Course Science) Name Evn) Roll No

: : :

M.Phil. (Environmental Uttam Panda. M.Sc. (Eco & M.Phil/247/ES/2008J

Thesis Submitted to


Table of Contents
Page No CHAPTER NO. 3 1.1 1.2 1.3 CHAPTER NO. 2.1 2.2 CHAPTER NO. 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 CHAPTER NO. 4.1 4.2 4.3 CHAPTER NO. 40 5.1 5.2 CHAPTER NO. 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 CHAPTER NO. 84 7.1 1 Introduction

Introduction. Importance of Wildlife to man. Methods of Wildlife Conservation. 2 Depletion of wildlife Effects of Wildlife Depletion. Reasons for Wildlife Conservation. 3 Wildlife Conservation Wildlife Conservation in India. Wildlife Management. Wildlife Reserves in India. Categories of Indian Wildlife. 4 Endangered Species in India Endangered Species. Protected Wildlife of India. Biosphere Reserve Programmed. 5 Some Indian Sanctuaries 7



& National Parks Indian Sanctuaries and National Park Location of National Parks and Sanctuaries 6 Ecological Measures Ecological Sub regions of India on the basis of Wildlife. Loss of Biodiversity. Protection of Small animals. Guidelines for Tourists to check inflow. 7 Wildlife Research in India Wildlife research in India. 77


3 Wildlife Education and Training.


Introduction. Importance of Wildlife to man. Methods of Wildlife Conservation.


A wild animal is one that lives entirely without the help and care of man . It dose not depend on man either for food , shelter or protection . when we talk about wild animals,we mean wild mammals, for example bears, monkeys, elephants, tiger, lion etc . According to ecologists, both naturally occurring animals (fauna) as well as plants (flora) are included in wildlife . some wild animals are so characteristic that they become symbols of their home countries . Thus tiger and Peacock are associated with India , Kangaroo with Australia, White Beer with Russia, kiwi with Newzeland , Springbok with south Africa and Giant panda with china .

India is unique in havaing immense natural beauty in its different biomes and in possessing a rich and diverse wildlife funna . India wild life is incomparable in its variety . for example , the tiger , the lion and the leopard roam about in the same country . Elephants and the one horned rhinoceros are found here in abundance. India has more types of the graceful deer and cats than any other country in the world . In fact , India includes more than 120 families of terrestrial vertebrates . It has been established that there are more than 400 species of mammals, 1200 species of birds , more than 350 species of reptiles and more than 29,70,000 species of insects in India . The animals like black buck , Nilgiri tahr, pigmy hog , golden langur , lion – tailed macaque etc . are unique wild animals of India . India is gifted whit a wide variety of deers such as musk deer (Kastura), barking deer , spotted deer (cheetal), hog deer , mouse deer , swamp

5 deer (barasingha) , and dancing deer (sambhar).The typical wild indian bird include peafowl ,jungle fowl, quail, great Indian reptiles include crocodiles , lizards, gharials and more than 125 varieties of snakes.

Many wild animals become extinct due to various human and natural activities . For example, over the past 2000 years about 106 spacies of animals and about 140 species of birds have become extinct because of climatic and geographic changes and also by over hunting by man for food , fur and many other reasons . According to ecologists more than 600 species of animals and birds are expected to be extinct, if not protected by wildlife managemen

Wild animals as well as plants have evolved like man over millions of year s. Together they from the complex web of life on the planet Earth . wildlife has a great importance to man . For example:a) Culturel Importance:knowledge of animals is a part of our culture .

wildelife play s an important as well as vital role in unraveling many mysteries of nature , especially forests and its environment.


Economic Importentance: -

There are four important ways in which

wildlife can be utilized for economic gains. These are:-

i) Food -

Indian tribal population mainly makes use of game animals and

birds and also fishes as the main source of their protein food.

ii) Shooting and Fishing -

6 These are useful source of income to the

people because of the money realized from the sale of shooter licenses and an import of sporting arms.

iii) Collection of Animals - Live or dead for zoological gardens and museums of the world, the wild animals is a profitable business. Industries supported by animals products lick skin, horn, fur, hide etc are valuable economic assets.


Wildlife Sanctuary Tourism - It can become a major source of foreign exchange. Internal tourism can also become an equally strong factor for improving economic activities in various states.


Maintenance of Nature’s Balance - Wildlife is the soul of man and it renders him a healthy environment. This is due to his valued activities as they maintain nature’s balance very effectively and that too at no cost. For example, the predatory animals control over population of species on which they live. If such species are allowed to grow unchecked, they are expected to affect the interest of man adversely. Similarly, when a species is wiped out, it can never be created and with its extinction the nature’s balance would be disturbed. The consequences of this are felt by man and animals alike.


This depends on the source of danger to the threatened species. In many cases, wildlife can be helped by ensuring that their environment is favorable with regards to availability of food , water and shelter . This method is called Habitat Management . It involves such action as soil conservation, good forestry practices and wildlife management

Several species have been threatened with extinction due to destruction of habitat by human activities like deforestation for farming, pollution of air , water ,land plants and animals etc . people must set aside separate areas like sanctuaries, wildlife reserves, parks etc . In which wildlife can survive. Hunting is another major cause for the dwindle in the wildlife and this can be prevented by enforcement of strict laws that forbid or regulate such killings.

Excessive increase in the number of one species in a given area threatens not only its own endurance but also that of the other species by consuming major portion of the available food. Such numbers must be reduced by controlled hunting or by restoring its natural enemies where they have become scarce.

Sometimes species find its extremely difficult to survive in their own once favorable environment. Such species can be protected by breeding in captivity and releasing in a protected area that satisfies the conditions favorable for survival.

8 A species threatened with disease can be protected by sanitation measures in a habitat. The success of wildlife conservation depends on the knowledge of the ECOLOGE of the species which involves an understanding of the way of life of the species and its relationship with its biotic and biotic environment.



Depletion of wildlife
Effects of Wildlife Depletion. Reasons for Wildlife Conservation


10 The various important reasons for the depletion of wildlife are:-


Absence of cover or shelter to wildlife animals. Man is disturbing the forest vegetation, tall grasses, uneven grounds and margins of rivers etc for his own gains. These are used as cover or shelters by wild animals. Reduction or absence of cover or shelter is an important factor which causes wildlife depletion.


Deforestation for cultivation , construction of dams, power stations, highways, railways, opencast coal , iron and limestone mines and similar projects, and urbanization reduce area for free movement of wild animals which decreases or even retards reproductive capabilities of weak animals like deer, tiger ,bison, rhino, etc . For building new cities and towns, for building roads and railways in order to improve our transport system, for building dams for irrigation and other purposes and for use as cultivated lands etc , man is cutting down forests. This reduces freedom of movement of wild animals to a very large extent. Animals like tiger, deer rhinoceros etc., are not able to maintain their population when confined to relatively small areas. This is one of the reasons as to why the wild animals in the zoos rarely reproduce. The cutting down of forest also disturbs the balance of nature and it results in the creation of deserts and floods, thereby causing total of threatened extinction of many wild animals.


11 The wild animals are deprived of their most palatable food by the destruction of wild plants of forests for timber, charcoal and firewood etc. This action affects the survival of wild animals. Food is one of the important factor which controls distribution and number of wild animals. Man has cut and destroyed many wild plants which form the main food of wild animals in order to get more timber, charcoal and fire wood. This also results in causing total or threatened extinction. Uncontrolled grazing by domestic animals in the forests which are meant for wild animals also helps in depriving the wild animal of the food.


Noise pollution caused by different automobiles such as trucks, buses, rails, cars, etc and by aero plans affects adversely the wild animals.


Polluted river water also affects wild animals miserably. The river and streams that run through the forests contain untreated effluents of industries and other pollutants created by various activities of man. This water may act as disease causing or killing agent for wildlife resulting in their total or threatened extinction.


Various natural calamities such as floods, droughts, fires, epidemics etc. Are also responsible for the depletion of wildlife.


12 Hunting method of all kinds for food, fur, recreation, hide, musk, horn or any other reason have caused destruction of wildlife. This is generally known as commercial exploitation of forests and of wildlife, particularly or rare species for commercial purposes. Thus a good tiger skin is worth more than 5 thousand rupees. The horns of rhinoceros carry a high fancy price. The skin of big cats also fetches a good price. This high market value has led to unlimited slaughter of wild animals. Poaching means illegal killing of wild animals which is punishable by law. Poaching is also the main cause of depletion of wildlife.

By killing even a single wild animal we disturb the whole ecological balance of the nature. For example, man cuts forests and grasslands for himself, but these destroy the natural habits of various animals and also the food of herbivores. As a result, the herbivores die of starvation, while carnivores die because of destruction of their shelter. As the herbivore population dwindles, the predator species suffer. Thus in the absence of their natural prey, tiger, lions (predators) turn to cattle and later come in open war with man. This leads to disaster.

Wildlife is a renewable resource like soil, water and forests, because it can be used time and again without being destroyed and there is a great need of conservation of these renewable resources. Wildlife needs to be protected as an

13 essential part of environment. It is also important to conserve animals and birds for their valuable gifts.

The various important reasons for wildlife conservation are – 1. The wildlife is helpful in maintaining the balance of nature, which is most essential, because it May lead to a series of problems if it is disturbed by any means. The destruction of carnivores or insectivores causes the herbivores to increase, which in turn affected the forest vegetation or crops. 2. The wildlife has also been used commercially to earn a lot of money in one way or the other.


The wildlife preservation is very helpful in the study of morphology, anatomy, physiology, ecology and biological behavior of wild animals under their natural surroundings.


The best means of sports and recreation are provided by wildlife.


The wild life is the cultural asset of a country like India. It has deep rooted effect on art, sculpture, literature and religion of the counter



Wildlife Conservation in India. Wildlife Management. Wildlife Reserves in India. Categories of Indian Wildlife


15 Conservation of wildlife is an essential part of environment. By conservation, we do not mean merely preservation, but conservation means the utilization of renewable natural resources in such a manner that they are not allowed to destroy but are used later. Wildlife management is an important branch of conservation and consists in assuring the maximum possible populations of games animals consistent with other land uses in the same area and with the number that the given habitat will support. In wildlife management, the balance of nature is manipulated in such a manner that the desired game species are favored. Successful game management depends upon various factors such as—


Understanding of ecological principles.


An appreciation of the conflicts between game species and agricultural uses of land.


Educating the landowner and the hunter regarding the objectives, techniques and limitations of game management.

Wildlife management is very old in India. Vedas contains hymns in praise of animals. Sanatan Dharma have linked some animals with the specific God or Goddess as the best way of conservation of wild life. For example, python has been associated with God Vishnu, snake with God Shiva, swan with Goddess saraswati, Lion with Goddess Durga rendering the animal pious and protected. In

16 Mahabharata, rishis and munis have been indicated to conserve wildlife fauna such as deers and birds around their ashrams. In Arth shastra , chanakya has imposed severa penalties for killing, entrapping birds, fishes and deers etc. In protected areas. Mughal emperors have also exhibited their deep interest in wild life of India during medieval period. They have created hunting reserves, called “Shikar Gaha” for the protection and preservation of game animals. It is however, a matter of great concern that during 10th and 19th centuries, the British rulers and some Indian rulers have caused ruthless destruction of India wildlife for food , recreation, hide, horn, musk etc. And also the deforestations (I . e. the act of destruction of natural abode of game animals ) for the construction of highways, railway, dams, human dwellings and many other similar purposes. As a result of this act more than 200 species of wild animals of India have already been extinct and more than 250 species are at the verge of extinction, if not protected by wild life management.

JOIN HANDS TO PROTECT MOTHER EARTH Wildlife management includes the following fundamental approaches---


Protection by Law -

Laws should be passed to protect the

endangered species and severe punishment should be given to those hunters

17 who indulge in their illegal and senseless killings and the poachers who hunt them out for personal grains. India is probably the first country to intact a wild life protection act. The wild Birds and Animals Protection Act was first enacted in 1887 and repealed in 1912. A new wild life (protection) Act was again enacted in 1972. Under this act, possession , trapping, shooting of wild animals alive or dead, serving their meat for eating houses, their transport and export are all controlled and watched chif wild life warden and other authorized officers. The hunting of females and young ones has completely been prohibited under this act, Moreover , threatened species are completely protected and other have been provided protection according to their state of population size.

The wildlife (protection )Act, 1972 and the provisions of Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) and Export and Import Policy of India are to be enforced through the officers of the Regional Deputy Directors of wild life Preservation locatedat Delhi, Bombay , Calcutta and Madras with the help of state wild life wings and the customs departments .

The wildlife (protection) Amendment Bill, 1991 . has also been enforced W . e. f.2nd October, 1991. The new provisions of the Act regarding setting up of zoo Authority, protection of rare and endangered species of plants and empowering of individuals to file complaints against offenders should be enforced after the required rules have been framed under the Act.

Consumptive Use wildlife ---

Avery strict compliance of laws to protect

wild life and a blanket ban on hunting in the name of saving some rare species

18 from extinction may lead to rise in their population beyond the means of the country’s depleting forests and wild life sanctuaries to provide them with food and their natural habitats.

The new catch word among some environmentalists is sustainable consumptive use of wild life so as to use it as an industry for continuous supply of furs, skins, ivory , bones and even ment .

Commercial Use -

The International Union for Conservation of Nature

(IUCN) to which gose the credit of triggering the decline of wild life , has taken the stand that only the encouragement of commercial use of wild life can guarantee the conservation of plants and animals.

“The key conservation issue today is how much of the Earth’s surface can be allocated to conservation programmes that seek only preservation” . It has been quoted by Dr. Gralime webb, vice Chairman of the IUCN .

Some of the important threatened and protected wild animals are white eyed buck, black buck, swamp deer, elephant, golden cat, musk deer , tahr,

snow leopard, bustard, pink headed duck, water lizard, gharial, mash crocodile, peafowl, python , chir pleasant and monal pheasant etc. All these wild animals, including Albino and Melanic individuals of all species are protected by laws.Project tiger , launched on 1. 4. 1973 is one of the better known projects that had been successfully initiated by Indian government to achieve the following objectives :-


19 To ensure maintenance of viable population of the tigers in India for Scientific, economic, aesthetic, cultural and ecological values.


To preserve for all times, areas of such biological importance as a national heritage for the benefit , education and enjoyment of the people. In order to achieve these objectives, 18 Tiger Reserves

have been established 13 States, covering over 28600Sq. Km. Forest area. These Tiger Reserves are located at Bandipur (Karnataka) , Coebett (UP), Kanha (MP) , Manas (Assam) , Melghat (Maharastra), Palamau (Bihar) , Ranthambhore (Rajasthan), Similipal (Orissa) , Sundarbans(W.Bengal), Pariyar (Kerala), Sariska (Rajasthan), Buxa (W. Bengal) , Indravati (m), Nagarjunsagar (AP), Namdhapa(Arunchal Pradesh), Dudhwa(UP), Kalkad Mundanthurai (Timal Nadu) and Valmiki(Bihar).

Presently there are twenty three tigers in 14 States of the country covering an area of 33,000 Sq .Km. .The list of tiger Reserves is given in the table 1. During 1994-95 an amount of 770 lakhs has been provided as central assistance for development and maintenance of project Tiger area. During 199495 two new Tiger Reserves namely , Panna (MP0 and Dampha (MiZoram) have been established.

A Steering Committee under the chairmanship of the Prime Minister provides guidelines for the management of the tiger Reserves.

20 During 1991-92, 6 crores of rupees have been provided for the maintenance and development of existing 18 Tiger Reserves is being processed. Rs. 50 Lakhs has been Buxa, Sundarban, Nagarjuna Sagar, Bandipur and Kalakad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserves During 1991- 92 .

Tiger are gradually dying because of loss of habitat, diminishing stocks of prey and poaching. About 100,000 tigers lived in the Asian wilderness at the beginning of this century. Only about 5000 or about 5% are believed to remain today. Atleast three species of tiger are already extinct. Tiger population in China, India, Bhutan and Nepal is gradually declining. If conservation efforts are not implemented efficiently, there will be no tiger life in the future . Poaching is on the increase due to the high value of tiger bone which is used in traditional Chinese medicine. Conservation groups around the world have designated 1998 as the year to save the tiger . Recently , the world wideFund for Nature (WWF) announced an emergency fund of US $ 200,000, which will be part of conservation fund for tigers . Sepcific areas in India , Burma, Laos, Combodia, thialand, Malaysia, Indonesia, China and Russia have been identified where efforts will be made to halt poaching, safeguard the tiger and rebuild the base of prey to safeguard tiger survival . It is to be noted that Caspian tiger became extinct in 1970s, Japan tiger in 1980s and Bali tiger in 1940s.

Better known as our national animal, the tiger was estimated to number around 40000 at the turn of the century . Indiscriminate hunting has reduced their numbers to less than 2000 today. After independence, vast forests were covered into agricultural land and this almost proved to be last straw for the Tiger . Project

21 tiger was launched in 1973 to stop the merciless decimation of these majestic cats . For almost two decades the graph of tiger recovery has shown an unward trend , even if the census figures trotted out by National Park magement were more fanciful than real . However , over the past 5 year a rising demand for tigers bones , skins and body parts, primarlly form country . The tiger is the spirit of the jungle . It can not be saved in isolation . Its presence indicates a forest’s health and its absence shown decay . These words hold more true to day than ever before, as the foundations of our forest wealth wither before our own eyes.

The Royal Bengal Tiger is the symbol of conservation efforts in India , Launched in 1973, Project tiger was initiated with much fanfare , but after its initial success things went astray. The tiger population had declined to an alarming low of 1827. In the late 1980s and 1989 . At present the official figure is 3750 . The reason behind this decline is poaching all illegal international trade in tiger bones and teeth . Till a few years back, the main demand was for tiger’s skin . The Environmental Investigation Agency reports that as many as 21.6 million capsules of tiger derivatives could have been imported in 1993 by Japan from China alone . Since tiger population in most other parts of Asia has been reduced to extinction , the Indian tiger become the main source of supply for Chinese medicines .

There has recently been an upsurge of speculation about the future of Indian tiger . The numbers of tigers in Indian reserved increase by 39 between 1998 and 1993 . But this includes tigers in 5 reserves where either earlier data were not available, or which have been declared a reserve between 1989 and

22 1993 . The total population in these reserves is 146 . If these reserves are excluded , the figure for 1993 is 1220 , which is 107 less than 1989, including that the tiger population has reduced even in the reserves. The number of tigers in the reserves of bandipur , Corbrett, Dudhwa, Kanha, Sariska ,Similipal, Namdapha, Buxa, Indravati, Kalakad- Mundantharai, Manas , Melghat, Nagerjun Sagar, Palamau , Periyar , Ranthambhore , Sunderbans and valmiki in 1989 were 50 , 91, 90 , 97, 19, 93, 47, 33, 28, 22, 92, 77 , 94, 55, 45, 269, and 81 respectively . The number of tigers in 1993 in the same reserves were 66, 123, 94, 100, 24, 95, 47, 29, 18, 17, 81, 72, 44, 44, 30, 36, 250, and 49 respectively. The total population of tigers in all the reserves of India in 1989 and 1993 was 1327 and 1366 respectively.

The Indiaan may yet be saved. AHyderbad based Center for Cellular and Molecular Biology has started a project that aims to produce the endangered species through test tube births in collaboration with the city based Nehru Zoological Park.

The Word Wide Fund (WWF) for Nature has decided to support 10 more protected areas in the country in 1998, while entering the second year of its three year tiger conservation programme . Protected area comprising less than 2% of the land mass hold most of the tigers. According to WWF, of the 3750 tigers counted in 1993, 962 were in the protected areas.

75% of project tiger reserves do not have an effective armed strike force for antipoaching .

23 • 63% of project tiger reserves do not have a large vehicle for the mobility of this strike force . • 75% project tiger reserves do not have sufficient legal aid to deal with offences and counter offences . • 69% of project tiger reserves do not have any form of registration of arms in the 10Km redius surrounding the park . • 56% of project tiger reserves do not monitor to daily movement of the tigers.

The Wildlife conservation efforts suffered a major setback following the recent killings of 4 tigers in the Dudhwa Tiger Reserve , Uttar Pradesh . Al,l the tigers are side to have been killed by poisoning in December 1997 , tow tigers diedfrom poisoning in jim Corbett National Park , Uttar Pradesh . Nearly 65 tigers were killed during 1997 . According to environmentalists out of 3750 tigers in 1993 , the population has gone down to 3000 . the case of tiger deaths due to poisoning have increased in recent times . In 1996 , 20 tigers were reported to be killed by poisoning . Apart from poachers , a large number of tiger deaths are associated with the resider in the vicinity of the national park.

The project Elephant was launched during theyear 1991-92. The aim of the project is to ensure long term survival of identified viable

population and to tackle the problematic elephant population that that are causing serious depredation . The project proviedes for restoring the lost and degraded habitals of elephants . It also aims at improving the quality of life of people living around elephant habitals through sustainable development .


The main objectives of Project Elephant are:-


Restoring migratory groups of elephants.


Improving of elephant habitat by suitable plantation .


Creating fence along forest border areas where damage to the crops by the elephants is severe .


Translocation of elephants to suitable and safer habitats .

The endangered Asian elephants have a new friend in USA . A proposal to spend up to US $ 25 million to conserve the Asian elephants could go a long way toward saving them from extinction . Tow decades ago , Asian elephants , also known as Indian elephants numbered more than 75,000 across south and southeast Asia , where they are mostly found . But lost of habitat , capture and other threats have reduced their population to less than 45,000 worldwide .

For saving the endangered species like Asiatic lion , which is struggling for its existence in the Gir forest , the Gir Lion Project, a 5 year plan scheme was prepared in 1972 by the government of Gujarat. Gir Sanctuary ,

25 which was taken under this project now covers an area of 1412 sq. km. In 1974 there were 180 lions while in May 1979 their number increased to 205 .

The Crocodiles Project started in India on 1.4.1975 . Since than 16 crocodiles breeding centers have been developed in 8 states of India from 1975 to 1978 . These states are AP , Bihar, Gujarat , Kerala, Orissa, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and U.P. There are three species of crocodiles in India. There are:


Fresh Water Crocodile.


Salt Water Crocodile, and



All of these have been declared endangered .

The centrally sponsored Conservation of Rhinoceros in Assam was introduced in 1987 and is continued till date .

Under snow Leopard project , a creation of 12 snow leopard reserves are being planned throughout the Himalayas .


Name of Tiger Reserves

State sq. Kms)

Total area(in





Uttar Pradesh



Madhya Pradesh


















West Bengal










West Bengal



Madhya Pradesh


Nagarjun Sagar

Andhra Pradesh



Arunachal Pradesh



Uttar Pradesh


Kalakad Mundanthurai

Tamil Nadu






Madhya Pradesh


Tadoba- Andheri



Bandhavgarh 1162

Madhya Pradesh

28 Panna 542 Madhya Pradesh

Dampha 500


Hangul of Kashmir stag is now limited to Dechigam wildlife sanctuary Kashmir . The Project Hangul was started in 1970. The joint efforts of experts and that of government of jummu and Kashmir have ensured the survival of the hangul. Their number was 347 in March 1980 .

Spurred by the success of” Project Tiger”the Karnataka government has decided to lunch project elephant to save Asian elephants in the state .

Rs. 5.2 Crore project was aimed at protecting over 4.400 elephants covering a distance of 5,070 Km. From the Wet evergreen forests in coorg district to dry thorny scrub forests in Madhya and Banglore districts .

The National Zoological Park , New Delhi presently displays 1143 animals comprising of 70 species of mammals 88 psecies of birds and 5 species of reptiles .


The Padma Naidu Himalayan Park or Zoological Pard in Darjeeling (w. Bengal) houses and breeds a number of endangered and rere species of wild animals and birds .

Nature reserves are usually designated to gove protection to those species of plants or animals which are rare. For example, some sea birds. Wild birds and plant species are protected in Great Britain . The France Islands off the coast of the north umber land in UK are a sanctuary for the grey scales . Small Islands in Sahab, Malaysia Protect frigate birds. Gir forests in Gujarat preserve Gir Lions . Kaziranga sanctuary in Assam gives shelter to one horned rhinoceros .

An assemblage of wild animals is also protected and usually known as assemblage protection . The assemblage protection . The assemblages may have some linked affinity . For example, wild fowl refugeesof USA cater for the nesting or migration of many species of ducks , geese and waders . Delhi zoo and bharatpur Bird sanctuary are the specially managed places in India for the assemladge of migratory birds . High mountain reserves sometimes protect a very diverse suite of alpine plants.


Habital Preservation __

Establishment of sanctuaries and National Park

. In India, Government has set up more than 400 wildlife sanctuaries and more than 70 national parks for the protection and preservation of wildlife . Reserves

30 which are large and diverse enogh to protect whole sets of ecosystem, which are rare on a national or world basis are usually known as National Parks. These preserve flora , fauna, landscapes and historic objects of an area. Sanctuaries prohibited except under orders an authorized preson . The sanctuaries provide protection and optimum living conditions to wild animals. Indian sanctuaries possess unique landscapes, broad level forests , mountain , forests and virgin bush lands in deltas of big river .

The activities to implement National Wildlife Action Plan include------------


Establishment of network of protected area by governments to

cover all major wildlife ecosystems comprising of 416 wildlife sanctuaries and 73 national parks .

2. systems for protected areas .

The development of appropriate management

3. wild life .

Proper orientation of all officers concerned with


The review and updating of provisions protection

of wildlife and regulating all forms of trade in ensure effectiveness.

5. Zoological Parks and Gardens.

31 Support for management of Botanical and


Participation in international conventions designed

to prevent the depleting of wild life resources and to provide protection of migratory species.

7. life and its products.

Control domestic and international trade in wild

Indian Board of Wildlife

has been reconstituted during jJanury 1991, under

chairmanship of the Prime Minister.

The functions of the board are --------


To advise central and state government on means and

ways of promoting conservation and effectively controlling poaching of wildlife through legislative as well as administrative measures .


To advise on the setting up of sanctuaries , national parks

and Zoological gardens .


To advise the Govt. on policy regarding export of living

animals , trophies , skins, furs, feathers and other products of wildlife.

4. of time .

32 To review the progress of wildlife in the country from time


To promote public interest in wildlife and on the need for

its preservation in hharmony with natural and human environment .


To assist and encourage the formation of wildlife societies .


To perform such other functions as are germane to the

purpose for which the Board is constituted.


To do all such other things alone or in conjugation with

others or on the direction of govt of India, which the Board may consider necessary,advisable or conductive to the preservation and conservation of wildlife.

Efforts are also being made by the Forest Ministry to establish State Advisory Boards, so that the states could be actively involved in the Animal welfare Activities as well as the implementation of the prevention of Cruelty to Animals (PCA) Act, 1960. Six states have so far natified the formation of such advisory boards.

Under the provisions PCA Act , 1960, the Animal Welfare Board of India has been set up to perform the following functions -----


To promote the cause of Animal Welfare in India.


33 To encourage he activities of the society for prevention of cruelty to

Animals and other Animal welfare Organizations. 3. To provide functional assistance to the voluntary Animal welfare

Organizations. For animal population and anti rabies programe,rescue homes and shelters, instigatings of animals in natural calamities, purchase of ambulance and medical equipment, veterinary hospitals and purchase of films etc. For carring out the Animal welfare Awareness Programmes.

The Zoological Survey of India (ZSI), established in 1916, carries out faunistic studies. Its head quarter is in Calcutta and has 15 regional / ecogical / field stations located in different parts of the country.

During 1991- 92 ,ZSI conducted 80 surveys of faunal resources covering 65 ditricts falling under different ecosystems of the country . The conducted surveys include Himalayan eco-system , Desert eco-system, Tropical rainforest , Ecosystem, wetlands, National Parks and Biosphere reserves etc . Faunistic studies conducted by ZSI include fauna of Meghalaya, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh ,Madhya Pradesh, TamilNadu,Himalayan eco-system, wetlands, Marine eco-system and Biosphere reserves and National Parks. National Zoological collections were also enriched during 1991-92 by the addition of 56,243 identified specimen belongiging to 14 new species . Awild life week was celebrated in the auditorium of ZSI< Calcutta on 3-10-91.


Financial assistance was provided to 28 National Parks and 123 sanctuaries during 1991-92 for conservation programmes.


There are five important types of wildlife in India. There are:-


Endangered – Those wildlife species whose number has been reducedto

a critical level or whose habitats are fully destroyed and are on the verge of extinction . (b) Vulnerable - Those species which are expected to move in the

endangered category in the coming future. (c) (d) Rare – The species which are at great risk. Theratend – Species which are one of the above categories, i.e.,

endangered, vulnerable and rare. (e) Out of Danger – The species to whom the threat of survival has been



CHAPTER – 4 Endangered Species in India Endangered Species. Protected Wildlife of India. Biosphere Reserve Programmed.


There are various factors due to which fauna or animals of a specified region may be danger . These factors include,


Direct exploition by man.


Threat from other species.


Changes of being bounded or physical injury.


Pressure on highly specified habital ., native environment etc.





Asian Lions

Gir (Gujarat)

Asiatic buffalo

North India

Asiatic leopard


Dear andNepal

Meghalaya, Kashmir

Elephant India

Assam, Ceylon and South


Island of Indian Oceans


Grizzly bear

Western USA

Kiwi Bird

New Zealand

Lion-tailed Monkey Wild Donkeys

Keral Kutch(Gurajat)

Any of the above factors either singly or in combination may create the chances for certain species to become extinct or even to exist no longer . Such a species is called endangered species.These species are also in grave danger of extinction because of poaching or hunting illegally. First, they are expected to be exposed when the destruction of the forests removes their cover of shelter . They then fall easy prey to the poachers who want them for their horns, skins and tunks.

Table 2 shows some endangered species together with their location.

Few threatened and endangered animals in India are given below.


Mammals- Brow antlered deer, Fishing cat, Ganges river dolphin, Great Indian rhinoceros, Hispid hare, Oriental small clawed otter, Smooth coated otter, Swamp deer, Wild Asiatic water Buffalo, Indian pangolin, Desert cat , Jungle cat, Leopard cat , Red fox , Wild dog,

39 Himalayan brown beer, Red panda, Striped hyaeha, Indian bison, Wild yak , Assam rabbit, Flying squirrel and Tahrs .



Bengal florican, Black breasted parrot bill, Black necked

crane, Black necked stork, Finn’s baya weaver , Himalayan fishing eagle, Marsh babbler, Masked finfoot , Pink headed duck, Swamp partridge, White bellied heron, Wood snipe, Grey headed fishing eagle, Jerdon’s babbler, Spot-billed pelican, White bellied sea-eagle and white winged wood duck.


Reptiles -

Ghariyal, Green turtle, Olive, River Terrapin, Cane

turtle, Leather back turtle, Red crowned roofed turtle, Assam roofed turtle, Black mocrohylid and Marsh crocodile.


Amphibia -

The viviparous toad and Indian salamander.


Invertebrate Arthropods- Large hermit crab, months, beetles and

some butterflies, 55 forms of months and butterflies are known in India . Out of these 14 come under the category of threatened and endangered species and are rare.

The following mammals, birds and reptiles have been conserved in the National Parks and Sanctuaries and are declared to be protected.

40 Mammals- 4 species of Antelope: Black buck (Indian antelope), Chousinga (Four horned antelope), Nilgai (Blue Bull),Boselaphus tragocamelus, Gazelle(Chinkara) wild ass, wild bear, Sloth bear, Paboons, Bharal, wild buffalo (Bulbalus bubalis) Boar,Badger, Binturong, Bison (Gaur, Mithum, Bos gaurus), Civet.Jungle cat, Marbled cat, Golden cat, Desert cat and Rusty spotted cat, Caracal, Gangetic dolphin, Dugong, wild dog. Indian elephant (Elephusmaximus), clouded leopard (Neofelis bebulosa), Snow leopard (P .Uncia) , Leopard cat (Felis bengalensis), Capped langer, golden langer, Hanuman langer, Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica), Slow loris, leaf monkey, macaque, Muntjac, Otter, Pangolion, Wild pig, Rhinoceros, Ratel. Nine species of deer: Musk deer (Kastura Moschus maschiferus ). Hog deer (Hog hiran), Barking deer (Kotra, Rib faceddeer), Swamp deer (Barasinga, Cervus duvuaceli branderi). Dancing deer (Sambhar), Brow antlered deer (Cervus eldi eldi or Sangai), Kashmir stag (hangul cervus elephus hanglu ). Spotted deer (Cheetal, Axis axis), Serow, Flying squirrel, Tiger, ther,Takin, Wold, Yak.


Babblers, Bulbul, Barbet, Great Indian bustard, Cheer, Cormorant,

Crane, Darter, Bengal florican, Egrets, Golden eagle. Crested serpent eagle, Geese, Hoppie, Heron , King fisher, Golden oriole, Magpie, Phaesants, Peacock, Patridges, Pelicans, Quail. Snowcock, Sarus, Sand piper, Spoonbill, Strok, Tragopan, Treepie, Wood pecker.

Reptiles- Marsh crocodile (Fresh water crocodile, Muggar, Crocodilus palustris), Esturarine crocodile (Salt Water Crocodile, Crocodilus porosus), Gharial

41 (Gavialisgangeticus), Monitor, Cobra, Python, Fiddler crab,Ridley sea turtle, Green sea turtle, Leather backed turtle, Indian soft shelled turtle.


The Biosphere reserve Network Programme was launched by UNSCO in 1971 under its Man and Biosphere Progeramme (MBP). The main objective of the programme are:-


To conserve representative samples of ecosystem.


To provide long term in situ conservation of genetic diversity of both plants and animals.


To promote and facilitate basic and applied research and monitoring.


To provide opportunity for education and training.


To promote appropriate sustainable managements of the living sources.



42 disseminate






sustainable development elsewhere, and


To promote international co-operation.

The essentional characteristics of a protected area to be regarded as a biosphere reserve are:-


The area is not hiched to any one or two or more species, but to the whole ecosystem. In India 12 such biographic regions have been recognized . These are:-


Himalayan High lands.


Thar Desert.


Malabar Rain forest.


Deccan Thom Forest.


Bengalian Rain forest.


Burman Monsoon forest


Laccadive Islands.


43 Maldive and Chagos Islands.


Andaman and Nicober Islands.


Commandal mahanandia


A biosphere reserve is over 5670 sq. km . In area in order to maintion natural populations in numbers which in future will not lead to genetic drift.


A biosphere reserve consiste of a core area and a buffer zone . The

core is strictly protected to maintion its ecological integrity and adversity. In buffer zone there is biotic interference.

In India, the first biosphere reserve established in 1986 was the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve , having an area of 5670 sq . Km . And covering the states of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Kerala. The second Biosphere Reserve was Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve was Nanda davi Biosphere Reserve of U.P. ,Which covered an area of 2000 sq. Km. The third reserve was the Nokrek of Meghalaya and the fourth was set up in 1989 as Great Nicober. Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve comprises rain forest area , including the famous Silent Valley and the western Ggats in Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. This area also includes the Bandipur and the Nagarhole National Parks. About20 different tribal groups live in these forests. The area is very rich in biodiversity and consists of almost all important groups of terrestrial and fresh water animals.


Some other representative ecosystems to be protected as biosphere reserves are:-

a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i)

Gulf of Mannar (Tamil Nadu) Namdapha (Arunchal Pradesh) Uttarkhand(Valley of flower, U.P) Kanha (M.P.) Manas (Assam) Kaziranga (Assam) Sunderbans (West Bengal) Little Rann of Kutch (Gujarat) Thar Deseri(Rajasthan)


Some Indian Sanctuaries & National Parks Indian Sanctuaries and National Park Location of National Parks and






Kazoranga Wildlife Sanctury-

This sanctuary was established in

1926 in sibsagar district of Assam on the South Bank of Brahmputer river . It consists of about 430 sq. Kms. Of forests, grassland and swamps . It supports a fauna of 700 rhinoceros, in addition to a large number of other wild animals such as elephant, biston, tiger , deer, wild boar and a variety of birds such as pelican , stork and ring tailed fishing eagles.


Manas Wildlife Sanctury-

It is located in Kamrupa district of Assam . It is

situated at an altude of 80 metres and an area of 540 sq . Kms. River Manas passes through it . It contains wild animals such as tiger, wild dog, panther, wild boar, rhinoceros, sambhar and swamp deer, golden langur etc.


Jaldapara Wildlife Sanctuary-

This sanctuary is situated in Jaldapara ,

district of West Bengal and contains 65 Kms. Stretch of grassland. It contains

47 wild life animals like rhinoceros, elephant, tiger, deer, leopard, gaur and a large number of retiles and birds.


Mundanthuari Sanctury-

It was established in 1962 in Tiruneveli

district of Tamil Nadu. It has an area of about 525 sq .Kms. It is provided with evergreen forests and Tamaraparani river flows through it. It includes wild animals like tiger, sambhar, panther and chital.


Ranganthitoo Bird Sanctury-

This sanctuary covers about 165 sq.

Kms. And includes a series of of islands in cauvery river 15 kms. Off the banglore –Mysore Road near Srirangapattnam. It contains open billstock, egret, spoon bill, wild duck, night heron, plefowl etc.


Bandipur Wildlife Sanctuary-

It was established in 1941. It is situated 80

Kms. South of mysore city enroute to Octacamud. It has an area of more than 870sq. Kms.And is located at a altitude of 1454 metres. It has thick forests.Its wild life fauna includes gaur, elephant , leopard, wild dog, panther, barking deer, chital, langur etc.


Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary-

It has an area of 780 sq. Kms. And is

situated in south Goa. It has evergreen forests and contains wild animals like gaur, leopard, porcupine, panther, sambhar, chital, hog-deer, wildboar, barking deer etc. And birds like lorikeet, woodpecker, bulbul, egret, jungle fowl etc.



Periyar Wild life Sanctuary-

It has an area 780 sq. Kms. It was

established in 1940 in Kerala state around the artificial lake which arose behind the dam built across the periyar river in 1900 . Its wild life fauna includes elephants, gaur, leopard, sambhar, barking deer, wilddogs, black Nilgiri langur, wild boar and a variety of water birds.


Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary-

It was established in North Western

Part of Nilgiris in Tamil Nadu in 1940. It has green thick forests and diversity of wild life fauna that includes elephant, gaur, sambhar, chital, mouse deer, barking deer , tiger , panther, monkey, langur, wild dog, jackal, wild cat, porcupine, flying lizard, flying squirrel, rats, snakes and a variety of birds.

In 2000

B.C. there was plenty of energy in the universe , but no

technology to tap it,and man used little energy. • In 2000 A.D. there wild be state of the art technologies to tap our conventional sources of energy, but will the barren sources force us to lead a primitive life , thus completing the cycle of evolution? • No we will never let that happen . If only we learn to use what this bountiful nature has to offer, the perennial and inexhaustible source of energy , that is in SUN . • It will there------ So let us dedicate to the task of developing viable and reliable technologies for harnessing renewable sources of energy .

10. Kolameru Birds Sanctuary-

49 It is situated near Tadepallegudam in Andhra

Pradesh. It is a small sanctuary and breeding place for pelicans and many marine birds visit this place .

11. Guindy Deer Park - It is situated near Madras and mainly has chitals and black bucks and few albinos of black buck .

12. Sesan Gir -

It it famous for Asiatic lion and situated in Gujarat state ,

about 470 kms . From Ahmedabad . Its area is about 1290 sq . kms. It fauna includes Asisatic lion , spotted deer , blue bull (Nilgai) four horned antelope , chinkara , wild bear , porcupine , langur , python , crocodiles , and a variety of birds such as green pigeon , partridge , rock- grouse etc .

13. Sariska -

It is situated near Alwar in Rajasthan and one of the most

beautiful wildlife sanctuaries . Its area is about 800 sq. km. It has dense Dohokra and Solar forests . It fauna includes tiger , leopard , jungle cat, four horned antelope , spotted deer , langur , pea foul and porcupine etc .

14. Chilka Lake - This is the largest inland lake with an area of about 1000 sq. km. It is situated at about 100 kms. From Bhubaneshwar in Orissa . It typical fauna includes water fowls , ducks , cranes , golden plovers, stone curlews , and pipers etc .

15. Bharatpur Birds Sanctuary-

50 It is located at bharatpur in Rejasthan . It

has an area of 29 sq. kms. And harbour all kinds of indigenous nesting water birds , water side birds and migratory birds . It supports more than 325 Varieties of birds , including cormorants , Spoon bills , white etc . This sanctuary is also visited by many migratory birds like ducks , geese , Siberian cranes etc. Drier parts of this sanctuary have wild animals such as spotted deer , black buck , sambhar , blue bull and baboon .

16. Dachigam wildlife sanctuary -

It was established in 1951 in Kasmir, 26

kms away from Srinagar . It area about 90 sq kms . It mainly preserves hangul or kasmir stag , but also have animals like muck , deer , leopard , black bear , bown bear and baboon .

17. Bhagwan Mahadeva Wildlife Sanctuary -

It is lockted in North goa . Its

area is 240 sq . kms. It supports fauna almost similar to Cotigo world life sanctuary .

18. Sultanpur Lake Birds Sanctury -

Its area about 2 sq. kms. It is lockted at

Gurgaon district of Haryana . Its fauna includes crane , sarus , spot bill , drake and rudyshet etc.

19. Birds Motibagh Sanctuary It is located at patiala in Punjab . Its fauna includes black buck , blue bull , hog deer , hare , Jackal, and a variety of birds such as dove ,

51 pigeon , parakeet , myna , peafowl , partridge , sparrow etc .


Shivpuri Sanctuary -

It is an asylum for tiger and is situated in Madhya

Pradesh .


Corbett National Pard -

It was an asylum for tigers and situated in

Madhya Pradesh.

22. Corbett National Park famous Indian

It was constituted in 1935 . It is one of most

National Park . It is situated between National and Garhwal

Districts of U.P. Its area is about 525 sq kms . And is located within west to south bend Ramganga river .

23. Palamau National Park - It has an area of about 345 sq. kms. And is located in Dalton gunj district of Bihar . It contains thick tropical forests and supports wild life animals like tiger , panther , sloth beer, chital , nilgai , chinkara , mouse deer , gaur etc .

24. Hazaribagh National Park - It was also established in bihar in 1954 . Its area is more than 180 sq. kms. It contains thick thick tropical forests . It includes wild animals like wild board , sambhar , nilgai , leopard , hyena , gaur , tiger , and sloth bear etc .


25. Simplipal National Park - It has an area of 2750 sq. km. And located in Mayurbhang district of Orissa . It contains dense forests . Its typical fauna includes elephant , deer , chital , sambher , panther , hyena , pea fowl , sloth bear , gaur etc .

26. Ranthambhor National Park -

This National Park is situated in

Swaimadhopur district of Rajasthan . It has an area of 392 sq . kms . This park shelters Tiger , Panther , Jungle cat , Civet , Sambar , Hyena , Chital , Nilgiri , Chinkara , Crocodile , Red squr fowl, caracal , Serpent eagle etc .This park is the smallest of all the Project Tiger Reserves .

27. Tadoba National Park -

This park is located in Chandpur district of

Mhaharashtra . it has an area of 116 sq. km. It consists of Tiger , Samber , Sloth bear, Chital , Biston , Deer, Blue bull, Four borned antelope , Peacocks and Langoors. The lake present in the park also contains some crocodiles.


Paint Calimer Sanctuary -- This sanctuary is situated in Thanjavur district

of madras (Tamil Nadu).It covers an area of 12 sq . kms. It protects the shoreline and hinter land of saline langoon . It shelters black buck , chital , Bonnet money. Mongoose and jackals etc.


53 Nagarjunsagar Wildlife Sanctury - It is located in Mahbubangar in Andhra

Pradesh .It has an area of about 1200 sq. kms. This wildlife includes Tiger , Leopard, Sloth bear, Stripped hyena, Barking deer, Chinkara Chital, Sambar, Langur, Macque and Indian Pangolin etc. This sanctuary also has a dam across the River Krishna. It is the largest of all Project tiger Reserves in India.


Kanha National Park --

This National Park was established in 1955 in

manda district of Madhya Pradesh . It is about 175 Km. From Jabalpur . It has an area of about 940 sq. km. It includes Tiger, Panther , Hyena, Chital , Samber , Blck Buck, Wild boar , Gaur and a Variety of birds and Pythones . This Park has been chosen for Project Tiger .

In addition to protection of wildlife by law and also by establishing the national parks and sanctuaries, a number of other steps may also be taken to preserve wildlife . Improtant steps are ---


Wildlife management staff should be capable of having coorret and accurate idea about the wild animals should be carefully protected .


National habital wild animals should be carefully protected.


Habitals of wildlife should be improved by constructing water holes, salt lick, and by plantation of better and nourishing fodder grasses and trees.


54 Shooting and hunting of enlarged species should be strictly prohibited.


Veterinary efforts should be made in order to save wild animals from epidemics.


Research on wild life should be encouraged in order to know better the biology as well as the behavior of wild animals.








advantages and disadvantages of wildlife. 8. The Acts and laws enforced for wildlife

protection should be strictly followed and serve punishment should be given to those who are found guilty.






Dachigam National Park


Kishwar National Park


55 Hemi High Altitude National Park Leh

Jasrota Wildlife Sanctury


Lungnag wildlife Sanctuary


Nadini wildlife Sanctuary


Overa wildlife Sanctuary


Ram Nager Wildlife Sanctuary


Surinar Wildlife Sanctuary




Great Himalayan National Park


Pin Valley National Park

N.E.(H. P)

BandiWildlife Sanctuary


Chail Wildlife Sanctuary


Daranghati Wildlife Sanctuary



Doriaghat Wildlife Sanctuary


Gamgul Slah Behi Wildlife Sanctuary


Gobind Sagar Wildlife Sanctuary


Kalatop Khajjiar Wildlife Sanctuary


Kanawar Wildlife Sanctuary


Khokhan Wildlife Sanctuary


Kias Wildlife Sanctuary


Kugti Wildlife Sanctuary


Lipoa Asrang Wildlife Sanctuary


Majathal Wildlife Sanctuary


Manali Wildlife Sanctuary


Naina Wildlife Sanctuary


57 Nargu Wildlife Sanctuary Mandi

Pong Dan Wildlife Sanctuary


Rakchham Chitkul Wildlife Sanctuary


Renuka Wildlife Sanctuary


Rupi Bhava Wildlife Sanctuary


Suchu Tun Nala Wildlife Sanctuary


Shikari Devi Wildlife Sanctuary


Shilli Wildlife Sanctuary



Shimla Water Catchmant Area


Sambalpara Wildlife Sanctuary


Talra Wildlife Sanctuary


Tirthan Wildlife Sanctuary



Tundah Wildlife Sanctuary



Abohar Wildlife Sanctuary


Birbunerheri wildlife Sanctuary


Bir Gurdialpura Wildlife Sanctuary


Hari Lake Wildlife Sanctuary



Sukhna Wildlife Sanctuary



Sultanpur (Lake) Bird Sanctuary



Corbet National Park



Dudhwa National Park


Balley of Flowers National Park


Nanda Devi National Park


Chandraprabha Wildlife Sanctuary


Chila Wildlife Sabctuary

Pauri Garhwal

Givind Wildlife Sanctuary

Uttar Kashi

Kaimar Wildlife Sanctuary


Katemiaghat Wildlife Sanctuary


Kedamath Wildlife Sanctuary


Kishanpur Wildlife Sanctuary


Mahavir Wildlife Sanctuary


Motichur Wildlife Sanctuary


60 National Chambal Wildlife Sanctuary Etawah

Nawabganj Wildlife Sanctuary


Rajaji wildlife Sanctuary


Ranipur Wildlife Sanctuary



Hazaribagh National Park


Palamau Betla National Park


Bhimbanddh Wildlife Sanctuary


Dalma Wildlife Sanctuary


Gautam Wildlife Sanctuary


Lawalong Wildlife Sanctuary


Karimpur Wildlife Sanctuary


61 Mahuadaur Wildlife Sanctuary Palamau

Nagidam Wildlife Sanctuary


Rajgir Wildlife sanctuary


Topchanchi Wildlife Sanctuary


Udaipur Wildlife Sanctuary

W, Champaran

Valmiki Wildlife Sanctuary

W, Champaran


Sunderbans Natioonal Park

24 Paraganas(S)

Jaldapara Wildlife Sanctuary


Sajnakhali Wildlife Sanctuary

24 Parganas(S)

Ballarpur Wildlife Sanctuary


Bethuadahari Wildlife Sanctuary


Gorumara Wildlife Sanctuary



Holiday Wildlife Sanctuary Paraganas


Lothion Island Wildlife Sanctuary Paraganas


Nahananda Wildlife Sanctuary


Narendrapur Wildlife Sanctuary Paraganas


Parmadan Wildlife Sanctuary

24 Paragana

Ramnabagan Wildlife Sanctuary


Sanchal Wildlife Sanctuary


Deer Park Wildlife Sanctuary

24 Parganas(N)

Snake Park Wildlife Sanctuary

24 Paragans(N)


Kaziranga National Park



Manas Wildlife Sanctuary


Barnadi Wildlife Sanctuary


Garam Pani Wildlife Sanctuary




Orang Wildlife Sanctuary


Pabha Wildlife sanctuary


Pabitra Wildlife Sanctuary


Sonai Rupa Wildlife Sanctuary



Fakim Wildlife Sanctuary


Intenki Wildlife Sanctuary


Pulit Badze



Simpal National Park


Baisipalli Wildlife Sanctuary


Balukhanhd Wildlife Sanctuary


Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary


Chandaka and Dampada Wildlife Sanctuary

Puri & Cuttak

Chilka Wildlife Sanctuary

Puri Ganjam

Dubrigarh Wildlife Sanctuary


Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary


Khalasuni Wildlife Sanctuary


Kotgarh Wildlife Sanctuary


Kuldiha wildlife Sanctuary


Nandan Kanan Wildlife Sanctuary



Satkosia Gorge Wildlife Sanctuary Dhenkanal,Cuttak,Puri

Simplipal Wildlife Sanctuary


Sunabeda Wildlife Sanctuary


Usha Kothi Wildlife Sanctuary



Namdapha National Park


Itangar Wildlife Sanctuary

Lower Subansiri

Lali Wildlife Sanctuary

East Slang

Mahao Reserve Forests Valley


Pakhut Reserve Forests Kameng.




Danipa Wildlife Sanctuary



Keibul Lamjao Park


Sirohi National Park

E. Manipur


Nangkhyliam Wildlife Sanctuary


Siju Wildlife Sanctuary



Kanchenjunga National Park

N. Sikkim

Famebunglho Wildlife Sanctuary

E. Sikkim



67 Singba Rhododendron Wildlife Sanctuary



Desert National Park


Keoladeo Ghana or Bharatpur National Park


Sariska National Park


Ranthambhor National Park


Bhemsrod Garh Wildlife Sanctuary


Darah Wildlife Sanctuary

Kota, Bundi and Jalawar

Jaisamand Wildlife Sanctuary


Jamva Ramgard Wildlife Sanctuary


Kalla Devi Wildlife Sanctuary


Khumbhalgarh Wildlife Sanctuary


68 Mount Abu Wildlife Sanctuary Sirohi

Nahavgarh Wildlife Sanctuary


National Chambal Wildlife Sanctuary

Kota, Bundi

Phulwari Wildlife Sanctuary


Ramgarh Wildlife Sanctuary


Sariska Wildlife Sanctuary


Shergarh Wildlife Sanctuary


Sita Mata Wildlife Sanctuary

Chittorgarh And Udaipur

Tal Chapper Wildlife Sanctuary


Todgarh Wildlife Sanctuary

Ajmer, Udaipur, Pali

Van Vihar Wildlife Sanctuary


Swaimadhopur Wildlife Sanctuary



Marine National Park Jamnagar

Sasan Gir National Park Junagarh

Velvadar National Park Bhavangar

Vandana National Park


Barde Wildlife Sanctuary Junagarh& Jam nagar

Dhorangadhra Wildlife Sanctuary Mehesana

Dumkhal Wildlife Sanctuary


Gir Wildlife Sanctuary


70 Hingolgadh Wildlife Sanctuary Rajkot

Jessore Wildlife Sanctuary


Khi Jadaya Wildlife Sanctuary


Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary

Rann of Kutch

Narayan Sarova Wildlife Sanctuary


Nal Sarova Wildlife Sanctuary Nagar

Ahmedabad & Sundendra

Ratan Mahal Wildlife Sanctuary


Sloth Bear Wildlife Sanctuary



Kanah National Park Balaghat


71 Bandhavgarh National Park Jabalpur Hahdol,

Fossil National Park


Indravati National Park


Kanger Ghati National Park


Madhav or Shivpur National Park


Panna National Park Panna,


Pench National Park


Satpura National Park Sarguja


Satpura National Park Hoshangabad

Varivchar or Van Vihar


Kheoni Wildlife Sanctuary Dewas,


72 Narisinghgarh Wildlife Sanctuary Rajgharh

Gandhi Sagar Wildlife Sanctuary


Bori Wildlife Sanctuary


Panchmarhi Wildlife Sanctuary Hoshangabad

Dubri Wildlife Sanctuary


Badalkhol Wildlife Sanctuary


Gomardah Wildlife Sanctuary


Ratanpani Wildlife Sanctuary


Singhori Wildlife Sanctuary


Barnawapara Wildlife Sanctuary


Sitanadi Wildlife Sanctuary


Naradehi Wildlife Sanctuary


73 Achanakmar Wildlife Sanctuary Bilaspur

Pench Wildlife Sanctuary Chhindwara


Samarsot Wildlife Sanctuary


National Gharial Wildlife Sanctuary Panna


Son Gharial Wildlife Sanctuary


Ghategaon Wildlife Sanctuary


Palpur Wildlife Sanctuary


Karera Wildlife Sanctuary (Great Indian Bustard)


Bagdera Wildlife Sanctuary


Tamor Pingala Wildlife Sanctuary


Bhairamgarh Wildlfie Sanctuary


Fensatallite Wildlfie Sanctuary



Panpatha Wildlife Sanctuary


Wild Buffalo Wildlife Sanctuary


Sardarur Florican Wildlife Sanctuary


Sailana Fluorican Wildlife Sanctuary


Udanti Wild Buffalo Wildlife Sanctuary




Nawegaon National Park


Pench National Park


Sanjay Gandhi National Park


Bor Wildlife Sanctuary Nagpur


Deulagaon Wildlife Sanctuary



Dhakna Wildlife Sanctuary


Great Indian Bustard Wildlife Sanctuary


Karnala Wildlife Sanctuary


Kariwal Wildlife Sanctuary Yeotmal


Nagzira Wildlife Sanctuary


Radhangari Wildlife Sanctuary


Tansa Wildlife Sanctuary


Yawal Wildlife Sanctuary



Bhagwan Mahavir National Park


76 Boindle Wildlife Sanctuary Goa

Cortiago Wildlife Sanctuary


Mollen Wildlife Sanctuary


Dr. Salim Ali Bir Sanctuary



Connge Wildlife Sanctuary


Etumagaram Wildlife Sanctuary


Kawal Wildlife Sanctuary


Kinenersani Wildlife Sanctuary


Kolleru Wildlife Sanctuary


Manjra Wildlife sanctuary


Nagar Junasager Wildlife Sanctuary Nagar



Neelapattu Wildlife Sanctuary


Pakhar Wildlife Sanctuary


Great Indian Bustared Wildlife Sanctuary


Karnala Wildlife Sanctuary


Kariwal Wildlife Sanctuary



Nagzira Wildlife Sanctuary


Radhangari Wildlife Sanctuary


Tansa Wildlife Sanctuary


Yawal Wildlife Sanctuary


Polkonda Wildlife Sanctuary

East & West Godavari

Pocharam Wildlife Sanctuary

Medak, Nizambad

Pranahita Wildlife Sanctuary



Pulicat Wildlife Sanctuary


Siwaram Wildlife Sanctuary




Bandipur National Park


Banner Ghatta National Park


Nagarhole National Park

Kodagu , Mysore

Adichuncha Nagiri Wildlife Sanctuary


Aradithittu Wildlife Sanctuary


Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary Shimoga




Bilgiri Rangaswammy Wildlife Sanctuary


Black Buck Wildlife Sanctuary


Brahmagiri Wildlife Sanctuary

Kodegu , North, Kanara

Dandeli Wildlife Sanctuary

Belgaum Dharwar

Ghatprabha Wildlife Sanctuary


Melkota Temple Wildlife Sanctuary


Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary

S. Kanara

Nagu Wildlife Sanctuary


Settihalli Wildlife Sanctuary


Sharavathi Valley Wildlife Sanctuary


Someshwara Wildlife Sanctuary

South Kanara


Tungabhadra Wildlife Sanctuary

Bellary, Raichum


Guinday National Park


Marine Mannar

Gulf of

Annamalai Wildlife Sanctuary


Kalaked Wildlife Sanctuary


Kari Killi Wildlife Sanctuary


Mudamalai Widlife Sanctuary


Mananthural Wildlife Sanctuary


Nilgiri Tha Wildlife Sanctuary


Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary


Pulicat Wildlife Samctuary



Vedanthangal Wildlife Sanctuary Chegalanputtu

Vttangudi Wildlife Sanctuary Ramanthapuram

Deer Park Wildlife Sanctuary


Snake Park Wildlife Sanctuary



Eravikulam National Park


Periyar National Park


Silent Vally National Park


Aralam Wildlife Sanctuary


Trichur Cimmeni Wildlife Sanctuary


Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary


82 Idukki Wildlife Sanctuary Idukki

Neyyar Wildlife Sanctuary


Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary


Poochi Vazhani Wildlife Sanctuary


Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary


Shendurung Wildllife Sanctuary


Thattekkadu Wildlife Sanctuary


Wynad Wildlife Sanctuary



Middle Button National Park


Mount Hamet National Park


North Hamet National Park


Sandle Peak National Park



South Button National Park


Barron Island Wildlife Sanctuary


Crocodile Wildlife Sanctuary


Narcodile Wildlife Sanctuary


North Reef Island Wildlife Sanctuary


South Sentinel Wildlife Sanctuary



CHAPTER – 6 Ecological Measures Ecological Sub regions of India on the basis of Wildlife. Loss of Biodiversity. Protection of Small animals. Guidelines for Tourists to check inflow.




On the basis of wildlife , whole India can be divided into seven well defined regions. These are:-

The Great Mountain Zone Of Himalayas- This Zone includes East of Assam Himalayas the Central or Nepal Himalayas, The Garhwal or the Western Himalayas and the Punjab Kashmir or North west Himalays.

The Indo-Gangetic Plain- This Includes States of Punjab , Delhi, U.P. and Bihar.

The Eastern Region – This Regions Includes Assam , West Bengal, Nagaland, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura , and Orissa.

The Region of Rajasthan, Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh.


The Deccan TriangleNorthen Karnataka.

This includes Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and

The Southern Peninsula - This region includes Southern Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala.

Andaman and Nicobar Island.


A recent Environment Impact Assesment (EIA) report on the Narmada Project (NSP), one of the Largest dams in the Narmada Valley development project to be located in the Khandwa district of MP, claims that it could wipe out many species of flora and fauna.

The Wildlife Institute of India (Wll), Dehradun who conducted the report says, that 31 species with considerable enthnobotanical value but limited distribution in the NSP area, will face local extinction because of habital changes in the submergence zone and also in theadjacent residential forests that do not face the direct threat of submergence. The report also points out that many of the species which face submergence can not be compensated in the residual forest areas either in terms of quantity or quality.

87 The report claims that high quality wildlife barbital of 421.24 sq. km. Will be lost due to impoundment by the NSP dam and related constructions like hydroelectric generation units and canals. In some areas animals like chital, sambar and nilgai will be further threatened by near absence of corridors between the submerge zone and refuge areas in peripheral forests. Among aquatic vertebrates, otters and turtles will be lost because of unsuitable refuge habital and their inability to migrate . According to report, there will be irreversible loss to the diversity of area in bird species and fish varieties will also decline due to inundation of natural water bodies.

The report also points out yhat a decline in the socioeconomic status of the people will have adverse long term consequences for an ever widening area of the natural resource base.

Based on field surveys among the local population, the report fears inadequate rehabilitation of the villagers, pointing out that it is impossible to compensate for the natural resources lost.

The report has also recommended the following three protected areas in the residual forests.

a) b) c)

The Narbada National Park. The Sumanya sanctuary and Omkareshwar Sanctuary.


All these will cover 758.88 sq.km. Of compact, contiguous and rich wildlife habital with low human pressure.

AFTER ONE YEAR NOW (1999) IS IT 2000 ad OR 2000 B.C.

Today there is a hue and cry on “Save the Planet” and ‘Save the Environment”. Alarge number of scientist, ecologists, environmentalists etc . Are also working on various projects like saving trees, preventing pollution of water and air, soil conservation and even wildlife conservation etc. With the aim of saving the planet and the environment.

One of the most important parts of nature is animal. We can survive only if animals survive. A number of projects have also been taken to save them. These includes Project tiger, project elephant etc. But the samller animals are much more in danger than the big animals which are also called endangered species. We find people killing snskes , frogs, and lizards. Bats an owls are considered symbols of evil. In fact, we always tend to forget the small animals as we look upon most of them as slimy crestures. Unfortunately this tendancy hassled to so many such animals being killed ruthlessly , because we do not know their actual importance. By killing them we are bringing ourselves closer to calamity. They are small , but their role in the eco-system is so important that they cannot be ignored.


For example, earth worms (whose enemies are birds ) are so important that without their continued action in aerating or draining , pulling down leaves and throwing up worm casts , the earth or at least uncultivated land, would soon become cold, hard bound and void of fermentation and consequently sterile. The earthworm swallows the soil and feeds on the rotting plant and animal plant. It tham passes the soil out of its body, just below the ground surface . This soil is rich in minerals brought from deeper down in the ground. The soil is thus valuable nutrient for plants.

Children can promote an awarenss among people by telling small children about the importance of small animals like frogs , snakes, lizards etc. The old ones can avoid dissections of animals like frogs, rats, rabbits etc. Because they can also be studied in other ways also.

In US and other countries children have voluntarily stepped out saying that they would not dissect animals even if they have to lose their make in examinations. As a result, dissection of frogs has been stopped in many Universities. All animals have been created so that all of us could survive together and interact with each other. If we realize this and play our roles effectively, the world would be much pleasanter and healthier place to live.



The burden of increasing number of wildlife tourists in India every year has forced the union Ministry of Environment and Forests (MOEF) to prepare guidelines to manage the tourist influx into the various national parks and sanctuaries.

Of particular concern are the keoladeo National Park in Bharatpur, which is visited by over 1 million visitors every year and Pariyar National Park , which is swamped by more than 3 million tourists every year.

The guidelines being prepared include:


Restrictions on the numer of tourists allowed into the parks and imposition of strict code of conduct.


MEF also proposes to protect core areas of the parks and sanctuaries by barring the entry of tourists , and to ensure that fewer tourists stay overnight.


To encourage day tripping . To locate facilities like restaurants and shops , preferably outside the park.


To promote distinct areas of each protected area for tourism , preferably on the periphery of the park.

91 The code of conduct for tourists include:


A ban testing and feeding animals.


Ban on carrying firearms, swimming in lakes or river and speeding .In order to curb the movement of the numerous individual vehicles, use of minibuses will be encouraged.


CHAPTER – 7 Wildlife Research in India Wildlife research in India. Wildlife Education and Training.


WILDLIFE RESEARCH IN INDIA Wildlife research in India.
Research on various aspects of biology, ecology and management of problems is basically conducted by the Wildlife Institute of India (WII), Dehradun, Bombay Natural History Society, Bombay and Salim Ali Center for Ornithology and Natural History, Bombay.

Wildlife institute of India (WII) covers various aspects of applied research on Wildlife for different ecological and geographical regions of the country. Snow leopard (Ladakh), Nilgiri(Tamil Nadu) , Grizzled giant squirrel (Tamil Nadu) , monitoring of reintroduced rhinoceros (Dudhwa,U.P) are the main studies completed by the institute.

Under the Indo-US Rupees Fund Programme, the Ministry of forests has been sponsoring a number of research programmes implemented by Bombay Natural History Society.

The objective of the Salim Ali Centre for Orinthology and Natural History (SACON) is to develop and conduct research as well as courses in all aspects of ornithology and Natural History of other life forms.



Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun organized 9 month PG Diploma are three months Certificate course on wildlife for protected area managers at the professional and Field Technician level during for Middle Level Managers and Technicians and 4 week course for 16 trinees from Zoos and Wildlife Organization from different states.

IUCN has recognized wildlife Institute of India as a Regional Centre for Wildlife training . WII has also been conducting short course for India Forest Service Officers in order to provide a basic under standing of wildlife and biodiversity conservation.

• • • • •

Peacock is the National Bird of India. Tiger is the National Animal of India. Swamp Deer is the State animal of Madhya Pradesh. Doodh Raj is the state bird of Madhya Pradesh. The birth place of white tiger is shahdol district of Madhya Pradesh.

Leopard, the smaller and spotted cousin of tiger living in all types of forests is more dreadful animal because it can live any where and eats any thing from birds, small deer, reptiles, monkeys, cattle and to even man.

95 • Tiger bones are believed to be good for rheumatism.

In India, the first Zoological Park was set up in Madras in 1855. The second was set up at Trivendrum in 1857 and third in Bombay in 1863.

The ecosystems which are under threat of conversion, diversion , and over exploitation are forests, grasslands, wetlands and aquatic ecosystems all of which hold a variety of wild animal populations.

The rhinos gradually disappeared because of capturing and killing and also due to clearing of their habitats for settlement, cultivation and grazing.

The Gaur is now extinct in Northen India.

The wild buffalo Bulbalus is a huge animal of uncertain temper. Tow largest concentrations of wild buffalo today are in Kaziranga and manas Sanctuaries.

In India nine different species of deer are found. The species of deerfacing near extinctin is the brow-antlered der.

96 • The Crocodiles have been around for around for about 300 million years. They are the biggest reptiles living today and are more closely related to birds and dinosaurs than to lizards, snakes or turtles.

The Great-one-horned rhinoceros have been driven into a few pockets of Nepal and eastern India because of dwindling forests, where poachers ae hunting them to extinction.A variety of other animals, like the horned owls, Himalayan back bears, tigers snow, leopards are also suffering the same fate. They are victims of global racket involving US$ 6 billion annually in wild life products the second largestillegal trade after narcotics. Combating this problem is an uphill task because it includes dangerous encounters with poachers.







supports a refuge for rare species, but their drinking grounds are getting saline and world’s largest mangrove forest “Sunderbans” is facing serious damage. Royal Bengal tigers, spotted deer , wild boars,crocodiles and monkeys have been forced to move deep into the forests, away from their usual feeding habital. The tops of trees are dying every year in the 6017 sw. km. sunderban’s area

97 • For thousands of years, Spanish storks have been migrating to Africal countries like Bengal and Ethiopia from Europe . Now spain’s 22,000 white storks prefer to stay back during the winters and feed on garbage dumps. This is radical change in their habit. In the last 15 years, storks have started cutting their migratory route shorter and shorter . The reason for this change in behaviour is due to unbanisation and gradual disappearance of traditional bird habitats such as forests and rivers. Now instead of using trees, storksbuild their nests on church towers, telephone poles or antennas. Of the 744 nests registered in Madrid in 1918, 445 were build on human habitation. Garbage dumps allow the birds changing their migratory habits. Even black heated gulls are leaving their natural sea side habital for inland dumps.

India has 441 wildlife sanctuaries and 80 National Parks. But there are 1336 threatened plant species. And on the threatened animals list there are 53 mammqls , 69 birds (the fourth highest threat rate in the world) , three amphibians and 22 invertebrates.

India recently took an important step towards preventing cruelty against animals when it banned the mandatory testing of cosmetics and toiletries on live animals . India became the first country in Asia to do so.

98 • According to the latest red list of endangered species brought out by World Conservation Union (WCU) , Mammals top the list of animals facing extinction . The list suggests that 11% of birds species are threatened with global extinction , while 25% of mammals species face a similar fate.

By measuring the thickness of forest canopy, scientists get a fair idea about the species of animals and plants present there in . Earlier, ecologists took canopy measurements from the ground using a visual procedure, called Mac Arthur-Horn method. Researchers at the University of Virginia (US) have proposed a new techniques using a laser rader or lider , that makes the job easier. Carried in a plane flying overhead, the solid state laser fires infra red pulses at the forest canopy and sensors in its spot reflections from each layer and from the ground . Providing 100 profiles per sec, the technique can collect data on forest structure more quickly and cheaply.

Recent reports by National and international Organization predict doom for speciec such as the tiger , the Asian elephant and the greater one horned rhino . illegal trade flourishes in tiger skin and bones , rhino horn and ivory. At least one tiger is killed every day. In 1995 alone , 88 pachyderms were poached . So our strategies to protect our biodiversity need immediate rethinking, as it maybe only a few years before some of these

99 species disappear. What is required is a radical change in wild life management strategies to make local people and their grass root institution parthers in management of protected areas. Experimants in parts of Africa , Canada and South America have already proven the efficacy of such strategies . India needs to move quickly in that direction before it is too late for her endangered species.

About 15,000 skins of various wild animals , worth crores of rupees in the international market , have been sezed in a series of raids in Baramula district of Jammu and Kashmir. The skins included those of wild cats, jackals , rabbits and leopard cubs. The animals were killed by poisoning and there were no bullet marks on the skin.

Asiatic lions in the Gir Sanctuary in Gujrat will be shifted to the Kuno palpur Sanctuary in Morena district of Madhya Pradesh to prevent their extinction. The decrease in the forest cover and uncontrolled hunting of wild animals have led to their dwindling numbers . The Kuno Palpur Sanctuary is being developed to sustain the existing and the natural growth of lions. the lions will be relocated to this protected area by the year 2001.

Migratory birds coming to the Bhatkal lake area and Sultanpur Birds Sanctuary are dying because of growing pollution, scarcity

100 of water in the lakes and in hospital conditions. Even those birds which have been migrating from Russia, Europe and some of the Asian countries during winter and gradually shifting towards other sanctuaries. Birds from these places have already started deserting the Bhatkal lake in 1998, it became evident as a very few birds from these places visited the lake. The Sultanpur BirdsSanctuary is facing the similar situation . The water pumped to fill thelake has been found to be saline. Because it is difficult to survive for birds and fishes in such water , the sanctuary could attract only few migratory birds this year.

Insteadnof saving the endangered Tibetan , the Jammu and Kashmir government looks determined to protect illegal manufactures of shahtoosh shawls through its proposed wildlife law. Shahtoosh is an exotic wool that is extracted from Chiru, the Tibetan animal. People slaughter the animal before extracting shahtoosh. Environmentslists from all over the world are demanding strict measures so that the endangered animal could be saved.

Since the onset of winter, poaching has once again been on the rise in the hills of Himachal Pradesh. In the last 5 years, thousands of wild animals and birds are indiscriminately killed by poachers. This is inspite of the fact that there is complete ban on hunting in Himachal Pradesh. Moreover , there is no

101 proper management of protected area, such as national parks and sanctuaries, which play a significant role in the conservation of our national heritage. There are two national parks and three games reserves in the state besides many wild life sanctuaries , which are spread over 5940 sq. km . But in the last decade , there has been a drastic fall in the wild life population of the state. Poachers can be seen hunting openly in reserve forests. The reckless killing of animals has posed a serious threat to wild life in Himachal Pradesh. Environments are of the opinion that the Himalayan brown bear, pheasant, snow cock, monal pheasant, snow leopard and snow cat are threatened species.

Delhi’s Jawaharlal Nahru University (JNU) and the Delhi authorities are planning to convert 160 hectares of campus area into a national park . The JNU excutive council has also applied to the forest department of the Delhi government to declare a large section of the campus as reserve forest.

The Railway board has issued instructions to all Zonal centers that no wildlife species, except chicken , can be transported by rail. According to sources , the move is intended to curb the misuse of railways for illegal trafficking of endangered wildlife species.

102 • Tiger Sita, which created a world record by giving birth to 18 cub’s is reported to be missing from the Bandhavgarh National Park in Madhya Preadesh.

Speeding trains through froests continue to the cause of animal deaths in Dudhwa tiger Reserve in Utter Pradesh. The reserve is home to as 75 tigers and a variety of flora and fauna. In 1998, the park lost one tigers , two fishing cats, one elephant and one crocodile in train accidents. According to reserve authorities, atleast two animals are lost each month due to train and road traffic in the park. The Gonda- Barreilly railway line passers through the park covering a distance of 27 km with scant regard for the endangered species inhabitating the park, 6 passenger trains and five goods trains pass through the forest at high speed. Two major roads also pass through the park. This not only leads accidents, but also fallows people to indulge in illegal activities. Often the negligence of the travelers have also led to forest fires.

The West Bengal government has decided to convert the Mahananda Wildlife Sanctuary in North Bengal into a tiger reserves in the state are Sunderbans and Buxa.

The Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB) in Hyderabad will adopt cloning techniques to preserve

103 endangered species like lions and tigers . A center comprising scientifically designed enclosures will house lions and tigers. It will be set up near the Nehru Zoological Park in Hyderabad. The CCMB has been asked by the central Zoo Authority (CZO) to find out the extent of genetic variation in lions and tiger , both in the Zoos and in the wild.

South Asian environmental experts and officials met in Nepal to discuss ways for regional co- operation to save the endangered tiger . Over 60 representatives from Bhutan, Nepal, India, Burma and Bangladesh as well as woodldwide Fund for nature, participated in Sauraha, 145 km south of Kathmandu. Participants said they were seeking trans border co-operation to save the tiger , which is already close to extinction.

Palamu Tiger Reserve in the Deltanganj district of Bihar has became heaven for smugglers trading in precious teak trees worth Rs. 30 lakh are felled every month and smuggled out of palamu to places like Delhi, Bokaro, Dhanbad , Calcutta and Ranchi 349 trees were felled in 1997 and 10,006 trees were cat in 1998.

Aproject to develop a biosphere management programme for the gulf of Manna biosphere reserve has been planned by M.S. Swaminathan Reserve Foundation. The project will be aided by


104 Environment Facility





Development Programme. A world Resources Report for 1996 has warned that the Gulf of Mannar reserve, along with 5 others stood at high risk of degradation. Twaler fishing and other activities in the Gulf have caused extensive damage to the reserve. There are six species threats to the reserve. There are six species threats to the reserve.


Rapid industrialization.


Over exploitation and intensive trawling.


Proposal to build the sethusamudram canal.


Poaching of threatened species.


Unauthorized humans settlement, and


Proposed aquaculture.

The Mannar reserve is a group of 21 small island that cover about 10500 sw. Km. In the Bay of Bengal with a coastal area of 100 Km. Ecologically, the biosphere is a combination of three different eco-systems. These are:

105 a) mangroves.


Seagrass, and


Coral reefs.

It supports over 3600 species of plants and animals including a few rare ones.

Following the death of two tigers in Lucknow, the Central Zoo Authority (CZA), has alerted all zoos in the country to protect tigers and leopards against Feline Pan Laukoenia, a highly contagious viral disease which affects only members of the cat family. When the disease strikes. The cats stop enting, Suffer from dehydration and high fever and eventually die. The first case was reported from the Bhopal Zoo in March, 1997, when 4 tigers and 3 leopards died of the same disease.


Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.