 59
prices, I would continue to buy
their products
8 If this brand was NOT available, it 59
would make huge difference to me
# Question Total Mean Frequency Variance Standard
Responses deviation
1 High quality 59
2 Traditional and herbal 59
3 Cheaper products 59

CONSUMER PERCEPTION
# Question Total Mea Frequen Varianc Standard
Respons n cy e deviation
es
1 For older people 59
2 For younger people 59
3 A modern innovative brand 59
4 Buy its products being an indian 59
herbal brand
5 Buy its products NOT because of 59
spiritualism associated with the
brand
BRAND IMAGE

1. GENDER

# Answer Respon % Varian Standa


se ce rd
deviati
on
1 Male 31 53%
2 Female 28 47%
Total 59 100%

2. AGE

# Answer Respon % Varian Standa


se ce rd
deviati
on
1 below 18 2 3%
2 19 to 25 37 63%
3 26 to 35 11 19%
4 36 to 55 8 14%
5 55 and above 1 2%
Total 59 100%

3. MARITAL STATUS
# Answer Respon % Varian Standa
se ce rd
deviati
on
1 Married 16 27%
2 Widowed 0 0%
3 Divorced 0 0%
4 Separated 0 0%
5 Never 43 73%
married
Total 59 100%

4. EDUCATION LEVEL

# Answer Respon % Varian Standa


se ce rd
deviati
on
1 Primary 0 0%
2 Secondary 2 4%
4 Graduate 33 55%
5 Post 22 37%
graduate
6 Doctorate 2 4%
Total 59 100%

5. PROFESSION

# Answer Respon % Varian Standa


se ce rd
deviati
on
1 Retired 0 0%
2 Civil 12 20%
servant
3 Private 9 15%
sector
4 Self 2 3%
employed
5 Student 36 61%
Total 59 100%
H1: Brand image will not be positively associated with brand loyalty.

BRAN
D LOYALTY
IMAG INTENTI
E ONS
BRAND IMAGE 1
LOYALTY 0.699
INTENTIONS 95 1

INTERPRETATION: There is significant correlation between Brand Image and Brand


Loyalty.

H2: Brand image will not be positively associated with consumer perception.

H3: Consumer perception will not be positively associated with Brand loyalty.

H4: Gender will not be positively associated with loyalty intentions.

H5: Gender will not be positively associated with consumer perception.


H6: Gender will not be positively associated with brand image.

H7: There will not be positive relationship between brand image, consumer perception and
loyalty intentions.
CHAPTER V: RESULTS AND FINDINGS
APPENDIX A

ONLINE SURVEY QUESTIONAIRE

PATANJALI Brand Image and Loyalty Intentions

Extremely Extremel
likely
y unlikely
(1)
2 3 4 5 6 (7)
I intend to buy products of this o o o o o
o o
brand in the near future
I intend to buy other products of
o o o o o
this o o
Brand
I consider this brand my first
o o o o o
choice in its different product o o
categories
I say positive things about this o o o o o
o o
brand to other people
I have or would recommend this
o o o o o
brand to someone who seeks my o o
advice
I don’t bother looking at
o o o o o
alternative brands; this brand is o o
good enough for me
If this brand were to raise their
o o o o o
prices, I would continue to buy o o
their products
If this brand was NOT available,
o o o o o
itwould make huge difference to o o
me

Q1. How loyal are you to brand Patanjali? RATE IT on a scale of 7 from extremely
likely to extremely unlikely.
Q2. How much you agree or disagree about the brand Patanjali?

Extremely Extremel
likely
y unlikely
(1)
2 3 4 5 6 (7)
High quality o o o o o
o o

Traditional and herbal o o o o o


o o

Cheaper products o o o o o
o o

For older people o o o o o


o o

For younger people o o o o o


o o

o o o o o
A modern innovative brand o o

Buy its products being an Indian o o o o o


o o
herbal brand
Buy its products NOT because of
o o o o o
Spiritualism associated with the o o
brand

Please tell about yourself

Q3. Gender

Male

Female

Q4. How old are you?

Below 18
19-25

26-35

36-55

55 and above

Q5. Marital status

Married

Widowed

Divorced

Separated

Unmarried

Q6. Education level

Primary

Secondary

Graduate

Post-graduate

Doctorate

Q7. Profession

Retired

Civil servant
Private sector

Self employed

Student
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