

❸❽❶❼˜❼➅€
➃➂➅❸❽➂˜
❝❛❞➅˜➂❜

❽➄˜❷❹➂❸➁➀❹➆❸➀™❽➀❿❸š❽—❹❹❽™š˜❹™—š❛—˜➈
➃❹❽❷➀➃❹™€˜❸❷❽❸š❿

∏ ˜¯Ù

Æ˙ȘÂÂÈ˘ ˙¯Â˘˜˙
ÆÈ¯„ÂÓ‰ ÌÏÂÚ‰ Ï˘ ÈÏΉ
ÆÈ˯‡˙‰ ÒÈÒ·‰
➁❽➆❽❽š➅➂❸❽❶❼˜❼➅€❸š➂❿❻➁❽—➅❹➆❸❹➀€ ÆҘ„¯Ù‰ Ï˘ ‡ˉ
š➀❹❿❽❽˜➅❻❿➁❽€˜➄➁❸š➀❹❿❽❽➀➆➁❸™❿➅—❹❷˜➈❸➀™❹€❼
➁❽€˜➄ ➁❸ ➁❽❹˜— ➁❸™❿ ➁❽➀❼❹➂❿ ➁❽€˜➄ ➁❸ ➁❽—❹➅➆ ➁❸™❿
š❹➆–➂€ ➁❽❼➀š™➂❹ š❹➄❹˜š❽ š❹➆–➂€ ➁❽š➈➂ ➁❸ ➁❽—❹❻˜❿
➁❸➁❽—❺❻➁❸™❿➁❽➄➄❹❿š➂❿➁❽€˜➄➁❸➁❽➂❽❽➅➂➁❸™❿➀❹➀❸
➁❸™❿ ➁❽˜š❹❹➂❿ ➁❽€˜➄ ➁❸ ➁❽➅➆❹❿ ➁❸™❿ ➁❽—➂❻š➂❿ ➁❽€˜➄
➁❽™š❹➂❿ ➁❽€˜➄ ➁❸ ➁❽❽➄❹❽❻ ➁❸™❿ ➁❽➆❹➄–❿ ➁❽€˜➄ ➁❸ ➁❽€❶
€➀ ❽˜❽❸™❿ ➁❽➈—❹š ➁❸ ➁❽❷˜➈➄❿ ➁❽€˜➄ ➁❸ ➁❽❷❻❹€➂ ➁❸™❿
❶❼˜❼➅€❸ ➀™ ❹❿˜❷ ❽❸❹❺ š❹❻➈ ❽❿❸ ➁❸➀ ❹➈❽– ❹ ➁❹—➂ ➃❿❹➂

❸™➆➂❸❽➄➈➀❾❿➀➆❻❻❹™➀➃❽€➃❹❻–➄➀ 

ÆÒ➛➛‰ÙÏ ≥∞∞ ÆÔÈÒ ÆÂˆË Ô‡Ò
š➂❿❻➀™➃❽➂❹❽❸❽—❽š➆š❹❷❹➅❽➀❹➄˜❻š❸❸❽❶❼˜❼➅€❸➁❻❹➀➀™➃❹➂❽€❸➀❽™➁❽➂❷—š➂❼€❼€
š˜❹™—š❸ ➁➀❹➆ ➀€ ❸❹❹❸❸ ➀€ ❹™ ➁❽˜❻š➂ ❹➄€ š➆❿❹ —❹❹❽™❸ ➁➀❹➆ ❾˜❷ ❹➄˜➆ ❸❽❶❼˜❼➅€❸
➃❽➂❹❽ š—❽š➆ —❹❹❽™❸ š˜❹š ➁❽❽❷❹❻❽❽ ➁❽➄❽❽➈€➂ ➀➆ ❽➄˜❷❹➂❸ —❹❹❽™❸ ➁➀❹➆™ š❹˜➂➀ š❽—❹❹❽™❸
❾➀❸➂ ➀❿ š❽➄˜❷❹➂❸ ❸➈❹—š➀ ❸š➂€š❸ ❾❹š ˜❷➅ ➆❹–—➂ ❽™➄€ ❸ ❹™➆ ❸ ❸€➂❸ ➆–➂€
❸—❽š➆❸š➆❻˜❺➂❸❽—❹❹™➃❹❺➂❽˜–❹➂š˜❽❿➂➀➃❿❹❷➀➆➁❶—❹❹❽™➁❷€❽➄❹—➅➆❸❽˜❹❼➅❽❸❸
š❹❽➄❽❷➂➆—❸❺❽˜€š❹❿❽€˜❿➂➄❸˜–❹➂❸❽❽❿˜➂❹❽❸❽❸➂❼❽➀❻❸€❹❸š❽—❹❹❽™❸❽™❻—➅➆
š˜❽❿➂❸–➈❸š❹❽➄❽❷➂˜❽❷❶❸š❹™❹❻➄š❹➆❼➂➃❽➈❽➀❻˜❻➅➁❹➀™š❽€➄š❹˜–❹➂❸˜❽❻➂➁❽˜❽❻➂
❸❷❹—➄➀❸❷❹—➄➂š❷❽❽➄š➂❸❸➀❶➆❽❶➀➆➂❹€—❹™❻❽❽➄➃❿❹❷˜–❹➂❸
➁❽❶❹➀❹➄❿❼❸➁❽➆–➂€š❽—❹❹❽™š˜❹™—š❹—➅➆➁➄➂❹€❸—❽š➆❸š➆˜❻€➃❽❽➄➆❸❺š❽—❹❹❽™š˜❹™—š
Ø˙ȘÂÂÈ˘ ˙¯Â˘˜˙ š€❺ ➀❿ ➁❽˜❹➈❽➅ ❽˜➈➅➂ ˜€❹❷ š❹➄❹❽ ˜€❹❷ ❽❻❽➀™ ➁❽❺˜❹❿  ➁❽—❽š➆❸
š❹❿❺˜™➈€š❸❹➂❹❽—™❽➀❿Æ≤∞≠‰ ‰‡Ó‰ Ï˘ Ȃ˯ËÒ‡‰ ÈÏΉ Âȉ Marketing Communications
❽❽❻ š❹❽❺❿˜➂❸ š❹❿➈❸➂❸➂ š❹➄❹˜❻€❸ ➁❽➄™❸ ❸€➂ š˜❹™—š❸ ❽➆–➂€ š❽❶❹➀❹➄❿❼❸ ❸❿➈❸➂❸
Art of Strategy - Sun Tzu’s Art of War/ R.L.Wing/ Dolphin-Doubleday, 1988/ chp 1, pg 25/ ISBN 0-385-23784-7 -103

❛

❛ 

❸❽❶❼˜❼➅€
➃➂➅❸❽➂˜
❝❛❞➅˜➂❜

❽➄˜❷❹➂❸➁➀❹➆❸➀™❽➀❿❸š❽—❹❹❽™š˜❹™—š❛—˜➈
➃❹❽❷➀➃❹™€˜❸❷❽❸š❿

˙ȘÂÂÈ˘‰ ˙¯Â˘˜˙‰ ÏȉÓ˙ Æ∏≠± ¯Âȇ ❸˜➆➃❹➈➀❼❸➀❽❻š❸š❽➄˜❷❹➂❸❸➈❹—šš❹™❹➄€❸
™❻➂➀❸❽❺❽❹❹➀❼➀❹❽❷˜➀➁™➂➆❹➄➀❹—➀❼❹❻➀€➀
➆❷❽➂❸ š❷˜❼➅❹❼❹€➀❹ ˜➀❹➀➅➀ ➁❽➄❽❽❹➀➀ ➁❽➀❿➀
‫ציבור‬-‫יחסי‬
‫פרסום‬
❷❻€❿™➂™➂š❽—❹❹❽™š˜❹™—š❼➄˜❼➄❽€❸š❽➄˜❷❹➂❸
š➆ ❸❽❶❼˜❼➅€❸ ➁❻❹➀ ➀™ ➁❽❽❺❿˜➂❸ ➁❽➀❿❸➂
❶™❹➂❸š❻š˜❷❶❹❸➁❽➄❹➂™❸š❹➄™➆–➂€❷➆❸™❷❻❸
 ➁❽❽❿˜➂ ➆˜€ ➀➀❿ PromotionØÌ„Ș ➀™
Public Relationsد·Ȉ≠ÈÒÁÈ ¨AdvertisingØÌÂÒ¯Ù
ž➂➛➛❷—œ Sales PromotionØ˙¯ÈÎÓ Ì„Ș ž–➛➛➅❻❽œ
❽❺❿˜➂❸ ™❶❷❸ ÆPersonal SalesØ˙È˘È‡ ‰¯ÈÎÓÂ
‫מכירה‬
‫קידום‬
➃š❽➄ ➁❹❷❽—❸ š❹➀❽➆➈ ➀❿ ❸˜➆™ ❸€➂❸ ➆–➂€
‫אישית‬
š❹❽➆❹–—➂š❹™❽❶❹❻š➈š❸➁❽➄™❸➁➆➁❹➅˜➈❸➁❹❻š➀
‫מכירות‬
➁❽➀❿❸š™❹➀™❸❽❹–➂❸❸➂–❹➆❸š€❹™➂❽➂™š❹™❷❻
❽➀❿ ➀❹➆➈š š❹❸❹❶❸ š❹❽❹➀➆❸ ❤❸❽➅❸ ➁❽˜❻€❸
❹™➈❽❻ ž➁❽—❹❹™➂❸➁❽➄˜–❽❸œ ➁❽➂➅˜➈➂❸ ➁❹➅˜➈❸
➁š❹€š€❹❶❽™❽™š❹❿❹➂➄š❹❽❹➀➆➁❽❽❼➄˜❼➀€➁❽➀❿
➀❽❸➂š ❽➄™➂ ➁❽š❽➆➀ ❽❿˜➂➂ ➁❽❽š˜❹™—š ➁❽❷➆❽
➅➈š ➁➀❹➆ š˜❹™—š❸ ❽➀❿ š❹➂–➆š❸ ➁➆ —❹❹❽™❸
❽—❹❹❽™❸➀❽❸➂š❽❺❿˜➂˜š❹❽➀—™➂➁❹❷❽—❸➁❹❻š

Èχ¯˘È‰ ÌȘÒÚ‰ ÌÏÂÚ· ˙ȘÂÂÈ˘‰ ˙¯Â˘˜˙‰ ˙ÂÁ˙Ù˙‰ 

❹˜❽❷❸❽➂❷—€➁❶➁❹➅˜➈➀➆❹˜❽❷š❽—❹❹❽™š˜❹™—š➀➆❹˜❽❷€➀➀€˜™❽➁❹➅˜➈❸➇➄➆❜❛
❽❷❹➂❽➀ ➁❹❻š ➀€ ❹➅❻❽❽š❸ ❸❽➂❷—€ ˜❹˜ ❸❽❸ ❸❺ ➁➀❹❿➀ €➀ š➂€❸ ❤❹➄❹❹❿š❸ ❸➂➀ ➁❹➅˜➈ ➀➆
❸❻➀–❸š❷❽❷➂➀➁❹➅˜➈❸š❹❽❽❼—➈€š➄❽❻➀➁❽❽❼➂š➂➁❽➀❷❹➂š❽❼˜❹€š❼➂š❷❹—➄➂➁❹➅˜➈❸
❽➀€˜™❽❸➁❹➅˜➈❸➁➀❹➆➂❽€❷❹❹❽➄˜❷❹➂❸➁❹➅˜➈❸➁➀❹➆➀™š❽➂❹❽➂❹❽❸š❹€❽–➂❸➂➁❽™❹➀š➁❽➀❷❹➂
❽€➈❹˜❽€❸❽€—❽˜➂€❸➁❽—➅➆❸➁➀❹➆➂❽š❽➂€❸➁➀❹➆❸➂➆❷❽❸➅❽➅š€❹€™➁❽—➅➆❸➀❸➄➂❽❷❹➂❽➀
š❹➄™➀€˜™❽❸❽➂❷—€❽❹❼❽❽❷❽➀€€❹❸™❽➈❿š❹❻➈➀➁❹➅˜➈❸❽❷❹➂❽➀➀™˜–❸➁❹❻š❸❽➄➈❽❸❹
❷❻€❷–➂™❾❿❻❼™❸➂€➀❸➀❿➀❿❸❹❸—❽❼➂š➂❸❽❷❹➂❽➀➁❹❻š➂➆❷❽❸➅❽➅š€€™➁❽➄❹➂™❸
❸š❽❸❻❼™❸š➄❸❷❶➄➂❹➁❹➅˜➈❸❽❷❹➂❽➀➁❹❻šš➄❸➀š❹˜❸➆❽❽➅€➀➁❽➄™➁š❹€❸❽➂❷—€❸
❸❽❹—➀
❸➈❽➀❶➄❽➛❶❸❼❽➀—❸➂➅❽➅❽➀˜❻✈✈❝❸❷❹❷˜❸š❽❸➁❽˜➁❽—➅➆❽™➄€❽❷❽➀➆➁❹➅˜➈❸➀€š❹➅❻❽❽š❸❸
➁❽➄❽❽➈➂— ˜➈➅➂ ➉˜€ ❹➈–❽➄ ➁❽➄™ ➁š❹€ ˜❿ š€❺ ➀❿ ➛➛➃❽❽➈➂— ❹➄➀ ❽˜❸❹ ❸➈❽ ❸˜❹❻ ➇˜–➄
€➀❸❽❶❼˜❼➅€❸❻➄❹➂š❽❶❼˜❼➅€❸❽™❻€➀➀❹˜➀š❽➆❹–—➂š❽❽❼€❽˜—❸❽™❻➁❸❸➆—™❹❸™
❸˜❻❸ ❽—➀❻ ˜€™ ❹™❻ €➀™ ❹➂❿ ❹™❻ €➀ ➃❿ ❹˜–❽ ❽➀€˜™❽❸ ➁❹➅˜➈❸ ➁➀❹➆ ➁❽❽— ❸❽❸
➁❹➅˜➈❸➁➀❹➆€➀❹š❽˜❹❽–❸š❿˜➆➂€➀➁❽—➅➆❸➁➀❹➆€➀š❽➀€˜™❽❸
˜❹❷✈✈➃❽❽➈➂—➁❽❽š˜❽–❽❷❹€➂➁❽➄❽❽➈➂—➀™❸˜❷➅❹—➄❺❹❸➁❽➄❹➂™❸š❹➄™š➀❽❻š❹➁❽➆™❸š❹➄™
—❺❻ ❼—➈➂❽€ ˜–❽ ➛❹➈➂❼✈ š˜❻ ➀™ ❺❹➈š ➁➆❼ ❺❶❹➂ ❸—™➂➀ —❹❹❽™ ➆➅➂ ➛➛➅➄❽❹❹—❸š❹™➅➄❽➛❶❸
➃❽❽➈➂—➛➛š❽➈€š€š❽➀➆š❶❹➆✈✈➃❽❽➈➂—➁❽➈❷➂❸➂˜❸➂➁➀➆➄˜–❹➂❸❹➃❹➀™❿❿˜❷❶❹❸➀❸—❸˜—
❸❶➂✈✈➃❽❽➈➂—➁❽➅❸š™❹➀™➀❿➃❹➀™❿➁❽❽š➅❸—❺❻❼—€➈➂❽€˜–❽➃❿➁❶š❽➂–➆❸➄❿❸➀❸❶❹➆➀
➁š❹€š❽—➀❼❽€➀➆➄➀™❹–❽➂❸❽❶š❹➂➀š❹➄➀➛˜➈❶➂❸✈➁❽➀➆➄❸š❽➄˜–❽➀™➀™❹❿➃❹❽➅➄➛➛❽❼❹˜❽➛❶
š❽❶❼˜❼➅€❸❽™❻€➀➀❸➈❽❸➄❹➂š❸❼❽➀—❸➂➅❽➅š❹❽❽❼€❽˜—➀➆—❺❻❷❹€➂™❶❷❹➂™➁❽➄™ 

Marketing Management/ Philip Kotler/ Prentice Hall, 1980/ chp 18, pg 466/ ISBN 0-13-557983-X -104

❜

❜ 

❸❽❶❼˜❼➅€
➃➂➅❸❽➂˜
❝❛❞➅˜➂❜

❽➄˜❷❹➂❸➁➀❹➆❸➀™❽➀❿❸š❽—❹❹❽™š˜❹™—š❛—˜➈
➃❹❽❷➀➃❹™€˜❸❷❽❸š❿

❸➀❻❸ —˜ ➁❽➆™❸ š❹➄™™ š❹❷❹❸➀ ❹➄❽➀➆
➛➛❸❿➂➛➛ š❽❶❼˜❼➅€❸ ❸❽™❻❸ ❻š➈š❸➀
❹❽➄€➃❹➅❽❷➂—˜❹❽❹❽➄➁❹➅˜➈❸➀™Meccah
❸™❷❻ š❽➆❹–—➂ ❸➂❶➂™ š❹➈–➀ ❸❽❸ ❸™—
š❹❽❹❻š➈š❸❸ ➀€˜™❽ š❽❷❽❽➂ š❻➄š ➛➛❸˜€
?‫רמה‬-‫תת‬
!‫בהחלט‬
❿˜➆➂❸˜❻€➛➛❹˜❶❽➈✈✈˜➆➀€˜™❽š➄❽❷➂
❹˜ ˜–—š❸ ˜❹❶❽➈❸ ➃➂❺ ❾™➂ ➁❹❽❸ ❸➄™
š❹➀❽➆➈❽➂❹❻š➁❽➂❽❽—➁❽➄™❽❷❿➀➁❽➂❹❻š❸
❸™➆➄➁❽➄❿❷❹➆➂➁❸™š❽➀€˜™❽❸❸❽❹❹❸➁❽❷❷❹
 On-Line➃➂❺❹➀➛➛❹❻❽➆❹–—➂❸➁➂❹❻š
❸➈❽€ ❸❽❸ €➀ ❸™— ❸➄™ ❼➀❻❸ ❸š❽❸ ❜❛
➁❹➅˜➈❸➇➄➆™š❹˜➂➀š€❺❷❹➂➀➀❽➂➂❸❽❸€➀❹
❹➂™➃❿™➆❹–—➂❽™➄€˜➈➅➂❼❹➀➀❹➀❻❸˜❿
❽➀€❽˜€ ❽➄❹˜ ❹➂❿ š❽❶❼˜❼➅€ ❸❽™❻ ➀➆ ™❶❷
➀➛➛❿➄➂➁❽➂❹€š—❽™❹➂❹€❽➀€❽˜€➁❹➅˜➈➀➛➛❿➄➂
❽š❼➀❻❸š❽➆❹–—➂➁❷—š❸➀❽❷❿➁š❽❶➁❹➅˜➈
❽❼˜❹€š❸ ❷➂❽➂ —➂➆š❸➀ ❽➀➆™ ➁❽➄™ ➁š❹€
❹❼ ❷❽➂➀š ➀❿ ❹➂❿ š❽➂❹➅˜➈❸ ❸❽™❻❸ ➀™
❽š❽™➆❾❿❽➀€❷❽€❸❸˜❹➂❸˜❼➅€➂˜❻€˜š❹❾➀❸™❻˜❺➂❸—❽š➆❸š➆❷❹➂➀➀❹❻š➈š❸➀➃❽❽➄❹➆➂❸
˜❷➆❸➀€˜™❽❸™❷❻❸š➆˜❼➅€➂➀❸™—❸❸➈➀➆❹˜➆❹❸š❹˜❹š❸❹˜❸—❽š➆❸š➆❽➄€➁❶
š❽➀❶➄€ ❽❺❿˜➂❸ ❽➂❷—€❸ ❷❹➂❽➀❸ ˜➈➅ ➛➛❸˜€➂ š❽➆❹–—➂❸ š❹˜➈➅ š❽€➂–➆ ❽š—➂➆š❸ ➁❽˜❹➂
—❽➈➅❸€➀❸❺❽➀❽™ ❺˜❽❽€➂❹˜—❽❽€š€➂➛➛➁❹➅˜➈❸➀❹❸❽➄✈✈❹➄❽❸➁❹❽❸➁❶❹❺€➁❹➅˜➈❸➁❹❻š
❾™➂❸➀ ➀❽—➂ ❸➆❽˜❽❸ š€ ❽š❻˜❸ ➁❹➅˜➈❸ ❽❷❹➂❽➀ ➁❹❻š š€ —➂❹➆➀ ˜❹—❻➀ ❽š➈€™❹ ˜❻€➂
➁❽—➅➆➀❸➄➂➀ ˜➈➅❸š❽ [Master of Business Administration] MBA❸ ˜€❹š š€˜—➀ ❽❷❹➂❽➀
❷➀❽™❼❹˜š❹˜❷™❽€➀š➃❽❹➀➀❶❹➈➁❹➅˜➈❽€❽–—š❿❽š❷❹➆❹➁❽➀™❹˜❽š❽˜➆❸❸❼❽➅˜❽➄❹€
❸–˜™❽➂➀❿™➃❹➂❿š❽➂❹➅˜➈❸❸❽˜❹€š❽š—➂➆š❸➁❹➅˜➈❸➀™š❽➂❹—➂❸ Meccah➛➛❸❿➂➛➛❸
❽➀➆➂❽➀❽❶❹€❷❽❹❹❷➀™❽❷❶€❸❹˜➈➅š€€❹˜—➀❽❹❻➂❸❽❸➁❹➅˜➈❸➁➀❹➆➀➆❽➄❹™€˜❶™❹➂➀—➀
š™❹❻š➃š❹➄❹š❹❽❻❼™š❹˜➂➀˜➈➅❸ Ogilvy&Mather➛˜➛❷€➂❷➄€❽➀❽❶❹€✈❽➂➀❹➆❸➁❹➅˜➈❸➃˜–➄❹—
❽€➂❹➅˜➈➀❸❹❻˜➈➅❼➀❻❸➀€❽➂❷—€❹€❽❼˜❹€š˜➈➅❹➄➄❽€➁❹➅˜➈❸➁➀❹➆➀➆š❽➄❹™€˜➁➆❼
➀❶❹➈ ❷❹❷ ➀™ ❹˜➈➅ ❽➀€˜™❽❸ ➁❹➅˜➈❸ ➁➀❹➆ ➀➆ š❽˜➆❸ ❸➀❽—➂❸ ❛➀❽❻š➂❸ —❹❹❽™❸ ™❽€➀❹
110
ÌÁÂω ˙ÓÎÁ ➀❶❹➈➁❹➅˜➈➀™❷➅❽❽➂❸❹➁❽➀➆❸
¨¯ÎÂÓ ‡Ï ‰Ê ̇ßß
➁❽➆™š❸ š❹➄™ ❜O&M➃❽❹➀
ßß°È·Èˇȯ˜ ‡Ï ‰Ê
š€❸❻❹š➈❸❸❼❽➅˜❽➄❹€❸❸€❽–❹❸

David Ogilvy (1911-99) 
š❽˜➆ ➛➁❹➅˜➈❸ ➀❹❸❽➄✈ š˜❷➅
‰Ó‚Â„Ï ‰Ú„ÂÓ Æ∏≠≤ ¯Âȇ

Æ Æ Æ ·Â·ÈÒÏ È˙‡ Á˜

Áˢ ¯·‚Ï Áˢ ·Î¯

Advertising Management/ David A. Aaker & John G. Myers/ Prentice-Hall, 1982/ ISBN 0-13-016006-7 -105

➃❽˜™—™❽€❿™➂™➂❻❹—➀❸❽–—š➀❹❸❽➄❹➁❹➅˜➈❸š❹➆➅➂š—➈❸➀➆❽€˜❻€❸➁❹➅˜➈❸❷˜™➂➆❹–—➂™❽€ ≠ ȇ·Èˆ˜˙ -106
❸❽❷➂❸—➈❸➆❹–❽❹–❽➆❽➈❹—❽❼€❽˜—❸❽❶❼˜❼➅€❷˜™➂➁❽❽➆❹–—➂❸➁❽➂˜❹❶❸➃❽➀❻❹—➀❸
The Complete Guide to Advertising/ Torin Douglas/ Macmillan London, 1984/ ISBN 0-333-38639-6; -107
Contemporary Advertising/ Courtland L. Bovee, William F. Arens/ Richard D. Irwins, 1982/ ISBN 0-256-02736-6;
Advertising & Promotion Management/ John R. Rossiter & Larry Percy/ McGraw-Hill/ ISBN 0-07-053907-3; Strategic
Advertising Campaigns/ Don E. Schultz, Dennis Martin, William P. Brown/ Crain Books, 1984; Maximarketing/ Stann
Rapp & Tom Collins/ McGraw-Hill, 1987/ ISBN 0-07-051191-8; The Want Makers/ Eric Clark/ Hodder & Stoughton,
1988/ ISBN 0-340-32028-1
Ogilvy on Advertising/ David Ogilvy/ Pan Books, 1983/ ISBN 0-330-26985-2; Confessions of an Advertising -108
Man/ David Ogilvy/ Atheneum 260, 1984/ ISBN 0-689-70601-4

❜❜➃❽❹➀➀❶❹➈➀❶❹➈❷❹❷❽€➂❹➅˜➈š❹❽❸➀❽š❼➀❻❸❺€❽➄➂➂€–❽€➀❹❼˜❷➁❹™™š˜➂❹€❸š❽❸❽➀™€➂€ -109
http://www.biz-community.com/Quotes.aspx, 05/03/2004 -110


 

❸❽❶❼˜❼➅€
➃➂➅❸❽➂˜
❝❛❞➅˜➂❜

❽➄˜❷❹➂❸➁➀❹➆❸➀™❽➀❿❸š❽—❹❹❽™š˜❹™—š❛—˜➈
➃❹❽❷➀➃❹™€˜❸❷❽❸š❿

š❽—❹❹❽™š˜❹™—š➀➁❽❼➄❷❹❼➅❸š€š™➂™➂❸➃➂˜❽➀➆™❹❸❽˜❹➅➈❹˜➈❹—❽➄˜❹❸—➆❽˜❹➅➈❹˜➈➀™

Worldwide❽➂➀❹➆ ➁❹➅˜➈  ➁❹➅˜➈❸ ❽❷❹➂❽➀ ™❷❻ ➁❹❻š ❻š➈š❸ ➁❽➄™❸ ➁➆  ❷❹➂❽➀ ˜➈➅❿
❽➂➀❹➆❸˜❻➅❸š❹❻˜š❸❹➁❽➅❿➂❸š❷˜❹❸š❹➄❽❷➂➃❽š❹➀❹❶❸š❹➂➀➆❸❸❽–❺❽➀❹➀❶❸Advertising
š❻€ ❸❶˜❷ š❽—❹❹❽™❸ š˜❹™—š❸❹ ➁❹➅˜➈❸ ➁➀❹➆ š€ ❹–❽➈—❸ ❹❽❷❻❽ ❹➀€ ➀❿ ➀❺˜❸ ❾➅➂ š˜❽™
➁❹➅˜➈❸❽❷❹➂❽➀➁❶❾❿❽➂➀❹➆❸❷➂❽➂➀˜➆❹❽➀€—❹➀❸❷➂❽➂❸š€➉˜➈➁❹➅˜➈❸❸➂❽❷—
❸€➂➁❹➅˜➈❸➁❹❻š❸❽™❻➀˜➈➅❽š❹š❹➀❹—➅€™❹➀™❹❻š➈š❸➀❹❷❶❤❽š❹—❽˜➅❽š❷➂➀❸➂
➃❹➅❽❷➂➂—˜❹❽❹❽➄➂➃❹❽➅➄❸❹➆❷❽❸˜—❽➆š€❸€™™ ¨˙ȇ˜È¯Ó‡‰ ‰Ï˜҇‰❸➄❹™€˜❸š➂❷❹—❸
❸˜❹–❸ ❽➄❽❽➈€➂ ➀➆ ™❶❷ š➂❽™ ❤❸❽š❹➄❹˜—➆ ❸➄❹™ ❼➆➂ ❸➀❹—➅€ ❸❻š➈š❸ ➁™ ❹❶—❽™➂❹ ❹❽➄€
˙ÈËȯ·‰ ‰Ï˜҇‰   ❸❽➄™❸ ➁❿❻❹š➂ €➀❹ ❼❽➀— ˜–— ˜➅➂ ❹˜➀ ➃❽❽➈€š❸ ➃❿❹š❸ ➁❹➅˜➈
➀➆š❹❻➈❹➃❿❹š➀™➁❽➄❽❽➈€➂➀➆—❺❻™❶❷š❽❼❽˜❸š❹˜š➀❸➂❽€š❸™❸™❽❶➃❹❷➄❹➀❸❻š➈š❸™
š€❸➀❽❹❸™¨˙ÈÙȉ ‰Ï˜҇‰ š❽™❽➀™❸❽❼➅❽˜❹➂❹❸❹˜➀❹➁❿❻❹š➂➃❿❹š❸˜❹–➀™➁❽➄❽❽➈€➂
❸➂€➀❹š❽€˜™❸➂❸❺❹™❻❸❽❸™❸➂❸˜❹–❸❽➄❽❽➈€➂➀➆˜™❶❷❸❽➅€❻˜❺➂➁❹➅˜➈❸➁➀❹➆
113
ÌÁÂω ˙ÓÎÁ š❹˜š š€˜—™ ❸➂ ❹€ š➆➂™™
➀€❸➄❹➂š❸š€˜❷➀❿š™➈❻➂❸
¨Ú„Ó Âȇ ÚÂ΢ ÆÚÂ΢ ‰Ê ÌÂÒ¯Ùßß
ßßÆÚÂ΢‰ ˙ÂÓ‡ ÂÊ ÌÂÒ¯Ù Æ˙ÂÓ‡ ‡Ï‡
❸š❽❸ ❸➂ ❤➀❽❻š❸ ➀❿❸ ❸➈❽€➂

William Bernbach (1911-82)
øÌÂÒ¯Ù‰ Ï˘ ‰ÈˆÂÏ·‡‰

ȇ˜È¯Ó‡‰ ÌȘÒÚ‰ ÌÏÂÚ· ˙ȘÂÂÈ˘‰ ˙¯Â˘˜˙‰ ˙ÂÁ˙Ù˙‰ 

➛➛❸˜€ ❺❿˜➂ š❹˜➄ ˜❹–❽❽➀ ➀➆➈➂ ❽➀➆ ➁❽➈š❹™ ❽➄™ ❜❸ ❸€➂❸ ➇❹➅ ➛➛❸˜€ ➀❽❻š❸ ➀❿❸
➁❽➄❹➅❹š❹˜➄➀™˜❹–❽❽❸š—❽➄❿❼➁❽➄❹➅❸—❹™➀˜❹❷❻➀❹❼❽➀❻❸Procter & Gamble➀➂❶❹˜❼—❹˜➈
➁❽➄™ ➁š❹€ ➀❷❹❶➀ š❹➄❹˜š❽ ➁❸➀ —❽➄➆❽ ➁❽❽➄™❸ ➀™ ˜❹–❽❽❸ ❹➀❽™ ❽❿ ❹❿❽˜➆❸ ➁❸❹ ❸➂❹❷ ❸š❽❸
❽❼˜➅➂ ❤➁❽˜❿❹❺œ General Stores š❹❽➀➀❿❸ š❹❽❹➄❻❸ š❹➆–➂€ ❽€—❽˜➂€❸ ˜➆➂ ❹—❹❹™ ➁❽˜–❹➂
❸❽❸š❹➄❻❸➀➆š❹➄❻➀➆❽❶➂❸❽❸❹➀❽—š❹˜™➆❸➂❿➀™➃❹➅™❹❶❤➃❹➅❹˜❿➂❷–❽❿ž❏➆❹˜➈❸˜➆➂❸
➃❹➅❸š€➃❿˜–➀˜❿❹➂❹™❹❶❸➂❸❿❽š❻❾š❹❻
❸❽❸š❹➄❻❸➀➆➀—™➂š❹❷❷❹š❹❷❽❻❽
ȯ·ȇ Ô·ÒÏ ‰Ú„ÂÓ Æ∏≠≥ ‰ÂÓ˙
❸❽❸ ➃❹➅❸ š˜❽❿➂ ➀➆ ❸€➄ ❻❹❹˜ ❸™❹➆
˜❿❹➂❹™❹❶❸➀➆❾❹➂➄❽€➄❹❼❽➅˜❽❻➂➁➀™➂
?‫צף‬
➁❽➂➆➈➀❸❹❶❽€➄❹➆➂—˜❽❻➂❸❷❽❻❽➀❿
!‫גאוני‬
˜❹–❽— ➀—™➂ ❸➂˜➂ š–— ➁❶ ❸❽❸
❸❿➈❸➂€❽❸➀❹–˜➀➂❶❹˜❼—❹˜➈❸❽➀❽❷❽€
š❹❽➀❼➃❹➅❹˜–❽❽➁❸➁❽➄❹➅❸—❹™➀
➃❹➅➀❹➄š➄˜❽❽➄❸❺❹˜€š❽➀❼➀❿š❹❷❷❹
❾❽˜– ❸❽❸ €➀ š❹➄❻❸ ➀➆ IVORY  ➁™
➀❹❷❶❸➃❹➅❸™❹❶❾❹š❽❻—➅➆š❸➀˜š❹❽
➁❽€➄❹➆➂—❸ ➀➆ ➀—❽ ❸❺™ ❹™❻ ➁❽➄˜–❽❸
➀€❸❿˜™❷❻❸˜–❹➂❸š€❹❼➀—❽➁❸❹
❽€➄❹❼❽➅❸˜❽❻➂❸➃❽❻❹❹˜➂❸❾➈❽❸❸❸˜—
➁❽€➄❹➆➂—❸ —➂❼–❸ ❽€➄❹➆➂—❸ ˜❽❻➂➀
❹❸➀š❸ €➀ ❸❼➆➂❸ ➃❹™➀ ˜➂€➀ ˜™➈€ 

ISBN 965-06-0184-B❾˜❿€❾˜❿❸❻❹š➈❸❸❼❽➅˜❽➄❹€❸➃➂˜❽➀➆™❹❸❽➈❹˜➈—❽➄˜❹❸—➆❽➈❹˜➈➁❹➅˜➈❸➀❹❸❽➄ -111
Advertising Worldwide/ Marieke K. De Mooij, Warren Keegan/ Prentice-Hall, 1991/ ISBN 0-13-471897-6; -112
International Advertising and Marketing/ S. Watson Dunn, E.S. Lorimor/ Grid, 1979/ ISBN 0-88244-174-4
The Mirror Makers/ 1984/ www.marketingpower.com/ AMA. 2002 -113



 

❸❽❶❼˜❼➅€
➃➂➅❸❽➂˜
❝❛❞➅˜➂❜

❽➄˜❷❹➂❸➁➀❹➆❸➀™❽➀❿❸š❽—❹❹❽™š˜❹™—š❛—˜➈
➃❹❽❷➀➃❹™€˜❸❷❽❸š❿

❹˜➀➉❻˜š❸➀❹❶❸➄➁❽™➄€➁❽➄™➁š❹€❸❽➆❸š❽❸❸➂—˜➀➂❶❹˜❼—❹˜➈➀™™❷❻❸➃❹❽➆˜❸➂
˜❻€❸❺➁❽➅➄❿➄❹❽❸❸❻➈™➂❸❽➄❹˜–❻❹€❻❼➂➁❽➂š❽❶❽❶❸€➀➂➂❸š❽❸❸❻➈™➂❸➆❹™➁➆➈
❸➈❽€❸❷❹❷❹❷❹❷❸š➅➁❽❷➀❽❸™™➁❽˜❹❸š❹➀❹❷❶❹❽❸➁❽➄™➁š❹€š❹❻➈™➂❸❹˜❻€➂š❽❶❽❶➀❸❺
➆❹™ ➁➆➈ ➁❽–❻˜š➂ ➁❸ ❹˜❿❺š ➁❽˜❹❿➆ ❽❷ ➁❽™➆➄ ❹❽❸ ➁❽➂❸ ❽➆❽˜❸ ❹€ ❽™❽➀™❸ ❷➀❽ €❹❸™
š➀➈❹➄❸š❽❸➃❹➅❸š❿❽š❻➁➆➈❽❷❽➂➃❹➅š❿❽š❻➁➆❹➈❹❶š€➇™➈™➂š❽❶❽❶➃š➅➂❸➁❷€➃
➁❽˜❹❿➆➁❽➂❾❹š➃❹➅š❿❽š❻€❹–➂➀➀—€➀➁❽➂❸š❽❶❽❶❾❹š➀
˜❽❹€ š❹➆❹ ❹˜❷❻ ➃❹➅❸ ™❹❶ ❾❹š➀ š❹➆❼ ❹™➆ IVORY ➃❹➅ ➀™ ˜❹–❽❽❸ ❾❽➀❸š ➀➂❶❹ ˜❼—❹˜➈
➇– ❸❽❸ IVORY ➃❹➅ ➁❽➂➀™❽➀❹❶➅❸➀—™➂❸➂❾❹➂➄❸❽❸➃❹➅❸➀™❽➀❹❶➅❸➀—™➂❸❤❸€–❹š❸
❹™❽❽❸❽❺❿˜➂➁❽˜❼➅❹➈❹–❽➈❸➁❸➁❽€➄❹➆➂—➀❹˜š❽❹❹€➀➀➂❶❹˜❼—❹˜➈š❽❶❽❶❸❾❹š➇–➁❽➂
—❹❹™➂❸™❷❻➃❹➅➀➆❸➆❹➂™❸❼™➈š❸❼€➀❼€➀™❷❻❸➃❹➅❸➀➆➁❽❽➂❹—➂❸➁❽➄❹š❽➆š❹➆❷❹➂❹
➁❽˜❹❿➆❸➁❽➂➀➃❹˜š➈➁❽➂➇–❽❷❹❻❽❽➃❹˜š❽➀➆❹ IVORY➁™š❹❷❷❹š❹❷❽❻❽➀™❸❺❽˜€—❹™
❸™❷❻❸❸€–➂❸➀❹❷❶➄š❸❸➀❽❻š™➁❽➄€❹➆➂—❸➁❽€➄❹➆➂—❸➂˜–❹➂❸š€❹™˜❷➁❽➄❿˜–❸š❽❶❽❶
™❷❻❸➃❹➅❸š€˜❹❿➂➀❹—❹™❸š❹™❽˜❷➀š❹➄➆❸➀❹–➀€➄➁❸❸❿˜➆➂➁❽❷❷❹❹˜š❹➄
❽€➄❹➆➂—❸➀➆➉❹❻➀➀❹➃❿˜–➀š❹˜❽™❽➆❽❶❸➀➆❷❽➂š–➈❸➀™❽➀❿❸š❹➆–➂€➃˜–❽❻❽➀–❸❸➄❹™€˜➀
š€➁❽➄˜–❽❹–❽➈❸➁❽➄™➁š❹€❷➆❽➄˜❷❹➂❸➁➀❹➆➃❹™€˜❸➁❹➅˜➈❸➆➅➂❷➀❹➄❹š˜–❹šš€—❹❹™➀
ؘÂÂÈ˘ ¯ÂȈœ ˜–❹➂ š➈❽❻❷ ➀™ ❸❽❶❼˜❼➅€ ¨PUSH ˙ÈȂ˯ËÒ‡· —❹❹❽™❸ ˜❹➄❽– ➁❸❽˜–❹➂
˜❹➆➃˜–❽➀❽❻š➂❸™❽❿˜❸➆❶˜❷➆˜❹–❽❽❸➁❹❽➅➆❶˜➂˜–❹➂❸➆➄❹➉❹˜➆❸ ≠ Marketing Channel
➆➄❿™➀➉➂€š❸➃˜–❽❸ž➃❿˜–❸❸➄❹—❸➀™❹❽❷❽➀➆❽❶➂❾❽➀❸š❸➀™❹➈❹➅❹❽€➄❹➆➂—➀❹➄➂➂❽€➄❹❼❽➅➀
❸➈❽❻❷❸➃❹˜❻€❸➀™❹➄❹–˜❽❹➀š❸❽❸➃❹™€˜❸˜™€❿˜–❹➂❸➀™—❹❹❽™❸š❹❽€❷❿❽€➄❹➆➂—❸š€
➀➆❸€➄❻❹❹˜š❹™➆➀➀❿❽€❹❸™❾❿❽€➄❹➆➂—➀❹❼❽€➄❹❼❽➅˜❽❻➂➀™❽➀❿❸š❹➆–➂€˜—❽➆❸š™➆➄
➃❿˜–➀❸˜❽❿➂❸š➆˜–❹➂❸
Ô¯ˆÈÏ ÁÂÎ ˜Èډ ¨ÈÙÂÒ‰ Ôίˆ‰ χ ‰Ú‚‰· ȇÂÚÓ˜‰ Ï¢ÎÓ ÏÚ ¯·‚˙‰Ï „ÚÂ ¨ÌÂÒ¯Ù‰ ÈÏÎ
š€➆➄❿™➀➃❿˜–❸➀€š❹˜❽™❽➆❽❶❸➀➃˜–❽➀˜™➈❽€➁❹➅˜➈❸❽➀❿ ÆȇÂÚÓ˜‰ ÏÂÓ ˜ÂÂÈ˘‰ ÍÈω˙·
❽➄➈➀➆ ❹❽˜–❹➂ š❹➈❽❷➆ ➃❿˜–❸
PUSH/PULL ˙ÈȂ˯ËÒ‡ Æ∏≠¥ ¯Âȇ
➃❿˜–❸š€➆❽➄❸➀➁❽˜❻š➂❸❽˜–❹➂
—➈➅➀ ❽€➄❹➆➂—❸ ➀➆ ➉❻➀ ➀❽➆➈❸➀
PULL
PUSH
❾❿ ❹❽➀➆ ➇❷➆❹➂❸ ˜–❹➂❸ š€ ❹➀
❸™❷❻ ❸–➈❸ š❽❽❶❼˜❼➅€ ❸❷➀❹➄
‫יצרן‬
‫יצרן‬
Æ PULL ˙ÈȂ˯ËÒ‡ ➁ ™ 
❸š❹➆–➂€ ❸–➈❸ š❽❽❶❼˜❼➅€
➀❽➆➈❸❹❹❽➀€➃❿˜–❸š€➃˜–❽❸❾™❹➂
‫סיטונאי‬
‫סיטונאי‬
š€ ™❹❿˜➀ —❹❹❽™❸ ˜❹➄❽– ➀➆ ➉❻➀
‫ ❿➀❽ ❸➈˜➅❹➁ ❸❽❸ €➂–➆❽ פרסום‬❹❽˜–❹➂
š€❺ ❹™➆ —❹❹❽™ ˜❹➄❽– ➇—❹➆
‫קמעונאי‬
‫קמעונאי‬
š❶–❸❹ ❶š❹➂ ➁™ š❽❽➄ š❹➆–➂€
š❹➄❹˜š❽❹ š❹❿❽€ ➀™ ➁❽➄❽❽➈€➂
❹—❽➄➆❸ ❹➀€ ➁❽➄❽❽➈€➂ ˜–❹➂
➁❽➄˜–❽❽˜–❹➂❽➄➈➀➆š❹➈❽❷➆˜–❹➂➀
‫צרכן‬
‫צרכן‬
❸➄❹™€˜➀❹➀❻š➈š❸❾❿➁❽˜❻š➂
➁❹➅˜➈❸➀™❸➂❻❹➀❸❽➀❿

❻➈➄❹š❹€➁❽➂❸➀—™➂š➂❹➆➀➁❽❹➅➂˜➂❹❻➀™❽➅❻❽❸❹➀—™➂ÈÏÂ‚Ò Ï˜˘Ó -114
✈➂➆❜❛˜➈➅š❽˜—➃™❹™➃€➁❸˜€❺❿˜➂❸❽˜➆❸➃❹➀➂❸


 

❸❽❶❼˜❼➅€
➃➂➅❸❽➂˜
❝❛❞➅˜➂❜

❽➄˜❷❹➂❸➁➀❹➆❸➀™❽➀❿❸š❽—❹❹❽™š˜❹™—š❛—˜➈
➃❹❽❷➀➃❹™€˜❸❷❽❸š❿

˙ȘÂÂÈ˘ ˙¯Â˘˜˙ Ï˘ ‰¯„‚‰‰  

‡Â‰Â ÌÂÏ˘˙ Â¯Â·Ú Ï·˜˙˘ ¨È˘È‡ ‡Ï ¨È˙¯Â˘˜˙ ¯ÒÓ ≠ ÌÂÒ¯Ù Ï˘ ‰¯„‚‰‰
˙ÂÚˆÓ‡· ¨˙ÂÂÈÚ¯ ‡ ÌÈ˙¯˘ ¨ÌȯˆÂÓ ÏÚ ÚÎ˘Ó ÈÙ‡ ÏÚ· ÏÏÎ≠ͯ„·
ÆÌÂÒ¯Ù‰ ˙¯ÂȈ
¯ÒÓ ❸˜❷❶❸❸ ❽❽❿˜➂ š€ ❻š➄➄ š❽—❹❹❽™ š˜❹™—š ❽❺❿˜➂❸ ❸➂❻❹➀❸ ❽➀❿ €❹❸ ➁❹➅˜➈❸ ❽➀❿
➁❽➀❽➂➀™➃❿❹š➂❿˜❹➂˜➅➂❸➆❷❽➂˜❽➆❸➀€❹❸❷➆❽❸˜➅➂š˜➆❸➁❽—➅❹➆➁❹➅˜➈ ÆÈ˙¯Â˘˜˙
➆❷❽➂❿˜❹➂€➀❹➀❿➀➃❹➂❽❽❼—❽➄❹➂❹—š❹❽❸➀❽❽❻˜➅➂❸❤❽š˜❹™—š❸➄❹❹❿❸❸➂➀❽➀–❹❸➄❹➂š
➁❷€➀€➀➁❽™➄€➀™❸➀❹❷❶❸–❹—➀❷➆❹❽➂™˜➅➂ ÆÈ˘È‡ ‡Ï ˜š€❸❽➀❶➀➆➂❸˜➆❸➀➃š❽➄™
€➀˜➅➂➁❽˜❽➆➂❹➄€➁❹➅˜➈❷❻€➁❷€➀❹˜➀❷➆❹❽➂❸❿˜❹➂˜➅➂➁❽˜❽➆➂❹➄€š❿➂❷❷❹
❻❼™❹€❸❽❺❽❹❹➀❼❹€❹❽❷˜˜❽❹€❸➃➂❺ ÆÌÂÏ˘˙ ¯Â·Ú Ï·˜˙˘➁❽™➄€➀™❸➀❹❷❶❸–❹—➀❿˜❹➂
➁➅˜➈➂❸ ❽❷❽➀➆ ™❿˜➄ ❻❼™❸❹ ˜❻€➂ ➁❹➅˜➈ ➇➅❿ ™❿˜➄ š❹–❹❻ ❼❹➀❽™ ❹€ ➃❹š❽➆ ➁❹➅˜➈❸
ÏÚ· ÏÏÎ≠ͯ„·ž❸˜❹❺➄–❸š❹❿˜➆➂š❹➀❶➂œ❹❽➈❹€❹➁❹➅˜➈❸➃❿❹š➀➆š❼➀❻❹➂❸❼❽➀™➁➅˜➈➂➀
❸❽➄—➀❸➆➄❸➃❿˜–❸➀™š❹❷➂➆❽❹➄❽™š˜❷❶❹➂❸€–❹š➀€❽❸➀❷➆❹➄❹˜➀➁❹➅˜➈❸ ÆÚÎ˘Ó ÈÙ‡
š€➆➄❿™➀➁❹➅˜➈❸➀➆❸❽➄™❸❷❹—➄➀š❻€❸❷❹—➄➂➁❽™➄€€❽❸➀š˜❷❶❹➂❸€–❹š➀€❽❸➀š➄➂➀➆
š❹➄—➀➃❹❿➄❸❺™✈✈➛➛❸❽❽˜❽➆❸š❹™€˜➀➉➀➂❹➂❸❷➂➆❹➂˜❹❻➀➃❹❿➄❸❺™✈✈➃❹❿➄€❹❸❾➀❸➂❸™➃❿˜–❸
➁❶˜➅➂➁❽˜❽➆➂➁❹➅˜➈ Æ˙ÂÂÈÚ¯ ‡ ÌÈ˙¯˘ ¨ÌȯˆÂÓ➛➛š❽❸➀™˜❹❽–❸➁➆❸™❷❻❸❸➄❽❶❸š€
š❹➄❹❽➆˜➀➆➁❶❞ FedEx➀™˜❽❸➂˜€❹❷š❹˜❽™  ➁❽š❹˜™ ➀➆ ➁❶ ❞❽➄❹➅➀™❸❽❺❽❹❹➀❼➁❽˜–❹➂➀➆
˙ÂÚˆÓ‡· ➁❽❿˜❷š❹➄❹€šš➆❽➄➂➀š❽➂❹€➀❸❸–➆❹➂❸➃❽❽➈➂—➛➛❽˜❹❻€❸™❹➂š❹❻❽❼š˜❹❶❻˜❹❶❻✈✈
❼➄˜❼➄❽€❹❽❷˜❸❽❺❽❹❹➀❼œ➁❹➅˜➈❸š❹˜❹➄❽–š❹➆–➂€❻˜❸➀❸—➀˜➆❹➂˜➅➂❸ ÆÌÂÒ¯Ù‰ ˙¯ÂȈ
˜€❹❷€➀❹❸❿❹˜➆š€➀❷❻€➀➆❷❻€❽™❽€™❶➈➂€➀žš❹–❹❻❼❹➀❽™➁❽➄❽❺€❶➂š❹➄❹š❽➆➆❹➄➀❹—
¯·ÚÓ ¨ÌÈÙÒÂ ÌÈÏÎ ¯ÙÒÓ ‰ÙÈ˜Ó ˙ȘÂÂÈ˘ ˙¯Â˘˜˙
‰¯ÈÎÓ ˙¯ÈÎÓ Ì„Ș ¨¯Â·Èˆ≠ÈÒÁÈ ≠ ÌÂÒ¯Ù‰ ÈÏÎÏ
❹➄❽❸š❽—❹❹❽™š˜❹™—š➀™➃❹❿➄➀❹❸❽➄❸➂❿❻❸Æ˙È˘È‡
š❽➆❹–—➂❸❸❶➆❹❽❷❻❽➁❽➀❿❸š➆˜€➀™➀❹➆➈š❸❹➀❽™
š˜❹™—š ➀™ ➁❽➀❿❸ ➃❽ š➈➅❹➄ ❸➄❻€ ❸➀ ❸™˜š™❸
Below the Line  ❹—➀ š❻š➂ ➁❸™ ➁❽➆–➂€ š❽—❹❹❽™
Æ ATL - Above the Line ❹—➀➀➆➂➁❸™➁❽➆–➂€❹BTL
➁❽˜❽➆➂❸˜❹❽–❸❽➅❻❽❽➀❿❹➁❹➅˜➈❸❽➀❿š€➀➀❹❿ ATL
➀➀❹❿ BTL➁❹➅˜➈❸š❹˜❹➄❽–š❹➆–➂€➃❿˜–➀˜➅➂❸š€
➁❽˜❽➆➂❸š❽™❽€❸❸˜❽❿➂❸❽➀❿❹š❹˜❽❿➂❸➁❹❷❽—❽➀❿š€
š❹➀➆❸❹˜➀➁❽˜❽™❽➁❽➀❿š❹➆–➂€➃❿˜–➀˜➅➂❸š€
 BTL❸❽➆–➂€➀™š❹➀➆❸➂❸❸❹❶ATL❸❽➆–➂€➀™

Â¯Â·Ú Ï·˜˙ ‡Ï˘ ¨È˘È‡ ‡Ï ¨È˙¯Â˘˜˙ ¯ÒÓ ≠ ¯Â·Èˆ≠ÈÒÁÈ Ï˘ ‰¯„‚‰‰
¨˙ÂÂÈÚ¯ ‡ ÌÈ˙¯˘ ¨ÌȯˆÂÓ ÏÚ ÚÎ˘Ó ÈÙ‡ ÏÚ· ÏÏÎ≠ͯ„· ‡Â‰Â ÌÂÏ˘˙
ÆÌÂÒ¯Ù‰ ˙¯ÂȈ ˙ÂÚˆÓ‡·
Ưȇ‰ ÔÓÊ Â‡ ÌÂÒ¯Ù‰ Áˢ ÏÚ ÌÂÏ˘˙‰ Ô˙Ó ≠ ¯Â·Èˆ≠ÈÒÁÈ ÔÈ·Ï ÌÂÒ¯Ù ÔÈ· ÈÊίӉ Ï„·‰‰
˜❹❽–➀ ™❽™ ➃❽❽➄➆ ❾˜❹➆ š€❹ ❽€➄❹š❽➆❸ š€ ➁❽➆➄❿™➂ ˜❹❽–❽➅❻❽ ❻❼™❸ š€ ➁❽™❿❹˜ ➁❹➅˜➈
❸❼❽➀™ ➁➅˜➈➂➀ ➁❹➅˜➈ ➁➄❽❻ ➛➛➃š❽➄✈✈ ❻❼™❸ ˜❹❽–❽➅❻❽ ˜❽➆❸➀ ➁➅˜➈➂❸ š➄❹❹❿™ ❸➆❽❷❽
❸˜➆❹❸™❸➆❽❷❽❸➀™š❽➈❹➅❸❸€–❹š❸➀➆❸❼❽➀™➀❿➁➅˜➈➂➀➃❽€˜❹❽–❽➅❻❽➁❹➅˜➈❸➀➆š❼➀❻❹➂
❾˜❹➆❸❹❽€➄❹š❽➆❸➀™➁❸❽❷❽€❽❸š❽➈❹➅❸❸❼❽➀™❸❽€➄❹š❽➆➀


 

❸❽❶❼˜❼➅€
➃➂➅❸❽➂˜
❝❛❞➅˜➂❜

❽➄˜❷❹➂❸➁➀❹➆❸➀™❽➀❿❸š❽—❹❹❽™š˜❹™—š❛—˜➈
➃❹❽❷➀➃❹™€˜❸❷❽❸š❿

Â¯Â·Ú Ï·˜˙˘ ¨È˘È‡ ‡Ï ¨È˙¯Â˘˜˙ ¯ÒÓ ≠ ˙¯ÈÎÓ Ì„Ș Ï˘ ‰¯„‚‰‰
¨ÌȯˆÂÓ Ï˘ ÌÈ„ÈÈÓ ıÂÓȇ؉˘Èί „„ÂÚÓ‰ ÈÙ‡ ÏÚ· ÏÏÎ≠ͯ„· ‡Â‰Â ÌÂÏ˘˙
Æ˙¯ÈÎÓ Ì„Ș Ï˘ ÌÈÏÎ ˙ÂÚˆÓ‡· ¯·ÚÂÓ‰ ¨˙ÂÂÈÚ¯ ‡ ÌÈ˙¯˘
˜➅➂❸➁❹➅˜➈ ƯÒÓ‰ ˙¯·Ú‰Ï ÈÚˆÓ‡‰Â ‰Ú‰Ï „Úȉ ≠ ˙¯ÈÎÓ ÌÂ„È˜Ï ÌÂÒ¯Ù ÔÈ· ÌÈÏ„·‰‰
˜➆❹➂˜➅➂❸š❹˜❽❿➂➁❹❷❽—❹➀❽€❹š❽➄❹➂❸❸❸❽❷➂❸š❹➆–➂€➁❹➅˜➈❸š❹˜❹➄❽–š❹➆–➂€˜➆❹➂
 Sampling˜–❹➂❸➀™ ˙ÂÈӂ„ ˙˜ÂÏÁ❤➁❽➀❿❹➀❽€ š❹˜❽❿➂➁❹❷❽—➀™➁❽➄❹™❸➁❽➀❿❸š❹➆–➂€
BonusÒÂ· ˙ÂÊȯ‡  Contests & Sweepstakes ˙Âϯ‚‰Â ˙ÂȯÁ˙  ž❸❻➄❸ ❽™❹➀šœ Coupons ÌÈÂÙ˜
˙„˜· ÌÂÒ¯Ù Direct Mail¯È˘È ¯ÂÂÈ„ž❸➀❽❶˜❸❸❺❽˜€❸˜❽❻➂˜–❹➂❸➀™š➀❷❶❹➂❸❺❽˜€œ Packs
€❹❸ ➇➅❹➄ ❽➆–➂€ Æ˙¯ÈÎÓ Ì„Ș ÈÚ¯‡ Point-of-Purchase [POP] Advertising‰¯ÈÎÓ‰
€➀❹˜–❹➂❸š€➁❷—➂➁➅˜➈➂❸➃❹➈➀❼❸š❹➆–➂€™❸❻➄❸❸š❻šš€❺TelemarketingØ‚È˘¯ÓÏˉ
˜➆ ➁€ ➃❿➀➆ ➁❽˜–❹➂ ➀™ ❸–➈❸ ˜❹➄❽–❿ ˜—❽➆ ™➂™➂ ❶➄❽❼—˜➂➀❼❸ ❽➀❿ ➁❹❽❸ ❹š❹€ ˜❿❹➂
❸–➈❸❸š❹˜❹➄❽–˜€™❹➂❿❸–➈❸˜❹➄❽–❿❹❶❹❹➅➀➁❹❽❸➃❹❿➄š❹˜❽❿➂➁❹❷❽—❽➆–➂€❿❶❹❹➅❶➄❽❼—˜➂➀❼
➁❽❻❽➀™š❹˜❽™➛➛➃➀❺❶✈✈š❽❷❽❽➄❸˜❽❿➂š❷❹—➄š❹➄❻š❻❽❽➄❸˜❽❿➂š❷❹—➄œ➁❽➄˜❷❹➂❸❹➁❽—❽š❹❸
➁❹➅˜➈❷➆❽❸ž➃❹➈➀❼❸š❹➆–➂€❸˜❽❿➂❼➄˜❼➄❽€❸š❹➆–➂€❸˜❽❿➂❸❽❺❽❹❹➀❼❸š❹➆–➂€❸˜❽❿➂
❻❹❹❼➆–➀➃❿˜–❸š€€❽❸➀€❹❸š❹˜❽❿➂➁❹❷❽—❷➆❽❸š❹❷➂➆❽❹➄❽™➀€❽❸➀➆➄❿™➀❹˜➀€❹❸
š❹˜❽™❸❹€˜–❹➂❸➀™❸™❽❿˜˜–—❸➃➂❺❸

Â¯Â·Ú Ï·˜˙˘ ¨È˘È‡ ‡Ï ¨È˙¯Â˘˜˙ ¯ÒÓ ≠ ˙È˘È‡ ‰¯ÈÎÓ Ï˘ ‰¯„‚‰‰
¨ÌȯˆÂÓ Ï˘ ÌÈ„ÈÈÓ ıÂÓȇ؉˘Èί „„ÂÚÓ‰ ÈÙ‡ ÏÚ· ÏÏÎ≠ͯ„· ‡Â‰Â ÌÂÏ˘˙
Æ˙È˘È‡ ‰¯ÈÎÓ Ï˘ ÈÏΉ ˙ÂÚˆÓ‡· ¯·ÚÂÓ‰ ¨˙ÂÂÈÚ¯ ‡ ÌÈ˙¯˘
ÈÏη ‡Â‰ ¨˙È˘È‡ ‰¯ÈÎÓ ÔÈ·Ï ˙¯ÈÎÓ Ì„Ș ÔÈ· ÈÊίӉ Ï„·‰‰
➁❹❷❽—❽➀❿š❹➆–➂€˜➆❹➂˜➅➂❸š❹˜❽❿➂➁❹❷❽—ƯÒÓ‰ ˙¯·Ú‰Ï
˜➆❹➂˜➅➂❸š❽™❽€❸˜❽❿➂❸➀❹❷❶➁❽™➄€š–❹—➀❹˜➀š❹˜❽❿➂❸
➀™š❹˜❽❿➂➁❹❷❽—š™€❤❸➂❶❹❷˜❻€➁❷€➀❷❻€➁❷€š❹➆–➂€
❹➀❿š❽❸˜❻❸❽˜–❹➂š€š➂❷—➂❸❸—❽❼➂➅❹—š˜❻
ÌÈÏÎ Ìȉ ¨ ATL≠‰ ÈÚˆÓ‡ ¨Â˜Ï ÏÚÓ ÌÈÚˆÓ‡‰ ÈÎ ÌÎÒÏ Ô˙È
¨ÌÂÒ¯Ù‰ ˙¯ÂȈ ˙ÂÚˆÓ‡· ÌÈ˘‡ Ï˘ Ï„‚ ω˜Ï ¯ÒÓ ˙¯·Ú‰Ï
˙Á˙Ó ÌÈÚˆÓ‡‰ ÂÏȇ ÆÚÎ˘Ó ÈÙ‡ ÈÏÚ· ¯˜ÈÚ· ̉ ¨‰È„Ó‰
̈ÓÂˆÓ Ï‰˜Ï ÌȯÒÓ ˙¯·Ú‰Ï ÌÈÏÎ Ìȉ ¨ BTL≠‰ ÈÚˆÓ‡ ¨Â˜Ï
‰ÏÂÚÙÏ ‰Ú‰ Ï˘ ÈÙ‡ ÈÏÚ· ¯˜ÈÚ· ̉ ¨¯È˘È ÔÙ‡· ÌÈ˘‡ Ï˘
❾❹˜➆➀❹➁❽➀❿❸š➆˜€™❹➂❽™❸š€➀➀❿™➀➃š❽➄™➃❹➂❿ Æ˙È„ÈÈÓ
❽š˜❽–❽➁❹❷❽—❸❽➆–➂€™➀❿❿➀❹❶❸➁❸➁❽❽➂™❸➁❸➄❽➁❽❹➀❽™
€❽❸ š❽➈❹➅❸ ❸€–❹š❸™❿ š❹❼➀❹ ˜š❽➀ ❸❿❹❺ €❹❸ ❾❿ ˜š❹❽
 š˜❶❹➂š❹❽❽❼—➈€
Sales Promotion Management/ Don E. Schultz, W.A.Robinson/ NTC, 1986/ ISBN 0-8442-3072-3; Sales -115
Promotion Essentials/ Don E. Schultz, W.A.Robinson/ NTC, 1987/ ISBN 0-8442-3067-7

š❹˜❽❿➂➁❹❷❽—➁❹➅˜➈❝➁❽❽❿˜➂❸™❽➂❻➀—❹❹❽™❸➀❽❸➂šš€—➀❻➀™❽™❹➅˜❶™➁❽❽➆❹–—➂➁❽➂˜❹❶❹❽❸š❹➄❹˜❻€❸➁❽➄™ -116
˜❹❹❽❷ žš❽™❽€ ❸˜❽❿➂➀ ❸™❷❻ ❸˜❷❶❸œ š❹˜❽❿➂ ❽™➄€ ˜❹❽–❽➅❻❽ ž➁❽˜–❹➂ ➀™ ➁❽❷❽❽➂ ➉❹➂❽€❸™❽❿˜ ❷❷❹➆➂❸ ➁❹➅˜➈œ
➀❸➄➀➃š❽➄❹❺❸—❹➀❻➀➆➁❶™➃❹➂❿žš❽➄❹➂❸❸❸❽❷➂❸š€➁❽➀➀❹❿➁➄❽€™š❹˜❽❿➂❸➁❹❷❽—❽➆–➂€➀❿œ❼➄˜❼➄❽€❶➄❽❼—˜➂➀❼˜❽™❽
➀™❸™❷❻❸❸❽–—➀❹—❸š€❸❶❽–➂❸❸➄➈❹€š˜❹❻€➀❹—➀❻➃❿❹—➀❻❤š❽➄❹➂❸❸❽❷➂➀™❽➀❿❹➄➄❽€❼➄˜❼➄❽€❸➁€❸❽➆❹–—➂❻❹❿❽❹
❹š˜❼➂❹ MTV˜❷❹™➂❸➈❽➀—❤š❹˜❽❿➂➁❹❷❽—➀™❹€➁❹➅˜➈➀™❸❽˜❹❶❽❼—➀➀❿š✈❸™€➀✈➃❹➆❹™➀❻➈➅➄❿š➀❹™➂❸❹˜❼➅—
➃❽š❹➀❹❶❸➁❽➀➀❿š™➂❸❽❷➂❸❽➆–➂€™➀❿❿❾❿˜❹❽–❽➅❻❽❹€➁❹➅˜➈€❹❸❸➄❹❷➂➀™™❷❻❼❽➀—š➀™š❹˜❽❿➂❸š€➁❷—➀
š❽š˜❹➅➂❸❸˜❷❶❸➀❷➂–❸➀❹➄˜❻š€❺˜❹€➀š❽—❹❹❽™❸š˜❹™—š❸➀❽❸➂šš€™❷❻➂˜❽❷❶❸➀➁❹❽❽❷❽➂➃š❽➄❹➁❽™❼™❼➂➁❽➂❹❻š❸
➁❽➄™❸❾➀❸➂➇❽˜❻❽❹❾➀❽—˜❸—❹➀❻❸➀➆❽➆❹–—➂❸❻❹❿❽❹❸™❸€➀➂❸➆❽❷❽❾❹š➂
Marketing Management/ Philip Kotler/ Prentice Hall, 2003/ chp 1, pg 16/ ISBN 0-13-0336297



 

❸❽❶❼˜❼➅€
➃➂➅❸❽➂˜
❝❛❞➅˜➂❜

❽➄˜❷❹➂❸➁➀❹➆❸➀™❽➀❿❸š❽—❹❹❽™š˜❹™—š❛—˜➈
➃❹❽❷➀➃❹™€˜❸❷❽❸š❿

˙È˙¯·Á‰Â ˙ȘÒÚ‰ ¨˙ÈÓ‡ω ‰ÓÈ˘Ó‰ ˙·È·Ò ÏÚ ˙ȘÂÂÈ˘ ˙¯Â˘˜˙ Ï˘ ‰ÚÙ˘‰‰ 

❹➄❽❽❻❽➄➅˜❸❸❸❷❽—➈š➀➆š❽➄˜❷❹➂❸➆➈™❸š❹˜š➀➆➁➀❹➆˜➆❻❹❿❽❹➀❸➄š➂➁❽˜❹™➆❽➄™❿❸❺➂
❹❺š❹˜š❽˜❹❻€➂➁❽❽❺❿˜➂❸➁❽➆❹➄➂❸❷❻€❿❸❸❹❺➂❸➁❹➅˜➈❸❽➀❿➉˜€❸˜❹❷❿❸™—❸❸➆❽❶➈❸➀➆❹
ψÈ‰Â ÌÂÒ¯Ù‰ „‚ ‰Ù˜˙Ó· ‡ˆÈ ·¯ÚÓ· Á¯ È˘‡Â Ìȇ˜ÈËÈÏÂÙ  š˜❹—❽ ➀™ š❻➀—➀ ❸❿❹❺
š❹˜š❹➄❽❷➂—➄➆❸š❹˜❻š€➀❽❶❸➀➃❹❽➅➄ ÆÌÏÂÚ· ÌÈȘÒÚ ÌÈӯ‚ È„È≠ÏÚ Â· ‰˘Ú˘ ÈȈ‰
❸€❽❸ š❹€❽˜ ➃❼˜➅➀ ➃❹™❽➆ ➃❽ ˜™—➀ š❽˜❹❽–❸ š❹➆❷❹➂ ❸❽➀➆❸ ➁❹➅˜➈❸ ➀➆ š❹❽–➅—➄➅ ❹➀❽❼❸
❷❶➄ ❸➆❹➄š❸ š❹˜ ❽➄❽➂ š❻€ ❸➂❶❹❷ €❽❸ š❹❽˜❶❽➅ ➁❹➅˜➈ ❼➀❻❹➂ ➃➈❹€ ˜❹➅€➀ ➁❽˜ ➁❽❼➄➂➀˜➈
š˜❹—❽❽➀❶➀❹€❽❸ Brands➁❽❶š❹➂➀™➃❿❹š❸➁➀❹➆➀➆❹—➄➆❸❽❷❽❶€š➀➆❸➈—š➂❸❸❽–❺❽➀❹➀❶❸
➁❽—❷–❹➂➁❽➄❹➆❽❼❸➁❽˜—➂❸➂—➀❻➁❹➅˜➈❸❽➀❿➀➆➁❽™❷❻
➁❽™➄€š❹™❻š❸❾❹š❸➆˜➀™❹➂❽™➀❹€❸❹❼➀™❹➂❽™➀➃š❽➄➁❹➅˜➈❸❽➀❿➁❶❸➂❻❹➀❽➀❿➀❿❹➂❿
€❹❸➁❹➅˜➈™˜❹❿❺➀❸❽❶❼˜❼➅€❽➂❻❹➀❿❹➄❽➀➆š❽š˜❻š❹➆❷❹➂➀❿€➀➀š❹❽➄❽–❷❶➄❿❹€❸❽➅❹
➁❽➄™❷š❽➄˜–❽œ➛➁❽➀—❽➂❽❿❸➈❽❻✈❹➂❿❸˜❻➀™➁❽➅˜❼➄❽€❹š❹➆–➂€➁❷—➀˜™➈€❽➀❿➀❿❸❾➅
➃❹❿❽š❸ ➁❽❸ ❾❹š➀ ➂➛➛— ❾˜❹€➁❽❿➈™˜❹➄❽–❻❽➄❸➀š™—➂❸ž❸➈❽❻➉˜➈➂š➂—❹➂➂❸➁❽➂❽❿
➆➄➂š™ š❽š˜❻ ❸€❻➂ š➆❹➄š ˜˜❹➆➀ ™—➂❸ Green Peace ➃❹❶˜€ ➀™ ➁❽➅˜❼➄❽€ ➁❷—➀ ˜™➈€❹
➃❸❹—➄➆❸❽❷❽❶€š➃❸➁❹➅˜➈❸❽➀❿™➂š™❸➀➀❹❿❽❷–➀❿➃❹❿❽š❸➁❽❸š€➁❸❺➀➁❽➀—➂❽❿❸➈❽❻➂
➃❽€™❾❿❸❽–❺❽➀❹➀❶❽❼➄€❸❽➂❻❹➀
ÌÁÂω ˙ÓÎÁ ❾❿➀˜➆➂❽➀❿❸š€➇❹—š➀➁❹—➂
š❽❹❽❻❹ š❽❺❿˜➂ ❸➂❹˜š ➁❹➅˜➈➀
ßß°˙È˘Ú ‡Ï ¨˙ÓÒ¯Ù ‡Ï ¨˙È˘Úßß
➁➀❹➆❸ ➀™ š❽➀❿➀❿❸ š❹❻š➈š❸
❸➂➀ š❹➄❹˜❻€❸ ➁❽➄™ ❸€➂
❤➁❽➄❹❹❿š➂

 ❸❽–➄❶❼➅ š❹➆—š➄ š❹➄❽❷➂ š❽➀❿➀❿ ❸❻❽➂– €➀➀ Æ˙ÈÏÎÏÎ ‰ÁÈÓˆÏ ˙Ó¯Â˙ ˙ȘÂÂÈ˘ ˙¯Â˘˜˙
➁❽➄❿˜– ➀™ ❸❽❹➄➈❸ ❸➅➄❿❸❸ š➂˜ ➃❹€➈— ™➈➄➀ ❸➅➄❿❸❸ š➂˜ ➃❹€➈— ❤❸❽–➄❶❼➅ ➀™ š❹➆➂™➂❸
š❹➄❽❷➂❸❻❽➂–➀➇❻❹❷➁❹➅˜➈š❽➄˜❷❹➂❸➀❿➀❿❸➀™➁❽❽❻❸➁➅❹➄❽❸❸❻❽➂–➁❽❽❻❸š➂˜➃❹€➈—
❽š❹˜™ š➂˜ ❸š➀➆ ➁❽❽❻❸ š➂˜  ❸❻š➈š❸ ➁❽™❹š❸ š❻❹❹˜ š➂❷❹—❸ ❸€➂ ❸❻➂– ➃š➀❿➀❿™
š❹˜š❽➈➀❿š❹™—š❹➄➆❼™❽❷❶➄❿❹❻š➈š❸➁❽❽➀€❽–❹➅❸❸❿❽➂š❸❽š❹˜❽™❾˜➆➂❸➂❷—š❸❸€❹➈˜❸
š➆➄❸ ➁❺❶❹➂ ™❹➂❽™ ❸™➆➄™  ❸➄❹™€˜❸ ❸➄➆❼❸ ❸❿❽˜–❸
š➆❶❹➈❸❿❽˜–❸š❹˜š❸❽➄™❸❸➄➆❼❸˜š❽š❿❽˜–➀➁❽➄❿˜–
š❹➅❽➈š❸➃❽➃❹❺❽€€❹–➂➀➃➂❺❸➆❽❶❸™˜❹˜➉˜€❸˜❹❷❿š❹™—
➀❹➂ ž❛Gaia❸❽€❶œ ➉˜€❸˜❹❷❿ ˜❹➂❽™  š❹❷❶❹➄➂ ❸˜❹€❿➀❸
➁❽❽❻❸š➂˜❸❻❽➂–❸
—š➆❸❽❽–—š€➀➀ ƉȄÓÏ ÌÂȘ ˙¯˘Ù‡Ó ˙ȘÂÂÈ˘ ˙¯Â˘˜˙
➁➀❹➆❸š❹➄❽❷➂➀❿˜➀❹❷❷˜€❽➀❽➂❿œ➁❹➅˜➈➁❽➆—™❹➂❸
❸š❽❸€➀❸❽❷➂➀ž➀€˜™❽˜➀❹❷❷˜€❽➀❽➂ ❿❞š➄™
š❹➄❻š€➀❹➁❽➄❽❺❶€➂❸€➀➁❽➄❹š❽➆❸€➀➁❽❽—š❸➀š❹˜™➈€
—❽❺❻➂➁❹➅˜➈➁❹➅˜➈€➀➀➁❽❽—š❸➀➁❽➀❹❿❽❹❽❸❸❽❺❽❹❹➀❼❸
š❽™➈❹❻š❹➄❹š❽➆š❽™➈❹❻š❹➄❹š❽➆➀™➀❹➆➈š˜™➈€➂❹➃➂➂➂
➁➀❹➆❽❼˜—❹➂❷˜❼™➂➀❿➀™❷❹➅❽❸❽➄€➂❷❻€š€❸❹❹❸➂ 

˜❻➅➂❹€˜❹–❽➀➈™❸❷❽➂➆➃❹€➈—‰Èˆ‚ËÒ -117
❛✈➂➆❜❛˜➈➅š❽˜—➃™❹™➃€➁❸˜€❺❿˜➂❸❽˜➆❸➃❹➀➂❸
Gaia - In the 1970s James Lovelock formulated and popularised the idea of Earth - the collective atmosphere, -118
oceans, lithosphere, and biosphere - as a single, cybernetically self-functioning superorgamism, without self-consciousness
[the latter being an “unscientific” concept]. This global entity he called “Gaia”, after the old Greek Earth-Goddess.
http://www.kheper.auz.com/gaia/Gaia.htm.



 

❸❽❶❼˜❼➅€
➃➂➅❸❽➂˜
❝❛❞➅˜➂❜

❽➄˜❷❹➂❸➁➀❹➆❸➀™❽➀❿❸š❽—❹❹❽™š˜❹™—š❛—˜➈
➃❹❽❷➀➃❹™€˜❸❷❽❸š❿

š➀➀❿❹™➂š❹˜❻š Æ˙ȘÒÚ‰ ‰Ïȉ˜· ˙¯Á˙‰ ˙‡ ˙ÏÏ΢Ó ˙ÂÏÈÚÙ ‰¯È·‚Ó ˙ȘÂÂÈ˘ ˙¯Â˘˜˙
™❹❿˜➀˜™➈€➁❹❽❸❻➛➛™❹—❽˜❼š–➀❹❻➀➆➁❽➂➀™➂❹➄❽❽❸➀€˜™❽➁➆➈➁❽˜❽❻➂❸❷❽˜❽➀❸€❽➂
š˜❹™—š˜š❹❽™❽™➀❿❿ š❹❻➈❸˜❸❻❽❹❹˜➂❹❸™❽➂❻➛➛™ ❹—❽˜❼š–➀❹❻❸š❹€š€➁❽—❹❹™
š❹❻➈❸❹➁❽➂❷—š➂➁❽❻➀–❹➂❸➁❽➀➆➈➂❸š➀➀❿š™➂š❹˜❻š❸➃❿˜–❸❽❷❽❸❽–➂˜❹➈➄❽€˜š❹❽š❽—❹❹❽™
➃❿˜–❸➀™❹š❻❹❹˜❸❽➀➆❹š❹➂❷—š❸❹š❹➆➂™➂➀❹➀❿™➁➀❹➆❸➂➁❽➂➀➆➄➁❽➀❽➆❽
š❹˜❻š➂❸€–❹š❿ Æ̉ȯˆÂÓ ˙‡ ¯Ù˘Ï ¨ÌȯÈÁÓ „È¯Â‰Ï ÌȯÁ˙Ó‰ ˙‡ ‰ÚÈÓ ˙ȘÂÂÈ˘ ˙¯Â˘˜˙
➀€˜™❽˜–❹➂❸š❹❿❽€š€➁❽˜➈™➂➁❽➀➆❽❽š➂➁❽˜❽❻➂➁❽❷❽˜❹➂❷❹˜™➀➁❽–➂€➂➁❽™❹➆➁❽➄˜–❽
š❽➂❹➅˜➈š❹➀❽➆➈š❹➆–➂€š➆➄❹➂❸š˜❶❹➂š❽š❹˜❻šš❹➀❽➆➈š➂❽❽—➁❽˜➀❹➀➅❸➁❽➄❹➈➀❼❸—❹™
˜š❹❽❹❼˜–❹➂➀—➂™➃❿˜–❸❤❽˜—❽➆❸❻❽❹❹˜➂❸❽➂❸❷❽˜❽š➂❶➂➁❽€❹–➂❸❻❽™❸❹š❹˜❽™❸❽˜❽❻➂
˜š❹❽➀❹❺˜❽❻➂
š❹❿❺ ÆÌÈίˆÏ ¯Á·Ó ‰„ÈÓÚÓ ˙ȘÂÂÈ˘ ˙¯Â˘˜˙
➁❸➂➁❽˜–❹➂➀™➀❹❷❶➃❹❹❶➂➃❿˜–➀š❽—❹❹❽™❸š˜❹™—š❸
➀❻❸˜˜—➂➁➆➈➇❷➆❹➂❸❶š❹➂❸˜–❹➂❸š€˜❹❻➀➃š❽➄
❸➄❽❶ ❸€➂❻  ➁❽❷❷❹ ➁❽˜–❹➂ ˜➈➅➂ ❹❽❸ ❽➀€˜™❽❸
➀❻❸˜˜—➂➁❹❽❸š❽˜❶➀❹❸➄❽❶❹➛❶❼❹—š➄❽❶❸➄➀
˜❹❻➀š❹˜™➈€❸➁❷€➀❿➀➁❽❶š❹➂❹➁❽˜–❹➂š❹€➂➅❹➂➆
š❹➄➆❼❸š˜❶➅➂˜❻➂™❽❹š❹˜❻š™❽➇❷➆❹➂❸˜–❹➂❸š€
❽❼➄€❸š❹➆❹➄šš❹➅˜❹❶š❽➄˜❷❹➂❸❸❿❽˜–❸š❹˜š❷❶➄❿
˜➈➅➂➆❽–❸➀❽❷➁❽™➄€❸š€➀➀➂˜❻➂❸™š❹➄❿˜–
➀™ ❹❽❷❽ €❽❸ ❼❽➀❻❸➀ š❹❿❺❸™ ❹➄š™❽❶ ❷❷❹ ➁❽˜–❹➂
❤˜➂➂—š➄❽❶❸–❹˜˜❷➅❤N❸➄➀❸➄❽❶❸–❹˜➃❿˜–❸
˜❷➅❸❺➁❶
Æ Brand ImageØ‚˙ÂÓ‰ ˙ÈÓ„˙ ≠ ÌÈ˙ÈÓ„˙ ÛÒÂÓ Í¯Ú ˙ÂÚÓ˘Ó ¯ˆÂÓÏ ‰˜ÈÚÓ ˙ȘÂÂÈ˘ ˙¯Â˘˜˙
❸—™➂—❹—➁❽š❹™™❿❶š❹➂❸➁™❽➅➇➅❹➂❾˜➆❹➁➀™➃❿❹š➁➀❹➆š˜–❽❽➂š❽—❹❹❽™š˜❹™—š
➛➛➁❽❽❻❸➁➆❼✈✈š€➁❽š❹™˜❹❻™❺❶❹➂❸—™➂➁❽š❹™€➀❸➀❹—❸—❹—

‡ÏÒÓ Ï˘ ÌÈίˆ‰ ˙ÈÈί¯È‰ ≠ Ô¢‡¯ ‰„Â·Ú ÈÏÎ ≠ Ôίˆ‰Â ˙ȘÂÂÈ˘ ˙¯Â˘˜˙ 

➃❿˜–❸ ➀™ ❹™➈➄ ❽❿➄ š❹—➂➆š❸❸ €❽❸ š❽—❹❹❽™❸ š˜❹™—š❸ š❷❹➆ ➁❽❽❺❿˜➂❸ ➁❽˜❶š€❸ ❷❻€
❷❹➅❸š€➁❽➆❷❹❽❹➄❽❽❸➁€š❹➄❹❽➆˜➅➈❹š€❹❸❷–❽❿™❹❻€❹❸❷–❽❿š❹❼➀❻❸➃❿˜–❸➀—➂❷–❽❿
❽™➄€❿❹➄š❷❹➆š€˜➈™➀➁❽➀❹❿❽❹➄❽❽❸€➀➈❹➂➁➀❹➆❹š❹€➀❻š➈➂❸š€❹➄❽❷❽❸❽❸➁€❼➀❻❹➂❸
Ï„ÂÓ❸❽❶❹➀❹❿❽➅➈❸❽❷❹➂❽➀➁❹❻š➂➆❽❶➂➁❽➆❽❽š➅➂❹➄€❹❽❺❿˜➂❸❽➅€➀—❸❽➀❿❸š❽—❹❹❽™š˜❹™—š
➀™ ➁➀❹➅ ➅❽➅ ➀➆ ➁❽➆➄❹➂ ➁❽➄❿˜–™ š➅˜❹❶ ❸❽˜❹€š❸ ÆMaslow؇ÏÒÓ Ï˘ ÌÈίˆ‰ ˙ÈÈί¯È‰
➁❽➄❹❽➀➆❸➁❽❿˜–➀➁❽❶€❹❷➃❿➂˜❻€➀—˜❹❷❹➅❽❸❽❿˜–❽❹➀❽➂➀➁❽❶€❹❷➁❷❹— Needs➁❽❿˜– 

❶€❹❷➁❷❹—➁❷€❸➄❽™❹➃–➂❻€➂–➆˜ ≠ ÌÈÈ‚ÂÏÂÈÒÈÙ ÌÈίˆ ≠ ‰¢‡¯‰ ‰‚¯„Ó‰ 
❹€˜❽❹€€➀➀➁❷€€➂–➁❷€➆˜➁❷€❷—➈š➀➃š❽➄€➀➁❸❽❷➆➀➁❽❽➅❽➅❸➇❹❶❸❽❿˜–➀
š❹™➆➀➀❶❹➅➂❹➄❽€€❹❸❷❹➂➀➀❹€❹❸€➀˜➈➅€❹˜—➀❹➂–➆➀➆➃❶❸➀➀❶❹➅➂€➀➇❽❽➆➁❷€
˜❷
€➀❹š❽➅❻❹❼™❻❹➄❽€™➁❷€˜❷➅❸➄❶❸❽™❽€≠ ÔÂÁË· Èίˆ ≠ ‰È˘‰ ‰‚¯„Ó‰ 
➆❹➄➂➀ ❹➂–➆ ➀➆ ➃❶❸➀ ❶€❹❷ €❹❸ ➁❽❽➅❽➅❸ ➇❹❶❸ ❽❿˜–➀ ❶€❹❷ €❹❸™ ❽˜❻€ ❷—➈š➀ ➀❶❹➅➂
 Chaos❹❸❹❹❹❸❹š➆❹➄➂➀❹˜❷➅➁❹❽—➀❶❹€❷➀š❽➅❽➈❸➆❽❶➈



 

❸❽❶❼˜❼➅€
➃➂➅❸❽➂˜
❝❛❞➅˜➂❜

❽➄˜❷❹➂❸➁➀❹➆❸➀™❽➀❿❸š❽—❹❹❽™š˜❹™—š❛—˜➈
➃❹❽❷➀➃❹™€˜❸❷❽❸š❿

‡ÏÒÓ Ï˘ ÌÈίˆ‰ ˙ÈÈί¯È‰ Ï„ÂÓ Æ∏≠µ ¯Âȇ ˙ÂÎÈÈ˘ ≠ ˙È˘ÈÏ˘‰ ‰‚¯„Ó‰ 
❶€❷™ ➁❷€ ™❶˜ ❸❽❻ ≠ ‰·‰‡Â
˜❻€➀❻❹❼™❽❶˜➂❹➁❽❽➅❽➈❸❹❽❿˜–➀
—➀❻ ❸€➄❹ ❾❽❽™ ™❹❻➀ ❸–❹˜ ➃❿➂
‫הגשמה‬
➁❷€❽➄❽š❻➈™➂€š➂—➀❻❸–❹—➂
❸❽➅➀❷❶❸❷➀❽➁❷€❽➄➀➁❽—❹—❺
❸™—š❽ š❿➂❹š €➀❹ š❸❹€ €➀
‫הערכה‬
➁❽❸❹❶➁❽❿˜–™➂➂➀❹š❹˜❶

‫שייכות‬
‫בטחון‬
‫פיסיולוגיים‬

‰Î¯Ú‰ ≠ ˙ÈÚÈ·¯‰ ‰‚¯„Ó‰ 
❷❹❿ ≠ ÌȯÁ‡ Ï˘ ‰Î¯Ú‰Ø˙ÈÓˆÚ
➁❷€➁❽❶™❽❸❸❻➀–❸➃❽❼❽➄❹➂❽➂–➆
❸–❹˜ ❸❸€➀ ❸❿❹❺❹ ❾❽❽™ ™❽❶˜➂❸
€❹❸❸❿˜➆❸❷❹❿❸–❹˜€❹❸˜š❹❽
➁➆❹❸™➂❸™❹➆€❹❸™™❽❶˜❸➀❸–❹˜
❹❽❶™❽❸š➂❽™˜➁❸❹➀€❹❽❽❻

‰Ó˘‚‰ ≠ ˙È˘ÈÓÁ‰ ‰‚¯„Ó‰ 
❻❹❼€❹❸➀➈❹❼➂➇❹❶❸❹❽❽❻➀❿❸❶❽™❸™➁❷€š❹❽™❽€š❹❽➀❿š❹š❹˜❼➂™❹➂❽➂≠ ˙ÈÓˆÚ
❹➂–➆ š€ ™➂➂➀ ❸–❹˜ €❹❸ ❹➀€ ➀❿ ❽˜❻€ ➁❽❶™❽❸ ˜➈➅➂ ❹š❹❿❺➀ ➁™˜ ❸€➄❹ ❾❽❽™ €❹❸
š❽❿❹➄€š❹❻➈❸❹š❽➄❻❹˜❸š❽š˜❽–❽❸❸❶˜❷➂❸❹❺❸❶˜❷➂➀➆❽❶❸➀➁❽❿˜š➂❸➁❽™➄€❸➁❽❼➆➂
€➀➀❿❸™✈✈➁❽➄❽➂➁❷€❽➄™➀™❸❹❸❺➁❽˜❻€➃➆➂➀❸˜❻❸➃➆➂➀❸❽➅❸➃➆➂➀➁❽™❹➆
➁❽❽❻™➁❽€➀➈❹➂❸➁❽˜❷❸š€➁❽™➈❻➂˜š❹❽➁❽–❹˜➁❸❹➛➛❹❽™❿➆❹➃€❿˜➂❶➄

È˙ÒÈÙ˙‰ ÍÈω˙‰ ≠ È˘ ‰„Â·Ú ÈÏÎ ≠ Ôίˆ‰Â ˙ȘÂÂÈ˘ ˙¯Â˘˜˙ 

➆❷❽➂˜❷❹❻❹❾❽➀❸š❸È˙ÒÈÙ˙‰ ÍÈω˙‰❸❽❸❽❷❹➆➄❹➂❽➆❽➄™❸➀❷❹➂❸➃❿˜–❸š€➃❽❸➀➃❹❽➅➄
Ʒω≠˙Ó¢˙ ·Ï˘ ≠ Ô¢‡¯ ·Ï˘ ➁❽➀™❽➄™➀—➀❻š➂❽➄˜❷❹➂❸˜—❸❸❷™➃❿˜–❸➀™❹❻❹➂❾❹š➀
❽€➄š❹❸❺❹❻❹➂❼➀—❽™š➄➂➀➆˜➅➂➀➀➁❽™➀➁❷€❸➀➆š❽™€˜ ÆÚ„ÈÓ‰ Ì‚¯˙ ·Ï˘ ≠ È˘ ·Ï˘
➁❽➀❿➀➀™š❹➆–➂€❻❹➂➁❶˜❹š➂˜➅➂❸❽➄™➀™➃❹™€˜ 

❹❽➀š➂❹™šš€™❹❿➀➀—€➀➆➂™➄€❹❸™❽➈❿❼❹™➈❹➄❽€➀❸š➂❹™š➀™ Ʒω≠˙Ó¢˙ ·Ï˘ 
❹€ š❹❷➀❹➂ š❹➀❶➂ ™❽ ➁❽š❽➆➀ ❜ÌÈ˘ÂÁ‰ ˙˘ÓÁ ≠ ‰¢‡¯‰ ‰Ï·‚Ó‰ š❹➀❶➂ ™❽ ➃❿˜–❸ ➀™
➁❽➀❶❹➅➂❹➄€➀❶❹➂❹➄➀™❸➆❽➂™❸➁❹˜❼—➈➅❸➂❶❹❷➀➁❷€❸➀™➁❽™❹❻❸š™➂❻➂❷❻€š❹➆➂❼❹➂
❸➄❹š➄❸➂˜➀➀➆➂❹€š❻š➂➁❽➀❽➀–š˜❻€➁❽➀❽–❷š➂˜❷➆❸➄❹š➄➁❽➀❽–❷š➂˜➂➁❽➀❽➀–❼❹➀—➀
❽➆–˜❷❶❹➂➁❹˜❼—➈➅—˜➁❽➆–š❹€˜➀➁❽➀❶❹➅➂❹➄€➆–š➀❶➂š➂❽❽—➃❺❹€❸❽❷❽➀➆❹❼➀—❽€➀
š❹❻❹❿™❹➂❽™➁❽❽❹–➂❸➁❽˜❽™❿➂š❽™❹➄€❸➃❽➆❸❽❷❽➀➆❹❼➀—❽€➀➀❹❶➅❸˜❼➀❹€❹€➁❹❷€❸˜➈➄❽€
➁❽➀❶❹➅➂➁❸➁❽➆–➃❹˜❹❹❽➆➂➁❽➀❹➅❸➁❽™➄€™❽❹➀€❶❹➅➂➁❽➀❹™❿➂➀➆˜❶š❸➀➁❽➆❽❽➅➂➃❹❻❼❸
—˜➃❸❹➀€❾❿➀➁❽➆❷❹➂➁➄❽€➁❸➁❽š❽➆➀❹❸❽❹—➀➁š➆❽➂™™➁❽™➄€™❽➁❽➂❽❹➅➂➁❽➆–—˜š❹€˜➀
➁❽™❹❻❸š™➂❻➀➆š❹➀❶➂❸➃❹❹❶➂➀š❹❷❷❹š❹€➂❶❹❷
™❹™❽➂❻❽˜➁➆❼➆➂™❸❽€˜ ≠ ÌÈ˘ÂÁ -119
✈➂➆š❹❽❷➈❹➀—–➄❽€š€–❹❸➀❸˜❻❸˜™➆➆™❾˜❿š❽˜➆❸❸❽❷➈❹➀—❽–➄❽€❸
❸➃❽❻❸➀š➀❶❹➅➂➃❺❹€❸™➁❽❽—™➆˜➀™❹š➂–❹➆➀˜š❹❽❸➄❼—❸š➈➅❹š❸➀❹—❸š➂–❹➆➀™❸❷❽❻❽ϷȈ„ -120
✈➂➆❜❛˜➈➅š❽˜—➃™❹™➃€➁❸˜€❺❿˜➂❸❽˜➆❸➃❹➀➂❸


 

❸❽❶❼˜❼➅€
➃➂➅❸❽➂˜
❝❛❞➅˜➂❜

❽➄˜❷❹➂❸➁➀❹➆❸➀™❽➀❿❸š❽—❹❹❽™š˜❹™—š❛—˜➈
➃❹❽❷➀➃❹™€˜❸❷❽❸š❿

❻❹➂➀˜➆❹➂➆➂™❸❹❸❽€˜❸❽™❹❻š❹➆–➂€❹➄➈❹❶❼➀—➄❸➆❷❽➂ ÆÔ¯Îʉ ÔÂ‚Ó ≠ ‰È˘‰ ‰Ï·‚Ó‰
➃❹˜❿❺➀ Æͯ‡ ÁÂÂËÏ Ô¯ÎÊÏ❽➄™➀™➀➁™➂❹ ¨¯ˆ˜ ÁÂÂËÏ Ô¯ÎÊÏ➃❹™€˜➀™➃❹˜❿❺❸➃❹➄❶➄➂➀
❸➀❽➂š❻€š❹€œš❹š❹€❜❷➆❿˜š❹❽❸➀❿➀❹❹❽❸❽❸❺➃❹➄❶➄➂❼➀—➄❸˜➅➂❸š❹➀❶➂˜–—❻❹❹❼➀
➃❹˜❿❺❸➃❹➄❶➄➂❽❷❽➀➆❼➀—❽€➀š❹š❹€❸➆™š➂˜š❹❽➁➆˜➅➂ž❸➄❹➂šš❻€š❹➂❷❷❻€˜➈➅➂š❻€
˜–—❻❹❹❼➀➃❹˜❿❺❸➀™❸❼❽➀—❸➃➂❺❾™➂➆❷❽➂❸š➀❽❻š˜➆❸š€➆➄❹➂➆❷❽➂➅➂❹➆˜–—❻❹❹❼➀
˜❽❷™š➀➃❽❺€➂š❹–❹❻❼➀™❸➈❹–➃❹š❽➆❸➆❷❹➂€˜❹—➁❷€™š❹➄❹™€˜❸š❹❽➄™❸™➂❻š❹❽➄™❿
❽™❹❻ ❸❼❽➀—  ❹❽➀š➂❹™š š❶™❸ š❹❽❼❽˜—❸ ➃❸ ❸❽❺❽❹❹➀❼ š➂❹➅˜➈ ˜❽❷™š ❸➈❹– ❹€ ❹❽❷˜
➃❹˜❿❺➀˜➆❹❽˜–—❻❹❹❼➀➃❹˜❿❺❼➀—➄™˜➅➂˜–—❻❹❹❼➀➃❹˜❿❺❸➃❹➄❶➄➂❷❹❽➆❸❹➆➂™❸❸❽€˜❸
➆❷❽➂➁❹❶˜š❷❹❽➆❾™➂❸➀❾❹˜€❻❹❹❼➀
➁❽˜➅➂ ❿➀➁❹❽❽❷❽➂➇❹™❻❽➀€˜™❽❸➃❿˜–❸❹˜❻€➂ Ʒω≠˙Ó¢˙ ÔÒÓ ≠ ˙È˘ÈÏ˘‰ ‰Ï·‚Ó‰
❹➄❽➀€➁❽˜➆❹➂❸➁❽˜➅➂❸➀❿š€❼❹➀—➀˜™➈€❽€➆❷❽➂➃❹➄❽➅➀™➃❹➄❶➄➂➀❽➆➈➂€❹❸➁❽❽š˜❹™—š
➉❹–❽➈❤❸š❹➆➂™➂ System Overload➆❷❽➂➉❹–❽➈➀™❸➆➈❹š➁➆❷❷❹➂š❸➀➁❽–➀€➄❹➄❽❽❸➃❿❹❸❷❽➂
š€˜❹➆➀➁❽❻❽➀–➂➁❽˜❻➄➁❽˜➅➂—˜➃❹➄❽➅➃❹➄❶➄➂➀❽➆➈➂❽™❹➄€❸❻❹➂❸❾❿➂➆➄➂❸➀❽❷❿❻❹➂
➁❽–➂❸™❹➀™➀➆❹➈❸➀❸š➂❹™š➃➄➅➂
➀➆➈❹➂❸–➂ ÆÈ·È˘‡ ˘ÂÙÈÁ ≠ Ô¢‡¯ ·ˆÓ
❸˜❹–˜❷❶❹➂€™❹➄➆❷❽➂™➈❻➂❸➁❷€❽❷❽➀➆
˜—❻➄❸€™❹➄➀˜™—š➂❸˜➅➂➀™❽™➀❿❸➀❽➆➈
➃❿˜–❸➂❶❹❷➀➆❷❽➂❸➃❹➄❽➅➃❹➄❶➄➂š€˜❹➆❽
€™❹➄—➅❹➆❸˜➅➂➀❿š❽➄❹❿➂š❹➄—➀❼❽➀❻❸™
™➈❻❽ €❹❸ ❾❿➀ ˜➆➂ ❹❷❽➀➆ ❼➀—❽ š❹❽➄❹❿➂
—❹˜➅❽➁❽➄❹š❽➆—❹˜➅❽€™❹➄➆❷❽➂➀❽➆➈➃➈❹€
™❹➈❽❻š❹❽➄❹❿➂➀➆➆❷❽➂˜❻€š❹™❷❻š❹❽➄❿❹š
❽❽❼—€❸❽❸❽➆❷❽➂❸
❼❹➀—➀➆❷❹➂➃➈❹€❻❹š➈➃❿➀€˜❻➄€™❹➄➆❷❽➂™➈❻➂€➀➃❿˜–❸ÆÈ·ÈÒ‡Ù ˘ÂÙÈÁ ≠ È˘ ·ˆÓ
➃➄➅➂š€❹˜➆❽š❹➄❽❽➄➆š❸❸€™❹➄˜➂€➂❹€š˜š❹❿➀€š˜❹™—š❽➆–➂€—˜❹➅€➀➁❹❻š➆❷❽➂
❼➀š➂➃❿➀€❸™❷❻š❽➄❹❿➂š™❽❿˜➀➆❼❽➀❻❸€➀➃❿˜–❸❸➂❶❹❷❸❹❷❽➀➆❹❼➀—❽❹➀❸š➂❹™š
❽❽➅€➈€❹❸™❹➈❽❻❸❽❽❼—€➃➈❹€➆❷❽➂™➈❻❽€➀➀€€™❹➄➆❷❽➂❼❹➀—➀❻❹š➈€❹❸❸❽❶❹➅
❹❻❹➂❾❹š➀❸˜❽❷❻❸❹➃❿˜–❸š€➃❽❽➄➆➂€➀˜➅➂❸€™❹➄ Æ˙È·ÈÒ‡Ù ·Ï≠˙Ó¢˙ ≠ È˘ÈÏ˘ ·ˆÓ
˜❶š❸➀❻❽➀–❽š❽❽❼˜—❼€❹❸˜❶➂š➄❹❿š➂❺❹˜€❸˜➅➂—˜❽š❽❽➆➁❹➅❻➂❹❸❺❸™—❷❹€➂❸❽❸š
➃❿˜–❸➀€➁❽➂˜❺❹➂❸➁❽˜➅➂❸❹˜❽❶➀➀❸š➂❹™š➃❹➄❶➄➂➀➆➈❹➂❸❺–➂➀❸š➂❹™š➃➄➅➂➀➆
š❹❻➈➀ ❸™❷❻ š❽➄❹❿➂ š™❽❿˜ ➀™ ❸❽❶❹➅ ❼➀š➂ ❹€ ➃➄❿š➂ ❹➄❽€ ➃❿˜–❸  ❸➂❶❹❷❸ ❸❽➅❸➂
€❽❸ ➀❸š➂❹™š ➃➄➅➂ ➀➆ ˜❶š❸➀ ❸❷❽❻❽❸ ❾˜❷❸ ❹š❹€ ➃❽❽➄➆➂ ❹➄➄❽€ €™❹➄❸ š❹❹˜—❸ ➁❽❽š➄™
❽❽❼—˜❼€❷❹€➂❽➂❹➅˜➈➃❽❽➈➂—š❹➆–➂€
❻❹❹❼➀➃❹˜❿❺➃❿˜–❸➀™❹❻❹➂❼➀—❽➀❸š➂❹™š➃❹➄❶➄➂š€˜➆™➆❷❽➂ ÆÚ„ÈÓ‰ Ì‚¯˙ ·Ï˘ 
❷❹❽➆❽➄❹➄❶➄➂➂—➀❻❻❹➂➁❽❽—❸➁❷❹—➆❷❽➂➅❽➅➀➆❷❹➆❽˜➅➂❸❷❹❽➆➀™❾❽➀❸š˜❹➆❽❹❾❹˜€
❹➀€š❹❹❽➆❽➄❹➄❶➄➂➀➆❷❹➂š❹❽❸➀❸❽❶❼˜❼➅€❸➁❻❹➀➀➆❼➀—➄❸˜➅➂❸š❹❹❽➆➁❽—➅❹➆➆❷❽➂❸
➆❷❽➃❿˜–➀➁❽❽❻➁❹❻š➀❿❹€€™❹➄➀❿❼➆➂❿➀➆❹˜➀ Æ˙ӄ˜ ‰Ú„ ≠ Ô¢‡¯ Ú„ÈÓ ˙ÂÂÈÚ ÔÂ‚Ó
❽➄™❸˜€❹š❸❽❷❹➂❽➀š˜❶➅➂❼➄➀➆❽❽šš❽➂➆➁➆❽š❿˜➆™˜—❻➂š❷❹➆š❹➂❹❷—š❹➆❷❹➁❷❹—
 ❹➀€➁❽➄❹❶➄➂➂❷❻€➀➆❹➄❷➂➀➛➛➁❽˜–❹➂➀™€–❹➂š❹–˜€š❹➂❹❷—š❹➆❷✈✈€™❹➄➁❽—➅➆➀❸➄➂
❸➂❽➆❼❿ š➅➈š➄ š❽˜❶➀❹ ❸➄❽❶  ❸➂❶❹❷ ❹š❿❽˜– ➀➆ š❽❺❿˜➂ ❸➆➈™❸ ˜–❹➂❸ ➀™ €–❹➂❸ ➉˜€➀
❸❿❺šš❽➄➂˜❶❸˜❽˜–❹➂❸➀➆˜❷˜➂€➄™❽➀™❹—❽š➂˜❸š❹€➀❸❿❺š€➀š❽➄➂˜❶❸➄❽❶❸š➂❹➆➀
❽➀€˜™❽❸ €➈❸ ➀™ ➃š➈➂❸ ➇➅ š€ ˜❹➆➀ ❽❹❿❽➅ ➃❽€ š❽˜❶➀❹ ❸˜❽➀ ❸š❹➂❹➆➀❹ ™❹—❽➀ š❽❷❽❽➂
❸❼❽➅˜❽➄❹€❸ ˜❽➈❹€ ❽❺❻ ✈˜❷ š❽❽❻➄❸ ❼➄ ➀➆❽ ➃➂➅❸ ❽➂˜ ➁❹➅˜➈ š❹➂❹❷— š❹➆❷ š➆❽— ➁❽˜–❹➂ ➀™ €–❹➂ š❹–˜€ -121
❜❛➁❽—➅➆➀❸➄➂➀➅✈✈❸❽š❽˜➆❸
❛

❛ 

❸❽❶❼˜❼➅€
➃➂➅❸❽➂˜
❝❛❞➅˜➂❜

❽➄˜❷❹➂❸➁➀❹➆❸➀™❽➀❿❸š❽—❹❹❽™š˜❹™—š❛—˜➈
➃❹❽❷➀➃❹™€˜❸❷❽❸š❿

❸˜ š❹❽™❻ €–❹➂❸ ➉˜€➀€–❹➂❸ ➉˜€ š€ ❹➄❽❽– —˜ ˜–❹➂❸ ➀➆ ˜❷ ❹➄˜➂€ €➀ ❹™ ➆–❹➂➂❸
❷❹➅❽➀➆❼❹™➈š❹€❽–➂➅❹➅❽➀❿€➀➀➁❽š❽➆➀˜–❹➂❸❽➈➀❿➃❿˜–❸➀™š❽➄❹™€˜❸❹š❷➂➆š➆❽—
š➂❷❹—❸➆❷
➆❷❽➂š❹❹➆➂❹❷➆➂➁❽š❽➆➀➃❿˜–❸❽š–❹—➉❻➀➂❸€–❹š❿ ÆÈ˙ˆÂ·˜ ıÁÏ ≠ È˘ Ú„ÈÓ ˙ÂÂÈÚ ÔÂ‚Ó
š❷➂➆➀❹š❷➂➆š€➁❽€š❸➀➀❹—➂❹ ❼➅❽➂˜❹➈➄❹—š❹❽❸➀™€❹➄➃❹❽➅➄❾❹š➂š❹€❽–➂➀˜™—➀❿€➀➀
➁❽€—❽˜➂€❸✈✈➛➛š❽➀➆❸➈—˜❻➁➆❸✈✈ ➁❹➅˜➈š❹❷➂➆❽❹➄❽™➀❽➀❿❿™➂™➂❽š–❹—❸➉❻➀❸➃❹➄❶➄➂❹˜❸
➉❻➀➀➁❽➆➄❿➄➁❽˜➁❽™➄€❽❼➄❹❹➀˜€➀➃❹❿➄€➀➃❹❿➄➛➛➅➄❽❹❹—❸š❹™➅➄❽➛❶❸˜❹❷✈✈➛➛❸➀❹—RC ➁❽š❹™
➁❹➅˜➈ ➀™ š❽❺❿˜➂❸ ❸˜❼➂❸ ❽❸❹❺ ➁❽™❹❻ ❹€ ➁❽™❹➆ ❹˜❸™ ➁❸➀ ❸➂❷➄™ ❸➂ ➁❽™❹➆❹ ❽š–❹—
➁❷€❽➄™❸❻➄❸❾❹š➂❸❼➀❻❸➀—➀➁❽➈–❸š❹➀❹—❸➀➆➆❽➈™❸➀š❹˜❽❻š❹➆➅➂š˜❶➅➂➁❽˜—➅
❹š❹€❾❹➂š➀➁❽˜➁❽❼➀š➂€❽❽❹˜➀❸❿❹❺™❷➂➆❹➂➀➆˜—➅➁❹➅˜➈➁❽❼➅❽➂˜❹➈➄❹—š❹❽❸➀➁❽❼❹➄
ž❏➁❿❽➀➆❹❷➆❽€➀™˜❹–❽—œ❷➂➆❹➂

ȘÒÙÒ‡ ÛÈÈ„¯Â‚ Ï˘ ÌÈÊίӉ Ï„ÂÓ ≠ È˘ÈÏ˘ ‰„Â·Ú ÈÏÎ ≠ Ôίˆ‰Â ˙ȘÂÂÈ˘ ˙¯Â˘˜˙ 

➃❹❿➄❸❾˜❹–➀➁❽˜❻š➂❤❼➀—❽™˜➅➂˜❽➆❸➀➁❽–❹˜➁❽❿˜–➁➀❹➅➅❽➅➀➆➁❽➆➄❹➂➁❷€❽➄❽❿❹➄❷➂➀
❼➀❹—❸➃❹➄❶➄➂—™➂➂➀➆❹➈➃❿˜–❸➀™❽➂❽➄➈❸➁➀❹➆❸➃❽➀❽➄❹–❽❻❸➁➀❹➆❸➃❽❽❿➁❶❹➄❷➂➀➁➀❹➅
➀➆™€˜➂➆❽➈™➂❸—™➂➂➀˜➆➂➁❷€❸❾❹š❽➂❽➄➈➃❹➄❶➄➂➁❽❽—➁€❸€❽❸❸➀€™❸➁❽˜➅➂❷➆➂❹
❸➀€™➀➆❽™❸➀❽❷❿❤❽➂❽➄➈˜❷➅❽➈➀➆➁❽❷❹➆˜➅➂❸š❼❽➀—❽➄❹➄❶➄➂➁€❸❤➁❽˜➅➂❸š❼❽➀—š❹❿❽€
❸™❻➂✈✈  ❽❶❼˜❼➅€❸ ❷❹➅❽❸ ➃❹˜—➆ š€ ➉➂€➀❹ ❹➄➀ š❹˜❿❹➂❸ ❸❽™❻❸ š❹˜❶➅➂➂ š€–➀ ❹➄❽➀➆ ❹❺
˜❽➆❸ ™❹š ❹➂❿ ❸❿ ❷➆ ❹➄˜❿❸ €➀™ š❹➅❽➈š❹ š❹™❽❶ š❹❽˜❹€š ➀—➀ ➁❽➄❹❿➄ š❹❽❸➀ ➛➛š❽™➈❹❻
❹➄➄❽€➀❹❶➆➉˜€❸˜❹❷❿✈✈❽❿❹€➀❽➀❶➀™❸❽˜❹€š➀❽™—❸➀➃❿❹➂❸❽❸™❸❸€➂❸š❽™€˜❸–➄˜❽➈
❾˜❷➀€–➄❹❺❸™❽❶➁➆➁❽➄™➁š❹€š❽➀❹š€—❸❸❽➅➄❿❸❸➅˜❶™❽➈❿➛➛➁❹—❽❸❺❿˜➂❹➄➄❽€❹❻❹❼™
➃❹➄❶➄➂➁❽❽—❽❿˜➈➅❸š❽❹➄š❹€❹❷➂❽➀ Ɖ·È˘ÁØÚ„ÈÓ „·ÈÚ ÈÂ‚Ó ¯ÙÒÓ ÌÈÏÚÂÙ Ì„‡‰ Û‚·
➁€❸❤➁❽™❶˜š➂™❿❸˜❹—❸➂❹❺❸➆❽—➃❻➄€❹❤–➂❸š➂€❹❸❺➁€❸❻❹➂❸❷❻€➆❷❽➂❷❹❽➆
❼➀—➄➆❷❽➂❤➁❽➄❹❹❿š➂❸➂➀➀❸➂❸€š❹™❶˜š❸❸™➁❽˜➂❹€€➀™˜❹˜❤™❶˜š➂™❸❺€❹❸❻❹➂❸
➁€™❻❽➄❸➀˜❽➅❤❻❹➂❸š❹➆–➂€❼➀—➄➆❷❽➂❸➁€❸š❹™❶˜š❸➀™❸™❹❻š➀➁˜❹❶➆❷❽➂❸❹➄➈❹❶
š€ ˜❽➅❸➀ ➁❽➀❶❹➅➂ €➀❹ ˜❻€➂ ❸˜❹— ❸➂ ˜❽➅❸➀ ➁❽➀❶❹➅➂ ➁❶ ❹➄❽❽❸ ❸˜❹— ❸➂ ➁❽➄❽➂ ❹➄❽❽❸
—˜˜➆€➀➇❹❶❼➀—➄™š❹™❶˜š❸❸š™❹❻š➀€❽❸™➆❷❽➂❸™❸€˜➄❿❸š❹➈–➀—˜€➀€❸➆➈❹š❸
€❹❸ ˜➅❸❸ ❤❽❿ ➁❽–˜❹➈ ❸➂➀ ❤➁❽❿❹™❿ ❸˜❹— ❸➂ ❻❹➂ ❷❹❽➆ ❾❽➀❸š
š❽™❶❽˜❸➄❽–➅❤❸❺❸❹❸™➂❸❹❸➂❸€➄❸❹™šš❹–˜➈š❸➀€❽❸❽™❶˜❹❸™➂™
➃❽➆➀➃š➄❻❹➂❸➁€❸❹❸€❹❸™❽➂➂❸❷❽˜➈™❶˜➂˜❹➈❽➅™❶˜➂˜❽™❼˜➅
➃❿❽❸ ❸™❹❻š ❸❹❹➀➂ ❽❿❸ š€ ❼❹™➈ ❾❿➀❿ €➀ ❸❺ ❤❸➆➂❷ ➀❽❺❸➀ ❸€˜❹❸
❻❹➂❸—❹❻–➂➁❽➆—➈š➂❺€❹—❽❻–➂❹❸™➂❤—❹❻–➁➆❸➂❤❸™❹❻š❸❸˜–❹➄
❸❷❹—➈➇❹❶➀➃š➄❻❹➂❸➁€❸❤—❹❻–➀€❽❸❸➂➀€˜➅➂❸š€❼➀—➁➄➂❹€
˜➅➂❸š€❷❽➆❹➁❶˜š❹➄➈❹❶€❹❸™➀❿➃❹➄❶➄➂€➀™˜❽➅❤—❹❻–➀➀❽❻š❸➀
€➀™❽➂❽➄➈❹❸™➂❹➄❿❹š❸˜❹——❹❻–➀™❸❹❶š➀€❽❸❹❻❹➂❼➀—➄™™❽❸
➀❿™❸❸➀❹➆˜–❽❸™❿➁❽❽❹➀❶❸❽❸➄€❹❤❽➄❽➂❸˜–❽❸➁➆❸➂➁❽➄❽➂❾❿➀❿
➁❽˜˜❹➆➂€➀❹➀€➀❿❸❼❽➀™➀➃š❽➄€➀™❾❽➀❸š˜❹❷➂❹˜➀❸❼➂➀❷˜❹❽
❽➄❹❽❶❸ ˜➅❸ ➁❸➀ ➃❽€™ ➁❽❿❽➀❸š ❹➄➈❹❶ ➁❽˜❹— ❤❽❸™➀❿ ❸™❻➂ ➁❿➀–€
❸❹™š™❽➃❿❽➀❹€š€❺➀❿❻❹➂❸˜™❽❸➀❿™❸➃❻➂❷➂❹➆™˜➅❸ 


➁˜❺❸➁➆❸❽❻™š❹➀❹—➂❸š❹❽➂™˜❸š❹➆❷➀š❹➀❶š➅❸š❹➄š❽❽–š❹˜➂š➀— ≠ ÌÊÈÓ¯ÂÙ˜ -122
✈➂➆❜❛˜➈➅š❽˜—➃™❹™➃€➁❸˜€❺❿˜➂❸❽˜➆❸➃❹➀➂❸
š❽™➈❹❻❸❸™❻➂❸➃❹˜—➆š❽™❽➀™❷❹➅❽š➅❽➈š✈➂➆—˜➈❸€˜ ≠ ˙È˘ÙÂÁ ‰·˘ÁÓ -123
❜

❜ 

❸❽❶❼˜❼➅€
➃➂➅❸❽➂˜
❝❛❞➅˜➂❜

❽➄˜❷❹➂❸➁➀❹➆❸➀™❽➀❿❸š❽—❹❹❽™š˜❹™—š❛—˜➈
➃❹❽❷➀➃❹™€˜❸❷❽❸š❿

❸€➂❸š➀❽❻š➛❶❽❽€❹❽➄❸➁➀❹➆➀™➁❽➀❽❹➂❸š❹➆❷❸❽❶❹❸➂❹➄˜❽❷˜❿ ➇❽❽➛❷˜❹❶❹❽—➅➄➈➅❹€➀➆
‰Ú·¯‡ ÌÈÏÚÂÙ Ì„‡‰ Û‚·➁š➅❽➈š➀❤❹➅˜❶➁❸➂➁❷€❸➀™❹š❹➆❷❹šš˜❽—❻❹—➅➆➁❸š➂❷❹—❸
ÆÚ„ÈÓ ÌÈ„·ÚÓ‰ „ÂÒÈ ÈÂ‚Ó
™❻➂❸€❹❸❽™❹➄€❸❻❹➂❸❽❿➁❽➅˜❹❶➁❽˜❽➅❽➅➃❹➄❶➄➂❹❸❺ÆÁÂÓ‰ØÈÏ΢‰ ÊίӉ ≠ Ô¢‡¯ ÔÂ‚Ó 
ž➆❷❽➂❷❹❽➆❽➄❹➄❶➄➂œ➁❽™❻➂™❽➁❷€❸➇❹❶❸❽˜❹€š❸❽➈➀➆❾€˜❽❸➂™❻➂➃❿€➁➀❹➆˜❽❸➂❸
❷➆➀➀❶❹➅➂➃❹➄❶➄➂❸™➁❽➂™˜❸˜➈➅➂❤➆❷❽➂❷❹❽➆➃❹➄❶➄➂❷❹—➈š➁❽❷❷❹➂❸➂❽➈➀➆❹➄➂➂➁❽˜❽❸➂
❷➆➀➀❶❹➅➂❻❹➂❸➃❹š➄➃➂❺❽❿€❽❸❷❹➅❽❸š❻➄❸❻❹➂❸€❹❸❽➅❽➅❸➆❷❽➂❸❷❹❽➆➃❹➄❶➄➂➃❹š➄➃➂❺
➀™❹š˜❷❶❸➀❹❹➄❹❽➂➀❽➄❹–❽❻❸➁™❹˜❸➀™❹š❼❽➀—➀š❻€❸€➀➂❸➅❽➈š➀™❹˜❷❸➃➂❺❸œ❷❻€➁™❹˜
➁❽€❹➂❸❸❽❶❹➀❹❿❽➅➈❸➁❹❻š➂➁❽❶™❹➂➀˜❻š➂❸❺❽➈❹➅❹➀❽➈➃❹❽➆˜ž❹❽➀➆❸❹❶š➃š➂➀❹➁™❹˜❸
➃❽š❹❽➄™™➂❻❿❾™➂❹❻❹➂❼❹➀—➀➀❶❹➅➂➆–❹➂➂➁❷€˜–—❻❹❹❼➀➃❹˜❿❺❸➃❹➄❶➄➂➁❷❹—❸➇❽➆➅
❽❶❹➀❹❿❽➅➈❸➁❽❶™❹➂❸➁➀❹➆š❻€š❹€ž❸➄❹➂šš❻€š❹➂❷❷❻€˜➈➅➂š❻€❸➀❽➂œš❹š❹€❜➀
➇❽❽➛❷˜❹❶❹ ❽—➅➄➈➅❹€ ➀™ ➁❽❶™❹➂❸ ➁➀❹➆ ❷❻€ ➁™❹˜➀ ❸➀❽—➂
❻❹➂ ➁❷€❸ ➇❹❶ ➁❽™❻➂ ➀™ ➃❿❹š❸ ➁➀❹➆➀ ❸❺ ➃❹❽❷ ❾❽➀™➄
Central š❽❺❿˜➂ ➆❷❽➂ ❷❹❽➆ š❷❽❻❽œ CPU❷➆➂ ➀➆❹➈ ❽™❹➄€❸
➀➆š❷➂❹➆❽➀❿™❸❺❿˜➂❽™❹➄€❸❷➆➂❸š❹˜❽❸➂žProcessing Unit
❹❺❸❷❽❻❽˜❽❷❶❸➀➃š❽➄š❻€❸❽➄™➆–❹➂➂❷❻€➁™❹˜š❼❽➀—
❺❿˜➂ ❷➆➂❸ š❹˜❽❸➂ HH - Human Hertz❽™❹➄€ ➉˜❸ ❷❻€❿
❼❹➀—➀➃❹š➄➃➂❺➀❶❹➅➂❽™❹➄€❸❻❹➂❸ 1 HH€❹❸❻❹➂❸❽➀❿™❸
➁❽➂™˜➀™š➀❶❹➂š❹➂❿
➇❹❶➀➆❹➈❸❽™❹➄€❸❻❹➂❸➂˜❽❸➂❹➇➅❹➄➆❷❽➂❷❹❽➆➃❹➄❶➄➂ ÆÈ·È˘ËÒȇ‰ ÊίӉ ≠ È˘ ÔÂ‚Ó 
❻❹➂❸➂❸˜❽❸➂š❿˜➆➂™❽❸➂❤➁❿➂–➆š€➁❽➀€❹™❽€❷❹❹➁š€❽❽❼—➄❼➅➄❽€❸❺❿˜➂❸€❹❸➁❷€❸
❹➄š❹➆–€➁❽™❻❹➁❽➈❼❹™➁❽➂❺˜➀š❻š➂❹➄❽❷❽š€❹➄➂™➆❶˜➀❹™❻š❏➃❿€❽❸❸❹™š❸❤❽™❹➄€❸
˜š❹❽˜❻❹€➂➇❹❶❷❹➆➂❹➇❹❶❼➀—➄˜➅➂❸š❹➂❽➆➄➀™❸™❹❻š➉❹❻➂˜➅➂❼➀—➄❽❸™➀❿❸™❹❻š
❤❻❹➂❷❹➆➆❷❽➂❸➁€❸❸➂❽➆➄€➀❸❸™❹❻š❸➂❻˜š❷❽❸š❽❽❼—➄❼➅➄❽€❻š❹˜❽➀❿❹➄❽❷❽❹➄➆❶➄
š€➃š❹➄❻❹➂❸➁€❸❤❸➀❽➈➄❸š€➁❹➀➀➁❽❽❷❽❸š❹➆–➂€➁❽➅➄➂❹➁❽➀➈❹➄™❿❸˜❹—❸➂˜❹˜€➀
❸❼❽➀™➃❽€❻❹➂➀™➃❹➄❶➄➂➁❽❽❷❽➀❸❷❹—➈❸š€➃š❹➄❸€˜➄❸❽➈❿˜❻€➃❹➄❶➄➂❻˜❿❸€➀❤❸€˜❹❸❸
❺❿˜➂ š❹❷❹—➈❸ š❹€–❹❸❹ ➆❷❽➂❸ ❷❹❽➆ ➆❷❽➂❸ š❼❽➀— š❹˜❽❸➂ ❽❽❼—➄❼➅➄❽€❸ ❺❿˜➂❸ ❹❸❺ ❹❽➀➆
❺❿˜➂➁❽➂™˜❸š❼❽➀—š❹˜❽❸➂➇❽❽➛❷˜❹❶❹❽—➅➄➈➅❹€❽➈➀➆❽™❹➄€❸❻❹➂❸➂❸˜❽❸➂❽❽❼—➄❼➅➄❽€❸
❽™❹➄€❸❻❹➂➁❽➂™˜❸š❼❽➀—š❹˜❽❸➂➂  ❽➈€❽❸❽❽❼—➄❼➅➄❽€❸
❽❼˜➈ ➀❿➀ ➃€❿ ➅➄❿➄ €➀ ❽™❹➄€❸ ❻❹➂❸➂ ❽❼➄❶➀❼➄❽€ ˜š❹❽ ➃❹➄❶➄➂ ❹❸❺
š€ €❽➄ ➃€❿ š❹˜❹—➂➀ š❹➄➈➀ ➀❿❹❽ —➂➆š❸➀ ❸–˜❽™ ❽➂ ➀❿❹ ➀❷❹➂❸
❹❸™➀❿➃❹➄❶➄➂➁➆❹➈➀❸❤➀❸➁➆❸˜❹—❸➂❷➀š❹❽˜—❽➆❸š❹➄—➅➂❸
➁❽➀➆❹➈❸➁❽➄❹➄❶➄➂❸˜€™➁➆❸➂➃❹❿➄❸–—❷❹➆❽™❹š❹€➀❸➄➂❹➄➈❹❶
š❹❿˜➆➂ ❸˜❹— ❸➂ ❤❸➂❽™➄❸ š❿˜➆➂ ❤➀❹—❽➆❸ š❿˜➆➂ ❤➁❷€❸ ➇❹❶
❸❺❽€ ➁❽❽—™ ❸€˜➄❿ ❤❻❹➂❸➂ š❹€–❹❽ ➀❹➆➈š❸ š❹❷❹—➈ ➀❿ ➁€❸ ❤❹➀➀❸
➁➆❽❽❼—➄❼➅➄❽€❸❺❿˜➂❸❹❸❺❹➀€š❹❿˜➆➂➀❸➄➂❸❹➄➈❹❶➃❹➄❶➄➂€❹❸™
 ž HH➇➀€œ30 KHH š❹˜❽❸➂➀➆❹➈❸❷➆➂
 Spatial Analysisš❽❻˜➂❸❽™❻š❽™❽➂❻❷❹➅❽š➅❽➈š✈➂➆—˜➈❸€˜ ≠ ÛÈÈ’„¯Â‚ ȘÒÙÒ‡ -124
❽—➅➄➈➅❹€❷➈€➀➈❹➂❸˜❻€™❹➈❽❻  ❞The Forth Way/ P.D. Ouspensky/ Arkana, 1986, pg 232/ ISBN 0-14-019022-8 -125

❛✈➂➆❜❛➃—❹™
➇➀€❹€➉˜❸➇➀€š➇❿šš❷❽❻❽ ≠ ı¯‰ÂÏȘš❻€❸❽➄™❾™➂➀❶➀™❷❻€€➀➂˜❹❺❻➂❹❽❷˜❸❽➀❶➀™➇❿šš❷❽❻❽ ≠ ı¯‰ -126
š❻€❸❽➄™❹❽❷˜❽➀❶➀™➁❽˜❹❺❻➂➃❹❽➀❽➂š➇❿šš❷❽❻❽ ≠ ı¯‰‚Ó š❻€❸❽➄™❹❽❷˜❽➀❶➀™➁❽˜❹❺❻➂
✈➂➆❜❛˜➈➅š❽˜—➃™❹™➃€➁❸˜€❺❿˜➂❸❽˜➆❸➃❹➀➂❸
(1 Kilo Human Hertz) 1 KHH = 1000 HH -127


 

❸❽❶❼˜❼➅€
➃➂➅❸❽➂˜
❝❛❞➅˜➂❜

❽➄˜❷❹➂❸➁➀❹➆❸➀™❽➀❿❸š❽—❹❹❽™š˜❹™—š❛—˜➈
➃❹❽❷➀➃❹™€˜❸❷❽❸š❿

 ➀➆š❷➂❹➆❽™❶˜❸❺❿˜➂➁❽➂™˜❸❷❹❽➆❹š❼❽➀—š❹˜❽❸➂ ÆÈ˘‚¯‰ ÊίӉ ≠ È˘ÈÏ˘ ÔÂ‚Ó 
˜❽❸➂ ❷❹€➂ ❺❿˜➂ ❹❸❺  ❛ž HH ➃❹❽➀❽➂ ❜œ 900 MHH€❽❸❷➆➂❸š❹˜❽❸➂ž➆❹❽˜➇➀€➁❽™❹➀™œ
❹➀€❤˜➆–➀™❹€€❿➀™❸❸€➀™❸™❹❻š❸š€❹➄❻❹➂➅❹➈š➀➁❽➀❶❹➅➂❹➄€➁€❸➆❶˜➀❹™❻š
❹➄€❸❼❽➀™❸˜➅❹❻➀˜➆➂➃❸❽➀➆❸❼❽➀™❹➄➀➃❽€™❽€❷❹❹❹➄❽➀➆š❹❼➀š™➂❹❹➄❿❹šš❹˜–❹➄❸š❹™❹❻š
➀❹❷❶€❹❸™❸➂❷➄➁❽š❽➆➀˜❽❸➂❷❹€➂❾❽➀❸š➃€❿❸˜❹—❸˜❹—❸➂❹➄❻❹➂➃❽❸➀➁❽❻➀❽–➂€➀➁❶
❸˜❹— ❸➂ ➅➈❹š €➀™ ❽™❹➄€❸ ❻❹➂❸➂ ➀❹❷❶ €❹❸ ➁❽❽❻❸➂ ➀❹❷❶ ❹➄➄❽€ €❹❸ ➁❽❽❻❸➂ ➀❹❷❶ ❹➄š❽€➂
➁❽❽™—➂™❿❽❽❼—➄❼➅➄❽€❸❺❿˜➂❸➂❹❽➀❿™❸❺❿˜➂❸➂❸❸❹❶❸❼❽➀—š❹˜❽❸➂➀➆❹➈❽™❶˜❸❺❿˜➂❸
 ❜❽™❶˜❸ ❺❿˜➂ š❼➀—➄ ❸—❽➅❹➂ €➀➈❹➂ ❹❸™➂ ➁❽➂➆➈➀ ❽❸™➀❿ ❸™❹❻š ❹➄ š❹˜˜❹➆š➂ ❸—❽➅❹➂➀
™❻˜š➂❸➂➃❽➂€➀❻❹➂❸➀❽—➂
➁❽➂™˜❸š❼❽➀—š❹˜❽❸➂➀❸❸❺❽➄❽➂❸❺❿˜➂➁❽➂™˜❸š❼❽➀—š❹˜❽❸➂ÆÈÈÓ‰ ÊίӉ ≠ ÈÚÈ·¯ ÔÂ‚Ó 
➁❶ž HH➃❹❽➀❽➂❜œ 900 MHH€❽❸❷➆➂❸š❹˜❽❸➂ž➆❹❽˜➇➀€➁❽™❹➀™œ ❽™❶˜❸❺❿˜➂
❸➂➁❽❼➀❹—❹➄€➁€❸❤❽➄❽➂❸❼—€❸❾➀❸➂❸˜❹—❸➂➆❶˜➀❹™❻š❸➀❹❷❶š❹˜❽❸➂➀➆❹➈❸❺❺❿˜➂
➛➛˜–❽❸✈✈❹➄❽➀➆❼➀š™➂❽➄❽➂❸❼—€❸❾➀❸➂™➁❽➅˜❹❶€➀❹˜➀❤❸˜❹—❸➂➁❽➄❽➂❹➄€➁€❸❸˜❹—
❽➄❽➂❸❺❿˜➂❸❸❼❽➀™❹❽➀➆➃❽€❽™❹➄€❸❻❹➂➀™❹➄➈❹❶➃❹➄❶➄➂➆❶˜❹š❹€➀➆➈❹➂➀❿❸❾➅š❹❽❹❼™
❺❿˜➂➁❽™❻˜š➂❽➄❽➂❸❼—€❸❾➀❸➂❹❿❹š❸˜❹—❸➂❼❹➀—➀❻❽➀–➂€➀❹➄❻❹➂™˜❽❸➂❷❹€➂➃❹➄❶➄➂
➁❽€–❹❽ ➁❽˜❷❸ ➆❶˜ ❹š❹€ ❸➂❺❶˜❹€❸ ➀™➀ ➁❽➆❽❶➂™❿ ❷❻❹❽➂ ➁❽˜❽❸➂ ❷❹€➂ ➁❽❿❽➀❸š ❽➄❽➂❸
❽™❹➄€❸❻❹➂❸š❼❽➀™➂❽➀€❼❹❼➃➈❹€
❸˜❼➄❼❸

š❽➄❻❹˜❸
š❹❻š➈š❸
š❹➀❽❹➂❸
š❹˜❹š❸➂
š❻€ ❸❷➀❹➄ ❸—❽š➆❸ ❹❷❹❸
❽➈➀➆  Tantra
š€❺❸➅❽➈šš❽➄❻❹˜❸˜€❸➀➆❽❶❸➀➃š❽➄❸➂❺❶˜❹€❸➀➆❽➄❽➂❸❺❿˜➂❸➀➆❸❼❽➀™š❹➆–➂€❸˜❼➄❼❸
❸❽❸ ❽➄˜❷❹➂❸ ❹➄➂➀❹➆ ❹❺ ❸˜❹š ❸❽❽❻❸™ ❽➂ ➁❽—❽š➆❸ ➁❽❷❹❸❸ š❷❹❹❸ ❽˜➈➅ ➁❽❹š❿ š€❹➂
Ì„‡‰ Û‚· ÌÈ„·ÚÓ‰ ˙Â¯È‰Ó Æ∏≠∂ ¯Âȇ ❻˜❸ ➁➀❹➆ ˜❿❹➂❸ ™❽➄❽➛❶˜ ❽™ ➃€❹❶❸
❽➄❻❹˜❸❺❿˜➂❸➁❽—➂❹❷➅❽❽➂➛❹™❹€✈➁™
 ❹❷❹❸˜™€Puna❸➄❹➈
‫מרכז שכלי‬
➇❹❶➁❽➀➆❹➈❷❹➅❽❸❽❺❿˜➂š➆˜€➀˜➆➂
CPU - 1 HH
‫מרכז‬
➁❸ ❹➀€ ❤➁❸➂ ➁❽➄❹❽➀➆ ➁❽❺❿˜➂ ➁❷€❸
❶˜❷™➀❻❽➀–➂➁❷€❸™❷❹➅❽❽❺❿˜➂➁š❹€
‫רגשי‬
❽➄˜❷❹➂❸ ➁❷€❸ ➀€ š❹➅❻❽❽š❸ ❻š➈➀
CPU
❽❺❿˜➂š➆˜€➁➆—˜❹❾€❷❹➆➄➆–❹➂➂❸
900 MHH
➃➈❹€—➅❹➆❸❸❽❶❼˜❼➅€❸➁❻❹➀❷❹➅❽❸
˜➆ š❹❽❸➀ ❽❽❻ ❽➂–➆ ❶❹˜❷™ ❷❽➂š➂
‫מרכז‬
❽➀❿™❸❺❿˜➂❸š€❻š➈➀➃š❽➄❽❿❸❷❹➆➀
‫אינסטקטיבי‬
‫מרכז‬
❸❸❹❶š❹˜❽❸➂➀➆❹➈❸❺❿˜➂❹❸❺❸❹❶❸
CPU - 30 KHH
š❼❽➀— š❹˜❽❸➂ ❷❹➅❽❸ ❽❺❿˜➂ š➆˜€➂
‫מיני‬
➀➆š❷➂❹➆❸❹❶❸❽➀❿™❸❺❿˜➂➁❽➂™˜❸
CPU
žš❽™❽➀™ ➇➀€ ➁❽™❹➀™œ  
900 MHH
œ 27,000 GHH €❽❸ ❷➆➂❸ š❹˜❽❸➂
➀➆❹➈ ➁❷€❽➄ ❹➀€ ➀–€ ž HH ➃❹❽➀❽˜❼
(1 Mega Human Hertz) 1 MHH = 1000 KHH = 1,000,000 HH -128
Inner Nature of Music and the Experience of Tone/ R. Steiner/ Anthroposophic Press, 1983/ ISBN 0-88010-055-9 -129

➁❽➄➂❸˜❸➁❽❷❹❸❸➀™™❷❹—❸❽š❿➀™➁❽➈➅❹€❸š➆˜€➀™➁➂™ ≠ ‰„ -130
❛✈➂➆❜❛˜➈➅š❽˜—➃™❹™➃€➁❸˜€❺❿˜➂❸❽˜➆❸➃❹➀➂❸
Vigyan Bhairav Tantra/ OSHO/ The Rebel Publishing House/ ISBN 3-89338-085-X -131
❽€➀❽➆❸➆❷❽❽❸➀❽™✈➂➆❜❜➀€❿❽➂š€–❹❸˜➄❽❽❼™➇➀❹❷❹˜❻❹˜™➈➄➇❹❶  THEOSOPHIE -132
(1 Giga Human Hertz) 1 GHH = 1000 MHH = 1,000,000 KHH = 1,000,000,000 HH -133


 

❸❽❶❼˜❼➅€
➃➂➅❸❽➂˜
❝❛❞➅˜➂❜

❽➄˜❷❹➂❸➁➀❹➆❸➀™❽➀❿❸š❽—❹❹❽™š˜❹™—š❛—˜➈
➃❹❽❷➀➃❹™€˜❸❷❽❸š❿

❏❤❼˜€–❹➂ ➅❹€❷➂€  ➁❽❽€—❽➅❹➂ ❏❤➃❽❽❼™➄❽❽€ ❼˜➀€  ➁❽➄❹€❶ ➀–€ ❽➀❹€ ❤❸❹❶❸ ❽➀❿™❸ ❺❿˜➂❸
š❼❽➀—➀€❽❸➀š➄➂➀➆ ø„ÂÒȉ ÈÊÎ¯Ó ÌÈÏÚÂÙ ˙Â¯˜Ú Âχ ÈÙ≠ÏÚ ❏❤❹➄˜❸™➂š❽➄❻❹˜➁❽˜€❹➂
❾˜❹–™❽❽➀❿™❸❺❿˜➂➀➁❽➂™˜˜❽❷❻❸➀❽❷❿➁❽➄❹™➁❽➀❿➀❽➆➈❸➀™❽➁❽❺❿˜➂❸➂❷❻€➀❿➁❽˜➅➂
➁➆❸—❹➂➆š❹❸❷❺❸❽❷❽➀➁❷€❸š€€❽❸➀™❽❽™❶˜❸❺❿˜➂➀➁❽➂™˜˜❽❷❻❸➀❽❷❿➀š➂❹™šš❶™❸
➁❽➄™❽❽❻š❿˜➆➂š❹➆–➂€➀➆❹➈❽❽❼—➄❼➅➄❽€❸❺❿˜➂❸˜➆❹➂❸˜➅➂❸
˜❽❸➂❺❿˜➂❼➀—➄❸˜➅➂❽❿➁❽❷➂➀❹➄€ ø˙ȘÂÂÈ˘ ˙¯Â˘˜˙·’ÌÈÊίӉ Ï„ÂÓ’ ˙‡ ÌÈÓ˘ÈÈÓ „ˆÈÎ
❸➂❶❹❷➀❽➄❽➂˜➅➂˜š❹❽❸—❺❻š❹❽❽❼—➈€❹➀❸❽❸š❽™❶˜š➂❹➆➀❽➄❽➂❽➀❿™š➂❹➆➀❽™❶˜˜š❹❽
➁❽➀™➂➁❽❽€➂❹➅˜➈❽❷❿€➀➃❿˜–❸➀–€š❹➀—❹š❹˜❽❸➂❼➀—❽™❸˜➆❸➀➀—˜➅➂❻˜❿❸€❹❸
➛➛❸❿˜➂✈✈❹➄❽❸❽➄❽➂˜➅➂—❹❹™➂❸˜–❹➂➀❽➀➄❹❽–˜˜™—➀❿€➀➀➁❽š❽➆➀š❹➂❹➅˜➈➁❽❽➄❽➂➁❽˜➅➂
€ ❽➄❽➂❸ ˜➅➂❸ š❼❽➀—™ š❹➀—❸ ❽˜❻€ ➃❿˜–❸ š➆❷❹š➀ ˜❹❷❻➀ ❸➀❽➆❽ ❷❹€➂ ❻❹➂❽➂➅❻š➈—❹➆
➆—˜˜❽™š➂❹➅˜➈➁❽❷➀❽❹➀❽™➁❽❽™❶˜➁❽˜➅➂š❹˜™➂š™❸➀➁❹➅˜➈❶❹❸➄➁❹❽❸❽™❶˜❸˜➅➂❸
˜❹❶™❶˜❽➀❿™❸❺❿˜➂➁❽➂➅❻❸š€➁❽➈—❹➆➃❿➁❶❹❽™❶˜❸❺❿˜➂❸š€➁❽➀❽➆➈➂❹➀€➀❿❽❶➀€❼➅❹➄
š˜❽❷❻➁❽➆➄❹➂❸➁❽➂➅❻š❿˜➆➂➀❽➆➈➂❽➀❿™❸❺❿˜➂❸š❹❻➄❸❺❿˜➂❸➀❿❸➀➆˜❹❶➅—➅❹➀❿™❸➀➆
➁❽–˜❹➈ ❽➀❿™❸ ❺❿˜➂❸ ➀™ ➁❽➂➅❻❸ ➀➆ ˜❶š❸➀ ❽❷❿ ➀❸š➂❹™š ➃➄➅➂ ➁❸➄❽  ❹❿❹š➀ ➁❽➂™˜
❤➀š➂❹™š ➃➄➅➂ ➀➆ ➁❽˜❹❶ ❸™➆➂❸ ❽❽❻ ❷–❽❿ ❽➄❽➂❸ ❺❿˜➂❸ ❹€ ❽™❶˜❸ ❺❿˜➂❸ ❾❹š➀ š❹˜❽™❽
❸➄❹➂š❸➁❶❹š˜š❹❿❸➁❶žš❽➆❹–—➂❸❶➆➀€❹➛❺❽❹œš❽➄❽❽➄➆➂❸➄❹➂šš❽❽❼˜—❼€š˜š❹❿š❹➆–➂€
❽➄❽➂❸❽❺❿˜➂➀❹€❽™❶˜❸❺❿˜➂➀š❹˜❽™❽❹˜❷❻❽™❽❹–˜

˙ȘÂÂÈ˘ ˙¯Â˘˜˙· ‰„·ډ ÈÏÎ Ï˘ ·ÏÂ˘Ó ÏÂÚÙ˙ 

‰Ï‰˙‰˘ ‰¯·Ò‰‰ ˙ÓÁÏÓ š€➃❹❽❷➀❸➂❶❹❷❿❻—❽➄ø˜¯Ù· ÌÈ‚ˆÂÓ‰ ÌÈÏΉ ÔÈ· ·Ï˘Ï Ô˙È „ˆÈÎ
€–—€➀€š❷€➈❽š➄❽€➀™❸š❽™€˜¨˙ȇÈ˙˘ÏÙ‰ ˙¢¯‰ ÔÈ·Ï Ï‡¯˘È ˙È„Ó ÔÈ· ¨·¯ÚÓ‰ ˙ÂÈ„Ó·
˜➆➂™❹š‡ÏÒÓ Ï˘ ÌÈίˆ‰ ˙ÈÈί¯È‰ ❽➈➀➆ž➀❽˜➈€➛➃❶➂š➂❹❻✈➆–➂ ˜➂❼➈➅œ
€❹❸❹š❽➅❻❹❼™❻€❹❸❸➄❽™š❹➆™❹❽—➄˜❽❹€❸❽š™❽➂➀❿❹€➀™➆➈™❹➀™❽➆–❹➂➂❸❸➈❹˜❽€
❸➅➄˜➈➂❹❸❷❹➆➂❸➄❸➄€❹❸➁❽˜❻➃❹❹❶➂❹➀™❽❹❸€➄™❻❽š❻➈™➂€š➀™š˜❶➅➂❽❻❹˜➀
❻❽➀–❸€❹❸❹➀❹❼™➂➂➁€❹❹❽❽❻➂➃❹–˜➆™€❹❸➀❿❸❾➅➁❽❽❻➁❽❶™❽❸˜➈➅➂❹➂–➆➀➁™˜
➀➆❹š➅➂€❹❸™❸➈❽€➁➀❹➆➀❽❽❼➀❹€❸➄❽❶➀➈❼➀š❽➄❻❹˜❻š➈š❸➀❹❽š❹➈❽€™➂❸➂❿➁❽™❶❸➀
❹€➀➅➂➀™➁❽❿˜–❸➁➀❹➅š❽➆❽˜❸❸❶˜❷➂❸
€❹❸❼➅❽➀€❹❷❷➄❽€❹˜➀❸➈❹˜❽€˜➆➂™❹š❹š❹€
š❹™❷❻❸ š❹❻➈™ ❸➂❿ ➀❷š™➂ ❾€ š❹™❷❻➀ ❽™—➂
š€ š❹˜˜❹➆➂ €➀❹ ❹➄➂➂ š❹—❹❻˜ š❹˜❽➆➅➂ €➀ ❹˜➀
❹❽➀€ ➁❽˜➆❹➂❸ ➁❽˜➅➂❸ š€ ➃➄➅➂ €❹❸ ❹š❶€❷
➃❹❿❽š❸❻˜❺➂❸€™❹➄❸➀❹➆™❿š˜❹™—š❸❽➀❿š❹➆–➂€
š➂❹™š✈➀™–➂➀➆➀➆❹➈ ·Ï‰≠˙Ó¢˙ ÔÒÓ➃❹❽❷➀
❾❿➀❿€➀€™❹➄❸➁❹❽➁❹❽❸❽❽❻š˜❶™➛š❽❽➅€➈➀
❹š➆❷❹š➀➁❽˜❷❹❻❻˜❿❸€➀➁❽˜➅➂❸❷❽˜❼➂❹€➃❽❽➄➆➂
˙ÂÚˆÓ‡· „·ÈÚ˜❹➆€❹❸➃❹˜❿❺➀˜❷❹❻➃❿➆❷❽➂❸™❿
š❹➂❹❷—❸š❹➆❷➃❹➄❶➄➂˜—❽➆¨Ú„ÈÓ‰ ˙ÂÂÈÚ ÈÂ‚Ó
➀➆❹➁❽➀€˜™❽❸➀➆š❹˜❹˜˜š❹❽❹€š❹❻➈š❹➆❷❹➀™❽
➁❽€➄❽š™➀➈❸
➀➆➁❽❽€➀❸➀❹➀➆➃❹❿❽š❸❻˜❺➂❸➂❻➀➂❸™š˜❹™—š❸❽➆–➂€❹➀➁❽➆❽❷❹➂™❿❤˜❷❹❻➃❿➆❷❽➂❸❽š➂
❸❶˜❷➂➂ ❹❽➀™❸❹ ❼—™❸ ❹❽❽❻ ❻˜❹€ ➀➆ ➁❹❽€ ™❻ ➆–❹➂➂❸ ❸➈❹˜❽€ ˜➆➂ ™❹š ❽™❽€❸ ❹➄❹❻❼
❸❺ ➀™ ❸❽➄™❸ ❸❶˜❷➂➀ ❷˜❽ €❹❸ ❽❿ ❹❽➀➆ ➁❽➂❽❽€➂ ¨Â‡ÏÒÓ Ï˘ ÌÈίˆ‰ ˙ÈÈί¯È‰· š❽➆❽˜❸
š❹➄❹❿➄❸➛❽❽➅€➈™❹➈❽❻✈➀™–➂➀➛š❽❽➅€➈➀š➂❹™š✈➀™–➂➂˜❹➆·Ï‰≠˙Ó¢˙ ÔÂÈÒ ÔÂ‚Ó 




 

❸❽❶❼˜❼➅€
➃➂➅❸❽➂˜
❝❛❞➅˜➂❜

❽➄˜❷❹➂❸➁➀❹➆❸➀™❽➀❿❸š❽—❹❹❽™š˜❹™—š❛—˜➈
➃❹❽❷➀➃❹™€˜❸❷❽❸š❿

ÈÂ‚Ó· „·ÈÚ➁❽˜❹➆❹❻❹➂➁❽❼➀—➄❸➁❽˜➅➂❸š❶˜❷❹™➂➃❹❿❽š❸❻˜❺➂❸€™❹➄➁❽˜➅➂❼❹➀—➀
 ➁❽€➈❹˜❽€ š˜❹™—š ❽™➄€❹ ❻❹˜ ❽™➄€ ˜š❹❽❹ ˜š❹❽ ➛❽š–❹—❸ ➉❻➀❸➛ ➃❹➄❶➄➂ ➁➆➈❸ ÆÚ„ÈÓ‰ ˙ÂÂÈÚ
€❹❸™❸➂➂➆➈™❹➂❸➈❹˜❽€˜➆➂™❹š➛➛❸➂❻➀➂❽➆™❹➈✈✈➁❸➁❽➀€˜™❽❸❽❿➁❽➅˜❹❶❸➆❷❽➀❽❹➂
š˜❹™—š❸❽➆–➂€❼➀❹—
➁❽˜❹➆❸➁❽€➄❽š➀™➈➁❽❷➀❽✈✈ ➀➆ ➁❽˜➈➅➂❹ š❽€➄❽š➀™➈❸ š❹™˜❸ ➀™ ❸➀❹➂➆š ❽™➄€ ➁❽➀➆❹➈ ❻❼™
➁❽™❶˜➂❷❽➂š➁❽❷➀❽❹˜❻€➂❼❽➀—❹❼❹™➈˜➅➂ ➛➛❽➀€˜™❽❸€–❸❽➅❶➀—❽❷❽➀➆➁❽❻–˜➄❹š❹➀➀➆š❸
➁❸➀ ❻—❹➀™ ➁❽➀€˜™❽❸ ❸➈❹˜❽€ ˜➆➂ ™❹š ➀™È˘‚¯‰ ÊίÓÏ š❹˜❽™❽ ˜❷❹❻ ❽€➄❽š™➀➈❸ ˜➅➂❸
➁❽˜˜❹➆š➂❸➈❹˜❽€˜➆➂➁❷❶➄❸➀❹➂➆šš➂❻➀➂š➀❸➄➂š❽€➄❽š™➀➈❸š❹™˜❸™❼❹➀—➀➁❽❽š➄™❼➆➂❿
˜❽➆❸➀➁❽➅➄➂ ➛➛❹➄❽š➀€š˜❻€❸❺❾❿—❹❽❷€➀❸❺✈✈˜❽➅❸➀➁❽➀❽❻š➂˜❹❻❽€
➀™ ÈÏ΢‰ ÊίӉ❾❹š➀˜❹❷❻➀➁❽➅➄➂ Ưˆ˜ ÁÂÂËÏ Ô¯ÎÊ·➁❽❼➀—➄€➀➁❽š❽➆➀™➁❽❿˜❹➂➁❽˜➅➂
❸➈❹˜❽€˜➆➂™❹š
❹➄➈❹❸ ➁❽➀€˜™❽❸ ➁❽˜➅➂❸ ÆÈ˘‚¯‰ ÊίÓÏ ˜—❽➆ ❹➄➈❹❸ ➁❽€➄❽š➀™➈❸ ➀™ ➁❽˜➅➂❸ øÌÂÎÈÒ‰ ‰Ó
❺❿˜➂➀➁❽˜➆❹➂❸➁❽˜➅➂➂➁❽—❺❻❽™❶˜❸❺❿˜➂➀š❹˜❽™❽➁❽˜➆❹➂❸➁❽➂™˜ ÆÈÏ΢‰ ÊίÓϘ—❽➆
š❽š˜❹™—š❸ ❸❿˜➆➂ ➁❽€➄❽š➀™➈❸ ❹➀❽➆➈❸™ ❹➀€➂ ➁❽š❹❻➄ ➁❽➄❹➄❶➄➂ ❹➄➀➆➈❸ ❸➀❽❻š❿➀➂ ❽➀❿™❸
š➈❹—š➁❽š™❽➀➈❹➄š➂❻➀➂❸❽˜❹❼➅❽❸❸➀➆❸˜❺❻➃€❿™❽š❻❼❹➂❸š❽❸❹➄š➅❹š❹❺❸❻➄❸š❻š
š™❹˜❻ š❹˜❻ ➀❺˜ š❹˜❻ ❹❽❸ ➁❽š™❽➀➈➀ ❹➀❽€❹ ❸❺➄❹˜➂ š❹˜❻ ➀€˜™❽ ❽➄➀ ❹➄➀ ❹❽❸ ➃❹™➂™
š❹❻➄❸❽❶❼˜❼➅€❸➁❻❹➀™❹➂❽™❽❹–➂❸❸➂❻❹➀❸❽➀❿™❿❸❺➄❹˜❸š❹˜❻š€š❹➀❽➀—❹➆❽➄❿❸➀❺˜❸
❸❽❶❼˜❼➅€€➀➀➀➆❹➈€❹❸™❿❷❻❹❽➂˜—➅❹❽™❻❽➄❸➀˜❽➅❽❹€❸➀™❽➀❿❸➂
š❹➀❽➆➈❹➆–➈➄™➁❽™➄€➀➆➁❽˜❹➈❽➅ È˘‚¯‰ ÊίÓÏ ˙Â¯È˘È Ìȯ„ÂÁ‰ ÌȯÒÓ ıÈÙ‰Ï øÔ¯˙Ù‰ ‰Ó
➁❽™➄€➀➆➁❽˜❹➈❽➅❞ž❽™❽€➅❽➅➀➆š❽™❶˜➁➂❽➆š❹❸❷❺❸➀➀❿❹❽❸➈❹˜❽€˜➆➂™❹š™➁❽™➄€œ˜❹˜❼
š—❹➄❽š❸ ❸š➀ ❸❽❹❹➀❸ ➆➅➂ €➂€ ➀™ ˜™❸ š❹—➆❺ ➁❹➀❽– ❞➆❹❶❽➈ ❾➀❸➂ ➁❸❽˜❽—❽ š€ ❹❷❽€™
➀❽❽❻➀™❽™❽€˜❹➈❽➅❸❺➆❹™➛➛❹❽❽❻❼™➀➛➛❸–❽➀❽❽❻➀™➁š❹➀❽➆➈❽™❹➄€❸❷–❸š❶–❸❞➉❹–❽➈˜❻€➀
➛➉➄❽➀➁❽❶❽˜❻➀➅❻❽➁❽€❹➂❹❸➀➅❻❽➁❽™➄➀➅❻❽š❽€➄❽š™➀➈❸❸˜❻❸➀™š❹❽➀€❼❹˜❸š❶–❸❷❶➄❿
❸➀❻š❸❸—˜❽❸❹❺❹➁❽˜❹—➂➀—˜❽€❹➈˜➀❹➈❽❼❹❻˜
?‫על פרסום‬
!‫קלאסיקה‬

‰ÈÙˆÏ ‰ˆÏÓ‰ ≠ ˜¯Ù‰ ˯Ò

˙ˆ¯ ÌÈ˘ ‰Ó
Ë‡‰ Ôω ¨ÔÂÒ·È‚ ÏÓ

≤∞∞± ¨·ß߉¯‡ ¨Ò¯ÈÈÓ ÈÒ

 

❛❜✈➂➆š❹❽❷➈❹➀—❽–➄€š€–❹❸➀❸˜❻❸➆™❹➁❽˜™➆❾˜❿š❽˜➆❸❸❽❷➈❹➀—❽–➄€❸ÌÈ˙˘ÏÙ❾˜➆ -134
š❹—➆ ➁❽™➄➀ ➀€❸ š➄š➂ €❹❸™ ➆➄❿❹™➂ ➁❹➅˜➈❸ ➇➄➆ ➀➆❿❹❿❹ ❽❹❽❽➀➈ ➀™˜➂ —❽➄ Æ˙ˆ¯ ÌÈ˘ ‰Ó ˯҉ ˙ÏÈÏÚ -135
š❽❼➅❽€❹✈–€➂❸❹š❹❶❸➄š❸™š❹➀❶➀❽❷➂➀❺❿❹€➂❸➀❽❻šš❹™❹❻š➂€➁❽™➄❸➂➆❹➂™➀➀❶❹➅➂€❹❸™➆š➈➀❸➀❶➂❸➄❼—❸➄❹€š
—˜€➀❽➅˜❷➀❸™❷❻š❹❹–š™€➀š—➄➆❹➂—➅➆❹➂€❹❸❸❸˜❻š❹➂❹➀❻❸š˜™➂➃❿➂˜❻€➀❹š❹—™❻➄➀š➂˜❹š❸➄➄❽€❸❹❸€❸
❸❽š❹™❻➂ š€❽˜— š❹➆–➂€ ❸™❷❻❸ š❽➅❹➀ ➀❶˜ ➁❽™➀ ❼❽➀❻➂ —❽➄ š˜™❿❹➂ ❷❹€➂ š❽€➂❹➅˜➈ ➁❶ ➀€ ➁❽˜❶ š➈˜❹❼ ❸™❽€
❸❷❹➆❸š❹❼❽™❹š❹➅❽➈š❸➁❽➄❿š❸š€š—š˜➂❾˜❷❶❽–➂❸❼˜➅❹❽–➂€➂➀❸➆❽˜➈➂❸❸€❸˜➆–❸❸˜➂➀❹❽š❹➄❹❽➆˜❿➁š˜❽❿➂❹
❽➂❹€➀➄❽❸❽➄❷❹➂❸➁❹➅˜➈❸➁➀❹➆➁❽➀❹—➂❸
http://us.imdb.com/title/tt0207201/plotsummary



 

❸❽❶❼˜❼➅€
➃➂➅❸❽➂˜
❝❛❞➅˜➂❜

❽➄˜❷❹➂❸➁➀❹➆❸➀™❽➀❿❸š❽—❹❹❽™š˜❹™—š❛—˜➈
➃❹❽❷➀➃❹™€˜❸❷❽❸š❿

‰‡È¯˜ Í˘Ó‰Ï ˙ˆÏÓ‰
š❽—❹❹❽™❸š˜❹™—š❸➁❹❻š„ÂÓÈω ͢Ӊ ˙‡ ˜ÈÓÚ‰Ï ❸–❹˜™❽➂➀✍
Advertising Management/ David A. Aaker & John G. Myers/ Prentice-Hall, 1982 d
ISBN 0-13-016006-7
➛❾˜❿➛€❾˜❿❸❻❹š➈❸❸❼❽➅˜❽➄❹€❸➃➂˜❽➀➆™❹❸❽➛➈❹˜➈—❽➄˜❹❸—➆❽➛➈❹˜➈ÌÂÒ¯Ù‰ ωÈ d
ISBN 965-06-0184-B

❽➂❹€➀➄❽❸➁❹➅˜➈❸➁❹❻š„ÂÓÈω ͢Ӊ ˙‡ ˜ÈÓÚ‰Ï ❸–❹˜™❽➂➀✍
Advertising Worldwide/ Marieke K. De Mooij, Warren Keegan/ Prentice-Hall, 1991 d
ISBN 0-13-471897-6

❽➄˜❷❹➂❸➁❹➅˜➈❸➀™˙È҇Ϙ‰ ˙¯ÙÒ‰ ✍
Ogilvy on Advertising/ David Ogilvy/ Pan Books, 1983 
ISBN 0-330-26985-2
Maximarketing/ Stann Rapp & Tom Collins/ McGraw-Hill, 1987
ISBN 0-07-051191-8
The Want Makers/ Eric Clark/ Hodder & Stoughton, 1988
ISBN 0-340-32028-1
ȇÓÂÒ¯Ù ˙ÂÈ‰Ï È˙ËÏÁ‰ ʇ ÈÓÓ ‡ˆÈ ‡Ï ·ÂË ¯·„ Ì¢˘ ˙¯Ó‡ ‰˙ȉ ÈÏ˘ ‡Ó‡
❜❜➃❽❹➀➀❶❹➈➀❶❹➈❷❹❷



d 

d
d
d

 

❸❽❶❼˜❼➅€
➃➂➅❸❽➂˜
❝❛❞➅˜➂❜

❽➄˜❷❹➂❸➁➀❹➆❸➀™❽➀❿❸š❽—❹❹❽™š˜❹™—š❛—˜➈
➃❹❽❷➀➃❹™€˜❸❷❽❸š❿

ø˙ȘÂÂÈ˘‰ ˙¯Â˘˜˙‰ ˜¯ÙÓ Â˙ȇ ÌÈÁ˜ÂÏ ‰Ó
❸❽❹➄—❸❽❷➂❽™❽€€➀➆➄❿™➂˜➅➂ÌÂÒ¯Ù 
š™—❹➂❸❽❷➂❽™❽€€➀➆➄❿™➂˜➅➂ ˆ➛➛ÒÁÈ 
❽❹➄—❽➆–➂€❽™❽€€➀➆❽➄➂˜➅➂Ó➛➛„˜ 
❽❹➄—❽➆–➂€❽™❽€➆❽➄➂˜➅➂˙È˘È‡ ‰¯ÈÎÓ 
❽❶❹➀❹❽➅❽➈‡ÏÒÓ Ï˘ ÌÈίˆ‰ ˙ÈÈί¯È‰ 
❸➂™❶❸❸❿˜➆❸š❹❿❽❽™➃❹❻❼
➁❹❶˜š❹➀š➂❹™šÈ˙ÒÈÙ˙‰ ÍÈω˙‰ 
❽➄❽➂❹❽™❶˜❽❽❼—➄❼➅➄❽€❽➀❿™Ì„‡· Ú„ÈÓ È„·ÚÓ 



 

 

❸❽❶❼˜❼➅€
➃➂➅❸❽➂˜
❝❛❞➅˜➂❜

❽➄˜❷❹➂❸➁➀❹➆❸➀™❽➀❿❸š❽—❹❹❽™š˜❹™—š❛—˜➈
➃❹❽❷➀➃❹™€˜❸❷❽❸š❿