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Article

Design and Thermodynamic Analysis of a Steam


Ejector Refrigeration/Heat Pump System for Naval
Surface Ship Applications
Cüneyt Ezgi * and Ibrahim Girgin
Received: 8 September 2015; Accepted: 7 December 2015; Published: 11 December 2015
Academic Editor: Kevin H. Knuth

Mechanical Engineering Department, Turkish Naval Academy, Istanbul 34942, Turkey; igirgin@dho.edu.tr
* Correspondence: cezgi@dho.edu.tr; Tel.: +90-530-6065-395; Fax: +90-216-3952-658

Abstract: Naval surface ships should use thermally driven heating and cooling technologies to
continue the Navy’s leadership role in protecting the marine environment. Steam ejector refrigeration
(SER) or steam ejector heat pump (SEHP) systems are thermally driven heating and cooling
technologies and seem to be a promising technology to reduce emissions for heating and cooling on
board naval surface ships. In this study, design and thermodynamic analysis of a seawater cooled
SER and SEHP as an HVAC system for a naval surface ship application are presented and compared
with those of a current typical naval ship system case, an H2 O-LiBr absorption heat pump and a
vapour-compression heat pump. The off-design study estimated the coefficient of performances
(COPs) were 0.29–0.11 for the cooling mode and 1.29–1.11 for the heating mode, depending on the
pressure of the exhaust gas boiler at off-design conditions. In the system operating at the exhaust gas
boiler pressure of 0.2 MPa, the optimum area ratio obtained was 23.30.

Keywords: ship; engine; sea water; ejector system; refrigeration; heat pump

1. Introduction
The International Maritime Organization’s [1] Marine Environment Protection Committee
published its final third IMO greenhouse gas (GHG) study report in 2014 providing updated estimates
for GHG emissions from ships. In that report, for the year 2012, total shipping emissions were
approximately 949 million tonnes CO2 and 972 million tonnes CO2 e for GHGs combining CO2 , CH4
and N2 O. International shipping emissions for 2012 were estimated to be 796 million tonnes CO2 and
816 million tonnes CO2 e. International shipping thus accounted for approximately 2.2% and 2.1% of
global CO2 and GHG emissions on a CO2 equivalent (CO2 e) basis, respectively. In addition, refrigerant
and air conditioning gas released from shipping contributed an additional 15 million tons in CO2
equivalent emissions. In the study, military forces were excluded from the total and international
shipping calculations.
To reduce the emission of greenhouse gases, specifically CO2 emissions, emitted by ships, the
Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) for new ships and the Ship Energy Efficiency Management
Plan (SEEMP) for all ships entered into force on 1 January 2013. New ships are ships that enter the
fleet from 2013. Implementing CO2 reduction measures will result in a significant reduction in fuel
consumption, leading to a significant saving in fuel costs to the shipping industry.
The main and auxiliary engines are used to propel the ship, and to drive generators to produce
electricity, respectively. Despite the great technological development of engines, the maximum
efficiency is still less than 50%. The main and auxiliary engines onboard ships produce significant
quantities of heat. The primary source of waste heat of main and auxiliary engines is the exhaust

Entropy 2015, 17, 8152–8173; doi:10.3390/e17127869 www.mdpi.com/journal/entropy


Entropy 2015, 17, 8152–8173

gas heat dissipation, which accounts for about half of the total waste heat, i.e., about 25% of the total
fuel energy.
For naval ships, the environment (decreased emissions), stealth demands (hydrodynamic, acoustic,
magnetic, infrared, radar signatures) and efficiency (decreased fuel costs) are of importance. The
required precautions to achieve the specified level of stealth features should be taken during both
the design and operating phase. CO2 reduction measures as well as reduction and management of
ship signatures must also be implemented by naval ships. To continue the Navy’s leadership role
in protecting the marine environment, the search for new energy conservation methods that can be
applied on board naval ships is necessary. Thermally driven heat pumps for heating and cooling can
be promising solutions. Today, heating, cooling and refrigeration systems onboard ships are based
on mechanical vapour compression. These cycles are powered by electrical energy generated by the
combustion of fossil fuels, and the process contributes to an increase in greenhouse gases and the
generation of air pollutants.
One way to find a new solution to this problem is to apply an absorption refrigeration (AR)/heat
pump (AHP) system to provide the required heating and cooling loads for the HVAC system instead of
the traditional vapour-compression heat pump. The main problem with absorption systems is that they
are more bulky than conventional vapour-compression systems. This is because an AR/AHP has more
components and as the heat and mass transfer of absorption equipment is poor, large surface areas are
required. Ezgi [2] presented design and thermodynamic analysis of a water-lithium bromide AHP as an
HVAC system for a naval surface ship application and compared with those of a vapour-compression
heat pump. Ezgi [2] performed calculations for diesel engine loads of 50%, 75%, 85%, 100%. The
temperatures of evaporator, condenser, absorber are 4 ˝ C, 50 ˝ C, 35 ˝ C, respectively, and generator
temperatures were 90 ˝ C, 95 ˝ C, 100 ˝ C, 105 ˝ C and 110 ˝ C. At the end of 1000 operating hours a year
of a naval surface ship, it was stated that the AHP system could save 22,952–81,961 L of diesel fuel in
the heating cycle and 21,135–75,477 L of diesel fuel in the cooling cycle and would reduce its annual
CO2 emissions by 60.41–215.74 tons in the heating cycle and 55.63–198.67 tons in the cooling cycle,
depending on the engine load and COP of the vapour-compression heat pump.
Another type of system is known as an ejector refrigeration/heat pump. Riffat et al. [3] and
Ma et al. [4] stated that ejector refrigeration is one of the most promising technologies because of
its relative simplicity and low capital cost when compared to an absorption refrigerator. This is a
heat-operated cycle capable of utilising solar energy, waste energy, natural gas or hybrid sources (e.g.,
solar/gas). The ejector heat refrigeration/heat pump has no moving parts and so is simple and reliable.
In addition, it has the potential of long life and, unlike vapour compression systems, produces no noise
or vibration.
Chen et al. [5] provided a literature review on the recent developments in ejectors, applications of
ejector refrigeration systems. Ejector refrigeration systems (ERS) are more attractive compared with
traditional vapour compression refrigeration systems, with the advantage of simplicity in construction,
installation and maintenance. Moreover, in an ERS, compression can be achieved without consuming
mechanical energy directly. Furthermore, the utilization of low-grade thermal energy (such as
solar energy and industrial waste heat) in the system can help mitigate the problems related to
the environment, particularly by reduction of CO2 emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels.
An ejector is a simple device in which high pressure stream (the primary fluid) is used to compress
low pressure stream (the secondary fluid) to a higher pressure (discharge pressure). A number of
experimental studies involving ejectors have been reported in the literature. Hsu [6] investigated
by analytical methods the efficiency of an ejector heat pump with the refrigerants 11, 113, and 114.
Huang et al. [7] carried out a 1-D analysis for the prediction of the ejector performance at critical mode
operation. El-Dessouky et al. [8] developed semi-empirical models for the design and rating of steam
jet ejectors. Alexis [9] modelled the steam-ejector refrigeration system and estimated the maximum
flow entrainment ratio for constant generator pressure (6–8 bar), condenser (40–50 ˝ C) and evaporator

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temperature (4–10 ˝ C). Sanaye and Niroomand [10] presented the modelling and optimization of a
ground-coupled steam ejector heat pump with a closed vertical ground heat exchanger.
Steam-ejector refrigeration systems are used in food processing plants, gas plants, breweries, the
rubber and vulcanizing, paper and pulp, paints and dyes, pharmaceutical and chemical industries,
and edible oil refineries. In the literature, although the ejector refrigeration cycle is most commonly
used for refrigeration in land-based plants, there has been no report that an ejector heat pump system
has been installed on board ships.
The most important difference between land and marine refrigeration is the need for a cooling
tower in land-based applications and seawater in marine applications to eject heat from the condenser
to ambient air. Cooling towers increase the initial system costs, and require regular maintenance
and require extra space for their installation. The development of seawater-cooled steam-ejector
refrigeration technology can effectively eliminate these disadvantages.
Also, no investigation has been conducted yet on a seawater-cooled steam ejector
refrigeration/heat pump system for a naval ship application. One possible reason why steam ejector
refrigeration systems have never been applied in ships before is the lower COP—0.2~0.3—compared
to vapour compression systems and other thermally driven technologies. The COP also drops
significantly at operation away from the design point. Another is the lack of performance data
from commercial applications to provide confidence in the ship applications of the technology and the
need for uninterrupted cooling and heating on ships, especially in naval ships.
Therefore, this study focuses on the dual use of steam ejector technology to produce heating and
cooling onboard a naval ship. A theoretical study of the possibilities for application of steam ejector
refrigeration/heat pump systems for cooling and heating of naval surface ships is presented. Waste
heat from the main diesel engine exhaust gas is utilized. The technical characteristics of the system are
analyzed and its economical and environmental benefits are discussed.

2. System Selection for Naval Surface Ships


In general, the details of merchant ship air conditioning also apply to warships. However, all ships
are governed by their specific ship specifications, and naval ships are usually governed by military
specifications, which require an excellent air-conditioning system and equipment performance in the
extreme environment of naval ship duty.
Design conditions for naval surface ships have been established as a compromise. These
conditions consider the large cooling plants required for internal heat loads generated by machinery,
weapons, electronics and personnel.
Today, heat pumps for heating and cooling on board naval ships are mechanically driven. Seawater
is used for condenser cooling. The equipment described for merchant ships also applies to naval
surface ships. Fans, cooling coils, heating coils with steam or electric duct heaters and air handling
units (AHU) which are used to regulate and circulate air as part of an HVAC system are used on board
naval ships.
Steam ejector refrigeration (SER) and steam ejector heat pump (SEHP) systems are a good choice
for naval surface ships because of their lower energy consumption, CO2 emissions, EEDI, infrared and
acoustic signature, simple, compact construction and corrosion resistance and because they can be
used with water, which is the most environment friendly refrigerant. The SER/SEHP system can be
fitted into the machinery space of a ship. The system serves by supplying chilled water in cooling
mode and hot water in heating mode to fan coil units located in various parts of the naval ship.

3. The Case Naval Ship


The case naval surface ship has two main internal combustion engines that propel the ship.
The specification of the each diesel engine on the naval ship is given in Table 1 [11]. The propeller
demand data are presented in Table 2 [11].

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Table 1. Specification of a diesel engine on a naval ship.

Engine Maximum Continuous Output 3000 kW


Engine speed 750 rpm
Cylinder bore 320 mm
Stroke 400 mm
Cylinder configuration 6, in-line
Backpressure, max. 4.0 kPa

Table 2. Propeller demand data.

Fuel Consumption, Exhaust Gas Temperature Exhaust Gas Flow


Engine % Load
g¨ (kW¨ h)´1 after Turbocharger, ˝ C kg¨ s´1
50 191 315 3.71
75 182 345 4.43
85 181 336 4.96
100 185 380 5.40

The total heating and cooling loads of the case naval surface ship are 144 kW and 116 kW,
respectively. The case naval surface ship has two marine diesel generator sets for auxiliary power
production, each with a generator power of 240 kVA. Heating load (144 kW) is met by electric duct
heaters. Cooling load (116 kW) is met by a seawater cooled chiller unit.

4. System Design
This study focuses on the dual use of ejector technology to produce heating and cooling on board
a naval ship. The design criteria are given in Table 3, which is determined according to Loydu’s Rules
for the Classification of Naval Ships and based on the naval distillate fuel (NATO symbol F-76) used
on power systems by the navies of NATO countries.

Table 3. The design criteria.

Type of Heat Pump Steam Ejector


Energy source Diesel engine exhaust gas
Diesel engine fuel type NATO F-76 Diesel
Heating Mode
Hot water temperature flows through the condenser 45 ˝ C–40 ˝ C
Evaporator Seawater (´2 ˝ C–+32 ˝ C)
Cooling Mode
Chilled water temperature flows through the evaporator 7 ˝ C–12 ˝ C
Condenser Seawater (´2 ˝ C–+32 ˝ C)

The working fluid is water in SER/SEHP system. Water is a natural working fluid. It is an excellent
working fluid for high-temperature industrial heat pumps because of its favourable thermodynamic
properties and the fact that it is neither flammable nor toxic. Water is inexpensive and has no
environment impact (zero ozone depletion and global warming potential). Water has an extremely
high heat of vaporization that causes a low circulation rate for given heating and cooling capacity.
At low temperatures the saturation pressures are low (0.008129 bar at 4 ˝ C) and the specific volumes
are high (157.3 m3 ¨ kg´1 at 4 ˝ C) at typical evaporator conditions. Therefore, low mechanical power is
required for the pump.
The system is not considered under the diesel engine load of 50% as long term operation at lower
loads, typically below 50% of its maximum rated load, reduces engine service life. If the engine of the

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naval ship is in standby or under very low engine loads (below 50%), the heating and cooling load
forEntropy
the naval surface
2015, 17, 1–22 ship will be met from a vapour compression heat pump. In addition, vapour
compression heat pumps onboard naval ship are operated as reserves in emergency situations, at naval
compression
base heat pumps
or during periodic engineonboard navalinship
overhauls areshipyards.
naval operated as reserves in emergency situations, at
naval
Thebase or during
expansion periodic
tanks engine overhauls
are designed in navalfor
to compensate shipyards.
the changing volume of the water in the
SER/SEHP system to maintain the static pressure created by thechanging
The expansion tanks are designed to compensate for the pump atvolume of the water
the utilisation in water
level in the
SER/SEHP system to maintain the static pressure created by the pump at the utilisation level in water
production and to compensate for any changes in the water flow rate.
production and to compensate for any changes in the water flow rate.
A SER/SEHP system design for naval ship application is presented in Figure 1. The SER/SEHP is
A SER/SEHP system design for naval ship application is presented in Figure 1. The SER/SEHP
driven by the thermal energy of a diesel engine and consists of an ejector, a boiler, an evaporator, a
is driven by the thermal energy of a diesel engine and consists of an ejector, a boiler, an evaporator,
condenser, an expansion valve and a circulation pump. In the shown system, high-pressure steam
a condenser, an expansion valve and a circulation pump. In the shown system, high-pressure steam
expands while flowing through the nozzle. The expansion causes a drop in pressure and an enormous
expands while flowing through the nozzle. The expansion causes a drop in pressure and an enormous
increase
increasein in
velocity.
velocity.Due
Duetotothe thehigh
highvelocity,
velocity,vapour
vapour from the evaporator
from the evaporatorisisdrawn
drawnintointothe
the swiftly
swiftly
moving steam and the mixture enters the diffuser. The velocity is gradually reduced
moving steam and the mixture enters the diffuser. The velocity is gradually reduced in the diffuser in the diffuser but
thebut
pressure of the steam
the pressure at the at
of the steam condenser is increased
the condenser 5–10 times
is increased moremore
5–10 times than than
that at theatentrance
that of the
the entrance
diffuser. This pressure value corresponds to a condensation temperature of 50 ˝ C. The latent heat of
of the diffuser. This pressure value corresponds to a condensation temperature of 50 °C. The latent
condensation is transferred
heat of condensation to the condenser
is transferred water. Thewater.
to the condenser condensate is pumped
The condensate is back
pumpedto the boiler.
back The
to the
cooled water
boiler. The is pumped
cooled wateras is
the refrigeration
pumped as the carrier to the carrier
refrigeration fan-coiltounit. The heated
the fan-coil unit. water is pumped
The heated water as
theisheating
pumped carrier
as theto the fancarrier
heating coil unit.
to the fan coil unit.

Figure1.1.SER/SEHP
Figure SER/SEHP system
system design
designfor
foraanaval
navalship.
ship.

The evaporator temperature has to be designed at 4 °C to cool water of 12 °C for the air
The evaporator temperature has to be designed at 4 ˝ C to cool water of 12 ˝ C for the air
conditioning of the space to be maintained between 24 ˝°C and 27 °C.
conditioning of the space to be maintained between 24 C and 27 ˝ C.
The condenser temperature depends on the seawater temperature. According to Loydu’s [12]
The condenser temperature depends on the seawater temperature. According to Loydu’s [12]
Rules for the Classification of Naval Ships, the selection, layout and arrangement of all shipboard
Rules for the Classification of Naval Ships, the selection, layout and arrangement of all shipboard
machinery, equipment and appliances should ensure faultless continuous operation under the
machinery,
seawater equipment
temperatureand appliances
of −2 °C to +32 should
°C and theensure faultless continuous
air temperature outside the operation under
ship of −25 the
°C to seawater
+45 °C.
temperature of ´2 ˝ C to +32 ˝ C and the air temperature outside the ship of ´25 ˝ C to +45 ˝ C.
The exhaust gas boiler is used to recover exhaust waste heat from the diesel engine. Each engine
hasThe exhaustexhaust
a separate gas boiler
gasisboiler.
used The
to recover
pressure exhaust
drop of waste heat
the gas from
side theexhaust
of the diesel engine. Each
gas boiler engine
is set to
has3 akPa
separate
maximum exhaust gasback
and the boiler. The pressure
pressure drop gas
of the exhaust of the gas side
system of the
is 4 kPa exhaustFresh
maximum. gas boiler
water is
setconservation
to 3 kPa maximum onboardand the back
a naval ship ispressure of the exhaust
very important. Seawater gasis system
the main is coolant
4 kPa maximum.
on board navalFresh
water conservation
ships, like in other onboard
ships. aSeawater
naval ship is ais free
veryand
important.
renewable Seawater
source is forthe main coolant
cooling onboardon board
ships.
naval ships, like
Therefore, in other ships.
the condenser Seawater is
and evaporator a free
used and system
in this renewable source for cooling
are seawater-cooled heatonboard ships.
exchangers.
However,
Therefore, theseawater-cooled
condenser andheat exchangers
evaporator usedare in
prone
this to fouling,
system arewhich causes the thermohydraulic
seawater-cooled heat exchangers.
performance
However, of heat transfer
seawater-cooled heatequipment
exchangers to decrease
are pronewith time [13].
to fouling, Design
which fouling
causes theresistances must
thermohydraulic
also be taken
performance into account
of heat transferwhen dimensioning
equipment to decreasethe exhaust gas[13].
with time boiler and heat
Design exchangers
fouling because
resistances must
the
also beboiler
takenand heat
into exchangers
account whenare subject to fouling
dimensioning and mustgas
the exhaust operate
boilerforand
long periods
heat withoutbecause
exchangers being
thecleaned.
boiler and Thus, theexchangers
heat design fouling resistances
are subject of the engine
to fouling and mustexhaust gas for
operate andlong
seawater are without
periods set to
Rf,exh = 1.761 m2·K·(kW)−1, Rf,s = 0.088 m2·K·(kW)−1, respectively [14].

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being cleaned. Thus, the design fouling resistances of the engine exhaust gas and seawater are set to
R f ,exh = 1.761 2 ¨ K¨ (kW)´1 , R
m1–22 2 ´1
Entropy 2015, 17, f ,s = 0.088 m ¨ K¨ (kW) , respectively [14].
Seawater flows through the evaporator during the heating mode, through the condenser during
the coolingSeawater
mode flows through
all the time.the Toevaporator
achieve thisduring
flow,thetwoheating
4-way, mode, through
3-position the condenser
(4/3) during
rotary valves (also
the cooling
called mode are
CEFS valves) all the
usedtime. To achieve
for heating andthis flow,intwo
cooling the 4-way,
system.3-position
One of the (4/3)
4/3rotary
valvesvalves
is the (also
supply
and called CEFS is
the other valves) are used
the return for heating
valve. and
The three cooling in
positions ofthe
thesystem.
rotary One
valveofare
thethe
4/3 heating
valves ismode,
the supply
closed
and the other is the return valve. The three positions of the rotary valve are
and cooling mode. A fan coil system is integrated with CEFS valves in a SEHP system as shown the heating mode, closed in
and cooling mode. A fan coil system is integrated with CEFS valves in a SEHP system as shown in
Figure 2. Heat produced with the SER or SEHP system is transferred to the fan-coil units. The heat is
Figure 2. Heat produced with the SER or SEHP system is transferred to the fan-coil units. The heat is
mainly consumed in fan coil units. A heat meter is used to measure the heat returning from fan coil
mainly consumed in fan coil units. A heat meter is used to measure the heat returning from fan coil
units. The residual heat is sent to hot water production in heating mode or to machine room cooling
units. The residual heat is sent to hot water production in heating mode or to machine room cooling
in cooling mode. An analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is used that converts a continuous physical
in cooling mode. An analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is used that converts a continuous physical
quantity (usually voltage) to a digital number that represents the quantity's amplitude. A servo valve
quantity (usually voltage) to a digital number that represents the quantity's amplitude. A servo valve
is used to
is used tocontrol
control flow
flowthrough
throughthe theheat
heatmeter.
meter.

Figure 2. Integration of fan coil and CEFS valves design for a naval ship.
Figure 2. Integration of fan coil and CEFS valves design for a naval ship.

5. Thermodynamic Analysis
5. Thermodynamic Analysis
The thermodynamic design of the ejector heat pump system by the first law only is usually based
onThe thermodynamic
given design of operating
or assumed steady-state the ejectorconditions.
heat pumpThe system by theand
condenser firstevaporator
law only istemperatures
usually based
onare
given or The
fixed. assumed
system steady-state
boiler heat operating
transfer ratesconditions. The condenser and evaporator temperatures
are also known.
are fixed. The system boiler heat transfer rates are also known.
The fundamental simplifications assumed for the model are as follows:
The fundamental simplifications assumed for the model are as follows:
 Steady state of the SER/SEHP
‚ 
Steady No radiation
state heat transfer
of the SER/SEHP
‚  The primary and
No radiation heat transfer secondary fluids are saturated and have the same molecular weight and
ratio of specific heats.
‚ The primary and secondary fluids are saturated and have the same molecular weight and ratio of
 Water at the condenser outlet is saturated liquid
specific heats.
 Water at the evaporator outlet is saturated vapour
‚ Water at the condenser outlet is saturated liquid
 Pressure losses in the pipes and all heat exchangers are negligible
‚ Water
 at Thetheprimary
evaporatorfluidoutlet
expands is saturated
through the vapour
nozzle from the boiler pressure to the evaporator
‚ Pressure losses
pressure. in the pipes and all heat exchangers are negligible
‚ The primary fluid expands
The pressure drop and through
momentumthe nozzle
of thefrom the boiler
secondary flowpressure to the evaporator pressure.
are negligible.
‚  There is no wall friction.
The pressure drop and momentum of the secondary flow are negligible.
‚  is
There All
nofluid
wallproperties
friction. are uniform over the cross section after complete mixing at section 2.
‚ 
All fluid properties areisuniform
Potential energy negligiblyoversmall
the in the section
cross energy equations.
after complete mixing at Section 2.
 The exit velocity at the ejector outlet is ignored.
‚ Potential energy is negligibly small in the energy equations.
‚ TheThe T-s
exit diagram
velocity at of
thethe steamoutlet
ejector ejector
is heat pump cycle is shown in Figure 3. Saturated motive
ignored.
steam enters the ejector at a high pressure P0, temperature T0 and zero velocity corresponding to state

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The T-s diagram of the steam ejector heat pump cycle is shown in Figure 3. Saturated motive
steamEntropy
enters2015,
the17,ejector
1–22
at a high pressure P0 , temperature T0 and zero velocity corresponding to state
(0) and
(0)expands to a pressure
and expands at state
to a pressure at (1).
stateThe
(1).saturated secondary
The saturated vapour
secondary enters
vapour the ejector
enters at pressure
the ejector at
P4 and zero velocity corresponding to state (4).
pressure P4 and zero velocity corresponding to state (4).

Figure 3. T-s diagram of the steam ejector refrigeration and heat pump cycle.
Figure 3. T-s diagram of the steam ejector refrigeration and heat pump cycle.
5.1. Nominal Heat Balance
5.1. Nominal Heat Balance
The conservation of mass principle is expressed as:
The conservation of mass principle is expressed as:
dmcv
 m i  m e (1)
dmcvdt . .
“ mi ´ m e (1)
dt the equation is reduced to:
To obtain a control volume at steady state,
To obtain a control volume at steady state, the
 m i equation
ÿ i.
e m e is reduced to: (2)
ÿ .
mi “ me (2)
The energy rate balance is expressed as:
i e

dEcvis expressed  V 2
  V 2

The energy rate balance  Q cv  Wcv   m i  hi  i  gzi    m e  he  e  gze 
as:
(3)
dt i˜  2 ¸ e  ˜ 2  ¸
. . 2 2
dEcv ÿ . V ÿ . Ve
To obtain a “ Qcv ´volume
control W cv ` at m steady ` i and
i hi state ` gz ´ me thehechanges
toi disregard ` ` gze (3)
dt 2 e
2 in the kinetic and
i
potential energies of the flowing streams from inlet to exit, the equation is reduced to:
To obtain a control volume at steady Q cv  W
0 state and
cv i disregard
 to m i hi   m ethe
he changes in the kinetic and potential
(4)
energies of the flowing streams from inlet to exit, the equation is reduced to:
e

Momentum equation is: . . ÿ . ÿ .


0 “ Qcv ´ W cv ` mi hi ´ me he (4)
Pi Ai   m iVi i Pe Ae   meeVe (5)

Momentum equation is: ÿ . ÿ .


5.2. Main Engine Pi Ai ` mi Vi “ Pe Ae ` me Ve (5)
The heat transfer rate from the engine exhaust gas to the exhaust gas boiler is expressed as:
5.2. Main Engine
Q exh  m exh  hexh ,in  hexh ,out  (6)
The heatm transfer rate from the engine exhaust gas to the exhaust gas boiler is expressed as:
where exh is the engine exhaust gas mass flow rate, hexh ,in is the engine exhaust gas specific
.
enthalpy at the entrance of the Q exhaust .
gas boiler
` and hexh ,out ˘is the engine exhaust gas specific (6)
exh “ mexh hexh,in ´ hexh,out
enthalpy at the exit of the exhaust gas boiler.
.
where mexh is the engine exhaust gas mass flow rate, hexh,in is the engine exhaust gas specific enthalpy
at the entrance of the exhaust gas boiler and hexh,out is the engine exhaust gas specific enthalpy at the
exit of the exhaust gas boiler. 7

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5.3. Exhaust Gas Properties


The exhaust gas properties, which include specific heat at constant pressure, dynamic viscosity
and thermal conductivity, should be determined for the heat transfer analysis. The main components
of the exhaust gas of a diesel engine are CO2 , H2 O, N2 and O2 . The mass fractions of these components
vary with the operating conditions of the engine. When the engine operates at steady state, the injected
fuel quantity and the intake air amount can be measured on the engine test bench.
Except for very low engine loads, the exhaust temperature of a marine engine is between 300 ˝ C
and 380 ˝ C, and the exhaust pressure is slightly higher than the atmospheric pressure. Therefore,
exhaust gas can be treated as a mixture of ideal gases. The specific enthalpy, specific heat and density
of exhaust gas can be calculated as follows [15]:
4
ÿ
hm “ m f i hi (7)
i“1

4
ÿ
c p,m “ m f i c p,i (8)
i“1
ř4
m f i Mi
i“1
ρm “ (9)
4
ř
m f i Mi {ρi
i“1

5.4. Exhaust Gas Boiler


The heat transfer rate of the exhaust gas boiler is expressed as:
. .
Qexh “ Q B (10)
The mass flow rate of the steam is:
.
. QB
m0 “ (11)
h0 ´ h9

5.5. Steam Ejector


The thermodynamic properties at initial states for steam are calculated from the saturation
property. At 50 ˝ C, the saturation pressure of water is 12.350 kPa. At pressures below this value,
water vapour can be treated as an ideal gas with negligible error (under 0.2 percent), even when it is a
saturated vapour [16].
The performance of an ejector is measured by its entrainment ratio w which is the mass flow rate
ratio of the secondary flow to that of the primary flow. It is given as [6]:
.
m
w“ .4 (12)
m0
The efficiency of an ejector can be defined by [6]:
wa
ηE “ (13)
wi
The ejector structure is normally characterised by the area ratio ξ which is defined as the
cross-section area of the constant area section divided by that of the primary nozzle throat. It is
given as [17]:
A2
ξ“ (14)
At
For inlet and outlet conditions, the conservation of energy is given as:
. . `. . ˘
m0 h0 ` m4 h4 “ m0 ` m4 h3 (15)

8159
Entropy 2015, 17, 8152–8173

5.5.1. Nozzle Section


Nozzle efficiency is given as [16]:
h0 ´ h1
ηn “ (16)
h0 ´ h1s
Assuming zero entrance velocity, the velocity of the primary fluid at the nozzle exit is:

V1 “ r2ηn ph0 ´ h1s qs0.5 (17)

The Mach number, M, is the ratio of the actual velocity of the fluid to the velocity of sound at the
same state. The properties of a fluid at a location where the Mach number is unity (the throat) are
called critical properties, and the above ratios are called critical ratios. When steam enters the nozzle
as a saturated vapour, the critical-pressure ratio becomes [16]:
ˆ ˙k{pk´1q
P˚ 2
“ “ 0.576 (18)
Po k`1
Since the ratio of the exit-to-inlet pressure (P4 /P0 ) is less than the critical pressure ratio, the flow
is choked at the nozzle. Then the velocity at the throat, Vt , is the sonic velocity, and the throat pressure,
Pt , is the critical pressure.

5.5.2. Mixing Section


Conservation of mass is:
. . A2 V2
m0 ` m4 “ (19)
v2
Conservation of energy is:
˜ ¸
. . ` . . ˘ V2 2
m0 h0 ` m4 h4 “ m0 ` m4 h2 ` (20)
2

Conservation of momentum is [6]:


. `. . ˘
m0 V1 ` P4 A2 “ m0 ` m4 V2 ` P2 A2 (21)

Including mixing efficiency for the mixing chamber, the momentum equation reduces to:
`. ˘ `. . ˘
ηm m0 V1 ` P4 A2 “ m0 ` m4 V2 ` P2 A2 (22)

5.5.3. Constant Area Section


A normal shock wave occurs if the velocity of the mixing fluid entering the constant area section
is supersonic. In this case, a sudden reaction in the mixture velocity and a rise in the pressure take
place [18]. Also, that the primary and secondary streams mix in the mixing chamber and enter a
normally choked (sonic flow conditions at the throat) secondary converging-diverging nozzle was
stated by [19]:
A2i “ A2e “ A2 (23)

Conservation of mass is:


V2i V2e
“ (24)
v2i v2e
Conservation of energy is:
V2i2 V2
h2i ` “ h2e ` 2e (25)
2 2
Conservation of momentum is:
`. . ˘
A2 pP2i ´ P2e q “ mo ` m4 pV2e ´ V2i q (26)

8160
Entropy 2015, 17, 8152–8173

The Mach number of the mixed flow at Section 2 after the shock wave is
V2
M2 “ ? (27)
kRT2

V2
M2 “ (28)
pkP2 v2 q0.5
From Equations (19), (22) and (28), the cross-sectional area, A2 , is solved by:
.
mo V1 ηm
A2 “ ` ˘ (29)
P2 kM22 ` 1 ´ P4 ηm

ASHRAE [20] proposes that the constant area throat section be typically 3–5 throat diameters long
to accommodate the shock pattern and its axial movement under load.

5.5.4. Diffuser
Conservation of energy is:
V2 2
h2 ` “ h3 (30)
2
The performance of a diffuser is usually expressed in terms of the diffuser and is given as Çengel
and Boles [16]:
h3s ´ h2
ηd “ (31)
h3 ´ h2

5.5.5. The Optimum Mixing Constant Area


.
The optimum mixing constant section area, A2, can be found by maximizing m4 . Hsu [6] calculated
six simultaneous equations containing six unknown differentials, ds2 , dV2 , dh2 , dv2 , dA2 and dP2 .
The optimum criterion to operate an ejector for given conditions is given as:
¨$ ˆ ˙,
T2 /
» ˛fi

’ d ln /
T2 ˚ & v2 . k ‹
M22 —
— ffi
1 ` p1 ´ η d q ˚ ` ‹ffi “ 1 (32)
T3s ˝’ d plnv q P
1´ 4
– 2 // ‚fl

% -
s P2
Finally, M2 and P2 values for the optimum mixing constant section area are calculated as:
k´1 ˆ
» fi
˙
k
M22 –1 ` p1 ´ ηd q pP2 {P3 q k ´ k fl “ 1 (33)
1 ´ P4 {P2

k´1
pP3 {P2 q k ´ ηd M22 pk ´ 1q {2 “ 1 (34)

5.6. Condenser
The rate of heat transfer from the condenser is:
. .
QC “ m3 ph3 ´ h5 q (35)

5.7. Expansion Valve


The throttling model yields the result that:
h6 “ h7 (36)

5.8. Evaporator
The rate of heat transfer to the evaporator is:

8161
Entropy 2015, 17, 8152–8173

. .
Q E “ m4 ph4 ´ h7 q (37)

5.9. Feed Water Pump


The power input to the pump is:
. .
W p “ m0 ph9 ´ h8 q (38)
The following is an alternative to Equation (38) for evaluating the pump work:
˜ . ¸ ż9
Wp
. “ vdP (39)
m0 8

Then:
h9 “ h8 ` pP9 ´ P8 q v8 (40)

The work input to the system in the pump is small and neglected in the calculation of the
coefficient of performance (COP) and efficiency. However; in practice, it is usually estimated to size
the driving motor:
.
. v∆P
W dm “ (41)
ηp

5.10. Overall Mass and Energy Balance of the System


The energy rate balance at steady state is:
. .
Qcv ´ W cv “ 0 (42)
. . . .
QC “ Q B ` Q E ` W p (43)

The mass flow rates are:


. . . . .
m2i “ m2e “ m2 “ m3 “ m5 (44)
. . .
m8 “ m9 “ m0 (45)
. . .
m4 “ m6 “ m7 (46)

5.11. COP
The performance of refrigerators and heat pumps is expressed in terms of the COP, which is
defined for a vapour-compression refrigeration/heat pump as:
.
cooling e f f ect Q
COPR “ “ . E (47)
work input W net;in
.
heating e f f ect Q
COPHP “ “ . C (48)
work input W net;in
The COP of the SER is:
cooling capacity obtained at evaporator
COPR “ (49)
heat input f or the boiler ` work input f or the pump
.
QE
COPR “ . . (50)
QB ` W p

8162
Entropy 2015, 17, 8152–8173

The COP of the SEHP is:


heating capacity obtained at condenser
COPHP “ (51)
heat input f or the boiler ` work input f or the pump
.
QC
COPHP “ . . (52)
QB ` W p

5.12. Solution Procedure


.
‚ Define the design parameters, which include the heat input for the boiler (Q B ), pressures of the
primary motive steam (P0 ), secondary suction vapour (P4 ), condenser (P3 )
‚ Define the efficiencies of the nozzle, mixing and diffuser (ηn , ηm , ηd )
.
‚ Calculate the mass flow rate of steam (m0 )
‚ Calculate the primary flow velocity (V1 )
‚ Calculate the Mach number (M2 ) and pressure (P2 ) at Section 2 for optimum mixing constant area (A2 )
‚ Calculate the optimum mixing constant cross-sectional area (A2 )
‚ Assume value of the entropy (s2 ) with pressure (P2 )
‚ Calculate the enthalpy (h2 ) and specific volume (v2 )
‚ Calculate the enthalpy (h3s ) at state 3s from entropy (s2 ) and pressure (P3 )
‚ Calculate the enthalpy (h3 )
‚ Calculate the velocity (V2 )
.
‚ Calculate the secondary
ˇ mass flow rateˇ (m4 )
ˇ` . . ˘ A2 V2 ˇˇ
‚ Check convergence ˇˇ m0 ` m4 ´ ďε
v2 ˇ
‚ Assume a new value of the entropy (s2 ) and carry out the above calculations again, if tolerance of
convergence is no.
‚ Calculate cooling and heating capacities and COP for SER/SEHP system, if tolerance of
convergence is yes.

For off-design study:

‚ Calculate the Mach number (M2 ) and pressure (P2 ) with known values of A2 , k, ηd , P3 and P4 , if
the boiler pressure is lower than boiler operating pressure
‚ Calculate the pressure (P2 ) with the Mach number (M2 = 1), if the boiler pressure is higher than
boiler operating pressure
‚ Calculate COP for cooling and heating of SER/SEHP.

6. Results and Comparison


In this study, calculations were performed for diesel engine loads of 50%, 75%, 85% and 100%.
The parameters were taken as evaporator temperature TE = 4 ˝ C, condenser temperature TC = 50 ˝ C,
and boiler pressures PB = 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9 MPa. Efficiencies are assumed to be 0.90,
0.85 and 0.90 for the nozzle, mixing and diffuser processes, respectively. Tolerance of convergence
is set to 1%. Specific heat ratio, k, for superheated steam is assumed to be 1.3 in the superheated
steam region.
Figure 4 shows that the variation of Mach number and pressure versus diffuser efficiency for the
optimum mixing section area at Section 2. The results indicate that the pressure decreases as the diffuser
efficiency increases at Section 2. For diffuser efficiency, ηd “ 0.90, solving Equations (33) and (34)
simultaneously yields M2 = 0.7887 and P2 = 8.697 kPa.

8163
set to
0.85 and1%. Specific
0.90 for theheat ratio,
nozzle, k, for
mixing superheated
and steam isrespectively.
diffuser processes, assumed toTolerance
be 1.3 in of
the superheated
convergence is
steam
set to region.
1%. Specific heat ratio, k, for superheated steam is assumed to be 1.3 in the superheated
steamFigure
region.4 shows that the variation of Mach number and pressure versus diffuser efficiency for the
optimum
Figuremixing
4 shows section area
that the at Section
variation 2. The
of Mach resultsand
number indicate thatversus
pressure the pressure decreases for
diffuser efficiency as the
diffuser
optimum efficiency
mixing
Entropy 2015, 17, 8152–8173 increases
section at
area Section
at 2.
SectionFor
2. diffuser
The efficiency,
results 
indicate d  0.90
that the, solving
pressureEquations (33)
decreases as and
the
diffuser efficiency increases at Section 2. For diffuser
(34) simultaneously yields M2 = 0.7887 and P2 = 8.697 kPa. efficiency,  d  0.90 , solving Equations (33) and
(34) simultaneously yields M2 = 0.7887 and P2 = 8.697 kPa.
13
12
(kPa) 13
11
12
10
(kPa)

11
and Pressure

9
10
and Pressure

8
9
7 Pressure (kPa)
8
6 Mach number
7 Pressure (kPa)
number

5
6 Mach number
4
number

5
3
4
Mach

2
3
Mach

1
2
0
1
00.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.05

0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.05
Diffuser efficiency

Diffuser efficiency

Figure
Figure 4. Mach
4. Mach numberand
number andpressure
pressure versus
versus diffuser
diffuserefficiency at Section
efficiency 2. 2.
at Section
Figure 4. Mach number and pressure versus diffuser efficiency at Section 2.
The boiler heat transfer rates depend on the engine load. As the engine load increases, the boiler
The
heat boiler
The heatThe
increases.
boiler transfer
heat boiler,rates
transfer depend
condenser
rates andon
depend the
the engine
evaporator
on engine load.
heat Asthe
transfer
load. As the engine
rates
engine load
increase
load as increases,
the engine
increases, the
loadboiler
the boiler
heat increases.
increases.
heat The
Figure
increases. boiler,
The5 showscondenser
boiler,the and
COPs versus
condenser evaporator
and the heat
boiler pressure
evaporator transfer rates
for heating
heat transfer rates andincrease
cooling
increase as the
given
as the engine
load load
the boiler
engine
increases. Figure
heat transfer
increases. 5 shows
rate.
Figure 5 showsthethe COPsversus
COPs versusthe
the boiler pressurefor
boiler pressure forheating
heating andand cooling
cooling given
given the boiler
the boiler
heat transfer
heat transfer rate.rate.
1.6

1.4
1.6

1.2
1.4

1
1.2
Heating
COP COP

0.8
1
Cooling
Heating
0.6
0.8
Cooling
0.4
0.6

0.2
0.4

0
0.2
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
0
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Boiler Pressure (MPa)

Boiler Pressure (MPa)

Figure 5. COPs versus boiler pressure.


Figure5.5.COPs
Figure COPs versus
versus boiler
boilerpressure.
pressure.
Figure 6 depicts the effect of boiler pressure on entrainment ratio for fixed evaporator and
condenser
Figuretemperatures.
6 depicts the The entrainment
effect ratio of the
of boiler pressure system increases
on entrainment ratio with the increasing
for fixed evaporatorboiler
and
Figure
pressure6atdepicts
condenser the effect
given evaporator
temperatures. Theandof condenser
boiler pressure
entrainment on system
temperatures
ratio of the entrainment
there isratio
since increases more for
with thefixed
motive evaporator
energy.
increasing boiler and
condenser temperatures.
pressure The entrainment
at given evaporator and condenserratio of the system
temperatures increases
since there is morewith theenergy.
motive increasing boiler
pressure at 2015,
Entropy given evaporator and condenser temperatures
17, 1–22 13 since there is more motive energy.
13
0.6

0.5
Entrainment Ratio

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Boiler Pressure (MPa)

Figure
Figure 6. 6. Effectofofboiler
Effect boiler pressure
pressure on
onentrainment
entrainmentratio.
ratio.

Figure 7 depicts the effect of boiler pressure on area ratio for fixed evaporator and condenser
temperatures. The area ratio of the system increases with the increasing boiler pressure at given
8164
evaporator and condenser temperatures.

120
Entr
0.2

0.1

0
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Boiler Pressure (MPa)


Entropy 2015, 17, 8152–8173

Figure 6. Effect of boiler pressure on entrainment ratio.

FigureFigure
7 depicts the the
7 depicts effect of of
effect boiler
boilerpressure on area
pressure on arearatio
ratioforfor fixed
fixed evaporator
evaporator and condenser
and condenser
temperatures. The area ratio of the system increases with the increasing boiler pressure
temperatures. The area ratio of the system increases with the increasing boiler pressure at given at given
evaporator and condenser
evaporator temperatures.
and condenser temperatures.

120

100

80
Area Ratio

60

40

20

0
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Boiler Pressure (MPa)

Figure
Figure 7. 7. Effectof
Effect ofboiler
boiler pressure
pressureononthe area
the ratio.
area ratio.

Figures 8 and 9 show the variation of cooling and heating capacity with change in entrainment
Figures
ratio at8 aand
given9 show
engine theload.
variation of cooling
The cooling and and
heating heating capacity
capacities with
of the change
system in entrainment
increase with the ratio
at a given engine
increase load. Theratio
in entrainment cooling andthe
because heating
latter iscapacities of the system
directly proportional to theincrease
mass flow with
ratethe increase
given to in
the evaporator.
entrainment ratio because the latter is directly proportional to the mass flow rate given to the evaporator.
Of course the mass flow rate . , decreases with the decreasing boiler heat transfer
m
Of course the mass flow rate ofofthe
thesteam,
steam, m
00 , decreases with the decreasing boiler heat transfer
rate at a constant boiler pressure, condenser and evaporator temperatures. Therefore, COP, heating
rate at a constant boiler pressure, condenser and evaporator temperatures. Therefore, COP, heating
and cooling capacity decrease but the entrainment ratio and optimum mixing area ratio do not
and cooling
change. capacity decrease
In this case, but thegas
the exhaust entrainment
boiler operatingratio pressure
and optimum mixing
is increased to area
achieveratio
thedo not change.
needed
In this heating
case, the andexhaust gas cooling
especially boiler operating
capacity. Thepressure
minimum is increased
recommendedto achieve
exhaust thegas
needed heating and
temperature
can be
especially kept ascapacity.
cooling high as 285The°Cminimum
dependingrecommended
on the sulphur content exhaust of gas
the fuel oil in ordercan
temperature to avoid
be keptanyas high
risk
˝ of hydrocarbon and ammonium sulphate condensation. Therefore,
as 285 C depending on the sulphur content of the fuel oil in order to avoid any risk of hydrocarbon the boiler heat transfer
rate decreases.
and ammonium sulphate condensation. Therefore, the boiler heat transfer rate decreases.
For example, Figures 10 and 11 show the cooling and heating capacity and COP versus boiler
For example,
pressures for aFigures 10 and
boiler heat 11 show
transfer rate of the cooling
488 kW,. For and heating
a boiler pressurecapacity
of 0.2 MPa andandCOP theversus
boiler boiler
pressures
heat for a boiler
transfer heat
rate of transfer
488 kW at givenrate of 488 kW,.
evaporator For a boiler
and condenser pressurethe
temperatures, of heating
0.2 MPa andand the boiler
cooling
heat transfer
capacityrate of 488 kWtoatbegiven
are calculated 630.51evaporator
kW and 142.34 andkW, condenser temperatures,
respectively. the heating
COP is calculated to be 1.29and
andcooling
capacity0.29
areforcalculated
the heatingto and
becooling,
630.51 kW respectively.
and 142.34 The kW, heating and coolingCOP
respectively. capacities can meetto
is calculated heating
be 1.29 and
and cooling loads of the case naval surface ship. The residual heat,
0.29 for the heating and cooling, respectively. The heating and cooling capacities can meet 486.51 kW in heating mode andheating
and cooling loads
Entropy 2015, of the case naval surface ship. The residual heat, 486.51 kW in heating mode and
17, 1–22

26.34 kW in cooling mode, is sent to hot water production 14 in heating mode or to machine room cooling
26.34 kW in cooling mode, is sent to hot water production in heating mode or to machine room
in cooling mode, respectively.
cooling in cooling mode, respectively.

900

800

700
Cooling capacity (kW)

600
100%

500 85%

400 75%

50%
300

200

100

0
0.3 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.6

Entrainment ratio

Figure
Figure 8. 8.Effect
Effectofofentrainment
entrainment ratio
ratioon
oncooling
coolingcapacity.
capacity.

3,000
8165
2,500
acity (kW)

2,000
100%

85%
0.3
100 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.6

0
0.3 0.4 Entrainment ratio0.5
0.4 0.5 0.6

Entrainment ratio
Figure 8. Effect of entrainment ratio on cooling capacity.
Entropy 2015, 17, 8152–8173
Figure 8. Effect of entrainment ratio on cooling capacity.
3,000

3,000
2,500
Heating capacity (kW)

2,500
2,000
Heating capacity (kW)

100%
2,000
100% 85%
1,500 85%
75%
1,500
75%
50%
1,000 50%
1,000

500
500

0 0
0.3 0.3 0.35
0.35 0.4
0.4 0.45
0.45 0.5 0.5 0.55 0.55

Entrainment ratio
Entrainment ratio

Figure
Figure
Figure 9. 9.
9. Effect of entrainment ratio
Effect of entrainment ratioon onheating
heatingcapacity.
capacity.
capacity.

800
800
Cooling and heating capacity (kW)

700
Cooling and heating capacity (kW)

700
600
600
500
Heating
500 400
Cooling
Heating
400 300
Cooling
300 200

200 100
0
100
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
0
Boiler pressure (MPa)
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Boiler pressure (MPa)


Figure 10. Cooling and heating capacity versus boiler pressure.

Entropy 2015, 17, 1–22


Figure 10.
Figure 10. Cooling and heating
Cooling and heating capacity
capacity versus
versus boiler
boiler pressure.
pressure.

1.6
15
1.4

1.2
15
1
Heating
COP

0.8
Cooling
0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Boiler pressure (MPa)

Figure 11. COP


Figure 11. COP versus
versus boiler
boiler pressure.
pressure.

6.1. Verification
6.1. of the
Verification of the Results
Results
The entrainment
The entrainment ratios
ratios computed
computed in in the
the SER/SEHP
SER/SEHP system
system areare compared
compared with the theoretical
with the theoretical
results presented
results presentedin
inreferences
references[9,10].
[9,10].The
Thenumerical
numericalresults
resultsfor
forthe
theentrainment
entrainment ratios
ratios areare compared
compared in
in Table 4. The difference in this comparison is acceptable. There is no experimental study based on
the same working conditions of this study or similar ones.

8166
Table 4. Comparison between the entrainment ratios of presented system and the references.

Boiler Pressure (P0), Temperatures of This Study Ref. [10] Ref. [9]
Figure 11. COP versus boiler pressure.

6.1. Verification of the Results


The entrainment ratios computed in the SER/SEHP system are compared with the theoretical
Entropy 2015, 17, 8152–8173
results presented in references [9,10]. The numerical results for the entrainment ratios are compared
in Table 4. The difference in this comparison is acceptable. There is no experimental study based on
the same
Table working
4. The conditions
difference in this of this studyisoracceptable.
comparison similar ones.
There is no experimental study based on the
same working conditions of this study or similar ones.
Table 4. Comparison between the entrainment ratios of presented system and the references.
Table 4. Comparison between the entrainment ratios of presented system and the references.
Boiler Pressure (P0), Temperatures of This Study Ref. [10] Ref. [9]
Boiler Pressure (P ), Temperatures of This Study Ref. [10] Ref. [9]
Condenser (TC) and Evaporator 0 (TE)
Condenser (T ) and Evaporator (TE ) Entrainment Ratio
Entrainment Ratio
C
P0 = 0.6 MPa,P0T=C 0.6
= 50MPa,
°C, TTCE == 450°C 0.430
˝ C, T = 4 ˝ C
E 0.430 0.43 0.43 0.45 0.45
P = 0.8 MPa, T = 50 ˝ C, T = 4 ˝ C 0.482 - 0.48
P0 = 0.8 MPa, TC = 50 °C, TE = 4 °C
0 C E 0.482 - 0.48

6.2. Off-Design Study


There is an optimum mixing constant section area area A22 for each operating condition, yet an ejector
heat pump doesn’t always operate at the design conditions. Therefore, an off-design study should be
performed
performed totodetermine
determinethetheeffect
effectononCOP
COPforfor
thethe
SER/SEHP
SER/SEHP system.
system.Heating andand
Heating cooling capacity
cooling are
capacity
calculated to be 1332.58 kW and 300.83 kW, respectively, for a boiler pressure of 0.2 MPa
are calculated to be 1332.58 kW and 300.83 kW, respectively, for a boiler pressure of 0.2 MPa and and engine
load of load
engine 50% at
of given
50% atevaporator and condenser
given evaporator temperatures.
and condenser temperatures.

1.4

1.2

0.8
Heating
COP

0.6 Cooling

0.4

0.2

0
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Boiler pressure (MPa)

Figure
Figure 12.
12. COP
COP versus
versus boiler
boiler pressure for off-design.
pressure for off-design.

16
In the system operating at the exhaust gas boiler pressure of 0.2 MPa, the optimum area ratio is
determined to be ξ “ 23.30. With the designed the area ratio (ξ “ 23.30), the COP values for heating
and cooling are calculated and plotted in Figure 12 for different boiler pressures.

6.3. Comparison Between an SER/SEHP System and Current System of Naval Ship
The electric power inputs for heating and cooling of the case naval ship are 37.5% and 15.1% of
the naval ship’s installed diesel generator power, respectively. The saved F-76 diesel fuel consumption
(SFC) for heating and cooling can be calculated as:
.
W net
SFC “ (53)
Hu .ηDG

The electrical efficiency (ηDG ) for the diesel generator is 95%. Some values of the logistic fuel
NATO F-76 are presented in Table 5 [2,21,22].

8167
6.3. Comparison Between an SER/SEHP System and Current System of Naval Ship
The electric power inputs for heating and cooling of the case naval ship are 37.5% and 15.1% of
the naval ship’s installed diesel generator power, respectively. The saved F-76 diesel fuel
consumption (SFC) for heating and cooling can be calculated as:
Entropy 2015, 17, 8152–8173 Wnet
SFC  (53)
H u .DG

( DG5.)Values
Table
The electrical efficiency for theof the logistic
diesel fuelisNATO
generator F-76. values of the logistic fuel
95%. Some
NATO F-76 are presented in Table 5 [2,21,22].
Molecular Formula (Average) C14.8 H26.9
Table Molecular
5. Values ofweight
the logistic fuel NATO F-76.
205
Sulphur content, wt.% (max) 0.1
Molecular Formula
Density, at 15 (Average)
˝ C, kg¨ m ´3 (max) C14.8876
H26.9
Molecular
Fuel price, weight
US$¨ gallon ´1 , (2015) 2053.69
Sulphur
Lower content,
heating value,wt.% kg´1
(max)
Hu , kJ¨ 0.1
42,700
Density, at 15 °C, kg·m−3 (max) 876
Fuel price, US$·gallon−1, (2015) 3.69
If an SEHP system is usedLower
instead of electric duct heaters in 42,700
heating value, Hu, kJ·kg−1
heating mode, 14,550 L of diesel fuel
(US$14,511) can be saved and 38.30 tons of CO2 emissions reduced at the end of 1000 operating hours a
year of a naval
If an surface ship.isIfused
SEHP system an SER system
instead is used
of electric ductinstead of heating
heaters in seawater cooled
mode, chiller
14,550 unit fuel
L of diesel in cooling
mode, (US$14,511) can befuel
5837 L of diesel saved and 38.30can
(US$5822) tonsbe
of CO 2 emissions
saved reduced
and 15.36 tons at
ofthe
COend of 1000 operating
2 emissions reduced hours
at the end
of 1000aoperating
year of a naval
hourssurface
a yearship.
of aIfnaval
an SER systemship.
surface is used instead of seawater cooled chiller unit in
cooling mode, 5837 L of diesel fuel (US$5822) can be saved and 15.36 tons of CO2 emissions reduced
at the end Between
6.4. Comparison of 1000 operating hours aSystem
an SER/SEHP year of aand
naval
an surface ship.AHP System
H2 O-LiBr
The
6.4.reference
Comparisonsystem
Between consists of an
an SER/SEHP H2 O-LiBr
System and an H AHP system
2O-LiBr driven exhaust heat of a 3000 kW
AHP System
diesel engine [2]. Figures 13 and 14 show cooling and heating capacities
The reference system consists of an H2O-LiBr AHP system driven exhaust versus engine
heat of load
a 3000forkWthe SER
and SEHP
dieselsystem
engine and an H2 O-LiBr
[2]. Figures AHP
13 and 14 showsystem.
coolingThe
and cooling and heating
heating capacities capacities
versus engine loadof for
thethe
SER and
SEHP and H2 O-LiBr
SER and AHP and
SEHP system system
an Hincreases
2O-LiBr AHPwith the increasing
system. The coolingengine load capacities
and heating at given ofevaporator
the SER and
and SEHP
condenser and H2O-LiBr
temperatures. TheAHP system
cooling increasesofwith
capacities the increasing
H2 O-LiBr engine load
AHP system are at giventhan
higher evaporator
SER but the
and condenser temperatures. The cooling capacities of H 2O-LiBr AHP system are higher than SER
heating capacities are lower than SEHP for the same engine with the same load.
but the heating capacities are lower than SEHP for the same engine with the same load.

1,600
AHP (90 oC)
1,400 AHP (95 oC)
Cooling capacity (kW)

AHP (100 oC)


1,200
AHP (105 oC)
1,000 AHP (110 oC)
SER (0.2 MPa)
800
SER (0.3 MPa)
600 SER (0.4 MPa)
SER (0.5 MPa)
400
SER (0.6 MPa)
200 SER (0.7 MPa)
SER (0.8 MPa)
0 SER (0.9 MPa)
50 75 85 100

Engine load (%)

Figure 13. Cooling capacity versus engine load.


Entropy 2015, 17, 1–22 Figure 13. Cooling capacity versus engine load.

17
3,000
SEHP (0.9 MPa)
SEHP (0.8 MPa)
2,500
SEHP (0.7 MPa)
Heating capacity (kW)

SEHP (0.6 MPa)


2,000
SEHP (0.5 MPa)
SEHP (0.4 MPa)
1,500 SEHP (0.3 MPa)
SEHP (0.2 MPa)
1,000 AHP (110 oC)
AHP (105 oC)
500 AHP (100 oC)
AHP (95 oC)
0 AHP (90 oC)

50 75 85 100

Engine load (%)

Figure
Figure 14.14.Heating
Heating capacity
capacity versus
versusengine load.
engine load.

6.5. Comparison between an SER/SEHP System and a VCHP System


The reference system in this case consists8168
of a conventional diesel generator, which provides
electricity and heat, and a vapour-compression heat pump (VCHP), which produces heating and
cooling. VCHPs generally have COPs of 2–4 and deliver 2–4 times more energy than they consume.
The electric motor of the compressor in a VCHP is fed by a diesel generator set on board the ship. As
1,000 AHP (110 oC)

Heati
AHP (105 oC)
500 AHP (100 oC)
AHP (95 oC)
0 AHP (90 oC)

50 75 85 100
Entropy 2015, 17, 8152–8173
Engine load (%)

6.5. Comparison between an SER/SEHP System


Figure 14. and
Heating a VCHP
capacity System
versus engine load.

The reference between


6.5. Comparison systemaninSER/SEHP
this case System
consistsandof a conventional
a VCHP System diesel generator, which provides
electricity and heat, and a vapour-compression heat pump (VCHP), which produces heating and
The reference system in this case consists of a conventional diesel generator, which provides
cooling. VCHPs generally have COPs of 2–4 and deliver 2–4 times more energy than they consume.
electricity and heat, and a vapour-compression heat pump (VCHP), which produces heating and
The electric motor of the compressor in a VCHP is fed by a diesel generator set on board the ship.
cooling. VCHPs generally have COPs of 2–4 and deliver 2–4 times more energy than they consume.
As theTheenergy
electricfor the entire
motor naval ship’s
of the compressor in aelectrical
VCHP is fedload byisa produced fromset
diesel generator diesel generator
on board sets,
the ship. As each
electrical load directly
the energy for the affects the overall
entire naval fuel economy
ship’s electrical load isand emissions.
produced from diesel generator sets, each
Fuel consumption
electrical load directlyand CO2the
affects emissions decrease
overall fuel economyto produce the same amount of power given by a
and emissions.
VCHP system when an SER/SEHP
Fuel consumption system is
and CO2 emissions used. As
decrease the SER/SEHP
to produce the same system
amount is of assumed
power givento by
replace
a VCHP
the VCHP systemthe
system, when an SER/SEHP
results system
of the system is used.will
studies As the SER/SEHP
depend on thesystem
COP is ofassumed
the VCHP. to replace
the VCHP
Based on system, the results
the engine of the
load, the system demand
heating studies will
is depend
assumed on to
thebe
COP of the VCHP.
1332.58, 1774.36, 1916.14 and
2379.16 kW, Based
theon the engine
cooling load,isthe
demand heating to
assumed demand is assumed
be 300.83, 400.56,to432.57
be 1332.58, 1774.36,kW,
and 537.10 1916.14 and COP
and the
2379.16 kW, the cooling demand is assumed to be 300.83, 400.56, 432.57 and 537.10 kW, and the COP
is assumed to be 2, 3 and 4 for the VCHP. The amounts of cooling and heating produced by the
is assumed to be 2, 3 and 4 for the VCHP. The amounts of cooling and heating produced by the
SER/SEHP in each system can be regarded to correspond to electricity saving. The saving is calculated
SER/SEHP in each system can be regarded to correspond to electricity saving. The saving is calculated
by estimating fuel and
by estimating fuel the
andelectricity input
the electricity needed
input to produce
needed to produce thethe
same heating
same heating and
andcooling
coolingeffect
effectusing
the VCHP. The calculations are performed with COPs of 2, 3 and 4 for the
using the VCHP. The calculations are performed with COPs of 2, 3 and 4 for the VCHP. Figures VCHP. Figures 15 15
and 16
present the SFC versus heating and cooling capacities for a boiler pressure of
and 16 present the SFC versus heating and cooling capacities for a boiler pressure of 0.2 MPa. 0.2 MPa.

120
The saved fuel consumption (kgh-1)

100

80
VCHP of COP=2
60 VCHP of COP=3
VCHP of COP=4
40

20

0
1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 2,000 2,200 2,400 2,600

Heating capacity (kW)

Figure15.
Figure 15.SFC
SFC versus
versus heating
heatingcapacity.
capacity.
Entropy 2015, 17, 1–22

25 18
The saved fuel consumption (kgh-1)

20

15 VCHP of COP=2
VCHP of COP=3
10 VCHP of COP=4

0
270 320 370 420 470 520 570

Cooling capacity (kW)

Figure 16. SFC versus cooling capacity.


Figure 16. SFC versus cooling capacity.

At the end of 1000 operating hours a year of a naval surface ship, the SER/SEHP system can use
more than 99.5% less electricity compared with the vapour-compression heat pump for HVAC. It can
save 33,712–120,447 L of diesel fuel in the heating cycle and 7581–27,139 L of diesel fuel in the cooling
cycle depending on the engine load and COP of8169 the vapour-compression heat pump.
Figures 17 and 18 show the reduced CO2 emission versus heating and cooling capacities for a
boiler pressure of 0.2 MPa. At the end of 1000 operating hours a year of a naval surface ship, the AHP
system can improve the ship’s green profile because it will reduce its annual CO2 emissions by
Th
0
270 320 370 420 470 520 570

Cooling capacity (kW)

Entropy 2015, 17, 8152–8173


Figure 16. SFC versus cooling capacity.

At the end of 1000 operating hours a year of a naval surface ship, the SER/SEHP system can use
At the end of 1000 operating hours a year of a naval surface ship, the SER/SEHP system can use
more than 99.5% less electricity compared with the vapour-compression heat pump for HVAC. It can
more than 99.5% less electricity compared with the vapour-compression heat pump for HVAC. It can
save 33,712–120,447 L of diesel fuel in the heating cycle and 7581–27,139 L of diesel fuel in the cooling
save 33,712–120,447 L of diesel fuel in the heating cycle and 7581–27,139 L of diesel fuel in the cooling
cycle depending on the engine load and COP of the vapour-compression heat pump.
cycle depending on the engine load and COP of the vapour-compression heat pump.
Figures 17 and 18 show the reduced CO emission versus heating and cooling capacities for a
Figures 17 and 18 show the reduced CO22 emission versus heating and cooling capacities for a
boiler pressure of 0.2 MPa. At the end of 1000 operating hours a year of a naval surface ship, the
boiler pressure of 0.2 MPa. At the end of 1000 operating hours a year of a naval surface ship, the AHP
AHP system can improve the ship’s green profile because it will reduce its annual CO2 emissions
system can improve the ship’s green profile because it will reduce its annual CO2 emissions by
by 88.74–317.05 tons in the heating cycle and 19.95–71.43 tons in the cooling cycle depending on the
88.74–317.05 tons in the heating cycle and 19.95–71.43 tons in the cooling cycle depending on the
engine load and COP of the vapour-compression heat pump.
engine load and COP of the vapour-compression heat pump.
Figures 19 and 20 show the profitability plotted against the heating and cooling capacities,
Figures 19 and 20 show the profitability plotted against the heating and cooling capacities,
respectively. The fuel price is set to US$3.69 gallon´1 and the operating hours are 1000 h a year.
respectively. The fuel price is set to US$3.69 gallon−1 and the operating hours are 1000 h a year. In this
In this case, the COPs used for the VCHP are 2, 3 and 4. The SEHP system can provide an annual
case, the COPs used for the VCHP are 2, 3 and 4. The SEHP system can provide an annual energy
energy savings of US$33,621–US$120,122 and the SER system can provide an annual energy savings of
savings of US$33,621–US$120,122 and the SER system can provide an annual energy savings of
US$7561–US$27,065.
US$7561–US$27,065.

350
The reduced CO 2 emission (kgh-1)

300

250

200 VCHP of COP=2


VCHP of COP=3
150
VCHP of COP=4

100

50

0
1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 2,000 2,200 2,400 2,600

Heating capacity (kW)

Entropy 2015, 17, 1–22 Figure 17.


Figure Reduced CO
17. Reduced CO22 emissions versus heating
emissions versus heating capacity.
capacity.

80

70
The reduced CO 2 emission (kgh-1)

60

50 19
40

30
VCHP of COP=2
20
VCHP of COP=3

10 VCHP of COP=4

0
270 320 370 420 470 520 570

Cooling capacity (kW)

Figure
Figure 18.
18. Reduced
Reduced CO
CO22 emissions
emissionsversus
versuscooling
cooling capacity.
capacity.

140,000

120,000
ty (US$year-1)

8170
100,000

80,000 VCHP of COP=2


VCHP of COP=3
10 VCHP of COP=4

0
0
270 320 370 420 470 520 570
270 320 370 420 470 520 570
Cooling capacity (kW)
Cooling capacity (kW)

Entropy 2015, 17, 8152–8173


Figure 18. Reduced CO2 emissions versus cooling capacity.
Figure 18. Reduced CO2 emissions versus cooling capacity.

140,000
140,000

120,000
120,000
(US$year ))
-1 -1

100,000
Profitability(US$year

100,000

80,000 VCHP of COP=2


80,000 VCHP of COP=2
VCHP of COP=3
VCHP of COP=3
60,000
Profitability

60,000 VCHP of COP=4


VCHP of COP=4
40,000
40,000

20,000
20,000

0
0
1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 2,000 2,200 2,400 2,600
1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 2,000 2,200 2,400 2,600
Heating capacity (kW)
Heating capacity (kW)

Figure 19. Profitability of the SEHP system as a function of heating capacity.


Figure
Figure 19.
19. Profitability
Profitability of
of the
the SEHP
SEHP system
system as
as aa function
function of
of heating
heating capacity.
capacity.

30,000
30,000

25,000
25,000
(US$year
Profitability(US$year ))
-1 -1

20,000
20,000
VCHP of COP=2
VCHP of COP=2
15,000 VCHP of COP=3
15,000 VCHP of COP=3
Profitability

VCHP of COP=4
VCHP of COP=4
10,000
10,000

5,000
5,000

0
0
270 320 370 420 470 520 570
270 320 370 420 470 520 570
Cooling capacity (kW)
Cooling capacity (kW)

Figure 20.
Figure Profitability of
20. Profitability of the
the SER
SER system
system as
as aa function
function of
of cooling
cooling capacity.
capacity.
Figure 20. Profitability of the SER system as a function of cooling capacity.

7. Conclusions
A seawater cooled SER/SEHP system 20 for a naval surface ship was designed and
20
thermodynamically analysed. The SER/SEHP system was compared with those of a current system in
a case naval ship, an H2 O–LiBr AHP system and a VCHP system in a case naval surface ship. The dual
use of ejector technology to produce heating and cooling on board a naval ship was investigated.
The off-design study estimated the COPs were 0.29–0.11 for the cooling mode and 1.29–1.11 for
the heating mode, depending on the pressure of the exhaust gas boiler at off-design conditions. In the
system operating at the exhaust gas boiler pressure of 0.2 MPa, the optimum area ratio obtained
was 23.30.
The results show that the seawater-cooled SER/SEHP system not only meets the actual cooling
and heating and loads of the case naval surface ship, but also provides more. The SER system is
particularly attractive in applications that have a cooling demand and a source of heat, such as naval
surface ships. The SEHP system is needed for the HVAC as waste heat from a running ship engine
may be sufficient to provide enough heat to meet the heating load.
The results show that SER/SEHP is an environmentally friendly way to produce heating and
cooling as it reduces the use of an electrically driven heat pump in the energy system and thus global

8171
Entropy 2015, 17, 8152–8173

CO2 emissions. Moreover, as water can be used as the refrigerant in SER/SEHP, the problem of
environmentally harmful refrigerants used in VCHP is avoided.
Compared with current system of a case naval ship, SER and SEHP system have the advantages
of lower energy consumption, CO2 emissions and EEDI. Despite the low COP values obtained in this
study, the SEHP operating in the heating mode offers better performance than electrical resistance
type heating.
Compared with an AHP system, SER and SEHP system have the advantages of lower cost,
simplicity, and minimal maintenance, even though its efficiency is still relatively low. More importantly,
an absorption heat pump is prone to corrosion and occupies a large installation space, while an ejector
heat pump is convenient and compact.
Compared with a VCHP system, SER and SEHP system have the advantages of lower of energy
consumption, CO2 emissions and EEDI. More importantly, the naval ship's susceptibility can be
dramatically reduced by lowering infrared and acoustic signature. In future studies, variable area
ejectors for seawater-cooled SER/SEHP system application should be investigated.

Acknowledgments: The views and conclusions contained herein are those of the authors and should not be
interpreted as necessarily representing official policies or endorsements, either expressed or implied, of any
affiliated organisation or government. We wish to thank Mech. Eng. Azize Ezgi for helpful suggestions and
critical comments.
Author Contributions: Cüneyt Ezgi conceived and designed the research, analysed the data. Cüneyt Ezgi and
Ibrahim Girgin worked out the theory, and wrote the manuscript. Both authors have read and approved the
final manuscript.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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© 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access
article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons by Attribution
(CC-BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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