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The Bekavior of Piles Driven in Clay. I.

An Investigation of
Soil Stress and Pore Water Pressure as Related to Soil
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Received May 2, 1972

Accepted June 22, 1972

This paper outlines rcsearch o n large model piles and somc full-scale pilcs drivcn into inscnsitivc
clay to study the phenomena of load transfer and the effect of pile driving o n the soil. It is dividcd
into two parts. Part I deals with the stress field set up by driving a large modcl pilc into an instsu-
mented clay bed and the stresses measured for some full-scale timber piles. Part 1L presents an cval-
uation of the load carrying capacity of the model pile and compares the results with full-scale pilc
load tests. The soil properties are evaluated in terms of effective stress for an estimate of the bcaring
capacity of the piles.
T h e measured soil displacements near the shaft and base agree well with plastic theory, while thc
observed magnitude of the pore pressures i n the clay due t o driving arc smaller and thc ratc of posc
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pressure dissipation is greater than expected theoretically.

The magnitude of the total and effective radial stresses surrounding the pilc is mainly rclated to
the stress changes in the soil due t o placing the pile and subsequent stress changes are relatively
small. On the other hand, the tangential a n d vertical stresses vary appreciably with time and the
latter stresses depart considerably from estimates based o n elastic theory, duc to locked-in-soil
An approximate theory is presented t o estimate the average effectivc radial strcss o n the pile shaft
in connection with the ultimate shaft capacity. This proposed approach is supported by observations
in some clays of low sensitivity, but requires further research in other typc of clays.
Lc present article decrit les travaux de recherchc, sur dcs pieux modelcs dc grandcs climcns~onsct
sur des pieux grandeur rielle battus dans des argiles non sensibles, realises pour etudicr Ic phtnorncnc
de transfert de charge et I'effet du battage sur les proprietes du sol.
La Section I concerne le champs de contraintes induit par Ic battage d'un pieu modelc dans un lit
d'argilc instrument6 et les contraintes mesurees sur quelqucs pieux dc bois dc grandcur rkelle. La
section I1 presente une evaluation de la capacite portante du pieux modele ct unc coniparaison dcs
resultats avec ceux d'essais de chargement sur des pieux prototypes. Les propriktks du sol sont Cvalutcs
cn contraintes effectives pour determiner la capaciti portantc des pieux.
Les deplacernents du sol mesurts i proximite du f i ~ tet de la base du picu correspondent i ceux
diduits de la theorie de plasticite, alors que les pressions interstitielles ducs ail battagc dans I'argilc
sont plus faibles et se dissipent plus rapidernent que ce qu'on pourrait prtvoir thCoriquenicnt.
Les valeurs des contraintes radiales totales et effectives ailtour du pieu sont reliecs essentiellernent
aux changements de contraintes se produisant lors de la mise en place d u pieux et elles ne varicnt ~ L I C
peu par la suite. Au contraire les contraintes tangentielles et verticales varient appreciablcrnent en
fonction du tcrnps, les contraintes verticales differant considerablernent des evaluations b a s k s sur
la theorie de I'elasticite.
Une thtorie approchee pour evaluer la contrainte radiale effectivc moyennc le long du f i ~ dt u picu
ct la force portante developpie par le fQt est presentee. L'approchc proposec est confirmee par Ics
observations faites dans certaines argiles de faible sensibiliti mais des recherches compltmcntaircs
sont nkcessaires pour d'autres types d'argile. [Traduit par Ic journal]

Introduction c a ~ a c i t v of a Itile in terms of rundamental

I ,

A conlmon problem in foundation soil properties. In order to make such a

i n g is the predetermination of the load bearing prediction, a knowledge of the state of stress
---.-p which exists in the soil immediately after the
IPresented at the 24th Canadian Geotechnical Confer- pile is driven and under subsequent loading is
ence,NovaScotiaTechnicalCollege, September2-3, 1971. essential. Piles in service are usually subjected
Cnundinn Gcotccl~nicnlJournal, 9, 351 (19i?)

t o a relatively constan1 dead load from the thc basc o r the bottom could be loaded mdependently
structure a n d t o cyclic applications of live of the shaft. The basc was fitted with a load cell which
measured total load acting o n tlic bottoni of the pile.
loads such as that imposed by wind. Studies T h c test bed consistcd of a 22-in. (55.9-cni) diameter
should therefore consider this condition of steel druni 30 in. (76.2 cm) high. Approximately 800
loading. Ib (360 kg) of clay was placed in the drum for cach test.
T h e effect of pile driving on the soil a n d an The displacement transducers provided for measurc-
~iicntof linear displacement up to 2 in. (5.1 cm). Flush
evaluation of soil properties in terms of effec- diaphragm pressure transducers, approximately l in.
tive stress by conventional techniques, from
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(2.5 cm) long and 112 in. (1 . 3 cm) in diameter

which useable design parameters may be wcrc used to measure total st~css.T h e sanic type of
derived, make u p the major part o r this paper. transducer was used in a prcssure block outside the tesl
T h e results are compared with field measure- bed to measurc porc pressures generated by the driving
of thc pile. T h e block was connected to the point at
ments made with timber piles and a case which porc pressures wcrc t o be measured by a 118-in.
history from the literature. The results of (0.32-cm) diameter copper tube with tlic tip fitted t o a
several model tests using an instrumented steel porous stone of the m n c diameter, and 112 in. (1 .3cn1)
pile and an instrumented soil bed are present- long.
ed. Tcs/ P r o c c ~ ( k ~ ~ ~ c
T h e pile was driven into the soil bed by a drop weight
which delivered 75 ft-lb (10.8 kg-ni)/blow. T h e resulting
Model Testing Program stress field was immediately recorded and load testing
Scope, started the same day. The load test procedure for the
T h e first step in the model test program was a n in- piles varied somewhat, but, the first load test was gener-
ally conducted 30 min after driving. An initial load of
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vestigation to determine the adaptability of the proposed

instrumentation to the problem t o be studied. This was 150 1b (67.5 kg) was placed o n the pilc immediately
followed by several tests with a large model pile t o in- after driving except for the piles which were subjected
vestigate the displacement of the soil in the vicinity of t o vane tests by removing the base after driving. The
the pile a s it was drivcn. O n the basis of this information, piles were loaded to failure by increasing the load in
it was possible to determine where pressure transducers incrcnicnts of 10 o r 5 lb (4.5 o r 2 . 3 kg). T h e total stress
could be placed prior to driving the pile. T h e object was and porc pressure was recorded for cach increment o f
to measurc stresses at the approximate location of the load. The 10, d \vaj rcniovcd in increments after failure
elastic-plastic boundary, withoot having the instruments had occurred. It was completely removed between
displaced and without the presence of the instruments tests for pile A but was maintained at 150 1b (67.5 kg)
significantly influencing the stress conditions. All sub- betwecn tcsts for piles B t o E, inclusive. T h e load test
sequent tests involved the use of pressure transducers was repeated after intervals of 24 h, 48 h, 4 days, 7 days,
to mcasurc total stress and small piezometers t o measurc 14 days and, in some cases, 21 days and 28 days. Follow-
pore water prcssure. Each series of tests also involved ing the final load cycle for piles B to E, inclusive, the top
repeated loading of tlic pile t o failurc a t different time of the pile was removed, thereby releasing the load o n the
intervals, but the procedure was varied initially, to basc and after a period of 24 h, the base was loaded t o
determinc the influence of load history on the ultimate failure independent of the shaft. Following a further 24-h
capacity. A total of five series of model tests were con- period, the shaft was loaded independently to failure.
ducted, designated model pilc test A-E. Pile A was
subjected t o load tests from zero load, and after failurc Properties and Test Results of Clay Bed
the entire load was renloved. Pile B was treated differ- T h e clay used for the model tests is o f
ently. A constant load (150 Ib (67.5 kg)), equal to about
one-half o f the first failure load, was maintained o n the medium plasticity. The predominant clay
pile betwecn tests, except for brief periods of in-si/u mineral is illite with quartz a n d feldspar
strength testing. Both of these piles had a removable basc comprising the major po;.tion of the nonclay
which allowed access to the soil a t the bottom of the minerals. T h e classification test data are
pile for vane tests. Piles C, D and E wcrc each subjected
to the same test procedure, except for Pile E where the
contained in Table I.
tests were continued for a longer period of time. Pressure T h e compacted clay was tested for strength
transducers, positioned to provide a stress rosette, were properties using several techniques and an
used along the pile shaft, and other transducers were extensive series of tests were undertaken t o
placed below thc pile. T h e purpose of the tests was t o evaluate the anele of skin friction. for steel
define the stress field surrounding the pile and deter- L'

lninc its relationship with thepile load carrying capacity. with different surface textures. Small vane
tests were made adjacent t o the pile after it
Apprircilrrs was driven and tests were made below the
A 3-in. (7 .G-cm) dianietersteel pile, 30in. (76.2cm) long pile by removing the base through the top.
with aO. I-in. (0.25-cm) wall thickness wasused for the mo-
del tests. T h e pile had a removable bottom which could be Unconfined compressive strength tests were
lifted out between tests to allow access to the soil below used primarily as a means of assessing strength

TABLE1. Summary of soil classification tests zero cohesion. The direct shear tests indicate
-. .
-- peak and residual friction angles of 2 4 . 0
No. of and 1 4 . 5 degrees, respectively, with a co-
Tests Min. Max. Average hesion intercept of 0 . 5 0 p.s.i. (0.035 kgicm?).
A series of skin friction tests using various
Liquid limit (S) 9 41.7 43.6 42.2
Plastic limit (C/,) 9 19.0 23.1 21.8 textured steel surfaces and several rates of
Plasticity index 9 22.0 19.2 20.4 shear were conducted. Three different steel
Percentage: Sand 3 0 2 I surfaces were tested over a wide range of
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Silt 3 62 68 65 normal pressures. In order to cover the entire

Clay 3 32 36 34
Specific gravity 2 2.747 2.748 2.748
range of roughness which might bc experienc-
cd with steel piles, a very rough knurled
surface was tested as well as a very smooth,
anisotropy, the significance of aging on the lightly polished surface. In addition, a block
undrained strength a n d the moisture content - of cold rolled steel was tested with normal
undrained strength relationship for this par- factory finish, which was intermediate be-
ticular clay. The results of the tests a n d the tween the rough a n d smooth blocks and ap-
relationship derived for the strength change proximately the sanlc as the model pile.
with time are illustrated by Fig. l . The Drained tests were conducted on these sam-
directional properties of the soil did not ples to determine both peak and residual
prove to be significant. The effective strength shearing resistance. The block of normal
properties were assessed by means of conso- steel finish was instrumented in order that
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lidated undrained triaxial tests with pore pore pressures could be measured. This was
pressure measurements a n d by means o f accomplished by setting three small porous
drained direct shear tests. Figure 2 shows the stones in the face of the block a n d connecting
results of both sets of tests. The triaxial these to a single pressure chamber, in direct
tests show a friction angle o r 24.4" and contact with a pressure transducer. Figure 3

l l l
Od.1 I 10 100 IC
Time After Compaction- Days

FIG. 1. Strength change of clay with timc.


Effective Stress
---- Total Stress
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Normal Stress - p.s.1.


- PEAK $' = 24.0°

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Normal Pressure - p.s.1.

SHEAR DISPLACEMENT RATE - 0 . 0 0 0 0 5 7 6 ln/rnin
FIG. 2. Kesulls of triaxial and direct shear tests.

illustrates the various blocks tested and shows of 0 . 0 3 in. ( 0 . 0 8 cm) i n all cases, whereas
the construction details of tlie i n s t r ~ ~ m e n t e d the maximum pore pressures were not re-
block. corded before displacements in tlie range o f
T h e drained tests were sheared at a rate 0.04-0.12 in. (0.10-0.30 cm), increasing with
of 0.000128 in./min (0.000325 cm/niin). The greater normal loads.
tests with pore pressure ~ n e a s u r e ~ n e n twere
s Figure 4(h) shows the influence of shearing
run at sates of 0.0032, 0.016 and 0.048 rate for samples subjected to the same normal
in./min (0.008 1, 0.041 and 0 . 122 cni/niin). load. T h e pore pressure increases markedly
Six specimens were tested for each sate under as the shearing rate increases. Both the peak
normal loads ranging from 2 . 5 6 to 13.19 and residual values of skin friction decrease
p.s.i. (0.018 to 0 . 9 3 kg/cm2). with increased shearing rate. These results
Figure 4 ( ~ )shows the shearing stress ancl are for a constant normal load of 9 . 5 8
pore pressure developed for different normal p.s.i. (0.67 kg/cm?) but are typical for the
loads when subjected to a shear rate of 0.048 entire range of normal loads investigated.
in./min (0.122 cm/min). T h e peak shearing The drained tests showed a peak skin
resistance was reached before a displacement friction angle, A', of 23" for the rough steel,
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FIG. 3. (0) Steel used for skin friction tests, (0) Apparatus for skin friction tests with pore pressure.

15" for the very smooth block and 18.7" The influence of shearing rate is evident
for the block with normal finish. N o adhesion in tlie tests with pore pressure measurements.
was indicated for anv of these tests. T h e The peak adhesion tends toward zero as the
skin friction angle recorded after a displace- rate of shear decreases and is equal to zero
ment of 0 . 3 in. (0.8 cm) for the rough steel for both the rough a n d smooth tests under
was 13", 11.5" for the normal finish and 9" drained conditions. T h e total and effective
for the smooth steel. The relationslii~ be- angle of skin friction tends to converge with
tween shear stress and normal pressure for reduced shearing rate because of the dissipa-
these tests is shown in Figs. 5(d) and 6 ( d ) tion of pore water pressure. The undrained
for the peak and residual cases, respectively. tests indicate an effective peak angle of skin
The results of the tests with pore pressure friction of the order of 18", which is almost
measurements at tlie shearing interface are identical with that measured by the drained
also summarized in Figs. 5 and 6. Figure 5 test. T h e residual skin friction parameters
illustrates the ~ e a values
k of skin friction and are also substantially influenced by shearing
Fig. 6 shows those which obtain after a rate.
displacement of 0 . 3 in. ( 0 . 8 cm). This dis- Vane tests in the clay bed were carried o u t
placement is considered sufficient to produce prior to driving the pile. T h e instrument was
a residual skin friction value for tlie sbil-steel positioned over the center point where the
shearing interface. A comparison with pre- pile was to be driven and tests were made a t
viously published data is given in Table 2. depth intervals of about 4 in. (10.2 cm) t o
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"-i -IL
Displacement - i n c h
(a) Shear Stress And Pore Pressures For
Different Normal Loads
Shaating Rots - 0.048 in/mln. 'I
Displacement - inches
(b) Shear Stress And Pore Pressures For
Different Shearing Rates
Normal Load- 9.58 psi.
FIG. 4. Typical skin friction test results.

a point 6 in. (15.2 cm) below the driven The results of the vane tests are shown on
depth. In addition, tests were made at the Fig. 7. Figure 7(a) shows the strength gain
12-in. (30.5-cm) depth at intervals of l in. of the soil adjacent to the shaft, at the 12-in.
(2.5 cm) along radial lines for a distance (30.5-cm) depths and at a depth of 3 in.
of about 8 in. (20.3 cm) out from the center ( 7 . 6 cm) below the pile; and Fig. 7(b) shows
of the test bed. In each case, the tests were the behavior of the soil at different distances
repeated with the vane tip removed in order from the shaft for pile A, which was tested
to determine the contribution of rod friction much more extensively. The shape of the
to the torque registered on the apparatus. 'aging' curve was obtained from test data
Following the initial vane tests for the presented in Fig. 1.
first two model pile tests, designated as pile The soil adjacent to the pile shows a sub-
A and B, the pile was driven and load tested. stantial increase in strength immediately
Immediately after the load had been reduced after driving. This is probably due to the
to zero, the pile cap was unscrewed, the base consolidation which accompanies the rapid
was removed and tests were made at the dissipation of the excess hydrostatic pressure
bottom of the pile at depth intervals of 314 surrounding the pile. The initial loss of
in. (1.9 cm) down to the bottom of the test strength indicated at distances of 1-2 in.
bed. In addition, the shearing resistance was (2.5-5. l cm) from the pile may reflect an
measured at intervals on a radial line begin- increase in moisture content due to migration
ning at the pile surface and going out for a of pore water away from the pile. The sub-
distance of 6 in. (15.2 cm) from the outside sequent increase at the l-in. (2.5-cm) dis-
of the pile, at the 12-in. (30.5-cm) depth. tance is probably due to consolidation, which
The procedure was repeated several times is likely accelerated during load tests. The
during the course of the pile load tests. soil-skin surrounding the pile may consoli-
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Normal Pressure - p.8.i.

FIG. 5. Peak strength r e s ~ ~ l tofs skin friction tests.

date less during load tests a n d show a lesser placement decreases rapidly as the distance
rate of strength gain because of the plastic from the pile increases. The greatest radial
deformation which occurs in this thin zone. displacement was found at about mid-height
T h e soil under the pile definitely shows the of the pile. This displacement is close to the
influence of consolidation. T h e rate of strength theoretical displacements calculated on the
gain is much greater than that attributable basis of plane radial strain with no volume
t o aging. The consolidation is probably change (Ladanyi 1963) and o n the basis of
accelerated during the load tests. T h e strength Hill's (1949) method by using the peak se-
gain d u e to consolidation of the soil surround- cant modulus from the result of confined
ing the pile shaft appears t o be practically compressive strength tests. These data a r e
complete 2 days after driving. compared on Fig. 9, for both the cylin-
drical case (shaft) a n d the spherical case
Results of Model Pile Tests (base) and include the theoretical elastic-
Soil Displncenwnt Near Pile plastic boundary according to Hill (1950).
Figure 8 shows the results of the tests in T h e actual displacement curve appears to be
dimensionless graph form. T h e actual dis- approaching zero at the relative distance of 3 . 5 ,

(a) Undralned Test

Normal Surface Steel
6'= 19.50
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4l ( b l Undrained Test
Normal Surface Steel
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(d) Drained Test

Normal Pressure-p.s.1.
FIG. 6. Residual strength results of skin friction tcsts.

2. Comparison of skin friction values for compared with infinity for the theoretical
cohesive soils and steel methods. This is likely due to the consolida-
tion which takes place during the driving of
Construction material the pile.
Meyerhof, 1962 Pore Wnter Behavior During Driving
Smooth steel
Rough steel The pore water pressure in the soil adjacent
Present studies to the pile was generally measured at a dis-
Drained Tests tance and depth corresponding to the stress
Smooth steel (peak) rosette formed by the transducers. The beha-
Smooth steel (residual)
Rough steel (peak)
vior is summarized in Fig. 10 from start of
Rough steel (residual) driving up to the time of the first load test.
Undrained tests A comparison of the pore pressure data
Normal steel (peak) indicates that distance from the pile and
Normal steel (residual) depth below surface are the most important

.+ 3- /5'From Shaft B
0 ~&E*$LA_-_.
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l l I l I
5 10 15 20 25
Time After Driving - days
( a ) Soil Adjacent To Pile
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3" Below Baae

1 a shaft
-.Ageing Tests

@ Adjacent to shaft

IDF 5I 1I0 1I5 20

I 2I 5
Time After Driving - days
(b) Soil At Various Distances From Pile Pile A
FIG. 7. Vane shear strength change with time.

features in regard to development of excess has shown that the flow of water from a pile
pore pressure due to driving. This is illustrated is a function of the parameter io2/c1,t where
by Fig. 11. Thus, small variations in moisture c, is the horizontal coefficient of consolida-
content, shear strength and initial locked in tion and t is the time. The expression presented
stress have much less influence on pore pres- by Doinaschuk (1968) for theoretical pore
sure behavior, within the range investigated, pressure, can be written for the case of un-
than the depth and distance from the pile. restricted drainage:
Diffusion starts immediately wit11 an increase
in pore pressure. It can be seen from pile D.
Au = (pAain + aASd) f (i.,c,,,t)
Fig. 10, that consolidation is well advanced where Aatn is the change in mean normal
in the soil near the top of the pile before the stress and ASd is the change in resultant
pore water pressure reaches the maximum deviator stress. When 1 - 0 3 , if r is constant
value toward the bottom of the pile. and c, is constant, then Au,,,, = L (pAatn +
The maximum pore pressure developed aASd) where L = f (i.,c,,t).
is not only a function of change in stresses The coefficient of consolidation c , is affect-
but is also related to permeability, length ed by many factors as outlined in detail by
of drainage path and time. Soderberg (1962) Taylor (1948). It is unlikely that c,, and r

% [~ineor Displacement
Location of Plunaer
Before Driving.
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Below Pile

- 0.4 -

0.2 -
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I 2 3
Distance From Pile Axis
Pile Radius ro

FIG. 8. Horizontal displacement near pilc.

br lculoted Elastic
Plastic Boundary (Hill1

Measured Displacement
Adjacent to Base

heoreticd Curve (Hill]

0 I 2 3
Rodid Distance Fran Pile Axis Radial Distance From Pile Axis
Pile Rodius ro Pile Radius ro
(a) Cylindrical Case (b) Spherical Case
FIG. 9. Comparison of meas~~red
and theoretical soil displacement for shaft and base.
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2' Pile A - 12' Depth


FIG. 10. Porc pressure bi~ildupnear shaft during driving and dissipation after driving.

are independent a n d c,, would certainly differ cal derivation would be extremely complex.
in the plastic zone from that in the elastic It can only be said that it varies from 0 to 1,
zone. T h e value of L lies between 0 a n d 1 , depending upon tlie soil type, pile size a n d
being 0 when c, is infinitely large o r when / material, a n d driving time.
is infinitely large. It approaches 1 as c, de-
creases a n d t approaches zero. Thus L will To/cr/ crnd E f e c / i w Stresses Surrounding the
always be less than 1 . It will be equal to 0 Pile
in the case of a highly permeable soil where When a pile is driven into soft clay, the
there is a time lame-betieen ~ i l driver e blows. soil which previously occupied the zone filled
sucll as with a d r o p hamme;. It will be close by tlie pile is displaced a n d compressed. It
to 1 in tlie case of a large pile very rapidly moves away from its original location, com-
driven into a fat clay. For the present model pressing a n d displacing adjacent soil until
pile, the value of L is determined to be 0 . 5 5 , the displaced volume is accommodated. T h e
0.71 a n d 0 . 8 0 at depths of 6, 12 a n d 18 in. displaced soil is partly provided for by heaving
(1 5 . 2 , 3 0 . 5 a n d 4 5 . 7 cm) below tlie surface. near the surface surrounding the pile. It is
These values were obtained by dividing the primarily accommodated, however, by the
measured pore pressures, ~ i g . 11, b y the 'accordian' action comprised of compression
maximum theoretical values calculated from within tlie displaced volume a n d the sur-
the measured stresses, using Domascliuk's rounding soil. This compression is made u p
method. The variation is ~ r o b a b l vrelated lo of elastic deformation a n d consolidation.
variations in c,, a n d /. ~ h influince
k of time Since consolidation acts concurrently with
on the development of pore pressures along plastic deformation a n d elastic conipression
a shearing interface for steel and soil was il- a n d since each mode of deformation is greatly
lustrated in Fip. 6. Because of the several
influenced by the olhers, a lheoretical treat-
factors which influence L, many o r wliicli ment of the problem is very complex. It is
are interdependent, any attempt of a theoreti- necessary, therefore, to make a number o r

h Pile 0-20" Depth
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i, E-22" Depth

' Pile 8-12" Depth
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'El Pile 8 - 1 2 " ~ e ~ t h

'l Pile A-12" Depth
Pile D-& Depth
\ \B Pile E-6" Depth

Distance From Pile &

Pile padiusL ro

FIG. l I . Change in pore pressure due to driving for different depths and distances from pilc.

simplifying assumptions with regard to the extending the analysis of Nadai (1950) for
mode of deformation and strain path. The an expanding hole in a flat plate. This ap-
theoretical treatments are usually based on proach can be justified only for the condition
elastic, plastic, or elastic-plastic theory, all near the surface. By replacing the pile by a
of which ignore the influence of consolida- system of double forces acting in a radial
tion. direction, Gorbunov-Posadov (1968) has ex-
It is evident that the large strains which tended Mindlin's (1936) work to predict dis-
are induced in the immediate vicinity of the placement and compaction of soil by a driven
driven pile relate closely to a condition of pile. This solution assumes constant elastic
plastic deformation. This has been analyzed properties for all deforn~ationsand no volume
by Ladanyi (1963) by extending the work of change due to consolidation.
Hill (1950). By considering the clay as a two- The various theoretical treatments of the
phase system, he separated pore water stress problem are useful in qualitatively assessing
and effective soil stress. In order to apply the stress field surrounding a pile during
the theory, however, it is necessary to assume driving and under load. The real stresses will
no volume change in the zone of plastic depart markedly from the theoretical values,
deformation, no drainage and a condition o r however, because of the major influence of
plane radial strain. Soderberg (1962) has consolidation and because of the variable
considered the stress surrounding the pile strain path. Figure 12 presents a summary
by assuming a condition of plane stress and in ternis of total stress and Fig. 13 shows the
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effective stresses at a distance of one diameter mid depth it is compressive a n d approximately

from the center of the pile. For each of the equal to the radial stress; a n d by the bottom
load cycles presented, the stress conditions at of the pile it is equal to the vertical stress.
the start of the load test under the constant The tangential stress ranges from the major
load of 150 Ib ( 6 7 . 5 kg) or, in the case of the principaT stress to the m i h o r principal stress
shaft a n d base tests, zero load, a n d the stress from t o p to bottom, becoming the interme-
conditions at the ultimate load are shown. diate principal stress at a depth between
After about 7 days, there is only a slight 6 a n d 9 in. ( 1 5 . 2 a n d 2 2 . 9 c m ) (41.0-61.0).
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difference between the total a n d effective ( 5 ) The distribution of the radial a n d

stresses with the latter being somewhat vertical stress appears to be related to the
greater d u e to negative pore water pressure. strain path of the soil displaced by driving.
Figure 14 shows the effective principal stresses At the surface. there is a condition of plane
G ~ a' n d a?'a n d the angle of the major principal radial stress (G,. = 0 ) with a gradual transition
stress with the vertical. to plane radial strain (c,. = 0) with increased
An examination of Fies. U
12-14 leads to the depth.
following observ'itions : (6) T h e effective major principal stress
(1) The radial stresses, G,. a n d G:., pro- G', is sharply inclined at a depth of 6 in.
duced by the displacement of the soil (1 5 . 2 cm) (41.0) immediately after driving
as the ~ i l eis driven sets the at tern for
1 but is horizontal by a depth of 12 in. ( 3 0 . 5
this stress during the entire subsequent period c m ) (81.0) a n d remains so for the remainder
investigated. T h e effective stress increases of the pile. This stress rotates with continued
For personal use only.

- - under the static load with time but load cycles. Along the pile shaft the stress
shows a decrease when loaded t o failure. T h e rotates downward during each load cycle
decrease is insignificant a t the first load cycle whereas at the base of the pile, it rotates up-
but is over 15"; by the 6th load cycle a n d for wards. l'here is no change in tlie stress direc-
the independent shaft load as well. In terms tion near the base of the pile during tlie inde-
of total-stress. there is a eradual decrease
V pendent loading of the shaft. During the inde-
with time a n d practically no change as the pendent loading of the base there is no change
pile is loaded to failure. in position at a depth of 6 i n . ( 1 5 . 2 c m )
(2) T h e tangential stresses, G ~ ,change (4 1.0) but a slight change by the 12-in. (30.5-
markedly from the condition initially estab- cm) (8 1.0) depth.
lished by the driving action. The effective
stress has a maximum value in compression Soil Stsess Below the Pile
a t the t o p of the pile a n d is equal to zero a t the T h e distribution o f vertical stress, G,. a n d
bottom immediately after driving. This chan- G;, on a horizontal plane 2 i n . ( 5 . 1 c m )
ges to a condition of tension a t the t o p of (413 1.0) below the base is illustrated i n Fig.
the pile a n d a significant compressive stress 15. T h e effective stress below the base immedi-
at the bottom bv the 5th load cvcle. T h e ately after driving a n d a few minutes later
total tangential stress along the pile, as with when the 150 Ib (67.5 kg) constant load is
the radial stress, decreases slightly when applied is shown in Fig. 15(c1).The extent a n d
the pile is loaded to failure. growth of the 'locked in' stress below the
(3) T h e total vertical stress, G,., along thc base is shown by Figs. 15th)-((l), inclusive.
pile is small immediately after the pile is Figure 15(e) shows the independent shaft
driven. This stress increases with time and load has a small influence on the vertical
shows a hydrostatic distribution. With the stress below the pile as it is loaded to failure.
exception of the first load cvcle a n d the inde- T h e stress resulting from the loading of the
pendent base load test, tlye stress increases base, independent of the shaft, is shown by
each time the pile is loaded from the static Fig. 15(f'). This stress is much less than that
load to the failure load. which exists when the complete pile is loaded
( 4 ) T h e tangential stress is the major to failure. T h e locked in stress remains, but,
p~.incipalstress a t the t o p of the pile. Imme- is substantially reduced when the load on the
diately after driving it is compressive but base is released, as was done 24 h prior to t h e
rradually changes to tension with time; by sliaft test. The effective 'locked in' vertical
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k U 4
C1 .d in

'Ct L U
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stress below the base is about twice that which loading indicates that for load cycles 4, 5
existed immediately after driving, prior to the and 6 for each series. approximately 213
application of the 150-lb (67.5-kg) load. of the load increment from 150 1b (67.5 kg)
The theoretical distribution of the vertical to failure load is carried by the shaft and about
stress surrounding and below a pile where 113 is carried by the base. Figure 18 shows the
the entire load is carried uniformly by the actual stress coefficients for comparison with
shaft has been presented by Burmister (1940) the Mindlin-Ruderman analysis for a load
and is reproduced in Fig. 16 on the left hand distribution of 113 on the base and 213 on the
Can. Geotech. J. Downloaded from by on 06/07/18

side. The stress coefficients for tlie isobars shaft. This case also indicates that elastic
of vertical stress are computed from tlie theory overrates the load distribution pro-
equation o z = KAPIB2 where B = pile perties of the soil.
diameter and AP is the change in pile load.
The results for piles C, D and E for inde- Comparison of Model Pile Tests
pendent load tests on the shaft are shown on with Field Records
the right hand side. A comparison shows that The literature on piles contains a sub-
the actual isobars are substantially greater stantial amount of pile performance records
than the theoretical values calculated by and, in recent years, load distribution data
the Mindlin-Ruderman analysis. The same within the pile but a derth of data on total
relationship is shown on Fig. 17 for the inde- and effective stress within tlie supporting soil.
pendent load tests made with the base. An exception is the data published by Koizumi
An analysis of the vertical stress incremental and lto (1967). A pile driven statically into
For personal use only.

changes accompanying the incremental pile a sensitive highly plastic clay showed a total

(0) Theoretical Isobars 7 (b) Experimental Isobars

FIG. 16. Co~nparisori of tllcoretical and cxixrilnental isobars o f vertical strcss for tolal load carried by shart.

(01 TheOleticol Isobars P (b) Experimental lsoban

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FIG. 17. Comparison of theoretical and experimental isobars of vertical stress for total load carried by base.

stress at the pile face with a very similar dis- pile was driven to a depth of 22.5 ft (6.9 m )
tribution to that recorded for the model piles. through a coliesive clayey silt and into a dense
The pore pressure immediately after driving sand. The average change in effective lateral
was equal to the total pressure but after about stress through the coliesive zone was 13.5
3 weeks the average effective stress perpen- p.s.i. (0.95 kg/cm2). An exceptionally high
dicular to the pile was about 500 p.s.f. change in lateral stress, equal to 231 p.s.i.
(0.24 kg/m2) greater than the earth pressure ( 16.2 kg/cmz), was recorded in the sand at the
at rest. The average effective pressure normal 20-ft (6. 1-m) depth. The average total and
to the pile was about 6 . 4 p.s.i. (0.45 kg/cm?) effective radial stress acting along the pile
and the average undrained shear strength shaft through the cohesive zone is equal t o
along the length of the pile was about 4 approximately 18.5 p.s.i. (1 . 3 kg/cm2). T h e
p.s.i. (0.28 kglcm?). The stress distribution average undrained strength is 11.5 p.s.i.
measured by Koizunii and Ito is shown in (0.81 kg/cmz). A similar testing program was
Fig. 19 along with the load distribution during conducted in Edmonton, Alberta, where
loading of the pile. the piles were entirely embedded in a firm
As a part of an extensive timber pile testing clay with the tip in a sandy and clayey silt.
program in Calgary, Alberta, pressure cells Two pressure cells were installed at depths
were installed prior to the driving of a pile of 8 and IS ft ( 2 . 4 and 5 . 9 m), adjacent t o
at a point equal to one pile diameter from a pile driven to a depth of 24.5 ft. (7.5 m). The
the face of the pile. The cells were placed at change in total lateral pressure at these points
depths of 6 f t (1.81n), 15 ft ( 4 . 6 m ) and 20 was 5 and 41 p.s.i. (0.35 and 2.87 kglcrn?),
ft (6.1 m) below the ground surface and the respectively. The change in effective stress

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r z I-
(01 Bose 0,
~ h o f f 2 / ! 3 ,of
Tofol v ( b ) Bose q3, Shaff Q, of Total
Lood (Mindlin-Rudermon) Lood (~xperimentol)

FIG. 18. Comparison of theoretical and experimental isobars of vertical stress from model pile test.

eventually stabilized at 4 p.s.i. (0.28 kg/cmz) The magni~ude of the observed average
and 1 1 . 6 p.s.i. (0.82 kg/cm2) at the two depths effective radial stress of about 1 . 6 c is sup-
recorded. The average effective stress was ported by an approximate theoretical analysis
equal to 12.5 p.s.i. (0.88 kg/cm2) along the in which it is assumed that the volume of clay
length of tlie pile. The average undrained displaced by the pile occupies an equivalent
strength is 8 . 2 p.s.i. (0.58 kg/cm?). Table annular zone adjacent to tlie shaft with an
3 provides a comparison of field data with
the model pile data for radial stress distribu-
outer radius of r, = 6
within which the
clay is fully consolidated. Substituting this
tion along the shaft. plastic boundary into Terzaghi's relation-
The average effective stress normal to the ship (1943), the average effective stress normal
pile for the model piles and field cases is to the pile for long-term load tests is given
equal to 1 .57 c. For these cases, the shaft by :
capacity in terms of effective stress could be
expressed as :
Qs = A s (c:,' + 1.57 c tan 6') for friction angles of 4 = 20"-30" for the
where A s is the shaft area, c,' is the effective present clays.
adhesion at the time of the test, c is the un-
drained shear strength at the time of driving Conclusions
and (J' is the effective skin friction angle. A. of' S o i l D i s p k ( ~ c e l ~ ~ e l11,ith
1171~estig~rtio11 lt
For long term load capacity, the adhesion M o d e l Piles
would be neglected and the shaft capacity ( 1 ) For the soil used with the model
would be approximately expressed as: tests, the radial displacement along the shaft
can be calculated by applying Hill's equations

Pressure - kg/crn2
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(a) Distribution of Total Stress and Pore Water

Pressure Acting on the Surface of Pile Immediately
and 3 Weeks After Driving.
For personal use only.

Load - tons
(b) Distribution of the Axial Load in the Single Pile.
FIG. 19. Res~dtsof pilc test - Koizumi & Ito 1967.

l'or the e x ~ a n s i o nof a cvlindrical shell and ( 7 . 1 and 8 . 1 cm) or 1.9-2.1 times the pile
by assuming a modulus of elasticity corre- radius, ro, from the center of the pile.
sponding to the strain a t peak undrained (4) A change in stress-strain relationship
shear strength for the soil. The displacement for the soil into which the pile is driven will
near the base is closer to the tlleoretical result in a change in the position of the
solution for a n expanding spherical shell. elastic-plastic boundary and the soil dis-
(2) The theoretical solution for soil dis- placement.
placement based o n the assunlption of no
Golumetric strain and radial lane strain B. Pore Pressure Deselopecl Neor Model Piles
represents the upperbound solution to dis- The excess pore pressure due to driving
placement. increases with depth and decreases with
(3) The elastic-plastic boundary for the distance from the pile.
soil surrounding the pile at the time-of driving (2) The actual pore pressure set up as a
appears to be between 2 . 8 and 3 . 2 in. result of driving is less than the theoretical

TABLE3. Summary of average effective radial stress intermediate principal stress by a depth of
in terms of undrained shear strength about 6 ro and approximately equal to the
minor principal stress near the bottom of the
Undrained Average effective pile.
shear radial pressure
strength after stabilization* (4) The stress distributions suggest that
C ~ r ' 71' a condition of plane stress exists at the top
Pile (psi) (psi) C of the pile with a gradual transition to plane
radial strain with increased depth.
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C 1.95 3.0 1.54

D 1.85 3 .O 1.62 (5) The major principal stress is very close
E 2.0 3.0 1.50 to horizontal immediately after the pile is
Koizumi & driven except near the top of the pile, where it
Ito 4.0 6.4 1.60 is inclined about 45" to the pile. This stress
Pile 4, rotates as the pile is loaded. Along the shaft
Calgary 11.5 18.5 1.61
Pile 4, the stress rotates downward, with respect to
Edmonton 8.2 12.5 1.53 the shaft, whereas at the level of the base, it
'Taken as after one week for piles C , D and E, taken as after rotates upward. This does not appear to
three mceks for field cases. influence bearing capacity other than as
manifested by the slight lowering of average
pore pressures because of the unrestricted radial stress during a load test.
drainage. The actual pore pressure will ap-
( 6 ) The stress distribution below the base
proach the theoretical case when a large pile is qualitatively similar to the theoretical dis-
For personal use only.

is driven into a clay of very low permeability. tribution (see for example Terzaghi 1943) but
(3) The rate of dissipation of the excess departs markedly from the quantitative theo-
pore pressure is very rapid for the model retical distribution largely because of locked
piles and is virtually complete by the end of in stresses. Part of the locked in stress is
driving, near the top of the pile. Ninety per- induced during driving, but it is increased
cent dissipation at all depths appears to occur after each load test. Even after the base is
within the first 30 min after driving. The removed from the pile, a substantial locked
build up and dissipation rate appears to be in stress remains.
a function of the pile diameter as well as the
soil properties. D. Comparison of Field Records n r d Model
(4) The change in pore water pressure Tests
along the shaft of the pile is insignificant The field cases examined generally involved
during load tests. Much greater change is much stiffer clays than the model piles but
found below the base of the pile. the measured effective radial stress developed
as a result of driving showed a similar rela-
C. Stress in Soil Near Model Piles
tionship with the undrained strength. The
(1) The magnitude of the total and
average effective stress acting normal to the
effective radial stress surrounding the pile
pile was found to be equal to approximately
is primarily related to the stress changes
1 .60c. This value would be affected by several
brought about when the pile is driven. Sub-
factors which influence the undrained-strength
sequent changes with time and loading are
of clay.
insignificant relative to these initial values.
The average radial stress increases as the pile
is loaded to failure. Acknowledgments
(2) The magnitude of the tangential and The model pile tests were carried out at the
vertical stresses surrounding the pile appear Nova Scotia Technical College in Halifax
to be controlled to a greater extent by the with partial financial support in the form of
changes that occur with time and repeated a Grant in Aid from the National Research
loading than the stresses induced during Council of Canada. The field cases cited for
driving. Calgary and Edmonton are extracted from
(3) The tangential stress is the major an extensive testing program on piles con-
principal stress near the top of the pile, the ducted in the two cities. This program was
sponsored by The Canadian Institute o f , and ITO, K . 1967. Field tests with regard to
K o l z u ~ r Y.
Timber Construction and the Department of pilc driving and bearing capacity of piled founda-
tions. Soil Found. Rev~ie,Japan, 3, pp. 30-52.
Public Works, Province of Alberta. LADANYI, B. 1963 Expansion of a cavity in a saturated
clay medium. Proceed. Am. Soc. Civ. Eng. July
HURMISTER, D. M. 1940. Stress cllstribution for pilc pp. 127-161.
f o ~ ~ ~ c l a t i o nProc.,
s. Purduc Conf. Soil Mech. MEYERHOF, G. G. 1962 Some problenis In the clesign
I ~ O M A S C I IL. U K1968., An analysis of porc water stress of rigid retaining walls. Proc. 15 th. Can. Soil Mech.
through a scparation of thc nlcan normal and Conf. pp. 59-69.
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cleviator~c components of stress. 21st Can. Soil MINDLIN, R. D. 1936. Force at a point in the interior of
Mech. Conf., Winnipeg, Manitoba. a semiinfinite solid. Physics, 7, pp. 395-201.
CORBUNOV-POSADOV, M. I. 1968. Displacement and NADAI,A. 1950. Theory of flow and fracture of solids.
compaction of soil by a driven pile. Soil Mech. McCraw-Hill Book Co., New York.
Found. Eng. (trans. from Russian) Sept-Oct. SODERBERG, L. 0. 1967 Consolidation theory applied
5 , pp. 313-318. to foundation pile timc effects. Geotechniq~~c,
HILL,R . 1949. General features of plastic-elastic prob- 12, pp. 217-232.
lenis as exemplified by sonie particular solutions. TAYLOR,D. W. 1948 Fundanlcntals o f soil mechanics.
J. Appl. Mech., Sept. pp. 295-300. John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York.
--F 1950. Thc niathematical t h c o ~y of plasticity. TERZAGHI, K . 1943 Theoretical soil meclianics. John
Oxford University Press, New York. Wiley and Sons Inc., New York.
For personal use only.