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Student name: Vaibhav mishra

Madhav lankapati

Abstract: ........................................................................................................................................................ 2
Keywords....................................................................................................................................................... 2
Introduction of Online Shopping .................................................................................................................. 2
External Analysis of Online Shopping Industry ............................................................................................. 3
PESTEL Analysis ......................................................................................................................................... 3
Porter's five forces: ....................................................................................................................................... 4
Key Players: ................................................................................................................................................... 5
Online shopping growth in India ................................................................................................................... 6
Scope of study ............................................................................................................................................... 6
Objective and research question: ................................................................................................................. 7
Hypothesis of study ...................................................................................................................................... 7
METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY .................................................................................................................... 7
LITRETURE REVIEW ....................................................................................................................................... 7
TESTS ........................................................................................................................................................... 30
Conclusion ................................................................................................................................................... 36
Reference .................................................................................................................................................... 36

World is getting converted from physical to virtual world due to development in the field
of information technology. It dominates all the sectors of economy like education, agriculture,
business,service, telecommunication etc and market is getting converted into digital market. In
order to buildand run business successfully, it is inevitable to study and understand the
changing consumer behaviorin this dynamic business scenario. The companies are also trying to
change according to the situationstill matching the pace is vital. This paper is built on the
relevant literature and at the same timeexamines consumer behavior by questionnaires. The
researchers have tried to understand the onlinebuying habit of consumers from different
dimensions in Surat city. Research findings andimplications were discussed with scope of
futures study.

E-Commerce, Online Shopping, Decision Making Process, Online buying, Consumer behavior,
Key factors

Introduction of Online Shopping

Anything that customers purchases affects environment by means of delivery, whether they
have the product shipped at home or drive to a brick and mortar store(supermarket). In earlier
days people used to go to different shops before purchasing as they didn't have a great deal of
easy access to information on products. Due to the development of World Wide Web it has
now become easy to access the products available worldwide without wasting time, money and
other resources apart from helping environment. Centre for Energy and Climate Solutions
suggests that we can protect land and save energy by shopping online. (Trask, 2006)

The example of Ocado Group plc that delivers the grocery directly to the customer instead of
shopping from the supermarket helped in controlling the carbon emissions. Many supermarkets
such as Marks and Spencer's, John Lewis, Amazon, Carbon Cart etc. have their own websites are
selling greener products and offering more choices to customers. Markham (1998)

Ocado's mission is to revolutionise the way people shop by giving them innovative and greener
alternatives to traditional shopping. Using the cutting edge technology in their delivery model
helps them to cut price, deliver quality and save environment.

'Meat free Mondays' creates environmental awareness of climate changing impact of

production of meat and consumption. By using bio- diesel in delivery vans the emission is
reduced. They deliver their products from the state-of-the-art warehouses directly to consumer
home. They are using anaerobic digestion to produce electricity from the leftover food. The
company has their own green team called eco-warriors to increase environment awareness
amongst the staff. They have slots allotted for green van area-wise to reduce carbon emission.
They use combined heat and power (CHP) which is energy efficient process to mitigate
environmental impact. A lot of recycling works using closed loop grocery bag recycling by
keeping a track of the consumption of plastic bags and batteries.

Bricks and mortar store eat up lot of energy and resources. Online shopping retail companies
stores goods in direct warehouse which saves cost of fixtures and glitzy gimmicks of brick and
mortar store.

External Analysis of Online Shopping Industry

PESTEL Analysis

The country is politically stable and the environment is suitable to promote online shopping
industry. The government is all open to offer the infrastructural and policy support needed to
make the experience of online shopping safer, efficient making it friendly to consumer, sellers
and environment which will help them meet the standards of carbon emission and reduce
green house gases set by The Kyoto Protocol and The Copenhagen Climate Council. The UK
government is taking up broadband and digital media growth rapidly paving way for online


Online shopping has the potential to create huge opportunities for innovation and economic
growth in UK market which is facing recession. Online shopping will help in economic efficiency
increasing competitiveness and profitability by mitigating environmental impacts.

Social awareness about environment is also driving people not to drive to the physical shops
and buy online with increase in internet connection. The people are more technology equipped
than before. Many retail chain such as Marks and Spencer, Ocado, etc are now promoting green
concept to sell their products online and generating goodwill which is ultimately helping them
to reduce costs and increase profits.


Technology is one of the key drivers to successfully implement effective online shopping. The
banking system and internet payments are some areas of concern but with improvements in
technologies related to internet security such as in shopping experiences are
becoming more convenient and safer. The countries, organisations and internet community
must concentrate on technologies by using effective payment, delivery and storage means e.g.
Ocado warehouses and deliveries, Mega electric cars, etc.


Organisation are now challenging the status quo and thinking of changing the way of doing
business because of energy prices. During the recent spike in gas prices online shopping
brought some respite to these shops which incurred significant losses otherwise. Implementing
online sales plan will assist a company to develop a baseline of energy use, actively managing
energy use and costs, reduce emissions without negative effect on operations, continue to
improve energy use and product output overtime and document savings for internal and
external use eg. Emission credits.


More environmental regulation from governments will also support energy efficient
technologies such as online shopping. Consumer Protection (Direct Selling) Act 2000 helps
consumer on issues related to online shopping.

Porter's five forces:

Bargaining power of Suppliers: As the online shopping is a huge network with many suppliers
the bargaining power of supplier is not strong. Suppliers can be rapidly switched without
affecting disrupting consumers shopping experience.

Bargaining power of customers: The customers of Schneider Electric have an equally strong
bargaining power because of the easy of information available about other competitors. There
will not much competition if the services and solutions provided have to be customised as per
the consumer needs.

Restriction to new entry: The industry is expanding with new keeping the market open for new
entrants. An innovative idea such as CarbonCart is sufficient to become successful even with
limited resources.
Substitution effect: There are varied solutions to same problem for example electricity can be
saved by insulation as well as improvement in technology. This keeps many substitution
companies open to competition for Schneider Electric.

Existing competition: There are many competitors as mentioned above which can become
potential threat in future. Schneider Electric has been successful in acquiring many companies
to reduce competition and increase their market.

Key Players:
Online Sellers

Argos is allowing customers to order goods through mobile phone by jumping in text messaging
bandwagon.(BBC, 2002). Dell has been pioneer in direct selling proving that complex product
such as computer can be sold without contact. Ocado Group plc (Ocado) is engaged in online
retailing and distribution of groceries and consumer goods in UK. Ocado offers delivery of
grocery products to customers centrally picked from a single highly-automated warehouse.
John Lewis knew from talking to their customers just how important energy saving has become
to their customers, and they developed their own range of electrical appliances with that in
mind. Aixam Mega sells light and private commercial vehicles with their key priority for
environment. Their investment in product market and designs has made them leader in market
of affordable diesel and electric vehicle.

Opportunities for Schneider Electric:

"You must be the change you wish to see in the world" Mahatma Gandhi. Schneider Electric's
mission is to assist organisation and people make most of their energy. Their vision is to extract
more while consuming lesser resources from our earth.

The company can involve itself in supplying parts to vehicles such as those Designed by Aixam
Mega, Ocado etc to help them become more energy efficient. This will help them to expand its
business on the vehicle segments as well. Schneider can also start its online selling business on
the lines of Amazon, Waitrose, Dell etc. using the direct selling model. This will help to
eliminate distributors thereby reducing costs and increasing profitability. The company can use
Bricks and clicks model where consumer can order online and pick goods from shop or get it
delivered at home. The company can appoint various people as marketing agents to popularise
and sell their products and earn commission. Schneider can use the text and take home service
used by Argos to sell their products through mobile phone.

Threat to Schneider allows one to pick "Green" products and create a positive impact by
neutralizing more than hundred percent of the carbon emission generated from delivery. This
makes consumer feel responsible about the contribution they make to environment by
purchasing from The direct selling model of Schneider will not be successful if
people will buy more from such industries.
Online shopping model for company such as Schneider which sells technical products will have
to backed up by large number of customer assistant agents which requires huge financial and
human resources where the attrition rate is high.


The company can segment online market based on

Direct customers: These are the customers who have purchase product directly from the
company. The direct customers will get maximum price advantage in product and services.

Distributors: Customers who have purchased product through distributor network operators
(DNO's) of company's product. The distributors will be given fixed targets and will be allowed to
sell the product in their name and below the price. This helps company to increase sales and
avoid dealing with individual consumers. Through the company DNO's can reduce maintenance
and installation cost with superior network design.

Direct Agents: The agents are the customers who have sold company products to their
customers. These agents will sell products at higher prices and will be given incentives on sales.

Online shopping growth in India

 Propelled by rising Smartphone penetration, the launch of 4G networks and increasing
consumer wealth, the Indian e-commerce market is expected to grow to US$ 200 billion
by 2026 from US$ 38.5 billion as of 2017.
 E-commerce is increasingly attracting customers from Tier 2 and 3 cities, where people
have limited access to brands but have high aspirations.
 With the increase in awareness about the benefits of online trading, there has been a
significant rise in investment in E-commerce business. Hand in hand with offline trading,
many established businesses, e.g. Shoppers Stop or Lifestyle, have setup online
transaction channels.
 Earlier food and grocery were never thought of as items for online trading. However,
with the change of working habits, and consumers opting for adaptability and
convenience, there are now innumerable small and large E-commerce companies selling
provisions and food ite ems like Grofers, BigBasket, etc. India's ecommerce industry's
sales rose 40 per cent year-on-year to
 reach Rs 9,000 crore (US$ 1.5 billion) during the five-day sale period ending September
24, 2017, backed by huge deals and discounts offered by the major ecommerce

Scope of study
It was proposed that instead of taking a wide coverage and making a broad study, this work
should narrow down its focus and go deep into inquiry. Hence, the researcher proposes to
concentrate this work in Surat City. E-Business includes variety of products, no. of companies
and wide range of customer base present in industry. It is difficult to researcher to do segment
customers, companies and very important customers for selection as a sample of study.
Therefore the study undertaken by researcher was focused on “Attitude of customers towards
online shopping in India and its impact: With special reference to Surat city”

Objective and research question:

The objective of this thesis is to distinguish the appropriate factors that influence consumer
purchasing decision on the internet in accordance with reviewing and comparing the findings,
proposing positive proposals for advancement of online shop thereby.

The research of thesis is aiming to answer the questions below:

What factors will affect consumer decision-making process?

 To understand customer online buying behaviors.

 To discriminate analysis of online buying habit on age and gender basis.
 To identify important factor for online buying.

Hypothesis of study
H0: Products purchased by consumer are independent of their occupation in online shopping
H1: Products purchased by consumer are dependent of their occupation in online shopping


Researcher was intended to study Attitude of customers towards online shopping in India and
its impact: With special reference to Surat City. Population of the study was restricted to users
as well as non-users of products purchased through online shopping. The geographic territory
was restricted to Surat city.
Descriptive research design was used to study online buying. Convenient sampling technique
was used for selecting respondents. The data were collected through online questionnaire
which was mailed to 50 or 50 physical questionnaire prospect respondent of Surat city out of
which 101 questionnaire responses qualified for analysis. For the analysis of data various tools
like tabulation, frequency distribution, cross tabs, t –test and factor analysis were used with
help of SPSS software.

1. Joey F. George(Professor of Information Systems and the Thomas L. Williams Jr.
Eminent Scholar in MIS at Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, USA.)(2004)

Several opinion polls have found that many consumers resist making purchases via the Internet
because of their concerns about the privacy of the personal information they provide to
Internet merchants.

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships between Internet purchasing and
beliefs about the privacy and trustworthiness of the Internet. Specifically, how do individual
beliefs about privacy and trustworthiness of the Internet affect individual intentions to make
Internet purchases and actual purchasing behavior? To answer this question, a theoretical
framework using the theory of planned behavior (TPB) as its basis was established. Using
measurement scales created to assess different aspects of privacy and trustworthiness, as well
as perceived behavioral control and subjective norms, a survey instrument was developed to
test the various relationships implied by TPB. Data were collected from undergraduate students
during the 2001 holiday.

Using the theory of planned behavior as its basis, this study investigated the relationships
among beliefs about Internet privacy and trustworthiness, along with beliefs about perceived
behavioral control and the expectations of important others, and online purchasing behavior.
Data were collected from 193 college students. Analysis of the data indicates that beliefs about
trustworthiness positively affect attitudes toward buying online, which in turn positively affect
purchasing behavior. Beliefs about self-efficacy regarding purchasing positively affect perceived
behavioral control, which in turn affects online purchasing behavior. In short, respondents who
believed in the trustworthiness of the Internet and in their own abilities to buy online were
more likely to make Internet purchases than were those without such beliefs.

2. Ankur Kumar Rastogi(September 2016)

This study attempts to analyze the features related to the buying behaviour of online shoppers.
Consumer buying behaviour in respect of online shopping was studied using different socio-
economic variables. It also provides a support that helps researchers understand the drivers of
consumers’ attitude and goal to shop on the Internet, and consumers’ perceptions regarding
ease of use and usefulness.

Both the primary and secondary data collection methods were considered. The primary data
wascollected through a questionnaire designed exclusively for the study. Samples were
collected from consumers and buyers of online shopping in which the total sample size of
respondents are 200. Survey method was adopted for this study. For the purpose of the survey,
a structured questionnaire was prepared and distributed to the consumers and buyers to study
about their preference and satisfaction of online shoppers (online buyers).

Secondary data was taken from Research papers, Journals, Magazines and Websites.

Conclusions derived from the analysis can be used as useful guide for market orientation. The
outcomes of the study suggest that assessment of consumer buying behaviour can contribute
to a better understanding of consumer buying behaviour in respect of online shopping.

3. Avadhesh Vyas, Dr. Gaurav Bissa(September 2017)

Consumer buying behavior has changed from convenience to comfort and from buying in stores
to buying online even buying from big screen to buying small screen i.e. shift form windows PC
to Android/Device. The current scenario is the era of retailing. There is a paradigm shift of
consumers moving from market place to market space. Consumers now prefer to shop
products online over conventional methods of shopping in stores. According to UCLA Center for
communication policy (2001), online shopping has become the third most popular internet
activity, immediately following e-mail Using/instant messaging and web browsing. Hence this
study aims to know the customer preference towards online shopping in Bikaner District with
sample respondents of 60. This research also aims to find out the key factors that influence
online shopping behaviour of consumers and to identify the determinants of online purchase
intention among customers.

4. Guo Jun, Noor IsmawatiJaafar(December 2011)

In China, e-commerce is currently experiencing a period of rapid development; the large

number of Internet users provides a good foundation for the expansion of the online shopping
market. In this study, perceived usability, perceived security, perceived privacy, perceived after-
sales service, perceived marketing mix, and perceived reputation were used for analysis. This
research was conducted by using the primary data source, and the survey method was
employed in the research. This research found that there were relationships between the
perceived usability, perceived security, perceived privacy, perceived after-sales service,
perceived marketing mix, perceived reputation and consumers’ attitude to adopting online
shopping in China. However, only marketing mix and reputation were found to significantly
influence consumers’ attitude to adopt online shopping. The findings help us in understanding
consumers’ online purchase behaviour.Through the findings of this research, online retailers
could better realize online consumers’ expectations and the determinants of consumers’
behaviour. By understanding the key drivers that could impact on online consumers’ attitude
towards online shopping, online retailers would be able to formulate and implement their e-
business strategy efficiently and effectively and possess stronger competitive advantage.

5. Mohammad Hossein Moshref Javadi, Hossein Rezaei Dolatabadi, Mojtaba

Nourbakhsh, Amir Poursaeedi & Ahmad Reza Asadollahi(September 2012)

The purpose of this study is to analyze factors affecting on online shopping behavior of
consumers that might be one of the most important issues of e-commerce and marketing field.
However, there is very limited knowledge about online consumer behavior because it is a
complicated socio-technical phenomenon and involves too many factors. One of the objectives
of this study is covering the shortcomings of previous studies that didn't examine main factors
that influence on online shopping behavior. This goal has been followed by using a model
examining the impact of perceived risks, infrastructural variables and return policy on attitude
toward online shopping behavior and subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, domain
specific innovativeness and attitude on online shopping behavior as the hypotheses of study. To
investigate these hypotheses 200 questionnaires dispersed among online stores of Iran.
Respondents to the questionnaire were consumers of online stores in Iran which randomly
selected. Finally regression analysis was used on data in order to test hypothesizes of study.
This study can be considered as an applied research from purpose perspective and descriptive-
survey with regard to the nature and method (type of correlation).

First, based on the results and findings of this study, retail companies should start taking
measures to eliminate risk factor and build trust in this form of retail. The retail managers
should sway consumers through different platforms like social networking sites, ads,
promotions, online only discounts etc. to let people cross the threshold and start buying
because Iranian consumers are still comfortable with brick and mortar format as they
appreciate friendly approach of salesman and social element of shopping, which has been
found as important element in shopping. Second, because of perceived lack of secured
transaction (financial risk), retailers should introduce a mechanism that would improve safety
and privacy to motivate people to buy online.

6. Gurvinder S Shergill, ZhaobinChen(2005)

The growing use of Internet in New Zealand provides a developing prospect for E-marketers.
This paper is part of larger study, and focuses on factors which online New Zealand buyers keep
in mind while shopping online. It also investigates how different types of online buyers
perceive websites differently.

This paper targets a sample population drawn from consumers who have experienced online
purchasing in New Zealand. Statistics New Zealand [2002] reported that 54% of New
Zealanders have access to the Internet. According to Nielsen//NetRatings [2001], 12% of
Internet users bought online in New Zealand. Moreover, households in Auckland city have the
highest rate of Internet access, at around 43%. This implies that a large percentage of the
sample cluster is in Auckland, and indicates that a representative sample of the different online
buyers’ groups can be found there.Several methods of data collection; eg., telephone surveys
and personal surveys; were compared.

This research found that website design, website reliability/fulfilment, website customer
service and website security/privacy are the four dominant factors which influence consumer
perceptions of online purchasing. The four types of online New Zealand buyers; i.e., trial,
occasional, frequent and regular online buyers; perceived the four website factors differently.
These buyers have different evaluations of website design and website reliability/fulfilment but
similar evaluations of website security/privacy issues, which implies that security/privacy issues
are important to most online buyers. The significant discrepancy in how online purchasers
perceived website design and website reliability accounts for the difference in online purchase

7. Prashant Singh(Ph. D Research Scholar, Lucknow University, India)(February 2014)

The purpose of this study is to examine and analyse the consumer’s buying behavioural pattern
towards online shopping (specially in case of users in Lucknow city). Also tried to
find out various attitudes of flipkart users of Lucknow city towards the online shopping. For this
study survey was conducted during 1st Sep. to 28th Oct. 2013.

The present study was conducted in a Lucknow city. In case of sample size we take 40
consumers (Respondents) of Out of the total 40, 25 were females and rest 15 were
males and the age group of the respondents between 20 to 70.

The data will be collected from respondents through a scheduled containing questions. The
study result concluded that future of e-tailers in India specially in cities looking very bright. offering best prices, good products and completely hassle-free shopping
experience for our customers. The success of any e-tailer company in India is depending upon
its popularity, its branding image, its unique & fair policies, and its customer relations etc.

8. Prof. Pritam P. Kothari, Prof. Shivganga S. Maindargi(2016)

If E-marketers know the key factors affecting behavior of customers and its relationship then
they can formulate their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into loyal ones
and retaining existing online customers. This researcher paper highlights on factors which
online Indian customers keep in mind while shopping.

Sample size calculated for study was 100 consumers. First hand and Primary Information was
collected with the help of wellstructured Questionnaire along with personal interview.
Secondary data was collected fromPublished literature in Books, Magazines, Journals and
Newspapers and websites. A well-structured objective type and probing questionnaire was

After completion of study Researchers found that cognition, sensed usefulness, comfort of use;
sensed enjoyment and security are the five components which affect consumer perceptions
about online purchasing. Internet has changed the way consumers purchase goods and services
at the same time many companies have started using the Internet with the objective of cutting
marketing costs, thereby reducing the price of their product and service in order to stay ahead
in highly competitive markets. Customers use the Internet not only to purchase the product
online, but also to compare prices, product features and after sale service facilities they will
receive if the purchase the product from a particular store. Many experts are optimistic about
theprospect of online business.

9. Mehrdad Salehi(January 2012)

The global nature of communication and shopping has as well redefined, seeing that it is the
perfect vehicle for online shopping stores. Internet shopping for businesses and consumers are
being accepted as an alternative shop mode rather than visiting the stores. The growth of
Internet technology in Malaysia has enormous potential as it reduces the costs of product and
service delivery and extends geographical boundaries in bringing buyers and sellers together.

The survey was conducted generally via face-to-face interview and also hands over the
questionnaire. Before we chosen face to face interview we sent the questionnaire through
email to more than 75 people but unfortunately only 15 people replied in one week. Then we
switch our data collecting method and we refer to personal interview. Therefore, the survey
responses provided us with the valuable inputs to this study for better understanding the
online shopping practices in Malaysia. Total 75 questionnaires were distributed; while each of
answers submitted was monitored correctly for mistake, unfinished and/or omitted responses.
Though, 10% of the questions in the analysis survey that had been left unanswered or wrongly
answered were subtracted from functional data analysis. Having done the appropriate
screening process, returned questionnaires were considered as unusable and the rest 60
responses were used which were measured as total and valid for last analysis and hypothesis
This study is conducted to identify factors influencing consumers towards online shopping in
Malaysia. The study focused on nine independent variables namely appearance, quick loading,
security, sitemap, validity, promotion, attractiveness, believability, and originality. We applied
Five-point Likert Scale to measure the influential factors on intention for online shopping. The
findings of the study indicated that the first five factors influence consumers towards online
shopping and security is the factor that contributes most towards online shopping.

10. Ms. Dipti Jain, Ms. Sonia Goswami, Ms. Shipra Bhutani(September 2014)

The growing use of internet in India has created a basis for tremendous prospects for online
retailers; knowledge of factors affecting consumer buying behavior can help retailers develop
their marketing strategies to convert their potential consumers into active one. In this study
four dimensions of online shopping as perceived by consumers in India are identified and the
different demographic factors are also studied which are the primary basis of market
segmentation for retailers. The main objective of this research is to study the impact of
Perceived Risk, Perceived enjoyment, Perceived usefulness and Perceived ease of use factors on
online shopping behavior of consumers in Delhi. The population of this research consisted of
online shoppers from Delhi. The sample of the study comprised of 160 online shoppers.
Respondents belonged to different age groups, income groups and occupations and have a
prior experience in online shopping. A pre – structured questionnaire was used with a 5 point
Likert rating scale to measure the factors influencing the respondent’s behavior to shop online.
The empirical results revealed that only one factor, namely Perceived Risk significantly affected
online shopping behavior of consumers in Delhi while Perceived enjoyment, Perceived ease of
use and Perceived enjoyment hinders the consumers to shop online so the researchers suggests
that the companies must focus on Perceived risks to develop consumers trust towards online
shopping. The recommendations presented in this research may help foster growth of Indian
online retailing in future. The research findings revealed that perceived risk negatively impact
consumers attitude towards online shopping while perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use
and perceived enjoyment has no impact on consumers’ attitude towards online shopping.

11. LazarosSarigiannidis, DimitriosMaditinos (January 2011)

Online shopping is among the most popular activities of the internet, yet the reasons why
consumers buy online are still unclear. Although it is implied that consumer acceptance of
online shopping is affected by different products not many studies have adopted this view. This
study attempts to examine consumers’ attitude when making online purchases in the context
of different product types.

The sample of this study consists of Greek internet users, who know how to make an online
purchase, possibly have made one or are willing to make one in the future. A total of 232
internet users were selected to complete a questionnaire.

A theoretical framework is proposed based on the determinants of consumer behaviour and

user acceptance of online shopping, as well as online product classification. The factors that
were selected to be tested are Personal Innovativeness of Information Technology (PIIT), Self-
efficacy, Perceived security, Privacy, Product involvement and how they affect consumer
attitude towards online shopping. Correlation analysis, at first, to determine the relationships
among the variables and regression analysis afterwards to verify the extent of the variable
interaction were used to test the hypotheses. Based on the aforementioned analyses, results
were drawn and compared to the results found by Lian and Lin (2008) in a similar study. It has
been found that PIIT, perceived security and product involvement have an effect on the
attitude towards online shopping, yet the results vary among the different product types.

12. Dr. M. Mathivanan(February 2017)

Recent marketing mechanism of online shopping or etailing is the new shopping trend of global
marketing system. Online shopping refers to computer-based-shopping or E-shopping same like
Internet banking or E-banking. Over that past few years, online shopping or E-tailing has
increased percentage of online buyer’s in India.

The study covers the Mayiladuthurai urban area. There are 120 respondents are chosen for the
study. For the sample selection, convenient sampling Technique is applied.

The study based on both primary and secondary data. Primary data have been collected
through a well-structured questionnaire prepared and directly administered to the respondents
who are using regularly using online shopping system and the data can be obtained. Secondary
data have been collected through published text books, journals, reports, and etc.

The technology enabled platform made a sea change in consumer minds and the entire
marketing system of the world of traders/manufacturers and service providers. This online
platform link the world of marketers, suppliers, manufactures, service provider and the users
within a minute with a single mouse click. It is a cheapest marketing medium and eliminates the
all types’ unwanted expenditure in the means of commission or margin. This system also easily
facilitates the new marketer like smallmedium enterprises, women entrepreneur, agricultural
farmer and individual can easily market their farm products and easily identified market
potentials of their locally available products elsewhere.

13. Ronald E. Goldsmith(Florida State University)(April 2002)

This study tested a model that organizes and presents factors that led consumers to buy online.
The model contained four explanatory variables(generalized innovativeness toward online
buying, involvement with the internet, and frequency of internet use) and two response
variables(amount of past purchasing done over the internet and likelihood of future online
purchase). A sample of 107 undergraduates reported their internet-related attitudes and
behaviors in the context of longitudinal survey of purchasing behavior. Path analysis showed
that a slightly modified model fit the data well. Frequency of online buying and internet to buy
online in the future were predicted by general innovativeness, an innovative predisposition
toward buying online, and involvement with the internet. Thus, these appear to be important
predictors of online buying that can help profile consumers for marketing strategy.

14. Zuroni Md Jusoh, Goh Hai Ling(February 2012)

Online shopping is the process of buying goods and services from merchants who sell on the
internet. Shoppers can visit web stores from the comfort of their homes and shop as they sit in
front of the computer. The main purpose of this study is to determine the factors influencing
consumers’ attitude towards e-commerce purchases through online shopping. The study also
investigate how socio-demographic (age, income and occupation), pattern of online buying
(types of goods, e-commerce experience and hours use on internet) and purchase perception
(product perception, customers’ service and consumers’ risk) affect consumers’ attitude
towards online shopping. Convenience sampling method was conducted in this study and the
sample comparison of 100 respondents in Taman Tawas Permai, Ipoh. Data were collected via
self-administered questionnaire which contains 15 questions in Part A (respondents’
background and their pattern of using internet and online buying), 34 questions in Part B
(attitude towards online purchase) and 36 questions in Part C (purchase perception towards
online shopping).This study was conducted by convenience sampling method because of the
unavailability of the list online shopper that involved in online purchases. There were 100
respondents in this research study. Anonymity and confidentiality were assured and
participants were told that they could withdraw from the study at any point without prejudice.
The main instrument for this study was a questionnaire. The questionnaire aimed to gather
information about respondents‟ socio-demographic background, attitude towards online
shopping and purchase perception towards online shopping.Research findings found that more
than half of the respondents have medium level of attitude and purchase perception towards
online shopping. There were 9 hypotheses in this study; five of them are rejected via the
inferential statistical analysis. Meanwhile, the other hypotheses are fail to be rejected.

15. Dr. Gopal, R., Deepika Jindoliya(December 2016)

The origination of the internet created an entire new experience for consumers regarding
gathering information, comparing products or prices and the possibility of purchasing on the
internet. Therefore consumer behaviour on the internet is an important factor for marketers.
To predict consumer behaviour on the internet marketers need to understand how, where and
why consumers behave online. This paper tries to analyse studies done by various researchers
in order to explore what online channels consumers use when they are in a particular stage of
the buying decision process (BDP). The study will create more understanding about why and
how on-line consumers go through their buying decision process (BDP). It will be helpful in
drawing a modified and more effective marketing policy.The previous few years have seen an
unprecedented growth in the number of online business players. This ever increasing
competition has called for adoption of new marketing strategies, new media and “out of box
thinking” to influence the customer to visit the site and make purchases.

As e retailing is worth millions of dollars it is of utmost importance for the companies to know
the degree of impact their new marketing campaign would have on potential customers. It
would help them in channelizing more money and effort towards the strategy which has
maximum impact on consumer psyche.

16. Lakshmi. S(August 2016)

With the increasing internet literacy, the prospect of online marketing is increasing. There are
millions of people online any time and they all are a potential consumer in the online market.
Since there are so many providers, the most important thing for organizations is to understand
what are consumer wants and needs in this competitive business environment. These studies
explain online shopping important and consumer buying behavior in online shopping.Online
shopping is getting popularity in the young generation such as students and professionals.
Students usually prefer to buy goods from its original source and they mostly prefer online

When a consumers to make purchases online to buy something, he or she is affected by

assorted factors. The main Influencing factors have been identified as, price, confidence,
security, convenience, time, after sale service and discounted deals. The price factor exists
because the prices are often lower through online shopping as compared with physical
purchases in the market. Buy online can be of great benefit to the consumer in terms of
convenience, saving time and money.

17. MoezLimayem, Mohamed Khalifa, and Anissa Frini(July 2000)

—The objective of this study is to investigate the factors affecting online shopping. A model
explaining the impact of different factors on online shopping intentions and behavior is
developed based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. The model is then tested empirically in a
longitudinal study with two surveys. Data collected from 705 consumers indicate that
subjective norms, attitude, and beliefs concerning the consequences of online shopping have
significant effects on consumers’ intentions to buy online. Behavioral control and intentions
significantly influenced online shopping behavior. The results also provide strong support for
the positive effects of personal innovativeness on attitude and intentions to shop online. The
implications of the findings for theory and practice are discussed.The findings present a strong
support to the existing theoretical links of TPB as well as to the ones that were newly
hypothesized in this study. Specifically, we found that intentions and behavioral control equally
influence online shopping behavior. Therefore, we caution researchers not to stop their
investigation at intention, assuming that behavior will automatically follow. We believe that
significant theoretical and practical contributions can be made by investigating the antecedents
of behavior. Similarly, assuming that intentions alone lead to behavior could be misleading. Our
study shows that behavioral control (e.g., self-efficacy and facilitating conditions) is as
important as intentions in influencing online shopping behavior.

18. Kirui Andrew Kibet(2015)

According to a recent UNCTAD report by Fredriksson(2015) that there is a huge potential for
growth of e-commerce economies in Kenya but growth rate has been slow from 2012 to 2015
at the report states that growth rate in Kenya from 2012 to 2015 has been at 2% YoY and is
expected to grow at that rate till 2018. This growth rate is way below the average when
compared to other regions in the world.The study proposed one main objective which was to
assess the behaviours of consumers towards online shopping in Nairobi County, Kenya. The
final specific objective was to make necessary recommendations to the framework based on
the results of study. The theoretical framework that informed the research was the
Decomposed Theory of Planned Behaviour (DTPB) which was operationalized through a
conceptual framework. The sample population size was 384 and the chosen to get the
respondents was purposive random sampling method. The data was analyzed using statistical
software and the findings presented in frequencies, percentages and Partial Least Square model
which was used for hypotheses testing.The findings of this study has provided positive
contribution to field e-commerce research in Kenya by assessing the behaviors of online
consumers and the adoption of the technology. The study recommended further longitudinal
research is needed to study the behaviours of consumers towards online shopping to assess
their frequency of goods or service purchase and amount spent over a period of time.

19. Dahiya Richa(2012)

On-line shopping is a recent phenomenon in the field of E-Business and is definitely going to be
the future of shopping in the world. Most of the companies are running their on-line portals to
sell their products/services on-line. Though online shopping is very common outside India, its
growth in Indian Market, which is a large and strategic consumer market, is still not in line with
the global market. The potential growth of on-line shopping has triggered the idea of
conducting a study on on-line shopping in India. The present research paper has used
Qualitative and Quantitative research methods to study the impact of Demographic factors of
consumers on on-line shopping parameters like satisfaction with on-line shopping, future
purchase intention, frequency of on-line shopping, numbers of items purchased, and overall
spend on on-line shopping. The data was collected through Questionnaires on a sample of 580
respondents from Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Hyderabad and Bangalore. The results of study
reveal that on-line shopping in India is significantly affected by various Demographic factors like
age, gender, marital status, family size and income. The results of the study could be further
used by the researchers and practitioners for conducting future studies in the similar area.The

results prove that the respondents have perceived online shopping in a positive manner. This
clearly justifies the project growth of online shopping in the country. However, the frequency of
online shopping is relatively less in the country. Online shopping organizations can use the
relevant variables and factors, identified from the study, to formulate their strategies and plans
in the country.

20. Zain-Ul-Abideen, Salman Saleem

Advertising is a form of communication intended to convince an audience (viewers, readers or

listeners) to purchase or take some action upon products, information, or services etc. This
paper investigates the relationship between independent variables which are environmental
response and emotional response with attitudinal and behavioral aspect of consumer buying
behavior, by tapping the responses of 200 respondents using telecommunication services from
Rawalpindi, Islamabad, and Lahore (cities of Pakistan). The major findings of the study
demonstrate an overall normal association between the variables but in-depth analysis found
that emotional response of consumer purchase behavior is the variable that results into strong
association with the consumer buying behavior. It is true that people purchase those brands
with which they are emotionally attached. This study reports new evidences in the field of
consumer buying behavior of consumers pertaining to the local markets of these cities of

21. Dan Kim, Raghav Rao, BongsoonCho(2000)

The purpose of this research is (1) to develop a theoretical model for consumer purchasing
behavior on the Internet and (2) to test the effects of consumer lifestyles in the form of price-
oriented, net-oriented, and timeoriented lifestyles, and perceived benefit and perceived risk on
purchasing behavior. Structural equation modeling is applied to test a hypothesized research
model using Graphics Visualization and Usability Center (GVUC) online survey data.

We analyzed the online survey dataset collected by the Graphics, Visualization and Usability
Center (GVUC) at the Georgia Institute of Technology. We thank and acknowledge GVUC for
making the survey data available. The tenth survey was administered from October 10, 1998,
through December 15, 1998. The sample includes 306 respondents.

Results show that a consumer whose lifestyle is more net-oriented will perceive more benefits
and fewer risks to online purchasing. Consumers who are more time-oriented will perceive
more benefits to buying goods online than less time-oriented ones. Consumers who have more
disposable income are also more prone to purchase online.

22. JuliantibintiSamsudin, Shanusi bin Ahmad(2013)

The working professionals are identified as frequent online shoppers thus providing an
opportunity to undestand their perception towards online shopping. The understanding on the
perception on online buyers can provide marketer a guide to strategise their marketing
advantage. Therefore, the objective of this study is to understand the online shopping
demodraphy and to get meaningful insight on how they perceive online shopping which later
shape their online shopping orientation. A sample of 1202 of polytechnic college’s
academicians were asked for input and descriptive analysis was done to investigate factors that
characterised their online shopping orientation. Based on the results, the study has shown
several significant findings. It is found that there are three factors that have an effeect on
online shopping orientation namely information search, religion commitment and religion
concern. The findings consequently will stipulate the understanding on how professionals in
Malaysia distinguish online shopping and what have modelled their orientation and perception
towards e-commerce.

23. SajjidNazir(May 2012)

Most of the people who use the internet to purchase goods online, but that there are still some
reasons for which consumers are reluctant to buy online. The attitudes of people toward the
purchase online are different in Pakistan. The purpose of this study is to review the factors felt
reservation of consumers in online shopping.The main objective of this research is to study,
especially what are factors affecting the consumers directly for online shopping. To this end, a
survey was conducted and the 120 questionnaires were distributed among the students of
different universities and the general public. The replies have been analyzed by means of
frequency distribution, average and chart analysis.

The results of the survey analysis has shown that most of the people already shopping online
and prefer to make their purchases online, but there are some factors such as psychological
factors, social factors emotional factors, and the privacy factors which affect the buyer
attitudes of online purchases. The protection of privacy and security are major problems that
affect the behavior of the population to buy online. Various attitudes of consumers toward
online shopping are not in rest in the study which reveals that the purchase online is easy,
comfortable and better that conventional shopping due to various factors.

24. Shwu-ingWu(2003)

It is important to recognize that numerous factors precede attitude formation and change.
Consumer background characteristics are the innately stable characteristics of a consumer’s
cultural background, values and demographics, psychological, and social attitudes. The object
of this research was to explore the consumer characteristics influencing consumer attitudes
toward online shopping. An initial focus group with ten potential customers was conducted to
collect original consumer needs and attitudes associated with online shopping. About 150
descriptions of benefit needs were collected. The second focus group, with ten customers, was
used to combine and reduce the number of primary needs. The results generated 40
representative items about the respondents’ benefit need perceptions and attitudes toward
online shopping. A third focus group, composed of ten internet users, was used to verify the
descriptions in ordr to design a questionnaire concerning the benefit needs and attitudes for
online shopping. Finally, 38 items concerning benefit needs and attitudes were obtained andput
into a questionnaire for a random sampling survey. The primary data from this research were
collected using a survey of 600 Internet users through personal interviews. Members were
selected randomly in Taiwan.

The results showed that the Fishbein model could effectively measure consumer characteristics
that influence online shopping attitude and shopping decisions.

25. Kanupriya , Dr. Rita, Anupreetkaur(June 2016)

Electronic commerce, commonly known as e-commerce, refers to the buying and selling of
products or services over electronic systems such as the internet and other computer networks.
Internet is the rapidest growing media during the past decade. Especially, online shopping is a
rapidly growing ecommerce area. Online stores are usually available 24 hours a day, and many
consumers have internet access both at work and at home. A successful web store is not just a
good looking website with dynamic technical features, listed in many search engines. This study
aims to establish a preliminary assessment, evaluation and understanding of the characteristics
of online shopping.

The research is based upon primary and secondary data both. The primary data was collected
through a questionnaire designed exclusively for the study. Secondary data was taken from
research papers, Journals, magazines and websites.Samples were collected from consumers
and buyers of online shopping of Chandigarh region. A target of 100 respondents was set, but
many of them provided incomplete questionnaire and having no experience of using internet
and online shopping therefore only 70 questionnaires were entertained for final analysis and
data interpretation.

An effort has been made to investigate online consumer behaviour, which in turn provides E-
marketers with a constructional framework for fine-tuning their E-businesses’ strategies.

The main motivating factor seen during the research was the convenience and customer service
which drives the people to online shopping. As a result today they are buying airline and railway
tickets, books, home appliances, electronic gadgets, movie tickets, etc by logging on to a web
site, than driving up to a store. A huge buyers and sellers across demographics are shopping
online because of the changing lifestyles and shopping habits. It is seen that despite the
immense possibilities available on the internet it is mainly used for mailing, chatting and
surfing. E-mail applications still constitute the bulk of net traffic in the country.

26. Suen Azeez Olugbola(2016)

This study analyzed the entrepreneurial readiness of youth in terms of opportunity

identification, motivational factors, resources, and entrepreneurial ability. SEM was applied to a
sample of 490 students from the university Sains Islam Malaysia. The findings highlight the
positive effect of opportunity identification, motivation, and resources on entrepreneurship
and the central role of entrepreneurship training in all factors, including entrepreneurial ability.
The role of entrepreneurship training implies that young individuals are able to develop their
entrepreneurial ability. The study thus shows the individual’s ability to change over the course
of a lifetime. For individuals interested in the start-up process, this study provides information
capable of influencing their new business ventures.

27. Alicia Coduras(2015)

The purpose of this research has been building such kind of instrument to estimate the
individual’s readiness for entrepreneurship.

No holistic, scientifically grounded tool to measure readiness for entrepreneurship exists, yet
there are numerous entrepreneurial capacity tests with no rigorous scientific grounding. As a
remedy, this paper provides a solid and scientific-based development of a valid instrument for
measuring readiness for entrepreneurship. A complex tool able to identify and measure
readiness for entrepreneurship would be applicable in numerous situations including the
following by: [1] determining entrepreneurial abilities, [2] analyzing potential for
entrepreneurship, [3] simulating organizational transformations, and [4] evaluating investment

28. NorzianiDahalan, Mastura Jaafar, Siti Asma’ MohdRosdi(2013)

This article concern on the issue of whether men and women are differs in searching for
business opportunity. Female and male have different way of thinking. The differences can be
attributed to how they value their life. The purpose of this study is to examine whether male
and female differ in terms of idea generation for business opportunity. The aim of this research
is to provide input for entrepreneurial training, specifically for developing business ideas among
local community. The quantitative data collection has been conducted on 500 local populations
in Lenggong Valley. It was found that men and women differ in some aspects of idea generation
for business opportunity. A survey questionnaire was designed to focus on community
participation in entrepreneurship. This research employed the quantitative method of data
collection. The questionnaires were distributed to the local community according to districts
and villages.The findings highlighted the important of educating the local community for
entrepreneurial program. Local people might have difficulty in escaping from their traditional
culture and norm to start their entrepreneurial venture as argued by Morrison (2000) and
Shane (2003). The government needs to focus on developing and empowering the existing
entrepreneurship program with specific targets of achievement. With a limited number of
respondents who attended trainings, few established business, and less knowledge on financial
facilities, more information should be provided to the local community.

29. Dave Valliere(Ted Rogers School of Management, Ryerson University, Toronto,

Canada)(August 2014)

This article proposes a novel measure of entrepreneurial intent, the “Entrepreneuring Intent
Scale”, to address shortcomings of existing measures. Previous scales have confounded intent
with beliefs, attitudes, and expectations, contrary to the assumptions of the Theory of Planned
Behaviour that underpins research in this area. Such confounding of measures can lead to
significant errors in the interpretation of empirical insights into entrepreneurial intent.

The scale-development process used in this research is based on the methods and guidelines of
Hinkin (1995) and DeVellis (2003). As a first step in this process, a working definition of
entrepreneurial intent is proposed as follows: Entrepreneurial intent is a personal conviction of
an individual to take one or more specific actions in the process of exploiting a new business

This new scale can be referred to as the “Entrepreneuring Intent Scale” (EIS) to distinguish it
from earlier measures of entrepreneurial intent and to emphasize its recognition of the
processual nature of entrepreneuring.The purpose set out for this research has been to develop
a new measure of entrepreneurial intent that is free of methodological issues and is a better
indicator of actual entrepreneurial intent among individuals, and can thus become a more
standardized measure for use in a wide range of future research efforts. With this improved
insight it may be possible to more effectively design policies and programs to increase
entrepreneurial intent in target populations, and to thereby to enable the social benefits of
higher entrepreneurship participation rates.
30. Verni Y. Ismail, Efendy Zain, Zulihar(Faculty of Economics, YARSI University, Jakarta,
Indonesia)(August 2014)

This study was designed as a quasiexperimental research, which is non randomized group pre
test – post test. The treatment has been given in the form of entrepreneurship education with
the number of respondent were 30 students. The data were analyzed using the Comparative
Analysis of "t" Test Methods. The results showed that both before and after undergoing
entrepreneurship education, research respondents basically had the pretty good
entrepreneurial competencies scores. The results of the study by using a pre-test and post-test
analysis, showed that the characteristics of the respondents with the highest scores both
before and after participating in entrepreneurship education were need of achievement and
endurance. While the characteristics that have the weakest scores were need of autonomy and
risk-taking propensity.

31. Astrid HeidemannLassen(2007)

The recognition of the importance of entrepreneurial dynamics in corporate context is

increasingly acknowledged in both entrepreneurship and strategic management literature, as
firms today face a reality in which frame-breaking innovation is an important element of
survival. From this understanding, the concept of Strategic Entrepreneurship (se) has arisen,
arguing a logic of focusing on the intersections between the two fields. This paper sets out to
explore the se construct empirically. Through seven case studies evolving around radical
technological innovations, evidence is found of the importance of incorporation of strategic
considerations taking place at several different levels of the organization, in order to obtain a
desirable balance between entrepreneurial and strategic forces. An Integrative Model of
Strategic Entrepreneurship is suggested based on this evidence.

32. Md. Aminul Islam, Mohammad Aktaruzzaman Khan, Abu Zafar Muhammad
Obaidullah, M. Syed Alam(2011)

This study examines the effect of characteristics of entrepreneur and characteristics of the firm
on the business success of Small and Medium Enterprises in Bangladesh. The study is based on
survey methodology through a questionnaire administered on the owners and employees of
small firms. Data are analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS). Two
hypotheses are proposed and tested. The characteristic of entrepreneur is found to be a
significant factor for business success of SMEs in Bangladesh. However the firm characteristics
are found not to be significant factor on the business success of SMEs in Bangladesh. The
results of the analysis show that only one of the demographic factors which is duration of
organization operated has significant effect toward business success of SMEs. SMEs that are
operated longer period have been more successful in comparison to those who have been in
operation for a shorter period. In addition to this, independent sample t-test shows that gender
plays a significant role on business success of SMEs in Bangladesh. This study has implications
for entrepreneurs and policy makers.. Bangladeshi SMEs should ensure they have built a strong
social network and good government relationship in order to ensure their business success.
Business success is usually the outcome of the way of doing business and cooperation. Inter-
firm cooperation, consultation, performance measurement, and flexibility may play an
important role in business success. Inter-firm cooperation contributes positively to gaining
organizational legitimacy and to developing a desirable marketplace reputation. The proportion
of SMEs led by an entrepreneurial team was high among successful SMEs and low among failed
SMEs, so fostering the formation of entrepreneurial teams in starting up businesses is
recommended. It is suggested that future researchers should increase the sample size and
explore into agro-based SMEs.

33. Ransford Quarmyne Churchill, William Agbodohu, Peter Arhenful(2013)

A qualitative research was conducted to explore the roles of entrepreneurship programs of

Accra Polytechnic in developing students’ entrepreneurial leadership. Two student
entrepreneurial leaders who are actively involved in entrepreneurial leadership activities
through holding the leadership positions of the Polytechnic entrepreneurship clubs and also
participated in the Polytechnic entrepreneurship development courses were purposefully
selected as the participants of this study. The semistructured interview data analysis indicates
that the polytechnic entrepreneurship development programs facilitate entrepreneurial
leadership development of students in many ways including experiential learning, social
interaction learning, and opportunity recognition. Moreover, entrepreneurial leadership
development occurs in a process of transforming the knowledge acquired from experience and
social interaction to identify the opportunities for personal development and business creation.

The analysis of interview transcripts indicates that both of the participants explained their
entrepreneurial leadership development through how they acquired the knowledge and
experience being involved in academic courses. In particular, polytechnic entrepreneurship
programs play three distinctive roles on developing entrepreneurial leadership of the
participants through providing opportunities for experiential learning, social interaction
learning, and opportunity recognition.Based on the findings, entrepreneurship education in the
polytechnic can develop students’ abilities in learning from experiences and social interactions
through developing their reflective learning and creative thinking.

34. Dr. SugandhaAgarwal(Assistant Professor, European International College,

AbuDhabi, UAE)(2015)

Entrepreneurship presents a basic component of dynamism into the economic framework. The
process of globalization and liberalization has presented an arrangement of changes like the
presentation of dynamism into the framework. It's a known fact that India, today, is an
emerging economy that is destined to achieve milestones, on various fronts, in the near future.
“India is a country of entrepreneurs", says Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos during our Prime Minister
Mr. Narendra Modi's visit to Washington. For India, to acquire the status of a "developed"
nation, as well as the developed economy, it needs to create millions of jobs. So ultimately the
solution to this is encouraging entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurs and small businesses are
always most vulnerable in times of crisis when funding becomes dearer and difficult to come
by.The pace of entrepreneurial practices could be raised with the ease of guidelines and
directives for registration of a business in India, funding, and simplifying compliance measures
by curtailing licenses or approvals or tax structures for start-ups. Elimination of angel tax,
enabling easier exit for entrepreneurs, streamlining standards for capital raising, and requisite
changes in the credit guarantee for loans to start-ups are few things could be done in order to
enhance a smoother and evener operational activities of the start-ups in India and boosting the
spirit of entrepreneurship. There is the dire need to encourage academia-industry tie-up and
collaborate to develop the right kind of talent and competencies that will propel the growth
further. Steps must be taken to create an even more conducive environment by facilitating
incubation, IPR, and innovation norms. One more way to raise the standards is to recognize
these start-ups for the innovation and rapid growth by sharing their success stories on a
national-level and awarding at relevant Indian and global platforms to help India build a
reputation of a start-up-friendly nation.

35. Abdul Aziz Abdullah, NorhlilmatunNaemSulaiman(March 2013)

For as long as one can remember, agriculture has been considered a backwater sector. Hence it
was not viewed as an attractive alternative to other work sectors such as manufacturing,
private, and public sector employment.The primary purpose of this research is to identify the
factors that influence youth interest to become agricultural entrepreneur, and to investigate
the relationships of factors with the interest of youth to become entrepreneur. In this context,
two hundred and fifty (250) youth in Pahang, Malaysia was selected as respondents from the
population of agricultural entrepreneur in Malaysia. This study used two methods namely
qualitative and quantitative as the best way to address the issue of agriculture
entrepreneurship. In the qualitative method purposive sampling where chosen as data
collection method. The respondents selected are those who have experience, expertise and
involved for many years in the agricultural business. The first finding is that all respondent
agrees that attitude, acceptance and knowledge are the factors that influence youth to become
agriculture entrepreneurs. The second finding indicates that attitude and acceptances are the
factors which significantly influence the youth interest in agriculture entrepreneurship. This
study also surprisingly reveals that knowledge factor is not significant in influencing interest of
youth to become entrepreneurs. Further, the open-ended questions reveals other factors
which influenced young people to become entrepreneurs are; family support, government
support and promotion through carnivals and festivals. These findings provide insight to the
government officials in the ministry of agriculture to resolve unemployment issues and achieve
successful economic growth through the agriculture sector.

36. Adnan Iqbal, Yahya Melhem, HusamKokash(2011)

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the entrepreneurship perception and

entrepreneurship intention of Saudi university students and to find out whether they are ready
for the market challenges and risk taking which are part of entrepreneurial activities. The
population comprised of students of one of the private universities in Saudi Arabia, a
questionnaire survey was adopted to collect the primary data from the respondents whom they
were randomly selected, total of 292 questionnaires were received. The study findings indicate
the satisfying level of students‟ intentions on entrepreneurship and their willingness to put
their efforts in entrepreneurship activities. Furthermore, it is suggested that entrepreneurship
education should centre on development of competencies related to entrepreneurship and
cultural awareness. This study not only addressed the missing gap in current literature upon
entrepreneurship, but provided implications for university educators.

37. Lee W. McKnight, Jesse Parker(5th International Conference on Technology Policy

and Innovation Delft University of Technology, Netherlands ) (August 2001)

The myth that the Internet is a global, borderless technology and communications medium
which allows all nations and societies to access an ever expanding amount of information,
commerce and business relationships is just that.This paper will demonstrate why the generally
unrealistic theory that less developed economies, with less developed communications
infrastructure, will perform technology generation “leaping feats” ignores numerous other
economic, regulatory and social factors and premature. Rather, the reality is that for most
emerging nations, taking advantage of advanced information and communications technology
to increase innovation and entrepreneurship will feel more like a slow uphill crawl – interrupted
by frequent downhill slips.The Internet and associated information and communications
technologies will demand sweeping changes in how developed and developing nations
approach every aspect of doing business.Developing nations are unlikely to leapfrog major
phases of technology development and attract company building venture capital before the
benefits of private equity have been exhausted in building out the national communications
and IT infrastructure.In this paper we have introduced new metrics for assessing entrepeneurial
readiness. While the same factors matter in venture capitalist’s consideration of investment
opportunities in emerging markets as in nations with more sophisticated technical and social
infrastructure, the weighting may vary. Our proposed metrics should be tested against
national-level indicators in future research. Unfortunately, as we have argued, while those
nations which can, will leapfrog, for many emerging nations all we have done in this paper is
suggested in which direction they should continue to crawl. Uphill.

38. Jason Fitzsimmons, Evan J. Douglas(June 2005)

The intention of an individual to behave entrepreneurially arises because the entrepreneur

perceives self-employment (or entrepreneurial behaviour within an organization) to be utility-
maximizing, and thus forms the motivation to behave entrepreneurially.The sample consists of
414 students surveyed at the beginning of their first entrepreneurship class in MBA programs in
Australia, China, India and Thailand. These individuals may be considered potential
entrepreneurs, since they are approaching a career decision point at which they might either
enter into employment or seek self-employment.Conjoint analysis was used to obtain measures
for the entrepreneurial attitudes of individuals in the samples with individuals from each
country being asked to evaluate a series of hypothetical career profiles and decide on the
attractiveness of each profile presented. A post-experiment questionnaire was also
administered. As argued elsewhere, the intention to behave entrepreneurially depends on the
human capital of the individual. Here we argue that human capital includes not only personal
abilities and social capital but also innate attitudes to aspects of entrepreneurship, such as
independence, firm ownership and risk. Thus the motive for pursuing self employment (or any
other entrepreneurial behaviour) is considered as a function of an individual’s abilities and
attitudes. This study investigated the relationship between entrepreneurial attitudes and
abilities and entrepreneurial intentions across four countries, viz: India, China, Thailand and
Australia. We find that entrepreneurial attitudes are significant in explaining career decisions in
all four countries with some variation in the relative importance of each of these attitudes. We
also find crosscultural differences in the degree to which entrepreneurial attitudes explain
entrepreneurial intentions.

39. Amir Jafar, Anjan Kumar Ghosh, Shabana Jafar(August 2015)

In India, the five states—Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West
Bengal together account for about 50 percent of the total enterprises in the country (MSPI,
GOI, 2006). Thus, the relevance of entrepreneurship in West Bengal is immense. The existing
literature on entrepreneurship reveals that one of the major factors hindering the growth of
the entrepreneurship is the personal traits of the entrepreneurs. So there is a dearth need to
assess the entrepreneurship readiness. This study is an endeavor in this perspective. This is an
empirical study and data has been collected with the help of structured questionnaires entitled
Entrepreneurship Readiness Questionnaire. Appropriate statistical tools and techniques have
been used to draw proper inferences. The results of the study have strong implications for the
entrepreneurs, educational institutes and business development centres. This study also
showed that the youth of the male gender are interested in starting new businesses on
completion of formal education. They possess the acumen for entrepreneurial ventures albeit
the need to brush up other skills and develop the strong psyche. Entrepreneurial intentions are
low in case of the female respondents of this study, and they prefer secure jobs to risky
entrepreneurial ventures. This may be attributed to their social background and beliefs. But this
does not rule out their capacity nor disregard their skills and competencies. The shortcomings
may be eradicated through proper orientation and motivation.

This study also showed that the youth of the male gender are interested in starting new
businesses on completion of formal education. They possess the acumen for entrepreneurial
ventures albeit the need to brush up other skills and develop the strong psyche.
Entrepreneurial intentions are low in case of the female respondents of this study, and they
prefer secure jobs to risky entrepreneurial ventures. This may be attributed to their social
background and beliefs. But this does not rule out their capacity nor disregard their skills and
competencies. The shortcomings may be eradicated through proper orientation and

40. IzaiasMartins(2016)

Research findings suggest that networks provide small- and mediumsized enterprises (SMEs)
opportunities to achieve sustainable competitive advantages and thus compete successfully in
the marketplace. In this study, the research question explores the effectiveness of the network
usage on the entrepreneurial orientation (EO) development and the moderate role of the EO in
the network-SME growth relationship. The empirical part of the study comprises a survey of
121 manufacturing SMEs in Spain. Structural equation modelling confirmed the importance of
both organisational networks and EO on SMEs growth and pointed out the positive effect of
network usage on EO development.

41. G.Barani, T.Dheepa

During the last two decades, there is an increasing trend of Indian women entering the field of
entrepreneurship. They are also gradually changing the face of business both literally and
figuratively, but still they have not capitalized their potential in India the way it should be. This
paper makes an attempt to analyse the motivational factors that influenced the women
entrepreneurs to undertake business in Erode district of Tamilnadu state. Primary data have
been collected from 150 women entrepreneurs from the list 1 of SHGs and 200 from the list 2
of other women entrepreneurs. The findings indicate that positive attitude and selfconfidence
to work with the other people and to succeed are motivational factors that support top ranking
goals of acquiring power and money through entrepreneurship for women entrepreneurs. It
also indicates that convenient and low cost loans from banks are important pull factors for
women to avail institutional loans and to avoid liquidity constraints. In push factors, the two
groups have different perception on what pulled them to be entrepreneur.

42. Mbassana Elie Marvin, TchanaPentang Carine Flora

There is general agreement that entrepreneurship contributes to economic development and

wealth creation. Attitudes towards the entrepreneur, entrepreneurial activity, and its social
function are determinant factors for university students to decide an entrepreneurial career. As
such, training or participation into entrepreneurial activities will highly influence the desire for
students to become entrepreneurs. This empirical study aimed at determining the readiness of
students at ULK towards entrepreneurship, using a sample of 367 students. Results revealed a
positive attitude towards entrepreneurship, and a willingness to venture into a new business. It
also revealed that gender and family background have no influence on students’ attitude
towards entrepreneurship, while perceived desirability, propensity to act and social desirability
positively have an impact on entrepreneurial intentions of students.

43. Martin Lackeus(2015)

The idea of infusing entrepreneurship into education has spurred much enthusiasm in the last
few decades. A myriad of effects has been stated to result from this, such as economic growth,
job creation and increased societal resilience, but also individual growth, increased school
engagement and improved equality.

This report aims to clarify some basic tenets of entrepreneurship in education, focusing on
what it is, why it is relevant to society, when it is applied or not and how to do it in practice. The
intended audience of this report is practitioners in educational institutions, and the basis of this
clarification attempt consists primarily of existing research in the domains of entrepreneurship,
education, psychology and philosophy. Where research is scarce the author of this report will
attempt to give some guidance based on own conducted research.

44. Kauffman Panel

The report explains why entrepreneurship matters to American higher education and offers
broad recommendations about the potential of entrepreneurship as a key element in
undergraduate education, the major, graduate study, the evaluation of faculty, topics referred
to as the “co-curriculum,” and the management of universities. In reaching its conclusions, the
Panel examined an array of educational models and practices and also discussed the possibility
of a disciplinary canon for entrepreneurship. It concluded—wisely, in our view—that the
diversity of institutional types and educational missions of American colleges and universities
make a single approach to entrepreneurship both unrealistic and inauthentic. Thus, the report
aims to be suggestive rather than prescriptive and supplies illustrations from a variety of
colleges and universities as concrete exemplars of its general points.

45. Catherine L Wang, Mohammed Rafiq, Xiaoqing Li, Yu Zheng(May 2014)

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to advance the conceptualisation of entrepreneurial

preparedness (EP), and study how EP occurs in new venture creation and management.
Design/methodology/approach – The paper primarily draws evidence from an exploratory case
studyof two Chinese high-tech private enterprises operating in the healthcare industry in
Beijing, following a two-stage sampling process: informal, purposive sampling; and formal,
theoretical sampling. Qualitative data collected from multiple semi-structured interviews within
each firm were analysed using a thematic analytical framework. Findings – The paper advances
the conceptualisation of EP as a cumulative, social and purposeful learning process.
Accordingly, the paper highlights the roles of experiential learning, social learning and
entrepreneurial goals (both performance and learning goals) as mechanisms that enable EP in
entrepreneurial management. Research limitations/implications – The findings reveal
idiosyncrasies of EP in a particular context. Future research may investigate different types of
entrepreneurs or entrepreneurial firms. Furthermore, this study uses triangulation of
retrospective interview data with concurrent interview and secondary data. Future research
may pursue concurrent longitudinal case study data to unpack real-time events in
entrepreneurial management. Practical implications – The findings have practical implications
for entrepreneurs and “would-be” entrepreneurs to better understand their learning needs and
how they can prepare themselves for entrepreneurial challenges. Originality/value – EP as an
emerging concept within the entrepreneurial learning (EL) literature requires conceptual and
empirical development. The paper advances the conceptualisation of EP, supported with
empirical evidence. By articulating the cumulative, social and purposeful nature of EP, the
paper contributes to the understanding of the human and social dynamics of EL.

46. Hasliza Abdul Halim, Noor Hazlina Ahmad, T.Ramayah, Haniruzila Md Hanifah(2017)

The paper aims at providing preliminary insights into the under-researched area of
understanding the influence of government, information and training support on their
entrepreneurial readiness. A questionnaire-based survey was distributed to BOP community in
Northern Malaysia and a total of 110 usable responses were received. The analysis was
conducted via SMART PLS and findings suggest that government support influences the BOP
entrepreneurial readiness (attractiveness and learning). Training support provides significant
relationships with all dimensions of entrepreneurial readiness. Surprisingly, information
support does not produce any relationship with entrepreneurial readiness. This study generates
insights for researchers to reach more conclusive evidence about the entrepreneurship among
the BOP community in Malaysia.

47. Norasmah Othman, NorashidahHashim, Hariyaty Ab Wahid(2012)

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to observe the readiness of students and the internal
environment of Malaysian public universities in the implementation of entrepreneurship
education. Design/methodology/approach – The authors employed a quantitative approach
and the main instrument used to gauge the entrepreneurship readiness among students in
Malaysia public universities was the questionnaire. The data were analysed using Statistical
Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software to obtain descriptive statistics that describe the
profile of entrepreneurship readiness, both among the students themselves and in the internal
environment of the universities, as the students perceive it. Findings – According to the
findings, students in Malaysian public universities demonstrate strong readiness, in terms of
entrepreneurial willingness and capabilities. Within the internal environment of public
universities, however, readiness for entrepreneurship education remains, from the students’
perspective, imperfect, and requires improvement if these institutions are to support future
entrepreneurship education. Research limitations/implications – This research is limited to
students in Malaysian public universities. It is suggested that further research should include
the students of private universities also, in order to mine a wealth of information pertinent to
the readiness of Malaysian students, as well as to provide material for the remodelling of the
internal environments of higher learning institutions. Practical implications – Readiness profiles
of students and institutions towards the implementation of entrepreneurship education
provide important resources for policymakers responsible for Malaysian public universities,
enabling them to enhance the implementation of entrepreneurship education. Originality/value
– There has been little discussion or analysis of the readiness of students and the internal
environments of public universities in Malaysia towards the implementation of
entrepreneurship education. This paper attempts to fill this gap in current research.

48. Nia Imani Fields, Manami Brown, AlganeshPiechocinski, Kendra Wells(October


A statewide youth and adult train-the-trainer model that integrates workforce readiness and
entrepreneurship can have a profound effect on young people's academic performance,
interest in college, and overall youth development. Participants in workforce and
entrepreneurship programs develop personal resources that have value in school, in the
workplace, and in the local community (Entwisle,

A Statewide Train-the-Trainer Model for Effective Entrepreneurship and Workforce Readiness

ProgrammingTo increase the collaborative entrepreneurship and workforce readiness efforts in
Maryland, 4-H Youth Development Educators created an interactive youth and adult train-the-
trainer model to implement workforce readiness and entrepreneurship educational programs
in local communities.
The use of a statewide youth and adult train-the-trainer model that integrates workforce
preparation and entrepreneurship is a successful strategy for expanding the use of 4-H
curriculum across the state, developing teams of youth and adults who are prepared to use the
curriculum in innovative ways and providing opportunities for youth to practice working with
others while they gain workforce skills and explore opportunities for entrepreneurship.

49. Jacek Jakubczak, Anna Rakowska(2014)

As both entrepreneurship and culture are complex areas of research identifying relations
between culture and entrepreneurial aspirations or activities is not an easy task. The aim of this
paper is to present results of pilot study on how cultural values and entrepreneurship
education affect entrepreneurship intensions and activities of management students. Article
presents issues connected with measuring cultural values on individual level. Hofstede VSM
2013 (Values Survey Module 2013) model used for collecting data in study is presented, as well
as CVSCALE that is used for measuring culture on individual level. Six dimensions of culture
building Hofstede model are explained from the perspective of entrepreneurship. Basic
concepts of entrepreneurial education, entrepreneurial aspiration and activities are explained.
Article presents findings on influence that entrepreneurial education, power distance,
individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, long term orientation, indulgence and
restrain has on management students entrepreneurial intensions and activities. Questionnaire
used for pilot study is three part questionnaire based in first part on Hofstede Values Survey
Module 2013 and CVSCALE measuring cultural values, in second part on Global
Entrepreneurship Monitor Adult Population Survey measuring entrepreneurial aspirations and
activities, and a third part is focused on entrepreneurship education. Questionnaire was
conducted on management students.

50. Álvaro Cuervo Domingo Ribeiro Salvador Roig

The entrepreneurial function implies the discovery, assessment and exploitation of

opportunities, in other words, new products, services or production processes; new strategies
and organizational forms and new markets for products and inputs that did not previously exist.
Entrepreneurial opportunities exist because different agents have differing ideas on the relative
value of resources or when resources are turned from inputs into outputs. The theory of the
entrepreneur focuses on the heterogeneity of beliefs about the value of resources. Due to the
fact that there is no market for “opportunities” where the entrepreneur could sell the
opportunity to others who will develop it, the entrepreneur must exploit them, meaning that
he or she must develop his or her capabilities to obtain resources, as well as organize and
exploit opportunities. The downside to the market of “ideas” or “opportunities” lies in the
difficulty involved in protecting ownership rights of ideas that are not associated with patents
or copyrights. There is no legal protection of the different expectations held by entrepreneurs
and investors on the economic value of ideas and business opportunities, and of the
entrepreneur’s need to withhold information that may affect the value of the project.
Cross tabulation
26 TO 30 0 0 1 1 0 2
31 TO 35 0 2 0 1 1 4
41 TO 50 0 0 0 1 0 1
51 TO 55 0 0 1 0 0 1
Total 6 7 9 7 17 46
26 TO 30 0 0 0 3 0 3
31 TO 35 0 0 0 0 1 1
36 TO 40 0 3 0 0 0 3
Total 1 7 10 6 3 27
12TH PASS AGE GROUP TO BELONG 18 TO 25 2 5 1 6 14
26 TO 30 3 0 0 0 3
31 TO 35 3 0 0 0 3
41 TO 50 0 0 0 1 1
Total 8 5 1 7 21
Total 1 1
DEGREE Total 1 1
Total AGE GROUP TO BELONG 18 TO 25 7 11 22 10 24 74
26 TO 30 0 3 1 4 0 8
31 TO 35 0 5 0 1 2 8
36 TO 40 0 3 0 0 0 3
41 TO 50 0 0 0 1 1 2
51 TO 55 0 0 1 0 0 1
Total 7 22 24 16 27 96
Sum of Mean
Squares df Square F Sig.
HOW DO YOU KNOW Between Groups 22.840 5 4.568 1.205 .313
ABOUT ONLINE SHOPPING Within Groups 352.514 93 3.790
Total 375.354 98
SPENDING ON ONLINE Between Groups 16.638 5 3.328 .955 .449
SHOPPING Within Groups 327.362 94 3.483
Total 344.000 99
PAYMENT METHOD Between Groups 4.709 5 .942 1.458 .211
Within Groups 60.731 94 .646
Total 65.440 99
AGE GROUP TO BELONG Pearson Correlation 1 .037 .128 .a
Sig. (2-tailed) .715 .204 .000
N 100 100 100 8
HIGHEST EDUCATION Pearson Correlation .037 1 .257** -.333
LEVEL Sig. (2-tailed) .715 .010 .420
N 100 100 100 8
PAYMENT METHOD Pearson Correlation .128 .257** 1 .a
Sig. (2-tailed) .204 .010 .000
N 100 100 100 8
Q14A Pearson Correlation .a -.333 .a 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .420 .000
N 8 8 8 8
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
a. Cannot be computed because at least one of the variables is constant.

Automatic Linear Modeling

Case Processing Summary

N Percent
Included 100 71.9%
Excluded 39 28.1%
Total 139 100.0%

null : null
Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
SETTLED IN SURAT 96 1 5 3.35 1.306
AGE GROUP TO BELONG 100 1 6 1.47 1.020
ONLINE CONSUMER 100 1 1 1.00 .000
WHAT DO YOU PREFER 92 1 2 1.57 .498
IF YOU ARE AN ONLINE 100 1 2 1.36 .482
HOW MUCH WOULD YOU 100 1 5 3.21 1.157
COMPARE WEBSITE 100 1 3 1.86 .853
HIGHEST EDUCATION 100 1 5 1.78 .894
HOW LONG HAVE YOU 100 1 5 2.14 1.231
WHAT MAKE YOU SHOP 96 1 7 3.16 1.761
FAVORITE CATEGORY 100 1 9 4.45 3.167
HOW DO YOU KNOW 99 1 7 3.19 1.957
SPENDING ON ONLINE 100 1 10 3.40 1.864
PAYMENT METHOD 100 1 4 1.84 .813
Valid N (listwise) 86


H0:There is no significant difference between score for factor influencing buying

based on zone
H0:There is no significant difference between score for factor influencing buying
based on gender.
Significant level: 95 %

N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean

SETTLED IN SURAT 96 3.35 1.306 .133
AGE GROUP TO BELONG 100 1.47 1.020 .102
ONLINE CONSUMER 100 1.00 .000a .000
WHAT DO YOU PREFER 92 1.57 .498 .052
IF YOU ARE AN ONLINE 100 1.36 .482 .048
HOW MUCH WOULD YOU 100 3.21 1.157 .116
COMPARE WEBSITE 100 1.86 .853 .085
HIGHEST EDUCATION 100 1.78 .894 .089
HOW LONG HAVE YOU 100 2.14 1.231 .123
WHAT MAKE YOU SHOP 96 3.16 1.761 .180
FAVORITE CATEGORY 100 4.45 3.167 .317
HOW DO YOU KNOW 99 3.19 1.957 .197
SPENDING ON ONLINE 100 3.40 1.864 .186
PAYMENT METHOD 100 1.84 .813 .081
a. t cannot be computed because the standard deviation is 0.

One-Sample Test
Test Value = 0
95% Confidence Interval of the
Sig. (2- Mean Difference
T df tailed) Difference Lower Upper
SETTLED IN SURAT 25.170 95 .000 3.354 3.09 3.62
AGE GROUP TO BELONG 14.418 99 .000 1.470 1.27 1.67
WHAT DO YOU PREFER 30.120 91 .000 1.565 1.46 1.67
IF YOU ARE AN ONLINE 28.191 99 .000 1.360 1.26 1.46
HOW MUCH WOULD YOU 27.737 99 .000 3.210 2.98 3.44
COMPARE WEBSITE 21.804 99 .000 1.860 1.69 2.03
HIGHEST EDUCATION 19.906 99 .000 1.780 1.60 1.96
HOW LONG HAVE YOU 17.383 99 .000 2.140 1.90 2.38
WHAT MAKE YOU SHOP 17.559 95 .000 3.156 2.80 3.51
FAVORITE CATEGORY 14.053 99 .000 4.450 3.82 5.08
HOW DO YOU KNOW 16.228 98 .000 3.192 2.80 3.58
SPENDING ON ONLINE 18.240 99 .000 3.400 3.03 3.77
PAYMENT METHOD 22.632 99 .000 1.840 1.68 2.00
Based on independent t test study try to understand the difference between buying habit of
surat people for given factors. It reveals that the factor like C, H, K, P and Q probability value is
less than 0.05 i.e. study fails to accept null hypothesis and for remaining all factor’s probability
value is more than 0.05 i.e. study fail to reject null hypothesis.

The area undertaken in research is constraint to Surat city only. The sample for the study taken
is of only 101 respondents. The sample is small for the generalization of findings. This kind of
study can be carried out for large sample by considering product or service specific online
shopping behavior. The further future study can be carried out by considering other important
factors affecting online shopping intention.

There are no sources in the current document.

Online shopping is the new mantra of selling products effectively and efficiently but the criteria
must be met. Schneider must change its selling models by adding online selling for increasing
their market share and contributing to environment. Shopping centers have edge on experience
and customers services but online shopping has edge in range of products, convenience and

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