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By Aravind Ashok

03-01-2011
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SEISMIC AND WIND LOADS
The loads acting on a structure are mainly the vertical and lateral loads. The vertical load mainly consist of
dead load and the imposed loads and the behaviour of the structure when subjected to various vertical loads is
the same. The lateral load mainly consist of seismic forces, wind load, mooring load, tsunami etc., amongst
which the seismic force and the wind force are the common ones. The application of these forces and the
behaviour of the structure when subjected to these forces varies.

In this document, the author is intend to present how the action of these forces and the performance of the
structure varies.

SL. NO. SEISMIC LOAD WIND LOAD

Seismic force depends on mass of the structure and the


1 destribution of mass. The load acts at the centre of Wind force depends on the exposed area of the structure
mass of the structure.

The seismic force will be distributed along interior and The wind force will act mainly on exterior (i.e., exposed)
2 exterior frames and columns in a structure. i.e., acts at frames and it may reduce to interior frames based on the
location of masses type of structure(Shielding effect)

A structure having lesser mass will perform good


A structure having higher mass will resist the wind load
during seismic events since it attracts lesser load and
3 effectively and the structure having lesser surface area
the exposed area has got no influence on the
will perform better since it attracts lesser wind force.
performance during seismic events.

The stiffness of the structure influences the seismic The stiffness of the structure has no influence on the
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force developed wind force developed
The base shear value is more at bottom and it decreases
The wind force increases as height increases if the
5 as height increases due to reduction in cumulative
exposed area remains same
weight
STOREY Qr Qr
NO.
Wr Q9
Q9
10 Q8
Wf Q8
9 Q7
Wf Q7
8 Q6
Wf Q6
Q5
7 Q5
Wf
Q4
6 Q4
Wf
Q3
5 Q3
Wf
Q2
4 Q2
Wf Q1
3 Q1
Wf
2
Wf
1
DISTRIBUTION
Wf DISTRIBUTION DISTRIBUTION FRAME OF FORCE
OF OF
FRAME FORCE SHEAR
Fig. 1.a Base Shear distribution Fig. 1.b Wind force distribution

The damping will be considered in the calculation of The damping will not be considered in the calculation of
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seismic forces wind forces in normal conditions (i.e., for static analysis)
The inertia of the structure is the main factor which Inertia has less impact in the generation of wind force
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causes seismic force mü + cù + ku = 0 ku = F(t) (Depending on case mü, cù may be considered

The seismic force is mainly generated at the base of a The wind force is generated at each nodes in the exposed
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structure area
9 When a structure is subjected to seismic load, torsion Wind load doesn't cause torsion in a structure
will develop if the centre of mass and the centre of
stiffness doesn't coincide

Fig.2.a Fig.2.b
The soil type in which the structure stands will also The soil type will not have much effect on performance
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affect its performance during seismic force of structures during wind

The performance of a structure during seismic events


The performance of a structure can be improved when a
can be improved by providing base isolators which will
11 wind acts by improving the shape of the structure by
retard the transfer of seismic load from ground to
providing curved edges so that the wind load will be less.
structure.

The suction effects will not develop during seismic When the wind load acts in a building, negative pressure
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events can act in it due to suction

The deflection of the structure will be to and fro about The deflection will be about the initial static deflected
13 the centre of mass and it causes stress reversal in position and the to and fro motion is less compared to
members seismic force and hence less reversal of stresses

Fig. 3. a Fig.3.b

Behaviour of the struture under Behaviour of the struture under


seismic load wind load

The storey displacement will be large at upper floors The storey displacement at upper floors will be less
14 during seismic events and the displacement will be compared to seismic forces and the displacement is
parabolic linear

The maximum deflection of the structure will be The maximum deflection of the structure will be around
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around 0.4% 0.5%
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DEFLECTION OF BUILDING
UNDER WIND LOAD

Fig.4.a Fig.4.b
The codal provision deals with the seismic load is IS The codal provision deals with wind load is IS 875(Part
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1893-2002 and IS 13920-1993 3)- 1987

Non structural elements inside the building such as


The non structural elements such as glazings, claddings
furnitures, storage racks etc can cause damage when a
18 etc may get damaged when a structure is subjected to
structure is subjected to seismic load since it has mass
wind load
and less stifness

The sesmic force can be artificially generated using a The wind effects can be artificially modelled in wind
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shake table tunnels

The seismic force will depend on the focus of


The wind force will depend on terrain and topography of
20 earthquake and ground conditions through which the
the location
wave travels

The duration of wind load varies from minutes to even


The duration of seismic force varies from a few
21 hours (cyclone) and the warning will be there before it
seconds to minutes and we will not get any warning
hits
The area affected by wind force is comparitively low
22 The area affected by seismic force is large
(Except cyclones)

The prediction of seismic sesmic event is only


23 The formation of storms can be predicted accurately
probablistic
24 Case Studies: Failures due to Seismic Force Case Studies: Failures due to Wind Force

Fig. Failure dute to liquifaction during earthquake Fig. Failure of canopy due to wind in Malasia

Fig. Failure of bridge during earthquake Fig. Failure of roof truss due to wind- Malasia

Fig. Failure of road during earthquake Fig. Failure of Tacoma Narrow bridge due to wind