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Antidiabetic and Antihypercholesterolemia
Activities of Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum
L.) and Durian (Durio...

Article in Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science · April 2016
DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2016.60427


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4 authors, including:

Muhtadi Muhtadi Haryoto Haryoto
Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta


Andi Suhendi
Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta


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ARTICLE INFO ABSTRACT Article history: This research study aimed to explore the antidiabetic and antihypercholesterolemia activities of rambutan Received on: 18/10/2015 (Nephelium lappaceum L. WHO The result is tendency of people today prefer natural remedies as a (World Health Organization) and the IDF (International Diabetes natural remedy due to lack of side effects.26%. VII and VIII were given of rambutan peels extracts for 11 days. 1991) normal amounts.5% Accepted on: 22/01/2016 CMC-Na. (Kumar et had showed the reduction glucose antidiabetic. zibethinus peels extracts had the antidiabetic and antihypercholesterolemia activities at doses of 125 to 500 mg/kg. changes in eating patterns that and rambutan fruit peels (Manaharan et al. 2010). Surakarta-57102. groups of III. © 2016 M. Email:muhtadi@ums. and V were given ethanolic Available online: 30/04/2016 extracts of durian rind with successive doses of 500. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License -NonCommercial- ShareAlikeUnported License (http://creativecommons. In 1980 WHO (PERKENI. Previous study. Andi Suhendi Pharmacy on Wistar rats burdened cholesterol (Leontowicz et al. INTRODUCTION The diseases therapy typically uses synthetic drugs during their lifetime.2016. Based on the the blood increase. Rats divided into eight groups.) and Durian (Durio zibethinus Murr.19±3. 2010). caused cholesterol levels in antihyperglycemic activity using in vitro model.) Fruit Peel Extracts M. 2005).82 ± 5. levels at 50. Durian value of percentage reduction were cheap and easier to find Federation) predicts an increase in the prevalence of diabetes the raw materials in the surrounding community. so a lot of research conducted to synthetic drugs (Lin. than positive control. 2005). Durian had reported as an many deaths (Departemen Kesehatan. While the durian rind extract with dose 500 mg/kg.76± for reduction cholesterol levels. Indonesia. However.66% and 35. gastrointestinal disorders (Krentz and Bailey. A.). and the lappaceum L. Kartasura. compared to reaches 2-3 times in 2030. prevalence number show increasing trends each year..japsonline.60427 ISSN 2231-3354 Antidiabetic and Antihypercholesterolemia Activities of Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum (positive control).. Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta Central of Java. Glibenclamide 0. This phenomenon is of particular prevention and management of diabetes and its complications concern among the natural products researchers. Pharmacy Faculty. pp. Tanti Azizah Sujono. Yani Tromol Pos I. respectively which the activity were higher (Durio zibethinus Murr. Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta Jl. . showed that the ethanol Cholesterol is normally produced by the body in the extract of the durian fruit peels (Roongpisuthipong et al. While cholesterol is fatty deposits found in recommended that an examination of the plant which had the effect the blood vessels can cause constriction of blood vessels due to of hypoglycemia due to the use of modern drugs that are less safe blood vessel walls become thicker and inelastic. The highest percentage reduction in Rambutan (Nephelium blood glucose and cholesterol levels were shown of rambutan fruit peels extract with dose 500 mg/kg.) and durian (Durio zibethinus Murr. antihypercholesterolemia activity. In contrary. 125 mg/kg. Muhtadi*. long-term treatment such as diabetic and Diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia are hypercholesterolemia had side effects such as water retention with degenerative diseases often found the case in Indonesia.75±8. H. high cholesterol gained Key words: by high-fat fed diet for 28 days and treated with the extracts for 14 days. 250. Haryoto. Pabelan. That condition is the major factor associated research of Batubara (2011) of ethanol extract of the durian rind with atherosclerotic coronary heart disease which can lead to had high potential antioxidant activity. and hyponatremia.. Whereas. April. 6 (04).). negative control received DOI: 10.Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science Vol. 2011).0/). Muhtadi. antioxidant and antiproliferative (Haruenkit et al.26% and 60. 2005).) fruit peels extracts. Indonesia. 2011).7324/JAPS. Nephelium lappaceum and Durio antihypercholesterolemia. Polyphenols and flavonoids are active compounds which capable * Corresponding Author inhibiting the rise in plasma lipids and plasma antioxidant activity M. IV. 2012) had as formed of animal food and high fat.45 mg/kg. Diabetic rats induced by Revised on: 17/12/2015 alloxan intra-peritoneal at dose 150 mg/ 2016 Available online at http://www. while groups of VI.. Muhtadi et al.

5 rats.) and rambutan The treatment of the extract conducted for 15 days. Each rat was fasted blood drawn previously used for 12-15 Ethanol extract of rambutan fruit peels are known to have a greater hours and measured blood glucose levels daily.5 mL were taken from the tail vein.5% CMC-Na (negative control) centrifuged using mini spin for 20 minutes at 12. each consisting of al.45 can capture free radicals and reduce oxidative stress ( fruit peels were collected fresh from the waste fruit traders in the market areas in Surakarta. Indonesia and dried in the shade and then powdered. 2010).bw) to contribute both scientifically by obtaining scientific data of ethnolic extract of durian activities of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) and durian (Durio ethanolic extract of durian rind. Then each group was treated as follows: complications in diabetic condition should be given antioxidants Group 1. 2016: 190-194 191 Rambutan fruit peel contains flavonoids. / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 6 (04). Universitas Muhammadiyah yolk.Diabetic rats treated with (250 mg/kg. (2010) explains that baseline values of the parameters studied. antihypercholesterolemic and antidiabetic activities and solutions Group 6. zibethinus) fruit peels in rats. Drinking water 0. Group 3. ability as an antioxidant to capture DPPH free radicals than all groups induced by alloxan monohydrate intraperitoneally 150 vitamin E (Tamimy. Polyphenols such as catechins glibenclamide induced diabetic rat with dose 0. if there is an increase in between antioxidant protective and increased production of free blood glucose levels of rats up to ± 200 mg/dL was considered as radicals that can trigger complications..5 mL in the Eppendorf tubes.16%. Pharmacy Faculty. High-fat feed Medicine.Diabetic rats treated with (125 mg/kg. The animals were fed on a pellet water were fed ad libitum for 7 days. Therefore to prevent the diabetic rat. 2007). was administered and always made new.w. 10 g quail egg biology. 5 ethnaolic extract of rambutan peel. The The rats were fed by high-fat diet for 28 days. . they were given a high-fat diet for 4 avoid circadian rhythm induced changes.. Haruenkit et al.1% PTU and water to 100. mg/kg. Then the absorbance of blank. Muhtadi et al. the test animals were measured their total experiments were carried out in between 8 and 10 A. All test animals first adapted to the standard and distilled 300 g) were used in this study..Diabetic rats treated with (125 mg/kg. Ethanol extract of rambutan fruit 37 °C.93% and 27.. 150.000 rpm to obtain Group 2: Cholestyramine 0. 0. The yield of extracts from the extraction of three times consist of 150 g standard feed (pellets). Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta. strong antioxidant This article describes the findings of research that had ethanolic extract of durian rind. quail egg yolks 20 g. then Group 1: 0. Before given the diet and a diet and water ad libitum throughout the study period. 2011) as the potential antihyperglicemia (Waltner-Law et for testing were randomly divided into 8 groups. 2002) as well as powerful antioxidants (Tabata et al.Diabetic control: This group consisted of and tannin acts as an antioxidant.Diabetic rats treated with (250 mg/kg. High-fat plant was identified by expert team from the pharmaceutical diet was made consist of 50 mL of cooking ethnaolic extract of rambutan peel. ascorbic acid Group 2. The animals used et al. the serum. All the high-cholesterol feeding.8 g/kg (positive control). the content of polyphenols. Central of Antihypercholesterolemic Condition Testing to the problems of waste fruit peels and the utilization in ethnaolic extract of rambutan peel.1% PTU with dose of 2 mL/200 g b. 50 g margarine. Four days after alloxan induced rats high levels of oxidative stress as the effects of the imbalance blood glucose levels were measured again. MATERIALS AND METHODS Group 8. Group 7. flavonoids. Furthermore. been conducted on antidiabetic and antihypercholesterolemic Group 4. flavanols.w. Plant material and extraction Durian (Durio zibethinus Murr. This study protocols weeks and treated with the extract for 2 weeks.Control: This group was used for studying the (Sujono and Sutrisna. et al. 2008).0 mL and other high-fat feed Surakarta. epigallocatechin-3-gallate (Palanisamy Treatment of Diabetic-Induced Rats. the supernatant was taken using a Group 3: Rambutan fruit peel extract dose of 500 micropipette inserted into as many as 10 uL cuvettes then added mg/kg. Furthermore. while the treatment of the extract Testing of Preclinical Antidiabetic conducted for 2 weeks (after hypercholesterolemia with total Blood sampling was collected through the lateral vein in cholesterol levels > 150 mg/dL) in all groups as below: rats contained as much as 0. 2003).Diabetic rats treated with (500 mg/kg. tannins and 1000 mL GOD-PAP reagent mixture and incubated for 10 min at saponins (Dalimartha. (Nephelium lappaceum Linn. Then. 2006).Diabetic rats treated with (500 mg/kg. Each group consisted of Male albino rats of inbred Wistar strain (body wt. Rat's blood were approved by Health Search Ethics Committee of Faculty of samples of 1. The results of this study are expected Group 5. 2008). traditional medicine in the community. respectively. People with diabetes generally have mg/kg (Lee et al.. standard and samples were peels contains ethyl gallate (Muhtadi.M in order to cholesterol levels. 2014) which has the determined using spectrophotometer at λ 500 nm. Experimental Animals Rats were divided into 8 groups. were given as much as 30 g daily for 5 rats and high-fat diet with a dose of 2 mL/200g b. and maceration was approximately 16.

bw.80±6. Animal tests with glucose ± daily.80±7.45 Positive control (cholesteramine) 58.80±18. reduced cholesterol levels by 52.75 203.60±29. blood glucose levels (mg/dL) and Based on Sujono and Sutrisna (2010) cholesteramine.80±8.20 250. was conducted in dosages with three different ratings.96 Note: The experiment was carried out in triplicate. 3) accelerating the release of glucose by the increase in produce insulin due to the accumulation of alloxan through the metabolism or enter into fatty deposits.87 145. because it was more selective.53 daily.36 133. 2008). pancreas to produce insulin (Widowati.40 170.02 34.27 227.80±10.01 35.60±13.94 daily.61 Durian fruit peel extract dose of 500 mg / kg.14 109.06 112.30 189±6. 2016: 190-194 Group 4: Rambutan fruit peel extract dose of 250 by free radicals formed by redox reactions. The positive Statistical Analysis control was treated with cholesteramine of 0.20±4.32 225.20±24.78 16.47 107.40±13.82±5.80±8. baseline.65±2.16 116. impaired cell oxidation process and result in disruption of Group 6: Durian rind extract dose of 500 mg/kg. The results Group 7: Durian rind extract dose of 250 mg/kg. rats 7 days can be seen in Table 1.70 200.26 Rambutan fruit peel extract dose of 250 mg/kg.20±10.45 12. 2008).79±6.41 80. and it control) were identified by using one-way ANOVA. pre.192 Muhtadi et al.97±1.20±12. Glucose levels (mg/dL) Treatment Baseline Post alloxan Post treatment of extract Percentage of decreasing Negative control (CMC-Na 0.80±23.10 Durian fruit peel extract dose of 500 mg / kg.05. The cholesterol-lowering effect Group 8: Durian rind extract dose of 125 mg/kg. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The sample's ability in lowering blood glucose levels due to contents of flavonoid and phenolic compounds.60±32.21 homeostasis (Watkins et al.58 - Positive control (Glibenclamide 0.39±6.57 41. levels from the plant as a potential antidiabetic.20±16. which process involves the GLUT2 transporter. The ethanolic extract of freedom was p < 0.01 88.. thereby rind extract obtained was had antidiabetic activity stronger than Glibenclamide 0.93%.2 grams with a yield of glucose from the circulation to expedite filtration and renal 64.20±16.40±9.15±18.60±30.63 61. The weight of durian membrane and form a layer that protects the intestine.48%.15 75.26 Rambutan fruit peel extract dose of 250 mg/ 113.40±19. 14 days reduced the blood cholesterol by 34. 2) accelerating the release of While rambutan fruit peel extract was 543.5% was used as a negative control. Table 2: The mean cholesterol levels decrease after being given the extract.88 213. cholesteramine given for Wilk test to obtain the prevalence of normal 57.60±11. which was cholesterol levels (mg/dL) were expressed as mean ± SD (n =5).69 35. the release of insulin by pancreatic β cells (Dheer and Bhatnagar.63 Durian fruit peel extract dose of 125 mg/kg.59 84.44±15.20±5.20±43.99 Note: The experiment was carried out in triplicate. Cholesterol levels (mg/dL) Treatment Baseline Induction for 28 days After giving of extract Decreasing levels (%) Negative control (CMC-Na) 61.00±21. If the test was significant.71 60.20±9.20±7.. In vitro assays known mg/kg. Alloxan is selectively toxic to pancreatic β cells that excretion.80±15.60±22.60±6.30 49.00±11. which is used to determine the effect of the samples daily.80±12.14 131. given 0.45 mg/kg.17 13. .75±4.90 237.66 Durian fruit peel extract dose of 250 mg/±5.40 126.92 21.01 217.00± 91.20±14.89 22.40±7.80±21.76 147±8. inhibiting the intake of of the measurement of blood glucose levels during treatment of daily.34 180.75±8.55±2.20±10.20±14.40±35. Statistical differences between the groups (treated groups and The CMC-Na 0.05±3. Table 1: The mean of blood glucose levels of rats. 2007).19±3.68 52.60± 79. 61. All data.45 mg/kg. 200 mg / dL declared diabetes (Sunarsih et al. and ethanol can be adstringen ability that can precipitate proteins intestinal mucous mixed with acetone in all comparisons. extracts in lowering cholesterol levels in the blood. In this study.29 74.60±9.80±26.46 86. namely: 1) the nontoxic.64 31.84 Durian fruit peel extract dose of 125 mg/kg.and 78.00±2.40±15. it was then Nephelium lappaceum and Durio zibethinus fruit peels with dose followed by LSD post hoc test. hot to less 62.40±21.90±13.88 115. Toxic action of alloxan on β cells is initiated .23 77.09±3. of 500 mg/kg.48 Rambutan fruit peel extract dose of 500 mg / kg.05 Rambutan fruit peel extract dose of 500 mg / kg.15 Rambutan fruit peel extract dose of 125 mg/kg.6 grams with a yield of 16.00 Durian fruit peel extract dose of 250 mg/kg.8 g/kg.16%. Sanjaya (2012) stated that the solvent mixture of ethanol and 2010).bw 104. Presumed The samples of fruit peels were extracted using cold mechanism of action of flavonoids are by regenerate and stimulate maceration method with a mixture of ethanol 96%:acetone (4:1).22 Rambutan fruit peel extract dose of 125 mg/kg.20±6. / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 6 (04). degree of did not affect the blood cholesterol levels. There are three mechanisms of a decrease in blood glucose acetone can provide a good 66.36±6.79 35.09 92.5%) 79.60± testing. mechanisms of alloxan to the pancreatic β cell destruction by Group 5: Rambutan fruit peel extract dose of 125 inducing expenditure of the mitochondria calcium ions resulting in mg/kg.20±15.12% on The data in post-treatment of extract were assessed by Shapiro– administered for 30 days.8 g/kg.

Hypoglicemic and the positive control (cholestyramine. in Normal and in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats.. Kar A. 2007). there are antidiabetic and antihypercholesterolemia activities was indicated quercetin and geraniin (Palanisamy et al. (Muhtadi et al. Manaharan T. 17(5): However. Poovarodom S.75% more powerful than Kumar E K. a dose of 800 mg/kg. 44(7): 1671-1701. Positive effects of durian fruit at the results of research and known exactly what compounds which different stages of ripening on the hearts and livers of rats fed diets high in act as lowering levels of cholesterol in the extract of rambutan cholesterol. 2nd ed.) CONCLUSION Fruit Peels in Alloxan Diabetic Rats. The multiple nutrition properties of citrus fruit peels had reported decreases the activities of glucose-6. antihypercholesterol activities of the extracts of Nephelium Palanisamy UD. 4(4): proved that the ethanol extract of Nephelium lappaceum and Durio 1-3. 2008). inhibition Mellitus (In Bahasa Indonesia) Jakarta: Departemen Kesehatan RI. Pharm. 2014). Ming had the strongest activity to reduce cholesterol Type 2 Diabetes Melitus. Hwang JY. Sujono TA. secretory defects of pancreatic β-cells (Parmar and Kar. Quercetin had activity Aldos Surakarta and Higher Education of Ministry of Education and reductase inhibitors that could potentially be used in therapeutic Cultural Republic Indonesia for PUPT Research Grant Scheme for antihyperglycemia (Manaharan et al. Sliwka-Kaszynka M. Molecules. 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