The slopedeflection method uses displacements as unknowns and is referred to as a displacement method. In the
slopedeflection method, the moments at the ends of the members are expressed in terms of displacements and end
rotations of these ends.
An important characteristic of the slopedeflection method is that it does not become increasingly complicated to
apply as the number of unknowns in the problem increases. In the slopedeflection method the individual equations
are relatively easy to construct regardless of the number of unknowns.
DERIVATION OF THE SLOPEDEFLECTION EQUATION
When the loads are applied to a frame or to a continuous beam, the member will develop end moments and become
deformed as indicated. The notation used in the figure will be followed.
∆j θi − φ =
M ij
−
L M ji
+
L
q L3
3EI 6EI 24 EI
M ij
+ θ j −φ = −
M ij L
+
M ji L
−
q L3
6EI 3EI 24 EI
− M ji 2EI q L2
q L2
M ij =
L
( 2 θ i + θ j − 3φ ) − 1 2
8
2EI q L2
+ M ji =
L
(θ i + 2 θ j − 3 φ ) + 1 2
Now we wrote Mij and Mji in terms of the deformations Θi , Θj Φij and the external load q acting on the member.
These equations are referred to as SLOPEDEFLECTION EQATIONS. Slopedeflection equations consider only
bending deformations. Deformations due to shear forces and axial forces in bending members are ignored.
2EI ∆
= 2θ n + θ − 3 ± M
FEM
M nf f nf
L L
Example: It is required to determine the support moments for the continuous beam.
1 2 3
59.375 62.5
+ +
Shear Force Diagram
3.125 m

40.62
5 87.5
97.66
54.69
+
+ Bending Moment Diagram

46.875
93.75
Example: A continuous beam is supported and loaded as shown in the figure. During loading support 2 sinks by 10 mm.
Analyze the beam for support moments and reactions.
E = 200 *10 6... mkN2
40 kN 10 kN/m 20 40* 4 I = 100 *10 − 6...m 4
−M = M =
F F
= 20kNm
1 2
12 21
8 EI = 20000...kNm 2
3
10*62
− M 23 = M 32 =
F F
= 30kNm
12
2 2m 6m 2
S lo p e − D e fle c tio n . E q u a tio n s
1 2EI 0 .0 1
3 M 12 = θ2 − 3 − 20 =
4 4
φ12 = 0.01 2
φ23 = −0.01
6 2EI 0 .0 1
4 M 21 = 2θ 2 − 3 + 20 =
4 4
M 23 2EI 0 .0 1
M 21 M 32 20*2 = 40.kNm M 23 = 2θ 2 + θ 3 + 3 − 30 =
6 6
2 3 2EI 0 .0 1
M 32 = θ
2 + 2 θ 3 + 3 + 30 =
6 6
5 1 .6 6 7
1 .6 6 7 θ 2 + 0 .3 3 3 3θ 3 =
M 21 + M 23 = 0 EI
M 32 − 40 = 0 2 3 .3 3 3
0 .3 3 3 3θ 2 + 0 .6 6 6 7 θ 3 = − S u b stitu d e .th ese .resu lts
EI
4 2 .2 2 2 in . slo p e .d eflectio n .eq u a tio n s
θ2 = = 2 .1 1 1 .1 0 − 3 ra d
EI M 1 2 = − 7 3 .8 8 9 kN m , → M 2 1 = − 1 2 .7 7 8 kN m
− 5 6 .1 1 1 M = 1 2 .7 7 8 kN m , → M 3 2 = 4 0 kN m
θ3 = = − 2 .8 0 5 5 .1 0 − 3 ra d 23
EI
40
73.889
10 kN/m
12.778 40 20
1 3
20 30 20
21.67 8.8
38.8
+
Shear Force
−  3.125 m − Diagram
1.67
41.67
21.2
35.25
9.45 12.778
+ Bending Moment
+ Diagram
 −
40
73.889
ANALYSIS OF FRAMES WITH NO SIDESWAY
A frame will not side sway, or be displaced to the left or right, provided it is properly restrained. Also no side sway will
occur in an unrestrained frame provided it is symmetric with respect to both loading and geometry.
Example: It is required to analyze the frame for moments at the ends of members. EI is constant for all members.
20.kN / m 40kN
FixedEnd Moments
3
1 2
20* 42
2 −M = M =
F
12
F
21 = 26.67 kNm
20kN 12
40* 4
2 − M 23F = M 32F = = 20kNm
4 8
20* 4
− M 42F = M 24F = = 10kNm
8
4m 2 2
S lo p e − D e fle c tio n . E q u a tio n s
2EI
M 12 = θ 2 − 2 6 .6 7 = −27.88 M 21 M 23 M 32
4
2EI 2 3
M 21 = 2 θ 2 + 2 6 .6 7 = 24.245
4
2EI
M 23 = ( 2 θ 2 + θ 3 ) − 2 0 = −31.82 M 24
4
2EI
M 32 = (θ 2 + 2θ 3 ) + 2 0 = 0 Equilibrium .equations.of . joınts
4
M 21 + M 23 + M 24 = 0
2EI
M 42 = (θ 2 ) − 1 0 = −11.21 M 32 = 0
4
2EI 2EI
M 24 = ( 2 θ 2 ) + 1 0 = 7.575 ( 6θ 2 + θ 3 ) + 1 6 .6 7 = 0
4 4
2EI − 2 .4 2 5 − 1 8 .7 8 7
(θ 2 + 2θ 3 ) + 2 0 = 0 → θ 2 = → θ3 =
4 EI EI
20 24.25 31.82 40 S u b stitu d e .th ese .resu lts . in . slo p e .d eflectio n .eq u a tio n s
24.08
27.88
7.57 39.09 + 7.57 +
20 12.04 − − −−
+ + 24.25
31.82
11.21 − − 27.88 10.61 +
+
9.09 27.96
40.91
−
− 11.21
10.91
Example: Find Member end moments and draw shear and moment diagrams
60.kN / m M 21 + M 23 = 0
Equilibrium equations of joints M 32 + M 34 = 0
2 3 1 .5 E I θ 2 + 0 .2 5 E I θ 3 = 3 2 0
EI is constant 4 0 .2 5 E I θ 2 + 1 .5 E I θ 3 = − 3 2 0 → θ 2 =
256
→ θ3 =
−256
EI EI
1 4 S u b stitu d e .th ese .resu lts . in . slo p e .d eflectio n .eq u a tio n s
M 1 2 = 1 2 8 kN m , → M 2 1 = 2 5 6 kN m
8 M 23 = − 2 5 6 kN m , → M 3 2 = 2 5 6 kN m
60*82 M 3 4 = − 2 5 6 kN m , → M 43 = − 1 2 8 kN m
−M = M =
F
23
F
32= 320.kNm
12 240
A frame will side sway or be displaced to the side when the frame or loading acting on it is nonsymmetric. In the
analysis of frames with side sway it is necessary to consider the shear forces at the base of the columns and the
horizontal external load must be in equilibrium (force equilibrium equation) in addition to the equilibrium of joints.
Example: Using the slopedeflection method determine the end moments of the members and draw the shear force and
bending moment diagrams of the frame. EI is constant throughout the frame.
40. kN ∆ ∆
m
Axial deformation is neglected (no change
in length of the members) so the lateral
θ2 θ3 displacement of joint2 and 3 are equal.
2 3
2
60.kN S lo p e − D e fle c tio n . E q u a tio n s
1 2EI ∆
4 M 12 = θ 2 − 3 − 30 =
4 4
1 1 60* 4
− M 12F = M 21F = = 30kNm 2EI ∆
8 M 21 = 2θ 2 − 3 + 3 0 =
4.m 40* 42 4 4
− M 23 = M 32 =
F F
= 53.33kNm 2EI
12 M 23 = ( 2θ 2 + θ 3 ) − 5 3 .3 3 =
4
2EI
Equilibrium Equations M 32 = (θ 2 + 2θ 3 ) + 5 3 .3 3 =
4
M 21 + M 23 = 0 2EI ∆
60 M 34 = 2θ 3 − 3 =
M 32 + M 34 = 0 3 3
Q43 2EI ∆
Q12 Q12 + Q 43 + 60 = 0 M 43 = θ
3 − 3 =
3 3
Shear forces at the base of columns
3 5 .3 3 3 − 5 .0 6 θ 2 −240
1
4 1 − 0 .7 5 θ 3 = EI 4 6 .6 7
M 21 M 34 − 1 .3 3 ∆ − 1 0 6 .6 7
2 3 1 4 .6 6 7
2 3 .9 6 − 1 4 .8 5 7 4 5 .9 8
θ2 = → θ3 = → ∆ =
60 EI EI EI
M 43 S u b s titu d e .th e s e . r e s u lts . in
Q43
4 s lo p e . d e fle c tio n .e q u a tio n s
1 Q12
M 12 M 1 2 = − 3 5 .2 6 k N m , → M 21 = 3 6 .7 2 k N m
M = − 3 6 .7 9 k N m , → M = 5 0 .4 5 k N m
∑ M 2 = 0 → M 21 + M 12 − 4Q12 − 2 * 60 = 0
23 32
M 34 = − 5 0 .4 6 k N m , → M 43 = − 4 0 .5 6 k N m
∑M 3 = 0 → M 34 + M 43 − 3Q 43 = 0
M 21 + M 12 83.43
Q12 = − 30
4
M + M 43
+
Q 43 = 34 −
3 30.37 +
76.57
Shear 30.34 −
40 − (kN)
3m 5 2.25
M +M
M 23 + M 32
5
∑ M 3 = 0 → 3Q43 + 23 5 32 * 2.25 − ( M 43 + M 34 ) = 0
M 21 M 34 ∑ F x = 0 → Q12 + Q43 + 50 = 0
2 3
Equilibrium Equations
Q43
M 12 M 21 + M 23 = 0
Q12 M 43 4
M 32 + M 34 = 0
1
11.02 M 23 + M 32 Q12 + Q 43 + 50 = 0
M 23 + M 32 5
5 +
17.06 4 1 0 .1 5 θ 2 0
1
− 0 .2 0 .9 3 3 − 0 .0 8 7 θ = 0
E I
3
− − 0 .0 3 0 .0 8 6 7 − 0 .3 6 1 ∆
9.67 − 2 5
− 4 .5 9 7 .6 4 6 7 1 .4 1
θ2 = → θ3 = → ∆ =
25.1 EI EI EI
+
S u b s titu d e .th e s e . r e s u lts . in
+ s lo p e . d e fle c tio n .e q u a tio n s
− −
M 1 2 = − 2 3 .2 6 k N m , → M 2 1 = − 2 5 .1 k N m
30 +
34 M 23 = 2 5 .1 0 k N m , → M 32 = 30 kN m
− M = − 30 kN m , → M = − 34 kN m
34 43
23.26
Example: Determine the member end moments and draw the shear and moment diagrams of given continuous beam.
3 kNm 2 kNm
12
1 2 hinge 3 hinge 4
10 5 5 10
6 12.5
+ + Shear
− Force
− Diagram
36 6
7.5
30 39.06
+ +
Bending
−
− 25 Moment
Diagram
210
Example: Find the member end moments and draw the shear force and bending moment diagrams of the given frame.
20. kN m
20. kN
m
2 3 2 3
3
Frame is symmetrical both loading and
1 4 1 geometry. Half of the frame can be analyzed
4 10 4 M 23 20 kN M 32
m
Diagram Moment
Diagram