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# SKEMA JAWAPAN BAB 5 RADIOAKTIF

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KERTAS 2

BAHAGIAN A

## 1 (a) Lead container / ​bekasplumbum 1

(b)(i) A beta particle / ​satuzarahbeta​ . 1
(ii) Negatively charge / ​bercasegative​ . 1
(c) The mass of ray P < ray Q // The speed ray P > ray Q 1
Jisimsinar P <sinar Q // lajusinar P >sinar​Q .

## 2 Unstable isotope. / ​isotope yang tidakstabil 1

(a)(i) Alpha particle / ​zarahalfa​. 1

(ii) E = mc​2 1
= 3.35 x 10​-27​ x ( 3.0 x 10​8​)​2
= 3.015 x 10​-10​ J 1
(b)

(c

## An alpha particle is positively charge.

Zarahalfabercaspositif​. 1

208 2 1
Alpha deflects to negative plate. 1
(ii)
Zarahalfaterpesongke plat negative
Gamma ray no deflection 1

3 (a) Sinargamatidakterpesong​.
Alpha : has positively charge 1

## (b)(i) Alfa : bercaspositif

Gamma : an electromagnetic wave // neutral 1
Gama : gelombang electromagnet // neutral

## 120 → 60 →30 →15 → 7.5 1

120-7.5 = 112.5 g 1
(ii)

## To stabilize the unstable nucleus. 1

Menstabilkan nucleus yang tidakstabil.
The mass before decay is greater than the mass after decay. 1
Jisimreputansebelumlebihbesarberbandingselepasreputan​.
(c) Change to energy 1
E = mc​2 1
4 The greater the mass defect , the greater the energy release. 1
Time taken for the activity of radioactive substance to be reduced to half of it original
activity. 1
(ii) Masa yang
(iii) Because its half life is shorter than the half life for carbon-14 1
Keranaseparuhhayatnyalebihpendekberbandingseparuhhayat karbon-14​.
(iv)

(v) BAHAGIAN B

## Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable nucleus becomes stable by

1. The graph in Diagram 1.1 has a steeper than the graph in Diagram 1.2.
Graf dalam Rajah 1.1 mempunyaikecerunan yang lebihcuram. 1
(ii) 2. Activity of both processes decreases with time.
Aktivitibagikedua-dua proses iniberkurangdenganmasa.
1
3. Activity shown in Diagram 1.1 decreases faster rate compared to that shown in
Diagram 1.2
1

lebihcepatberbanding Rajah 1.2.
4. The time for the activity to become half of the original activity to become half of the
10 original activity shown in Diagram 1.1 is less than Diagram 1.2.
5. Time taken for the activity to become half of the original activity is the half-life.
(ii) 1
- Alpha particles have the weakest penetration power and has a range of a few cam in
air.
Zarah-zarahalfamempunyaikuasapenembusan yang paling 1
rendahdanmempunyaijulatbeberapa cm dalamudara.
- They cannot pass through the body tissues of the patient, therefore cannot be
detected outside the body. 1
- The power of ionization of alpha particles is very high and may destroy human cells​. 1
Zarah-zarahalfamempunyaikuasapengionan
yanglebihtinggidanakanmemusnahkanselmanusia​.

## Characteristics / Ciri-ciri Explanation / Penerangan

Gamma ray High penetration power. 2
Sinargama Kuasapenembusantinggi
Gamma ray have high energy Can kill cancer cells
Sinargamamempunyaitenaga yang tinggi. Bolehmembunuhselkanser
(b) Use MRI , X-Ray or Ct Scan to Identify the position of cancer cells correctly. 2
Menggunakan MRI, X-Ray atau Ct Scan Mengenalpastikedudukanselkanserdenganbetu
l
The dosage of the ray required is moderate If the dosage is low, not all the cancer cells 2
and sufficiency will be destroyed.
Dos sinaran yang Jika dos yang
If the dosage is high, other cells will destroyed.
2
Jika dos tinggiselyglainakandimusnahkan.
The time of exposure to the rays is not too To prevent other healthy cells from being
long . destroyed.

(c)(i)

Nuclear fission is the process of splitting a heavy nucleus into several smaller and lighter
(ii) nuclei with release of energy.
Pembelahannukleusialah proses dimana nucleus yang

## (iii) Nuclear fission Nuclear fusion 1

Splitting a heavy nucleus into lighter Combining several light nuclei to
nucleus form a heavy nucleus.
There is a reduction of mass There is a reduction of mass
Energy is released Energy is released
(iv) Energy formed as a result of defect / Energy formed as a result of defect /
lost ( E = mc​2​ ) lost ( E = mc​2​ ) 2
- Neutron bombards a uranium-235 nucleus, splitting into two lighter nuclei are 1
produced. 1
- The mass lost is converted into energy, according to Einstein’s Principle of mass 1
conservation of energy, E=mc​2​.
- The three neutron will bombard other uranium nuclei continuously
1
- Cause the other remain to produce other 3 neutron.
(v)
1

characteristics Explanation 1
State of matter solid form Easy to handle 1
Beta ray Has high penetrating power
The half-life is longer No need to replace frequently
High penetrating power Can penetrate the paper 2
2 Use G-tube as detector Can detect beta ray. 2
(a)(i) 2
2
Isotopes of an element are atoms having the same proton number but different neutron 2
number.

(ii) To record the radiation detected by the GM-tube.

The original nucleus changes into a different nucleus. 1

Splitting of a heavy nucleus into two lighter nuclei 1
(b) The combining of two lighter form a heavy nuclei 1

The resulting nucleus formed has a smaller mass than the original 1
The mass defect caused energy to released. 1
1
The fertilizer that contains a radioisotope of one of the elements is injected into the soil. 1
Wait for a few day the fertilizer to be absorbed. 1
Use GM-tube and rate meter has hone to are located and analyzed.
(c) 1
Nuclear fission Nuclear fusion
Short half-life Allow time for the fertilizer to be 1
absorbed.
1
Emit beta ray The enables the radiations to
penetrate the plant. Tissue..
Should be able to detect beta. This enables the radiation to be
detected

3 (a)
BAHAGIAN C
(b)(i) Cosmic ray // radiation form surrounding // radioactive materials form earth.
(ii) Sinaran kosmik // radiasi dari persekitaran // bahan radioaktif dari bumi.
Alpha particle / ​zarahalfa.
(c) 1. The ray ionizes the air molecule.
Sinarmengionkanmolekuludara​.
2. Negative ions attracted to the plate.
Ion negative tertarikkearah plate​. 1
(d)
3. Neutralized the electroscope
Dan meneutralkan electroscope​.
1
1

## Characteristics / C​iri- ciri Explanation / ​Penjelasan 1

Liquid Easy to flow with blood.
(e)(i) cecair Mudahmengalirdalamdarah.
Short half life Not long in the body/ less harmful 1
kurangkerosakan.
Gamma ray high penetrating power
Sinargama kuasapenembusantinggi 2
GM tube detector Can detected ray effectively
(e)(ii Pengesantiub GM Mudahmengesansinardenganberkesan
) . 2
K is choosen.
Because it is in liquid , sort half-life, use gamma ray and can be detect by 2
GM tube detector.
K dipilih
Keranabentukcecair, separuhhayatpendek, 2

## m = [235.04392 + 1.00867] – [140.91963 +92.92157 + 2 (1.00867)] 2

= [ 236.05259] – [ 235.85854]
= 0.19405 u.
1 (a)
m = 0.19405 x 1.66 x 10​-27
= 0.0322 x 10​-27
= 3.22 x 10​-29​ kg
(b)(i)
E = mc2 1
(ii) = ( 3.22 x 10​-29​) ( 3.0 x 108)​2
= 28.99107 x 10​-12 1
= 2.899107 x 10​-11​ J
1
Cosmic ray 1
(c) Naturally present radioactive material on earth // surrounding
1
characteristics Reason
Low ionizing power Does not cause mutation. 1
Short days Sufficient not cause cell mutation.
Stage of matter liquid Can be injected. 1
M is suitable. 1
Because low ionizing .low ionizing power, short day anf stage of
matter liquid.
2
2
Neutron bombard a uranium nucleus. 2
Three neutron are produce.
the new neutrons bombard new nucleus uranium baru. uraniumbaru. 2
For every reaction the neutrons produced will generate chain reaction.

8 days
= ​1750​ x 100 % = 87.5 1
2000 1
1
(d)(i) 1
I→ I + e
1
1

Unstable isotope
2.
characteristics Reason
Physical condition is solid Easy to handle.
(ii) Emits beta particle Less dangerous.
Moderate penetrating power Can penetrate through the card
and block by thicker card. 1
Longer half-life Can be used for loner time.
Y is chosen
Because physical ccondition is solid, emit beta , moderate penetrating 2
2 power and. has long half-life 2
(a)(i) 2
Radioisotope source is placed below the card.
(ii) GM tube is placed vertically above the card. 2
A high readings indicates that the card is thinner or low reading indicate the card.
A reading indicates the card is thicker. 2

(b)
1
1
1

1
1
(c)

Time / ​masa
1
100 → 50 → 25 → 12.5 1
(d)(i)
(ii)
3t ​½​ = 3 x 4 = 12 days
1

(iii)
1

1
3(a)

(b)

(c)