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Divisions of the Human Nervous System

Central Nervous System-the brain and the spinal cord


Peripheral Nervous System-the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord
Two Division of the PNS
Somatic Nervous System-the nerves that convey messages from the
sense organs to the CNS and from the CNS to the muscles and
glands
Autonomic Nervous System-a set of neurons that control the heart,
the intestines, and other organs
Figure 4.1 The human nervous system
Both the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system have
major subdivisions. The closeup of the brain shows the right hemisphere
The Brain: the big picture…
The basic components of
the CNS include the:
• Cerebrum
• Diencephalon

• Cerebellum

• Brain stem

• Spinal cord
• AKA: Encephalon

• Forebrain-
Procencephalon
• Telencephalon
(Cerebrum , B.G)
• Diencephalon
(Thalami)
• Midbrain –
Mesencephalon
(Tectum, Cerebral
peduncle)
• Hindbrain-
Rhombencephalon
• Metencephalon
(Pons, Cerebellum)
• Myelencephalon
(M.O)
BOOD SUPPLY, MENINGES &
SPINAL FLUID

• Two main pairs of


artery in the Brain:
• 1. ICA (ACA, MCA)
• 2. VA (BA, PCA)
BOOD SUPPLY, MENINGES &
SPINAL FLUID
• CSF- a clear bodily • FUNCTIONS:
fluid that occupies the
subarachnoid space • 1. Shock Absorption
and ventricular
system, it acts as a • 2. Transport Nutrients
“cushion” to the • 3. Waste Disposal
cortex. • 4. Communication

• Chief producer of
CSF?
BOOD SUPPLY, MENINGES &
SPINAL FLUID
The Brain: from the outside in…
The brain and spinal cord are
protected by meninges
3 layers:
Dura mater ~ outermost,
tough, continuous with
periosteum
Arachnoid mater ~ middle
layer, spiderweb appearance
Pia mater ~ innermost layer,
not visible to naked eye
Components of the Cerebrum

Cerebral
Cortex
Telencephalon
Basal Ganglia
Cerebrum

Diencephalon Thalami
Cerebral Hemispheres (Cerebrum)

 Paired (left
and right)
superior parts
of the brain
 Include more
than half of
the brain
mass
Figure 7.13a

Slide
Layers of the Cerebrum

 Gray matter
 Outer layer
 Composed
mostly of neuron
cell bodies

Figure 7.13a

Slide
Layers of the Cerebrum

 White matter
 Fiber tracts
inside the gray
matter
 Example:
corpus callosum
connects
hemispheres
Figure 7.13a

Slide
Various types of White fiber and
their Functions
• 1. Transverse or Commisural Fibers
• These fibers connects structures from one hemisphere to
the opposite hemisphere
• 2. Projection Fibers
• Are white fibers that connect the c.c with structures outside
the cerebrum such as: brainstem, s.c, cerebellum, etc.
• 2 types of Projection Fibers:
• 2.1 Corticopetal – Afferent white fiber that ASCEND TO
THE CORTEX.
• 2.2Corticofugal – Efferent white fiber that DESCEND
AWAY FROM THE CORTEX.
Various types of White fiber and
their Functions
• 3. Association Fibers
• These white fibers connect various structures
within one side of the brain
• Types of Association Fibers:
• 3.1 U-Fibers or Short Association Fibers – it
connects adjacent gyri.
• 3.2 Long Association Fibers- passing bet more
distant part
• 3.3 Uncinate Fasciculus- last white matter to
mature
Cerebral Hemispheres (Cerebrum)

 The surface
is made of
ridges (gyri)
and grooves
(sulci)

Figure 7.13a

Slide
Cerebral Hemispheres (Cerebrum)
• Gyrus
• Sulcus
• Fissure
• 1. Median Longitudinal
Fissure
• 2. Lateral Sylvian Fissure
• 3. Central Sulcus of
Rolando
• 4. Parieto-Occipital
Fissure
LATERAL VIEW
DORSAL VIEW
The SULCI & FISSURES
VIEW FRONTAL PARIETAL TEMPORAL OCCIPITAL
LOBE LOBE LOBE LOBE
SUPERIOR Sup. Frontal Post. Central
Longitudinal S. S.
Cerebral F. Inf. Frontal S. Interparietal S.
LATERAL Precentral S. Postcentral S. Sup., Inf.
Lat. Sylvian F Sup. & Inf. Infraparietal Temporal S.
Parieto-Occi. Frontal S. S.
F
INFERIOR Olfactory S. Collateral S.
Occiipito-
Temporal S.
Midsagital Cingulate S. Collateral S.
Occipito-
Temporal S.
The GYRI
VIEW FRONTAL PARIETAL TEMPORAL OCCIPITAL
LOBE LOBE LOBE LOBE

SUPERIOR Sup. Frontal G. Postcental G.


Mid. Frontal G. Sup. Parietal G.
Precentral G.

LATERAL Sup. Frontal G. Postcentral G. Sup., Mid., Inf.


Mid. Frontal G. Supramarginal G. Temporal G.
Inf. Frontal G. Angular G.
Precentral G.

INFERIOR Gyrus rectus Uncus G.


Orbital Gyri Parahippocampus
G.
Inf. Temporal G.

MIDSAGITAL Sup. Frontal G. Paracentral Uncus G. Cuneus


Paracentral Lobule Parahippocampus Lingual G.
Lobule G.
Cingulate G.
The Lobes
The Occipital Lobe-posterior end of cortex
Contains primary visual cortex
The Parietal Lobe-between occipital love the central sulcus
Contains the primary somatosensory cortex-receiving touch sensation,
muscle-stretch information and joint position information
The Temporal Lobe-lateral portion of each hemisphere, near the temples
Contains targets for audition, essential for understanding spoken language,
complex visual processes, emotional and motivational behaviors
The Frontal Lobe-extends from the central sulcus to the anterior limit of the
brain
Contains Primary Motor Cortex-fine movements
Contributes to shifting attention, planning of action, delayed response
tasks as examples
Specialized Areas of the Cerebrum

 Somatic sensory area – receives


impulses from the body’s sensory
receptors
 Primary motor area – sends impulses to
skeletal muscles
 Broca’s area – involved in our ability to
speak

Slide 7.30
LOBES AND FUNCTIONS
• FRONTAL LOBE:
• Location:
• The frontal lobe is
found in the area
around your forehead.
• Characteristics:
• Behaviour & Emotion
• Intelligence
• Voluntary Movement
LOBES AND FUNCTIONS
• PARIETAL LOBE:
• Location:
• Parietal lobes are
found behind the
frontal lobes, above
the temporal lobes,
and at the top back of
the brain.
• Characteristics:
• Tactile &
Proprioceptive
sensation
LOBES AND FUNCTIONS
• TEMPORAL LOBE:
• Location:
• The temporal lobes are
found on either side of
the brain and just above
the ears.
• Characteristics:
• Speech & Language
• Hearing
• Gustatory
LOBES AND FUNCTIONS
• OCCIPITAL LOBE:
• Location:
• The occipital lobe is
found in the back of
the brain.
• Characteristics:
• Vision (Visual)
The Brain: Cerebrum (lobes)

Frontal: motor function,


motivation, aggression, smell
and mood
Parietal: reception and
evaluation of sensory info.
Temporal: smell, hearing,
memory and abstract thought
Occipital: visual processing
Sensory and Motor Areas of the
Cerebral Cortex

Figure 7.14

Slide 7.31
Specialized Area of the Cerebrum

Figure 7.13c

Slide
Major Brodmann’s Areas
• 1. Frontal Lobe
• Pre-Central Gyrus
• Area 4 “Primary Motor
Area”
• Contralateral Voluntary
Motor Activity.
• Lesion: Initial flaccid
paralysis
• Area 6 “Assoc. Motor Area”
• -It initiates mov’t.
• Lesion: Spasticity and inc.
DTR.
• Area 8 “Frontal Eye
Field”
• - It conjugates eye
mov’t.
• Lesion:Eye deviation
away from the
affected side.
• Pre-Frontal Area:
• Area 9,10,11
• For good judgment,
decision, ambition and
personality
• Area 44, 45
“Broca’s Area”
• Production of speech.
• Lesion: if dominant
hemisphere is
involved, will
experience motor
aphasia.
• AKA: Ant. Aphasia,
Expressive aphasia,
non-fluent aphasia
• 2. Parietal Lobe
• Area 3,1,2 “Primary
sensation/Somesthetic
area”
• Receives tactile sensation
• Lesion: Produce
contralateral impairment
of touch, pressure, and
proprioception
• Area 5,7 “Sensory assoc.
Area”
• It interprets the feeling
• Lesion: Asteriognosis
• (shape: handling or lifting)
• Area 40
“Supramarginal
Gyrus”
• Lesion: If dominant
hemisphere involved,
result in tactile &
proprioceptive agnosia,
confusion in (R)&(L)
discrimination,
disturbances of body
image, & apraxia
• Ideomotor apraxia
• Ideational apraxia
• Area 39 “ Angular
Gyrus”
• Lesion: If dominant
hemisphere is involved,
result in agraphia,
acalculia, finger agnosia,
(R)&(L) discrimination.
• Area 5,7,39,40
(Combination area)
“Gnostic Area” to know...
• Lesion: Agnosia – inability
to interpret sensation and
recognize things .
• Prosopagnosia - inability to
recognize familiar person.
• Non-Dominant involvement (R) Parietal:
• Lesion:
• 1. Hemineglect/Anosognosia – inability to
perceive problem on the side.
• 2. Constructional Apraxia – inability to
copy. (letters, drawing, etc.)
• 3. Dressing Apraxia – inability to wear
clothes.
• 3. Occipital Lobe
• Area 17 “Primary
Visual Area”
• Lesion: One side-
Contralateral
Homonymous
Hemianopsia
• Both side- Cortical
Blindness
• Area 18, 19 “Visual
Assoc. Area”
• Lesion: Visual agnosia
– difficulty
recognizing and
identifying objects.
• Can able to see but
cannot interpret.
• 4. Temporal Lobe
• Area 41 “Primary Auditory
Area”
• Lesion: One side – Hearing
impairment
• Both side – Cortical Deafness
• Area 42 “ Assoc. Auditory
Area”
• It interprets spoken language,
music
• Area 22 “Wernike”
• Lesion: Problem on
comprehensive
• Auditory Aphasia
• AKA: Post., sensory, receptive
and fluent aphasia
Types of Aphasia
• 1. Broca’s Aphasia – Abnormal Expression
and Normal Comprehension
• 2. Wernicke’s Aphasia – Abnormal
Comprehension and Normal Expression
• 3. Global Aphasia – Damaged Broca’s and
Wernicke’s area.
Figure 4.20 Some major subdivisions of the human cerebral cortex
The four lobes: occipital, parietal, temporal, and frontal.
The Brain: Cerebrum (makin’ waves)

Sum electrical
activity can be
read as waves
with EEG
bio-feedback to
control brain
activity
The Brain: Cerebrum (memories)
1 1
3 types: 9 3
2 5
Sensory ~ less than a second
1 7
Short-term ~ seconds to minutes 3 9
6 2
(about 7 - 12 bits)
0 4
3 6
Long-term ~ minutes to life time 7 8
associated with re-shaping neurons and 8 0
2 1
formation of memory engrams 4 3
(pattern of neurons and their 3 5
connections) 1 7
The Brain: Cerebrum
(memories)
Long term memories are
divided into 2 types:
Declarative memory ~
ability to recall details,
names etc.
Procedural memory ~
ability to repeat behaviors
or actions.
Example: Pavlov and
conditioning
Diencephalon
• The diencephalon consists of the third ventricle and
the structures that form its boundaries.
• It extends posteriorly to the point where the third
ventricle becomes continuous with the cerebral
aqueduct and anteriorly as far as the interventricular
foramina.
• Thus, the diencephalon is a midline structure with
symmetrical right and left halves. Obviously, these
subdivisions of the brain are made for convenience,
and from a functional point of view, nerve fibers
freely cross the boundaries.
Thalamus
• The thalamus is by far
the largest part of the
diencephalon, constituting
about four-fifths of its
weight.
• It consists of a cluster of
nuclei shaped somewhat
like a yo-yo, with two
large, lateral portions
connected in the center by
a small stalk called the
interthalamic adhesion,
or intermediate mass
Thalamus
• The thalamus is situated
on each side of the third
ventricle
• The anterior end of the
thalamus is narrow and
rounded and forms the
posterior boundary of the
interventricular foramen.
Thalamus
• The posterior end is
expanded to form the
pulvinar, which overhangs
the superior colliculus and
the superior brachium
• The lateral geniculate
body forms a small
elevation on the under
aspect of the lateral
portion of the pulvinar.
Subthalamus
• The subthalamus lies inferior to the thalamus
and, therefore, is situated between the thalamus
and the tegmentum of the midbrain;
craniomedially, it is related to the
hypothalamus.
• The subthalamic nucleus has the shape of a
biconvex lens. The nucleus has important
connections with the corpus striatum; as a
result, it is involved in the control of muscle
activity.
Epithalamus
• Dorsal posterior
segment of the
diencephalon.
• The epithalamus
consists of the
habenular nuclei and
their connections
and the pineal gland.
Epithalamus
• The habenular
nucleus is a small
group of neurons
situated just medial to
the posterior surface
of the thalamus.
• It is believed to be a
center for integration
of olfactory, visceral,
and somatic afferent
pathways.
Pineal Body
• The pineal gland is a small, conical structure that is
attached by the pineal stalk to the diencephalon.
• The pineal gland, once thought to be of little
significance, is now recognized as an important
endocrine gland
• The pineal secretions, produced by the pinealocytes,
reach their target organs via the bloodstream or through
the cerebrospinal fluid.
• Their actions are mainly inhibitory and either directly
inhibit the production of hormones or indirectly inhibit
the secretion of releasing factors by the hypothalamus.
Pineal Body
• Melatonin and the enzymes needed for its production are
present in high concentrations within the pineal gland.
Melatonin and other substances are released into the
blood or into the cerebrospinal fluid of the third ventricle
where they pass to the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
and inhibit the release of the gonadotrophic hormone.
• In humans, as in animals, the plasma melatonin level rises
in darkness and falls during the day. It would appear that
the pineal gland plays an important role in the regulation
of reproductive function.
Hypothalamus
• Hypothalamus – highest
regulatory center of ANS.
• The most conspicuous nuclei,
called the mammillary bodies,
appear as bulges on the ventral
surface of the diencephalon. They
are involved in olfactory reflexes
and emotional responses to odors.
They may also be involved in
memory.
• A funnel-shaped stalk, the
infundibulum extends from the
floor of the hypothalamus and
connects it to the pituitary gland.
Hypothalamus
• Functions:
• 1. Controls of
Temperature
• 2. Emotion (Physical
Response)
• 3. Endocrine
(Hormones)
• 4. Sexual Desire
• 5. Feeding
• 6. Circardian Rhythm
Temperature Control

ANTERIOR POSTERIOR
Heat Loss Heat Production
Vasodilation Vasoconstriction
Sweating Shivering
Panting Piloerection