Is Management a science or an Art

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Thecreticians and teachers of management side with the view that management is science as economics, mathematics and the madical science. The paractitioners and the empiricists cliam that management is a practice; the art of getting things done, realizing a goal through men and material resources (neccesarily corstrained) in dynamic and mostly nonrepetitive situations.

What is science?
What are its elements?firstly, it is an organized and systemetice bodys of knowledge Acquired through research and observation. Second , this body of knowledge must be universally true, barring exceptions if any, which can be logically explained away. Third , its structure and the element that make it must be related through a couse and effect relationship;if the same cause tends to different consequences at diffrrent causes or combinations of them, the scientificity of the situation is drastically mutilated.

What is Art?
Art (not referring for the present,to the fine arts like music or painting) is a practice to achieve an aim in a given situation with some material assistance and the artist s skill. The fine arts too are not far away from the scope of this definition. Music or painting seek to achieve an effect with colour or instruments but mainly with the artist s own skill. Management is nothing if it does not achieve results. If functions in a situation given to the manager or, at beat ,as he may refashion it withhis own skill. A theoretical body of lessons and principles which the manager would have learnt in a class room or a seminar would not secure him the aimed result, unless he has the skill(the art) of applying such principles and body of knowledge to his special problem. Management thus is quite an art a practice, an application of a skill that produces result.

life cases.since people are present there has to be communication. Many of the management principles and the laws of behavious have a wide.offer a near laboratory method of demonstrating application of management theory in concreate real . ii. repetitive range of application. Management is coordinate and coextensive with the direction of economic efforts to a desired goal.Other features of management science are : i. The universality of management : The comments in the previous section take us readily to the concept of universality of the management process. Thus if there has to be planning for setting priorities. about the process of management. iv. Whatever the situation and whatever the level of management . and we shall see in more detail as we proceed further on. The situation in which the management process of management is relevant and called for is thus ubiquitous and universal. If there are constrained economic resources in the two way vector: a quantitative and dircctional optimization to watch that there are no criss-cross(counter-productive) or erring moves away from the goal. iii. factories and inside business. and leadership toward reaching the goal. that the process of management comprises certain elements or functions. .the management function are comman. Case studies competently built and conducted. science and principles can be taught with a fair level of precision in the class rooms. coordination and motivation. Management theory. We have briefly observed. Now. Management and its element share largely the features of a system and offer a field for growing application of systems theory.

These groups of activities . Two salient emphasis can be observed throughout Fayol s work . Coordination and Control . Organization . the concept that management can be taught in a classroom or the work place just as science is taught in the lecture hall and the laboratory . His work was published in 1908 in the journal of the Congress of Metallurgical Society for which Fayol s papers were repared . Command. First . Fayol saw management as a scientific process built up of five immutable elements Planning . Second . by far the most important name is that of Henry fayol whose work lay in the formulation of the basic principles of management .HENRY FAYOL AND SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT In the other stream of management thought . Fayol isolated the activities which are common to all forms of Management and Administration. Fayol was an engineer General Manager of a mining and metallurgical concern. the immutable and the repetitive character of the management process .

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