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CoreNet Global

Key International Sustainability Systems:
Energy and Water Conservation Requirements

Prepared for CoreNet Global by Ove Arup & Partners Ltd. | March 2014
Primary Authors:
Jenn McArthur, Arup Toronto
Nubia Herrera, Arup New York
Pallavi Mantha, Arup New York

Contributing Authors and Reviewers:

Liz Meddings, Arup London

Dr. Gerard Healey, Arup Sydney
Jimmy Yam, Arup Hong Kong
Filique Nijenmanting, Arup Amsterdam
Jaroslaw Witek, Arup Warsaw
Dion Anandityo, Arup Singapore
Russell Cole, Arup London
Rebecca Hatchadorian, Arup Boston
Frederick Wong, Arup Shanghai
Alexander Kobler, Arup Sydney
Oliver Schwabe, Arup Berlin
Marcelo Nudel, Arup Brazil
Cameron Thomson, Arup New York
Jamie Loader, Brookfield Office Properties, Sydney


The research funding to develop this report has been generously donated by Arup, Brookfield Office Properties and CoreNet


While the information contained in this report has been reviewed for accuracy based on the information available at the time
of its writing (March 31, 2014), it is intended to be a high-level document and is limited in scope. For example, while certain
legislative requirements have been included in the Appendices, this is not intended to be a comprehensive list and does not
include a review of codes or other regulations. Similarly, incentives listed are only those idenfitied by the sustainability system
website as significant benefits of adopting the system. Finally, the market trends noted in the appendices are broad themes
noted by Arup sustinability consultants in the countries listed and may not apply to each builidng.

This report was developed to provide a comparison of water and energy credit requirements for various sustainability
systems for CoreNet Global. It is not intended for and should not be relied upon by any third party and no responsibility is
undertaken to any third party. The reader is advised to undertake specific market research to identify all legislative
requirements, applicable local codes and standards, available incentives and relevant market data prior to selecting the target
for a particular project.

March 2014 | Arup

1.0 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 5.0 Water Credits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

2.0 Overview of Sustainability Systems. . . . . . . 3 5.1 Indoor Water Use Reduction . . . . . . .. . 42

5.2 Outdoor Water Use Reduction . . . . . .. . 44
2.1 BREEAM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
5.3 Fixture Specification Credits. . . . . . . . . 45
2.2 LEED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
5.4 Leak Detection Credits . . . . . . . . . . . 45
2.3 Green Mark. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5.5 Water Metering Credits . . . . . . . . . . . 45
2.4 BEAM PLUS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
5.6 Potable Water Quality. . . . . . . . . . . . 47
2.5 Green Star . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5.7 Water Recycling . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 47
2.6 NABERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5.8 Cooling Tower Water Management . . . .. . 47
2.7 ENERGY STAR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

6.0 Vignettes of Certified Buildings

3.0 Guidelines for Selecting a Sustainability Rating in Various Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
6.1 One Shelley St.Sydney, Australia . . . . .. . 48
3.1 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
6.2 Brookfield Place, Calgary, Canada. . . . . . 49
3.1.1 Legislative Requirements 19
6.3 The Shard, London, UK. . . . . . . . . . . 50
3.1.2 Investor, Owner
or Tenant Requirements 20 6.4 Construction Industry Council Zero Carbon
Building, Hong Kong . . . . . . . . . . .. . 51
3.1.3 Economic Factors 20
6.5 Changi City, Singapore . . . . . . . . . . . 52
3.1.4 Market Dynamics 21
3.1.5 Incentives 21
3.1.6 Risk Management 22 7.0 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
3.2 Decision Making Framework . . . . . . . 23
3.3 Sample Application of the Framework. . . 26
8.0 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

4.0 Energy Credits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

4.1 Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions . . . 28 Appendix A - Region-Specific Information. . . . . 58

4.2 CO2 Emissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 A1.0 Americas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
4.3 Sub-Metering/Measurement . . . . . . . 31 A2.0 Europe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
4.4 Lighting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 A3.0 Oceania . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
4.5 Use of Renewable Energy. . . . . . . . . 35 A4.0 Asia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
4.6 Heat Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 A5.0 Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 65
4.7 Commissioning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
4.8 Car Park Lighting and Ventilation. . . . . 38
4.9 System-Specific Credits . . . . . . . . . 39

CoreNet Global | International Sustainability Systems Comparison




LEED LEED Green Star
Green Mark

March 2014 | Arup

1.0 Arup was engaged to provide a report
comparing the individual Energy- and
This report is laid out as follows:

Introduction Water-related credit requirements for

major sustainability systems globally, as
• Section 2 provides a brief overview of
each of the major systems
well as a framework to guide the considered,
decision-making process to select the
• Section 3 provides a decision-making
most appropriate sustainability rating
system(s) and target rating for a given
project. • Section 4 compares the types of
energy credits included in each
The scope of this report is limited to system and compares each credit
major sustainability systems applicable type across systems,
to new commercial office building
construction. Fit-out/interiors-only • Section 5 includes the same
systems have not been included in this comparison for water-related credits,
version of the repor t. “Major” and
certification systems for the purpose of
this report have been defined as • Section 6 includes case studies
systems that are: highlighting global projects achieving
certification in each system
• Used widely outside the country of
development, and/or The Appendix includes country-specific
information to support the decision-
• The most commonly-used system in making process and includes a
summary of trends noted by Arup in the
the countries where more than 1% of
selection of sustainability rating systems
CoreNet Global Members as of
and targeted certifications in each
January 2014, and
market. In several countries, there are
additional sustainability rating systems
• Are current: where multiple versions that are also widely used and this has
of the same system are widely used also been included in the Appendix.
between countries, those considered Note that region/country-specific water
as current by the local Green Building and energy Codes, standards and
Council (e.g. LEED® 2009 in Brazil related laws and incentive schemes
vs. LEED v.4 in the USA and Canada have not been included in this report
(in-transition). except as examples.

CoreNet Global | International Sustainability Systems Comparison 1

Overview of



SOURCE: REED, 2011; UP TO 2010


UK USA USA Australia
Green Globes

‘90 ‘95 ‘96 ‘00 ‘01 ‘02 ‘03


France Japan Canada

2 March 2014 | Arup

This report includes eight sustainability The timeline below indicates the relative
sys te m s, f i ve of w h i c h a re development of each of these systems,
comprehensive in scope, two are along with several other early
energy-only and one is water only: sustainability systems beyond the
scope of this report.
• BREEAM International 2013
These systems are compared in terms
• LEED (2009 and v4) of level of achievable certification,
incremental credit requirements to
• Green Mark (version 3) achieve this certification level and the
relative emphasis for each of energy-
• BEAM Plus related, water-related and other types of
• Green Star
The following pages provide a brief
• NABERS Energy overview of each of these systems as
well as an at-a-glance look at the
• ENERGY STAR system and its geographic prominence.
The Appendix contains more detail on
• NABERS Water the relative popularity of each system in
various countries.

Green Star LEED Green Star BEAM PLUS LEED

Australia India South Africa Hong Kong v.4

Green Globes Green Mark LEED

Canada Singapore 2009

1 ‘02 ‘03 ‘05 ‘06 ‘07 ‘08 ‘09 ‘10 ‘11 ‘12 ‘13 ‘14


Japan Canada Poland Vietnam International
Emirates Romania
German GBC Netherlands
Water Brasil

CoreNet Global | International Sustainability Systems Comparison 3



UK USA Singapore Hong Kong Australia Australia USA






Energy and Water


↑25 ↑10 ↑15
↑15 GOLD
↑10 SILVER ↑15
GOOD ↑10 ↑50
↑40 ↑40 ↑45

1-3 STAR

4 March 2014 | Arup









Green Star
20,000 Green Mark 2
LEED (Membership)
Green Star (Membership)




1. Note that administrative fee includes the registration, accreditation/assessment and certification
fee but excludes the design fee associated with the project as well as any costs incurred by the design
Notes: team to document compliance. This suggests a reduced relative cost for LEED and Green Star ratings
1 Note that administrative fee includes the registration, accreditation/assessment and certification fee but excludes the design
2. For projects exceeding 400,000 sft under BEAM PLUS or 1,000,000 and up in Green Mark, the fees are
fee associated with theonproject
determined as well as any
a project-by-project costs incurred by the design team to document compliance. This suggests a
reduced relative cost for LEED and Green Star ratings systems.

For projects exceeding 400,000 sft under BEAM PLUS or 1,000,000 and up in Green Mark, the fees are determined on a
project-by-project basis.

CoreNet Global | International Sustainability Systems Comparison 5

2.1 BREEAM is the Building Research
Establishment’s (BRE) Environmental
Assessments are carried out by
licenced BREEAM Assessors who are
BREEAM Assessment Method. It was first
launched in the UK in 1990 by the BRE,
members of the project team. New
assessors undergo a four day training
an independent and impartial, research- course which includes an examination.
based consultancy. The organisation Once the course has been passed,
was originally a government department assessors submit their assessment
but was privatised in 1997. BRE is also reports. These undergo a quality
a founding member of the UK Green assurance (QA) process by BRE. The
Building Council. first few assessments undergo a full QA
where every credit and all the evidence
BREEAM sets the standard for best is checked. Following that, only a
practice in sustainable building design number of credits are checked for each
and construction. Its main aims are: assessment, to ensure that the
Assessor still meets quality standards.
• To mitigate the life cycle impacts of
buildings on the environment. BREEAM is used as the main rating
system in the UK. It is a global scheme
• To enable buildings to be recognised and there are a number of countries
according to their environmental where country-specific schemes have
benefits. been developed in Austria, Germany,
Netherlands, Norway, Spain, and
• To provide a credible, environmental Sweden. It has been used widely in
label for buildings. Europe and is gaining ground in other
regions too.
• To stimulate demand for sustainable

The ratings aim to demonstrate how

environmentally sustainable a building
is. The Outstanding rating is intended
to be achieved by innovators making up
less than top 1% of UK new non-
residential buildings. The Excellent
rating is aligned with best practice
buildings making up the top 10% of new
non-residential buildings. Very Good
reflects “advanced good practice” (top
25%), while Good could be achieved by
the top 50% of UK non-residential
buildings. Finally, the Pass rating
applies to the top 75% and is considered
standard good practice.

6 March 2014 | Arup





BREEAM Countries with certified or

registered projects

Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Methodology

BENCHMARKS < 30 > 30 > 45 > 55 > 70 > 85



Management 12 22

Health & Wellbeing 15 10

Energy 19 30

Transport 8 9

Water 6 9

Materials 12.5 12

Waste 7.5 7

Land Use & Ecology 10 10

Pollution 10 13

Innovation 10 10

CoreNet Global | International Sustainability Systems Comparison 7

2.2 Leadership in Energy & Environmental
Design, LEED©, is the sustainability
have a LEED® Coordinator who runs a
charette with the various team members
LEED rating system created by the US Green
Building Council (USGBC) 2000 in the
to identify which credits to pursue. This
individual will work with the team to
United States of America. It is a complete the credit templates which are
voluntary point-based sustainability submitted to the Green Building
assessment program for building Certification Institute (GBCI), who grants
projects. Each project is awarded building certification. There is an
scores against a standard set of credits optional Design Application phase
and the sum of the points awarded where individual credits will receive
determines the level of certification feedback from the GBCI on whether the
(Certification, Silver, Gold, or Platinum) credit is “Anticipated” or “Denied”. The
achieved. team is permitted to appeal the ruling
on denied credits for a $500 fee, or
LEED is based on a set of performance- accept all rulings and continue to the
based criteria and therefore there is a Construction Application Phase.
wide range of paths to achieve the level
of certification desired by incorporating While a formal accreditation for the
strategies that meet specific criteria.All LEED® coordinator is not mandatory, it
LEED projects are evaluated per each is strongly encouraged (and allocated
criterion which is either a ‘Prerequisite’ one credit) for this person to be a
or ‘Credit’ which results in a point score LEED® Accredited Professional (LEED®
for certification: AP). Up until June 30, 2009, there
existed a LEED® AP credential that had
Prerequisites: This category is based no recer tification or continuing
on minimum requirements and must be education requirements; it is no longer
met. No further points will be awarded offered but individuals with this
unless the minimum is achieved. There credential have been grandfathered
are a total of seven prerequisites. under these rules. Since 2009, two new
credentials exist. The first is the LEED®
Credits: Credits are evaluated and Green Associate (LEED® GA), which
result in a point score. The total points requires a general exam to be written
possible are 110 points. and 15 continuing education credits
earned in every two year renewal
LEED 2009 Rating System addresses period., and the LEED® Accredited
the design features of the project across Professional with speciality (e.g. LEED®
a range of criteria in five credit AP (BD+C for Building Design and
categories: Sustainable Sites, Water Construction), which requires a rating
Efficiency, Energy and Atmosphere, system-specific exam to be written and
Materials and Resources and Indoor 30 continuing education credits related
Environmental Quality. In addition to to their specialty in every two year
existing categories, recently released period.
LEED v4 brought together existing and
new credits and created two additional LEED® has become the dominant
categories: Integrative Process and sustainability ratings system globally
Location and Transportation. and is the most commonly-used system
in the USA, Canada, Mexico, Central
Once the pre-requisites have been and South America and India. It is
satisfied for a project, the choice of widely used in China and the Gulf region
credits to pursue is at the discretion of as well as most of Europe (particularly
the project team. Typically, the team will Western Europe).

8 March 2014 | Arup







LEED Countries with certified or

registered projects

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design

BENCHMARKS 40-49 50-59 60-79 > 80



Sustainable Sites 24 22 26

Water Efficiency 9 10

Energy & Atmosphere 32 30 35

Materials & Resources 13 14

Indoor Environmental Quality 14 15

Innovation in Design 5 6

Regional Priority 4 4

CoreNet Global | International Sustainability Systems Comparison 9

2.3 The Green Mark Scheme was launched
in January 2005 as an initiative of
Certification of the building is a
c o o p e rati ve p ro c e s s invo l v in g
Green Mark Singapore’s Building Construction
Authority (BCA) with the goal to promote
interaction between the BCA and the
development team (developer, building
“sustainability in the built environment owner or government agency) from pre-
and raise environmental awareness design through construction.
among developers, designers and
builders” (BCA website). While The application process requires
certification is voluntary, the scheme is submission of an application by the
heavily based on the Code for deve lope r, building ow ne r or
Environmental Sustainability of Buildings government agency pursuing the
and results in all new buildings being certification to the BCA as an expression
constructed in this city-state to the of interest. Next, there is a preliminary
minimum certification level. To achieve meeting for the BCA assessment team
higher levels of certification (Gold, to brief the project team on the Green
GoldPLUS or Platinum) an increasing Mark criteria and the requirement for
number of credits must be achieved, documentary proofs and reports for
along with specific additional pre- subsequent submissions.
requisite requirements for GoldPLUS or
Platinum ratings. The actual assessment is performed by
an independent assessor within the
The four goals identified by the BCA for BCA and includes design and
the Green Mark scheme are as follows: documentary reviews and, once the
project is complete, site verification.
• Facilitate reduction in water and Evidence of compliance with credit
energy bills, requirements is submitted by the project
team at the end of the assessment and
• Reduce potential environmental a letter of award is consequently
impact, provided to the team indicating the
certification level achieved. (Source:
• Improve indoor environmental quality BCA website).
for a healthy and productive
workplace, This scheme has been adopted outside
of Singapore with certified projects in
• Provide clear direction for continual Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and
improvement. China.

10 March 2014 | Arup

Green Mark: AT A GLANCE





Green Mark Countries with certified or

registered projects

BENCHMARKS 50 - 74 75 - 84 85 - 90 > 90


* Not eligible for formal certification


Energy Efficiency 61 116

Water Efficiency 9 17

Environmental Protection 22 42

Indoor Environmental Quality 4 8

Other Green Features 4 7


CoreNet Global | International Sustainability Systems Comparison 11

2.4 The Hong Kong Building Environmental
Assessment Method (HK-BEAM) was
There are three schemes for BEAM
Plus: New Buildings, Existing Buildings
BEAM PLUS one of the early schemes to be
developed and launched in 1996, to
and Interior. This document considers
only the New Buildings Standard,
guide the design and assess the overall effective July 2012.
performance of new and existing
buildings in Hong Kong. It has since Four levels of certification are available
then gone through various updates to within the BEAM Plus system: Bronze,
reflect the continuous improvement in Silver, Gold and Platinum. Certification
the industry, with the latest version, is awarded by the Hong Kong Green
BEAM Plus (v1.2) launched in July 2012 Building Council (HKGBC) and the
by Hong Kong Green Building Council assessment is performed by an
(HKGBC). assigned independent BEAM Assessor
(BAS) at BEAM Society Limited (BSL),
BEAM Plus integrates the assessment who is entrusted to facilitate the
of many key aspects of building assessment and will sign an agreement
performance, embracing the following with the Applicant for this purpose. The
categories: BSL assessors will review the
documentation provided by the project
• hygiene, health, comfor t, and team to support the BEAM Plus
amenity; certification application. As in the
LEED® system, there is the option to
• land use, site impacts and transport; appeal denied credits.

• use of materials, recycling, and waste BEAM Plus is the dominant sustainability
management; system used in Hong Kong and has
also been adopted for projects in Macau
• water quality, conservation and and Southern China.
recycling; and

• energy efficiency, conservation and


12 March 2014 | Arup





BEAM PLUS Countries with certified or

registered projects

BENCHMARKS 10-19 20-29 30-44 45-59 60-74 75+

* Not eligible for formal certification


Site Aspects 25 25

Material Aspects 8 23

Energy Use 35 30 44

Water Use 12 10

Indoor Environmental Quality 20 35

Innovations & Additions 10 6

CoreNet Global | International Sustainability Systems Comparison 13

2.5 Green Star is a voluntary sustainability
rating system for buildings in Australia.
To obtain building certification, the
project team prepares documentary
Green Star It was launched in 2003 by the Green
Building Council of Australia (GBCA)
evidence to demonstrate that the
project meets the Green Star
and considers a range of different benchmarks for the targeted level within
building types across all stages of the each credit. This is reviewed by an
built environment lifecycle. The building independent assessment panel who
types currently covered include assign the rating based on documentary
comme rcial, retail, re side ntial, evidence provided by the team.
healthcare and education, with recently
specific tool being developed for fit-outs The Green Star Accredited Professional
and interiors. (GSAP) qualification is intended for
professionals working on Green Star
Green Star rating system looks at a projects and allows them to participate
building’s management, internal in ongoing training related to this work.
environment, energy consumption, To achieve this qualification, individuals
water consumption, material selection must pass an exam and achieve 15
and ecology degradation to give a continuing professional development
building a star ratingBuildings achieve (CPD) points within each 12-month CPD
star ratings based on the design of the period.
project, with no requirement to prove
results in ongoing operation. . The star
ratings start at One Star but formal
certification is not awarded below a
Four Star level. The ratings are intended
to reflect the building performance as-
follows: Four Star - Best Practice, Five
Star, Australian Excellence; Six Star,
World Leadership.

A recent study published in May, 2013

has found that of the over 600 projects
in Australia to adopt the tool, a typical
Green Star project will emit62% fewer
Greenhouse Gases and consume 66%
less electricity than the average
Australian building. They also consume
51% less potable water, and recycle
96% of their construction and demolition

14 March 2014 | Arup

Green Star: AT A GLANCE




Green Star Indicates countries with certified or

registered projects

BENCHMARKS 10-19 20-29 30-44 45-59 60-74 75+

* Not eligible for formal certification


Management 10 12

Indoor Environmental Quality 20 27

Energy 25 30 29

Transport 10 11

Water 12 12

Materials 10 22

Land Use & Ecology 8 8

Emissions 5 16

Innovation 5

CoreNet Global | International Sustainability Systems Comparison 15

2.6 NABERS (National Australian Built
Environment Rating System) was initially
Ratings are awarded based on the
findings of independent 'Accredited
NABERS developed in New South Wales,
Australia (NSW) in 1998. The purpose of
Assessors' . To receive full accreditation,
each assessor is required to attend
this system was to provide energy training, pass an exam and complete
ratings for offices and was adopted as two supervised. Note that the online
the Australian Building Greenhouse self-assessment tool can be used by
Rating (ABGR) by the NSW anyone but promotion of results until the
Government’s Sustainable Energy rating has been certified by the NABERS
Development Authority (SEDA). It was National Administrator can be promoted
applied nationally in 2000 at the request using the NABERS trademark.
of the property industry Throughout
Australia, commercial buildings over NABERS Energy for offices ratings are
2,000m2 are now required to advertise based on, consumption data for the
their NABERS rating when leasing or building (e.g. electricity and gas bills)
selling a property. collected by Accredited Assessors
along with building data ( size, hours of
The vision statement of NABERS s 'To occupation, climate location and density
support a more sustainable  built of occupation).  'The NABERS Energy
environment through a relevant, reliable and Water for offices Rules for
and practical measure of building Collecting and Using Data v.3.0”.
performance.' defines the requirements for this Data.
This data is input into the NABERS
In 2006, a second NABERS tool was calculator,  which adjusts the building
launched to allow rating of water consumption based on building data to
consumption in offices. Other rating compare building peers. The final rating
scales have since been developed for is on a scale from Zero Star (very poor
Waste and Indoor environment (2008), performance) to Six Star (market-
Energy and Water for shopping centres leading).
(2009) and energy for data centres
(2013). In 2013, NABERS became The NABERS Office Water rating is
international in scope as NABERSNZ similar except that water consumption is
was launched in New Zealand. used, hours of operation are not
considred and only the whole building
The tool is tailored for office spaces, water use can be rated, rather than
hotels, shopping centres, residential base building, tenancies or whole
homes and data centres. It looks building as is the case for Energy.
primarily at the amount of energy, water
or waste consumed and compares this
to a baseline. Assessments of each
building are undertaken by third party
assessors and a score is assigned on a
scale from 0 to 6 stars. Note that
NABERS ratings apply to different parts
of a building; for example one office
tower could have a base building rating,
tenancy fit-out rating and whole building

16 March 2014 | Arup

2.7 ENERGY STAR is a voluntary program
established in 1992 by the U.S.
ENERGY STAR estimates cumulative
greenhouse gas reductions of 1903
ENERGY STAR Environmental Protection Agency (EPA),
under the authority of the Clean Air Act.
million tonnes of CO2 between 1993
and 2012 from their programmes as a
The mandate of the ENERGY STAR whole, including appliance standards as
Program was defined in the Energy well as building ratings.
Policy Act (2005) to "identify and
promote energy–efficient products and
buildings in order to reduce energy
consumption, improve energy security,
and reduce pollution through voluntary
labeling of or other forms of
communication about products and
buildings that meet the highest energy
efficiency standards." (Source: https://

The system consists of both product

ratings (e.g. household appliances) and
building ratings (residential, commercial
and industrial). Buildings are rated using
the ENERGY STAR Portfolio Manager
buildings/use-portfolio-manager) and
commercial Buildings achieving a score
of 75 or higher as verified by a Licensed
Professional (Professional Engineer or
Registered Architect are eligible to
apply for the ENERGY STAR rating. A
Licensed Professional must verify the

1. All energy use is accounted for


2. Building characteristics (e.g. square

footage) have been properly reported
(including the square footage of the

3. The building is fully functional in

accordance with industry standards,

4. That each of the indoor environment

criteria has been met.

CoreNet Global | International Sustainability Systems Comparison 17

Guidelines for Selecting a
Sustainability Rating System

3.1 In each building, a unique combination

of factors will influence the decision to
When more than one of the drivers is
present, an understanding of these
Requirements pursue one or more Green Building
Ratings, and it is not possible to provide
drivers and how they may complement
one another offers the potential for
a one-size-fits-all recommendation. increased benefit at reduced cost. For
Instead, this section will first identify the example, a developer may be primarily
factors that tend to influence this focused on improved building
decision, discuss in more detail how economics while their target tenant is
these factors are considered, and requesting a specific rating system (e.g.
provide a framework to guide the LEED or Green Star) to comply with
decision-making process for a particular their own Corporate Sustainability
building in its context. Finally, a sample policy. In such a case, the developer will
application of the framework will be realize a double benefit by mandating
provided to walk through this process the design team to achieve a minimum
and illustrate how the approach can be number of credits in each of the energy
used. reduction and water use reduction
categories as part of achieving this
Broadly speaking, the drivers for Green certification.
Building certifications are one or more
of the following: The following sections discuss each of
these drivers and the factors that may
1. Legislative Requirements affect each.

2. Investor, Owner or Tenant


3. Building Economics

4. Market Dynamics

5. Incentives

6. Risk Management

18 March 2014 | Arup

3.1.1 There are a number of policies at
national/federal, provincial/state and
in other cases project registration is
not required but compliance with the
Legislative municipal levels around the world that
mandate minimum cer tif ication
requirements for certification must be
demonstrated. For example:
Requirements requirements for new construction,
significant renovations or additions. • Bristol is one of several cities in the
These may refer to local green UK that demands minimum BREEAM
standards or green building guidelines “Very Good” for building permit
or to the international systems approval
discussed in this report. These can take
a variety of forms: • In Toronto, compliance with the first
tier requirements of the Toronto
1. Federal or regional mandatory Green Standard (TGS) is mandatory
disclosure requirements for estimated for building permit application.
energy and/or water consumption.
• In Boston, Article 37 requires that
For example, in Australia, the LEED scorecards be provided as
Commercial Building Disclosure part of the permitting process to
(CBD) Program requires energy demonstrate that projects would
efficiency information to be provided meet the certified level of LEED (a.k.a.
in most cases when commercial “LEED Certifiable”), including all
office space of 2000 square metres prerequisite requirements (though
or more is offered for sale or lease, project certification through GBCI is
and the NABERS rating system is not mandatory). Article 37 has been
used for this purpose. in effect since January 2007.

A second example is mandatory 4. Eco-districts where building permits

building labelling with Energy or site plans will not be approved
Performance Certificates within the without a commitment to achieve a
European Union. particular rating or its equivalent.

2. Federal, Provincial/State or Municipal For example, new construction in the

codes may mandate sustainable Marina Bay area in Singapore must
elements consistent with one or more achieve Green Mark GoldPLUS or
sustainability system requirements Platinum certification

For example, in Singapore, dual-flush In each of these cases, this sets the
water closets are mandatory (single- minimum requirement for the project to
flush may not be sold) due to water proceed. Often, there are other factors
scarcity. In several other countries the that drive a higher level of certification
production or import of incandescent than this minimum (as discussed in the
light bulbs is banned. following sections), and because a
minimum set of requirements is
3. Municipal requirements of a minimum mandatory, the incremental cost for
standard of achievement for Building achieving this certification is thus
Permit application. reduced. For example, the TGS has
several mandatory elements that
Sometimes this is directly tied to the overlap with the LEED® rating system,
certification of a building to either a providing “free” credits towards LEED®
local or international standard, while certification.

CoreNet Global | International Sustainability Systems Comparison 19

3.1.2 Several investors, landlords and
developers have corporate sustainability
and connectivity associated with Green
Buildings. Market perception of “being
Investor, mandates to only build or hold as equity
sustainable buildings. Similarly, many
Green” also leads to these tenant
requests, and drives the trend towards
Owner or Tenant tenants have corporate sustainability Green Valuation and Green Premium
mandates or Green Lease policies to rental rates discussed in section 6.1.4.
Requirements only move into certified space. These
mandates often set project requirements In rare cases, a tenant will require an
high above any legislated minimum uncommon certification system in the
requirements. For example, the US local market due to a particular investor
General Services Administration (GSA) requirement or a characteristic unique
mandated in 2013 that all new owned to a particular building type. For
federal buildings must achieve LEED® example, Terminal 4 at the Melbourne
Gold certification (up from LEED® Silver Airport is certified within the LEED®
mandated in 2006) while leased space system in order to facilitate comparison
must be LEED® Silver. to building peers (other international
airports) rather Green Star.
In addition to these mandates, certified
buildings are often preferred by tenants
because of the reduced utility costs,
improved indoor environmental quality

The economic driver is particularly For tenants or owner-occupiers who

3.1.3 strong and it is critical to understand pay their own utility and maintenance

Economic Factors how the selection of an appropriate

certification target can decrease the life
costs or landlords who include these
costs in the rent, the benefits of the
cycle cost of the building in several above are readily apparent. For
ways, including the following: landlords who pass on the utility bills to
their tenants, there is still a benefit in
• Reduced energy consumption from markets where properties are compared
improved efficiency of equipment and based on total cost of occupying the
systems and overall space planning space (i.e. gross rents) rather than
to minimize dependence on artificial comparison on the base rent only.
lighting and mechanical ventilation,
heating and cooling For the landlords and building owners,
the implementation of each of these
• Reduced water consumption measures will incur a capital cost, which
(particularly hot water, which further has been a deterrent for some.
reduces energy) through the use of However, by bundling together the
low-flow fixtures and decreased marginal cost items (“low-hanging fruit”)
irrigation and non-potable uses with more significant investments that
pay back more slowly, significant long-
• Improved system per formance term cost savings can be achieved with
confirmed through a rigorous a healthy internal rate of return for the
commissioning process i n v e s t o r/ l a n d l o r d . Legislative
requirements often contribute strongly
• Improved controls to minimize the to the business case for pursuing
use of equipment when not required, certification as many of the measures
decreasing both energy and water required for certification will have to be
consumption while also increasing included in the project by law,
the equipment life decreasing the incremental costs of
improving the building compared to the
• Improved system documentation and baseline case.
monitoring to allow trending of data to
quickly identify equipment failure,
leaks or other sources of waste
20 March 2014 | Arup
As the number of measures implemented
is increased, two things should be
carefully considered: the trade-offs or
synergies between measures, and the
potential to add an additional measure
that has poor payback in and of itself,
but increases the level of certification to
one that is more commercially beneficial.

There are commercial benefits to There is little consensus on the best

3.1.4 achieving certification in several real way assess the value of Green

Market estate markets. These certifications

facilitate a common language in the
properties against “typical” properties,
however real estate trends in several
Dynamics industry for marketing and competitive
advantage recognition purposes.
markets show a clear preference for
tenants to occupy buildings with a
Further, in many markets, increased particular certification level. This then
certification above the norm commonly corresponds with decreased vacancy
results in improved absorption and rates and increased rent. For example,
increased rental rates. Where we have the Green Building Council in Australia
noticed consistent market trends published a series of case studies
indicating an expected level of comparing Green Buildings with their
certification for new commercial market comparables and found a clear
buildings, we have described these market advantage to certification (GBCA
trends in the region- and country- 2009).
specific sections of the Appendices.

3.1.5 There is a myriad of incentive programs 2. Rebates on energy-efficient or water-

available globally and each building will conserving equipment or fixtures. For
Incentives be eligible for a particular subset of example, Austin Energy (Texas)
these incentives based on its location, provides a rebate for new chillers and
size, context and type. Typically, other equipment based on both peak
incentives are offered by federal or demand and first-year annual energy
provincial/state government agencies, savings compared with the code
utility providers and municipal bodies. baseline.
The following is a non-exhaustive list of
incentive types and examples of each: 3. Tax benefits. For example, the
Government of Canada has created a
1. Zoning exemptions. For example, specific depreciation class for
Hong Kong and Singapore both grant re newa ble powe r ge ne ration
permission to developers to build equipment to improve payback
additional gross floor area beyond periods.
that which is allowed by zoning by-
laws if a minimum certification level is

CoreNet Global | International Sustainability Systems Comparison 21

3.1.6 Sustainability rating system credits are
earned by providing several features
To maximize the benefits of the above,
owners/landlords are encouraged to
Risk Management that decrease risk for the building
owner/landlord. These include:
mandate the achievement of these
credits as part of the design brief for the
• Fu n d a m e nt a l a n d e n h a n c e d
commissioning requirements that There is an intrinsic risk reduction
insure that the building is in working associated with energy conservation. In
order at handover the majority of countries, the electricity
sector faces significant near- and long-
• H a n d o v e r documentation term uncertainties including fuel prices,
requirements to provide the facility demand growth, and environmental and
manager with all documentation climate policy. Energy efficiency
required to properly operate and investments can provide an important
maintain the building (often included tool for managing risk by reducing
in commissioning) exposure to uncertain costs (e.g., fossil
fuels), deferring major generation
• Monitoring and verification systems to investments, and reducing
allow real-time tracking of energy and environmental liabilities. Energy
water consumption and alert the efficiency investments have inherent risk
facility manager to equipment mitigation benefits for these very
malfunction, leaks or sources of reasons. Energy efficiency investments
waste also minimize the expected value of
future costs and protect ratepayers from
• Decreased reliance on conventional sudden increases in natural gas prices,
energy sources through on-site etc.
generation, which improves resilience
of the facility in case of power outages With energy codes being constantly
updated and standards increasing,
• Incorporation of passive design there is an obsolescence risk for
e le me nts to re duce e ne rg y buildings that only just meet energy
consumption and limit the impact of code as they will perform poorly with
future energy cost increases contemporary buildings that exceed
code as well as future buildings
designed to increasingly stringent
codes. A focus on energy efficiency
during design mitigates this risk.

22 March 2014 | Arup

3.2 The framework provided on the next
pages consists of questions rather than
Before the framework can be used, the
following preliminary questions must be
Decision Making answers to allow it to be tailored to any
project. The series of questions includes

Framework the evaluation of relevant factors and 1. Where is the project to be located?
focuses extensively on benefits and (Country, City, Neighbourhood)
costs to take advantage of synergies
between different drivers and determine 2. What legislative requirements exist in
the optimal certification for a project. this location?

The framework consists of two 3. What are the local market dynamics/
flowcharts. The first guides the process expectations for new construction?
to identify the primary sustainability
certification system and target rating. In 4. Who are the prospective tenants
many locations, a local standard may be (names or t ypes) and what
a legislative requirement and would be requirements have they identified for
the tool identified in this step. The sustainability certification?
second flowchart is used after the first
to identify whether a second certification 5. Who is investing in this building?
is likely to be beneficial to the project
and provides guidance on how to Once this information is known, the
determine what that should be. flowcharts can be used. Each starts in
the top left corner. Numbers in
parentheses refer to notes included on
that page, which echo the issues
discussed in detail in the previous
section. Each “Yes” or “No” answer
leads to either a follow-up question
(diamond), a statement of a resultant
project requirement (circle), or a
recommendation (rectangle).

CoreNet Global | International Sustainability Systems Comparison 23


Are there any
legislative requirements?(1) Yes This will set the
or minimum minimum for the project
market expectations (2) for (system and certification level)
sustainable building



Is there a customer Yes

Recommended target is the
expectation for a higher
customer’s expected level
certification level?

Is there a customer Yes

Recommended target is the
expectation for a higher No
customer’s expected level
certification level?

No there a
Recommended target is the
Yes highest rating with a positive
commercial or
incremental Net Present Value
economic benefit to
to guard against future
improvement over
obsolescence risk (5)
the mandatory
rating? (4)
Recommend that the most
commonly-pursued rating
system be used at a standard
level typical of the region
refer to Appendix 1 for
guidance No

Recommended target is the

identified project mandatory

1 For example, is there a minimum rating required by the permitting authority, mandatory disclosure (e.g. NABERS for offices exceeding 2000m2) or other
incentive (e.g. GFA concessions for buildings achieving BEAM PLUS * in Hong Kong) that effectively mandates adoption of a particular rating system and
certification. (Refer to Appendix 1).
2 Some markets have clear expectations for minimum standards or ratings systems. Refer to the Appendix for trends noted by Arup regarding minimum
expectations in commercial office buildings by region/country.
3 This includes both investor and prospective tenants and the decision-making factors for this is similar to that in Question 2
4 Factors that indicate a commercial or economic benefit for an enhanced level of certification include:
1. Market dynamics indicate a correlation with increased rental rates and higher building sustainability ratings
2. Reduced operating cost (either for an owner/occupier scenario or where the market looks primarily at gross rents (i.e. a reduction in OpEx will
allow a higher base rent). A financial analysis specific to the proposed building is required to properly asses this factor.
3. A known market demand for higher sustainability ratings that is expected to improve absorption.

24 March 2014 | Arup


Are there any Recommended target is the
communicated Yes communicated requirement,
requirements for unless there are known
any additional economic benefits to
systems? (6) exceeding it (4)


Is the
incremental Recommended target is the highest
Is there a cost of rating with a positive incremental Net
market expectation Yes secondary rating Yes Present Value (NPV). This will guard
for a minimum system justified compared against future obsolescence risk as the
certification level? with potential sustainability demands of the market
(6) commercial increases over time (5)
gains? (7)

No No

Recommended target is the

Do not pursue a sceondary minimum level expected by
rating at this time the local market

5 Note that in all regions, we have noted a consistently increasing market demand for the achievement of higher sustainability ratings. Further, in regions
where operational energy performance labeling is mandatory, a better-performing building will achieve high ratings without additional investment for a
longer period than a moderately-performing building as the market baseline increases.
6 For example: 1. Are there investor requirements for a sustainability rating system certification that is otherwise uncommon in the local market(e.g.
Corporate Sustainability requirements for investment only in buildings achieving a minimum certification level within a particular standard,
2. Would similar buildings internationally all target a particular rating system that differs from the local (e.g. Airports often pursue LEED®
certification, even when this rating system is uncommon locally, for the purposes of international comparison)
7 A similar economic analysis to that indicated in #2 is recommended, considering this time only the incremental cost of achieving a second certification
along with any associated incremental gains (rental uplift, reduced risk due to larger potential tenant market, etc) A sustainability specialist with local
experience should be consulted to assist with this incremental cost calculation. The energy and water credit comparisons provided in this report will assist
with comparison of credits in those categories and allow identification of where achievement of a credit in one system will result in a credit in another
system. Note that the full spectrum of category types is beyond the scope of this report.
CoreNet Global | International Sustainability Systems Comparison 25
3.3 Consider the following project: Decision Chart 1:

Sample A US-based developer is seeking to 1. There are k nown legislative

construct 500,000sf commercial office requirements (LEED® Cer tified
Application of building to be constructed in the equivalent) and market expectations
the Framework financial d i s tr i c t of B o s to n,
Massachusetts (USA) and attract a
(LEED® Gold) so the answer is “YES”.

major bank (“Bank A”) as its anchor 2. LEED® Gold thus forms the project
tenant. minimum

To begin to use the framework, we must 3. There is no higher customer

first answer the preliminary questions: expectation so the answer is “NO”.

1. Where is the project to be located? 4. A market study comparing improved

Boston (Financial District) valuation or increased rental rates/
improved absorption associated with
2. What legislative requirements exist in a LEED® Platinum certification should
this location? Demonstration of be undertaken at this time, as well as
compliance with requirements to a high-level estimate of the
achieve LEED® Certification1. incremental cost of achieving LEED®
Platinum versus LEED® Gold. Note
3. What are the local market dynamics/ that because an increasing
expectations for new construction? percentage of credits must be
For new office buildings, LEED® achieved, the cost per credit
Gold is commonly expected; few increases with an increasing number
new buildings target LEED® of credits. The outcome of the
Silver or Certified ratings. analysis in (4) will indicate the optimal
level of certification.
4. Who are the prospective tenants
(names or t ypes) and what Decision Chart 2:
requirements have they identified for
sustainability certification? “Bank A” 1. There are no communicated
has not expressed any additional requirements so the
requirement for certification answer is “NO”.
above LEED® Gold for new office
space 2. There is no market expectation for a
secondary certification so the answer
5. Who is investing in this building? A is “NO”.
US-based investor
3. Thus the recommendation is not to
pursue a secondary certification at
this time.

1 (Source: Boston Development Authority Website Development Review Guidelines

26 March 2014 | Arup

4.0 Energy Credits are included in
sustainability rating systems for a
This section provides an overview of
the energy credits found in the
Energy Credits number of reasons, including reducing
ongoing energy costs, encouraging the
s y s te m s under

use of more efficient building systems,

promoting the use of renewable energy For the majority of credits, only the five
generation and to respond to the comprehensive systems (LEED,
current dependence on fossil fuels as BREEAM, Green Star, Green Mark and
the primary energy source globally and Beam Plus) are discussed as both
its associated geo-political and NABERS and ENERGY STAR are
environmental consequences. primarily based on the building’s relative
performance compared with its peers.
To address these issues, energy credits The exception is the credit related to the
focus on several design elements to overall energy consumption of the
decrease overall energy use, increase building and associated CO2 emissions
equipment efficiencies, improve system compared in Section 4.1.
controls to decrease operational energy
use, increase reliance on passive The chart below summarizes the major
measures for lighting and ventilation energy-related credit types across the
and increase use of renewable energy considered system. These are
(either generated on-site or procured by compared in each of the following
a renewable energy provider). Credits subsections, providing an indication of
also promote building commissioning the requirements for this credit type in
and ongoing monitoring and verification each category, the associated credit
activities to establish a building baseline name or number and, where direct
and provide the end-user to contribute comparison is possible across systems,
to ongoing energy savings. a comparison of the relative
requirements of each system.


LEED 2009
Country of Origin UK USA Singapore Hong Kong Australia Australia USA

Energy Efficiency
(Design & Equipment)

CO2 Emissions



of Equipment

Energy Audit


Renewable Energy

CoreNet Global | International Sustainability Systems Comparison 27

4.1 Energy efficiency is one of the drivers
that has great importance within each
with the Ene-5 Peak Energy Demand
Reduction credit. The project achieves
Energy Efficiency of the sustainability frameworks being
addressed in this report. However, the
available points by clearly demonstrating
that the demand on the infrastructure
and CO2 Emissions purpose and goal of energy credits will never exceed the established
under each rating system varies as threshold or that the building design
follows. ensures a flatter overall electrical
demand curve.
BREEAM aims to minimize building
operational energy consumption In BEAM Plus, there are several credits
through good design through two within that align with energy efficiency.
credits: Ene 01 Reduction of Emissions Objectives include encouraging energy
and Ene 08 Energy Efficient Equipment. conservation and methods to reduce
It recognizes and encourages peak electricity demand (EU 2), energy
procurement of energy-ef ficient efficient design and control of ventilation
Note that because CO2 emissions equipment. Credits achieved under systems in large mechanically ventilated
for each unit of energy vary based BREEAM are based on the predicted car parks (EU 4), adoption of lighting
energy performance of the building equipment and controls that will provide
on the power generation fuel/en- compared to the performance of an for energy conservation (EU 5), ensuring
equivalent National building that the installation of air-conditioning units
ergy source, which varies dramati- complies but not improves current provides for near optimum performance
cally with location, it is not possible building energy performance standard. , wider use of energy efficient appliances
(EU 9), and energy efficient building
to generalize the comparison of The LEED v4 intent for projects to layout (EU 13). These credits are
reduce the environmental en economic awarded by two means, demonstrating
carbon dioxide emissions with en- harms of excessive energy use by percentage improvement (energy
ergy savings. Further, the compari- achieving a certain level of energy consumption) over credit specific
efficiency for the building and its re quire m e nts, a nd othe r s by
son of actual building performance systems and to increase participation in documenting prescriptive paths.
demand response technologies and
requires normalization of this data programs that make energy generation Under the Green Mark scheme, there is
to a common climate for a truly and distribution systems more efficient, a prerequisite for total building energy
increase grid reliability, and reduce reduction for GoldPLUS or Platinum
apples-to-apples comparison of greenhouse gas emissions. There is a ratings. For GoldPLUS, the building
Minimum Energy Performance pre- must use 25% less energy (annual kWh)
building performance compared requisite as well as the EA Optimize than a building designed to the
to the various baselines. Finally, Energy Performance credit where points Singapore Standard (SS) baseline. For
are achieved by demonstrating a Platinum rating, this percentage
as the LEED assessment for the building’s improvement compared reduction is increased to 30%. In
against ASHRAE 90.1- 2010 baseline addition, there are several credits
“Optimize Energy Performance” case. addressing energy efficiency based on
credit is based on energy cost prescriptive criteria. The objectives of
In LEED 2009, the intent for the energy these credits are: encouraging building
savings, the regional variations efficiency credit is to achieve increasing designers to make use of better energy
levels of energy performance beyond efficient air-conditioning equipment to
between electricity and natural the prerequisite standard to reduce minimise energy consumption (NRB
gas prices further complicate this environmental and economic impacts 1-2), enhancing the overall thermal
associated with excessive energy use. performance of building envelope to
comparison. As a result, we have Again, there is a minimum pre-requisite minimise heat gain (NRB 1-3), designing
as well as the EA Optimize Energy for good natural or mixed mode
not endeavored to provide a direct Performance credit where points are ventilation (NRB 1-4), especially in
comparison of the credits for these achieved by demonstrating building’s corridors, restrooms and other common
improvement compared against areas (NRB 1-8), the use of energy
systems in this report. ASHRAE 90.1- 2004 baseline case. efficient lifts and escalators (NRB 1-9)
and the use of energy efficient practices
Green Star aims to encourage and and features that are innovative and/ or
recognise designs that reduce peak have positive environmental impact
demand on energy supply infrastructure (NRB 1-10). A project achieves credits
28 March 2014 | Arup
allocated within each category by reduction from baseline case.
demonstrating improvement over Reductions are calculated through the
pre sc r ib e d ef f icie ncie s a nd /or Offices Calculator and Rules.
performance. This is demonstrated
through energy modeling of the The Energy STAR Portfolio Manager is
proposed design against a code used to compare new buildings require
compliant building. an Energy Commitment Agreement
where the building commits to a specific
NABERS for new buildings require an Rating based on the Energy for Offices
Energy Commitment Agreement where Calculator and Rules compared to the
the building commits to a specific benchmark applicable. NABERS
Rating based on the Energy for Offices greenhouse gas emissions points are
Calculator and Rules compared to the achieved by attaining increasing
benchmark applicable. NABERS reduction from baseline case.
greenhouse gas emissions points are Reductions are calculated through the
There is some data making a nor- achieved by attaining increasing Offices Calculator and Rules.
malized comparison indicating two
diverging trends. A commercial of- INCREMENTAL PERFORMANCE OVER BASELINE
fice building was modeled in a hot INCREMENTAL PERFORMANCE OVER BASELINE
climate (Dubai) LEED was the most
to Baseline11

100 Green Star


demanding, with BREEAM less so

and Green Star the least stringent 80
% Savings Compared

of the three considered (Roderick


et al, 2009). In cooler climates, a 60

different trend was noted. In an ac- LEED v4

tual building in Denmark, BREEAM 40

was found to be more demanding

(achieving only 8 of 19 credits for
energy) while LEED was less so
(22 of 36 available credits) (Birgis-
00 05 10 15 20
dottir, 2012). A recent Arup pro- Number of Available Credits
ject, 16-storey speculative office in Notes:
1. In Green Star (and NABERS), on-site renewable generation is subtracted from
Central London was 33.8% below Notes: designed consumption. LEED 2009 has a similar approach but this has been
removed from the LEED v4 system.
1 In Green Star (and NABERS), on-site renewable generation is subtracted from
the BREEAM baseline (“Excellent”) designed consumption.
2. Of LEEDreferenced
the baseline standards 2009 has a similar
in these systems,approach
the BEAM Plusbutbaseline
this has been
standard (BEC) is the least stringent, while ASHRAE 90.1-2010 standard, which forms
and 38% below the LEED 2009 removedthefrom the LEED v4 system.
basis for Leed v4 is the most stringent. It is difficult to compare these to
2 Of theGreen
baseline standards
Star which considersreferenced in these systems,
a baseline of 110kg/C02/m2/yr, whichthe BEAM
is highly Plus baseline
baseline (16 of 21). standardon(BEC) is the
climate and least stringent,
fuel sources whilegeneration
used by electricity ASHRAE 90.1-2010
facilities standard, which
in the region
where the building is located.
forms the basis for Leed v4 is the most stringent. It is difficult to compare these to
Green Star which
3. BREEAM considers
has been a baseline
omitted from this table asof the110kg/C02/m2/yr,
Energy Performance Ratio, which
while is highly
linearly related to the number of credits achieved (1 credit fo EPR = 0.06 increasing to
dependant on climate and fuel sources used by electricity generation facilities in
15 credits for EPR = 0.90) is based on the output of the EPC translator, which normaliz-
the region where
es CO2 the building
emissions and thus isis
directly comparable.
3 BREEAM has been omitted from this table as the Energy Performance Ratio,
while linearly related to the number of credits achieved (1 credit fo EPR = 0.06
increasing to 15 credits for EPR = 0.90) is based on the output of the EPC translator,
which normalizes CO2 emissions and thus is not directly comparable.

CoreNet Global | International Sustainability Systems Comparison 29

4.2 CO2 emissions are addressed within
the Ene 01 Reduction of Emissions credit
Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Points are
achieved by demonstrating reduction of
CO2 Emissions in BREEAM by using a metric that is
unique to this framework, EPRINC, a
the Predicted Greenhouse gas
ratio that defines the building
performance in terms of its CO2 The BEAM Plus objective encourages a
emissions, energy demand and primary project to reduce the consumption of
energy consumption. This is discussed non-renewable energy resources and
in the previous section. the consequent harmful emissions of
Carbon dioxide (CO2) to the
LEED v4 encourages greenhouse gas atmosphere. EU 1 Reduction of CO2
emissions reduction through the use of Emissions credits are awarded in
grid-sourced, renewable energy reference to percentage reduction of
technologies and carbon mitigation CO2 emissions or annual energy
projects (EA Green Power and Carbon consumption compared to the
Offsets). Points are achieved by benchmark applicable.
engaging a contract for a minimum of
five years for at least 50% of the NABERS greenhouse gas emissions
project’s total energy. points are achieved by attaining
incremental reductions from a baseline
Green Star encourages building design case. Reductions are calculated
to minimize greenhouse gas emissions through the Offices Calculator and
associated with operational energy Rules.
consumption through credit Ene -1


LEED 2009
Country of Origin UK USA Singapore Hong Kong Australia Australia USA

Energy Demand

Energy Consumption

Energy Cost

CO2 Emissions

Compliance with
Prescribed Standard
Compared to a

*NABERS Performance is compared with an average building’s adjusted CO2

*ENERGY STAR Percentile of buildings with higher EUI in (equivalent GJ/sqm/yr
or Mbtu/sf/yr)

30 March 2014 | Arup

4.3 Energy monitoring within BREEAM aims
to recognize and encourage monitoring
In addition projects are encouraged to
provide means for the assessment of
Sub-Metering/ of operational energy consumption
through sub-metering. One credit (Ene
building occupant thermal comfort
under LEED 2009. Projects demonstrate
Measurement 02: Energy Monitoring) is achieved by compliance by including permanent
implementing energy sub-meters to monitoring systems and by agreeing to
enable future connection to a BEMS for conduct a thermal comfort survey of
at least space heating, domestic hot building occupants within 6 to 18
water, humidification, cooling, fans months after occupancy.
(major), lighting, small power and other
major energy-consuming items. A Green Star projects are encouraged to
second credit is available by install energy sub-metering to facilitate
implementing a BEMS or accessible ongoing management of energy
sub-meters to all tenants, or by floor of consumption. Projects are awarded one
single occupancy buildings. point in the Ene-2 Energy Sub-metering
credit by providing sub-metering for
Energy measurement is a prerequisite substantive energy uses within the
for LEED v4 as well as an optional credit building and have an ef fective
(EA Prerequisite: Building-Level Energy mechanism for monitoring the energy in
Metering and EA Credit: Advanced place. In addition, if lighting and power
Energy Metering, respectively). The sub-metering for each floor or tenant is
intent is to support energy management provided and a monitoring mechanism
and identify opportunities for additional is in place for this sub-metering, an
energy savings by tracking building- additional point will be awarded.
level energy use. Buildings must provide
building-level energy meters, or sub- The BEAM Plus objective is to enable
meters that can be aggregated to building operators to measure, monitor
prov ide total building e ne rg y and develop measures to improve the
consumption. In addition, all projects performance of the building’s systems,
are required to share with USGBC the especially energy. The EU 12 Metering
energy consumption and electrical and Monitoring credit can be achieved
demand data for a five-year period. by installing metering that allows
Advance Energy Metering will allow a separate monitoring of electricity used
project to achieve an additional point by by a main chiller plant, by air side of the
installing advanced energy metering for HVAC system, instruments for
all whole-building energy sources and monitoring building cooling load and
any individual energy end uses that operating parameters and metering for
represent 10% or more of the total landlord’s electricity consumption in
annual consumption of the building. common areas.

LEED 2009 encourages projects to Green Mark encourages the use of

provide means for the ongoing better energy efficient air conditioned
accountability of building energy equipment by providing permanent
consumption over time in the EA Credit measuring instruments for monitoring of
5: Measurement and Verification credit. water-cooled chilled-water plant
Projects achieve three points by efficiency within the NRB 1-2 Air-
developing and implementing a Conditioning System credit. Compliance
Measurement and Verification plan that is de monstrated by installing
cover at least 1 year of post- instrumentation capable to calculate
construction occupancy. An alternative resultant plant efficiency within 5% of its
compliance for this credit allow projects true value and in accordance to
to achieve 1 point by agreeing to share ASHRAE Guide 22 and AHRI Standard
energy and water usage data through 550/590.
ENERGY STAR’s Portfolio Manager tool
and the USGBC Release form, for a
period of at least 5 years.

CoreNet Global | International Sustainability Systems Comparison 31

Yes Maybe No

BREEAM LEED v4 LEED 2009 Green Mark BEAM PLUS Green Star

UK USA USA Singapore Hong Kong Australia

Boiler Plant

Modular Boilers


Chilled Water Pumps

Chilled Water Flow Rate

Cooling Tower

Condenser Water Pump

Air-side HVAC Electricity

Electric Humidifiers

Motor Control Panels

(For Fans & Pumps)

Energy Uses
1 2
Tenancy Areas

Landlord/ Common
Space Electricity

High Energy Load Areas

Data Output is Monitored

and Recorded by BMS

Notes 1
Gas and Metering Implement 1
If > 100 kVa
Heat based on M&V only one of
Plan and the above 2
To achieve a
selection of measure second point
one of
IPMVP Option
B or Option D

Maybe : This Indicates that an applicable method is not prescribed; for e.g. a when a monitoring plan needs to be
deloveped and could include several elements but none are prescribed

32 March 2014 | Arup

4.4 Lighting Lighting is addressed in different credits
across all systems; in many, these
the lighting to suit individual tasks and
preferences. In addition, the EQ Credit:
overlap significantly with the energy Daylight credit encourages projects to
efficiency credits, while in others provide connection between building
specific credits are provided for specific occupants and the outdoors, reinforce
lighting-related energy conservation circadian rhythms, and reduce the use
measures. of electrical lighting by introducing
daylight into the space. Projects may
BREEAM has four credits related to achieve up to three points by providing
lighting. Hea1 Visual Comfort aims to glare-control devices for all regularly
ensure best practice visual performance occupied spaces and demonstrate
and comfort for building occupants. It is compliance with spatial daylight
mandatory for all projects to install high autonomy requirements.
frequency ballasts in all fluorescent and
compact fluorescent lamps. Additional Providing a high level of lighting system
cre dits c an be achieve d by control by individual occupants of
demonstrating compliance with national groups in multi-occupant spaces and
best practice daylighting guide, or meet promote productivity, comfort and well-
good practice daylighting criteria or being is the intent behind LEED 2009
meet daylight illuminance lighting credits. One point in the IEQ
recommendations for relevant building Credit 6.1: Controllability of Systems –
areas. Implementing a glare control Lighting credit can be achieved by
strategies will allow projects to achieve providing individual lighting controls for
one additional credit. One last credit will at least 90% of the building occupants
be awarded when internal and external and lighting system controls for all
illuminance levels are specified in shared multi-occupant spaces to allow
accordance with national best practice, adjustments for different needs. The
electric lighting illuminance uniformity is IEQ Credit 8.1: Daylight and Views -
designed according to approved local Daylight credit can be achieved for
standard, implementing adequate projects that demonstrate that 75% or
zoning controls, amongst others. more of all regularly occupied spaces
comply with daylight illuminance
BREEAM also addresses effective requirements or else through a
design measures that promote low risk, prescriptive path.
safe access to and from the building.
Projects are awarded one Hea 06 Safety Green Star recognizes designs that
and Security credit by complying with provide artificial lighting with minimal
the national best practice road lighting energy consumption. Up to three points
guide for access roads, pedestrian are awarded in the Ene-3 Lighting Power
areas, footpaths and cycle lines. Density credit by demonstrating that
lighting power densities comply with
Energy ef ficiency in lighting is maximum W/m2 per 100 lux following
considered as part of Ene 01 Reduction required criteria. In addition, projects
of Emissions, and energy efficient light that implement lighting design practices
fittings for external areas can earn that offer greater flexibility for light
projects an additional point through the switching, making it easier to light only
Ene 03 External Lighting credit by occupied areas can achieve up to two
meeting or exceeding lighting points in the Ene-4 Lighting Zoning
requirements and providing controls credit.
through time switch or daylight sensors.
BEAM Plus includes three credits
LEED v4 includes two lighting-related related to lighting and between them,
credits whose intent is to promote these credits encourage a holistic
occupants’ productivity, comfort, and examination of site layout, building
well-being by providing high-quality design, and fenestration design, such
lighting. The EQ Credit: Interior Lighting as to maximize access to daylight for
can earn one point by providing lighting the purposes of improved health and
controls that enable occupants to adjust comfort. Projects can achieve up to two
CoreNet Global | International Sustainability Systems Comparison 33
points under the IEQ 15 Natural Lighting sensors. One credit is awarded where
credit when adequately average daylight the prescribed lighting performance in
factor of 1% is achieved in 80 and 95% each type of common or service space
of the floor area. In credits IEQ 16 Interior in respect of light output and lighting
Lighting in Normally Occupied Areas and quality is achieved.
IEQ 17 Interior Lighting in Areas Not
Normally Occupied, lighting quality is Green Mark encourages design that
addressed by ensuring the adequacy optimizes the use of effective daylighting
and maintenance of visual comfort to reduce energy use for artificial
conditions achieved by electric lighting lighting. Up to three points can be
provisions in occupied spaces, projects achieved within NRB 1-5 Daylighting by
can achieve one credit where the demonstrating daylighting provisions
prescribed lighting per formance meet the minimum illuminance level for
complies with specific requirements, at least 75% of the units and are within
plus an additional bonus is awarded by the acceptable glare exposure. Another
providing automatic control of artificial 12 points are available in the NRB 1-6
lighting such as daylight sensors at Artificial Lighting credit by improving
perimeter zones and/or occupancy lighting power budget.

AN OFFICE - 33,000
- 33,000 SFT
= 3kW

BREEAM LEED v4 LEED 2009 GreenMark BEAM PLUS Green Star

UK USA USA Singapore Hong Kong Australia






34 March 2014 | Arup

4.5 BREEAM allocates two points within the
Ene 04: Low and Zero Carbon
using on-site renewable energy systems
to offset building energy costs.
Use of Renewable Technologies credit for projects that
make an appropriate use of local energy The use of renewable energy is
Energy generation from renewable sources. considered within other major energy
Projects shall achieve the first credit by credits within the Green Star scheme.
conducting a feasibility study by an Where the building produces its own
energy specialist to establish energy on site, this can be included
appropriate local low or zero within the energy modeling and use to
carbon(LZC) energy source for the directly reduce the building’s predicted
building, a local LZC energy technology greenhouse gas emissions.
has been specified and feasibility at
procurement stage. An additional credit BEAM Plus encourages the wider
can be achieved by including a Life application of renewable energy sources
Cycle Assessment of the carbon impact in buildings. Projects may be awarded
of chosen LZC system. with up to five points under EU 6
Renewable Energy Systems where 0.5 to
LEED v4 encourages projects to reduce 2.5% or more of building energy
the environmental and economic harm consumption is obtained from
associated with fossil fuel energy by renewable energy sources respectively.
increasing self-supply of renewable
energy. Up to three points can be The application of renewable energy
achieved in the EA Renewable Energy sources in buildings is encouraged by
Production credit by using renewable Green Mark. Up to 20 points may be
energy systems to offset building energy achieved in the NRB 1-11 Renewable
costs. Energy credit based on the expected
energy efficiency index and percentage
LEED 2009 recognizes projects that replacement of electricity by renewable
increase levels of on-site renewable energy sources.
e ne rg y se lf-supply to re duce
environmental and economic impacts NABERS does not address renewable
associated with fossil fuel energy use. energy generation on site; however it
Seven points are available within EA can be excluded from energy
Credit 2: On-site Renewable Energy by consumption calculations.

4.6 BREEAM addresses heat loss within Green Mark encourages projects to
two major credits (Man 01 Sustainable e n h a n c e th e ove r a l l th e r m a l
Heat Loss Procurement and Ene 01 Reduction of performance of building envelope to
Emissions) that encourage operational minimize heat gain thus reducing the
energy consumption reduction through overall cooling load requirement for
good design and ensure delivery of a conditioned spaces. Two points are
functional and sustainable asset design awarded in the NRB 1-1 Thermal
and built in accordance with Performance of Building Envelope credit
performance expectations. One point is for every reduction of 1 W/m2 in
available by performing a thermographic Envelope Thermal Transfer Value from
survey that confirms continuity of baseline. There are 12 points available
insulation, avoidance of thermal bridging for projects to achieve.
and air leakage paths through the fabric
or performing an air leakage test. Consideration of the envelope losses
are indirectly considered in other codes
as part of the Total Building Energy
Consumption credits.

CoreNet Global | International Sustainability Systems Comparison 35



3 Number of Credits

25% 4
20% 9
10% 18
1 3

4 20
3 2 15
20 12
2 15 9
2% 5
4 10 6
1% 3
1 1 2 5 3


2009 v.4 Plus 30kWh/m2/yr/total 30kWh/m2/yr/total

36 March 2014 | Arup

4.7 Delivery of a functional and sustainable
asset designed and built in accordance
LEED 2009 also requires for projects to
engage in a commissioning process to
Commissioning with performance expectations is
BREEAM’s goal with the Man01
verify that project’s energy-related
systems are installed, calibrated and
Sustainable Procurement credit. perform adequately as part of EA
Thresholds within this credit will award Prerequisite: Fundamental
projects to achieve several credits by Commissioning and Verification. Two
demonstrating compliance with additional points can be earned in EA
requirements in different phases of the Credit: Enhanced Commissioning by
project such as: Project brief and including additional activities within the
design, Construction and handover, scope of the base commissioning.
Commissioning, and Aftercare.
For BEAM Plus, commissioning the
Under LEED v4, projects are required to electrical and mechanical system to
implement a Commissioning and ensure the impact on energy use of the
Verification Process for all energy systems is adequate. There are 5 points
related systems as part of E A available in the EU 10 Testing and
Prerequisite: Fundamental Commissioning credit for implementing
Commissioning and Verification. This and documenting commissioning
process is intended to support the specifications and a commissioning
design, construction and eventual plan, undergoing commissioning
operation of the project. Up to six activities, providing fully detailed
additional points are available in EA commissioning reports, and having and
Credit: Enhanced Commissioning by Independent Commissioning Authority.
including additional activities for the An additional point can be achieved by
commissioning authority, including transferring project knowledge to the
envelope commissioning. building owner/manager.

Documentation and Aiming to ensure delivery of a functional

and sustainable asset designed and
contract, manufacturer’s product
details, documentation confirming
Handover built in accordance with performance
expectations, BREEAM includes
compliance with relevant scheme or
standard outlined in the criteria for
commissioning, training and aftercare functions and equipment included in
support as part of the requirements to energy ef ficient equipment
ac h i eve M a n 01 S usta in a ble requirements.
Procurement credit. Also this scheme
recognizes projects that design, plan Neither LEED v4 nor LEED 2009
and deliver accessible functional addresses documentation and
inclusive buildings in consultation with handover in a separate credit; these
current and future building users and re quire m e nts a re inte gra l to
other stakeholders. Project may commissioning prerequisite and credit.
achieve one credit by developing
Building User Guide(s) that are BEAM Plus has included the EU 11
appropriate for all building users. Operation and Maintenance credit to
enable building operators to implement
One credit can be achieved when the design intent, be able to monitor
seasonal commissioning occurs and the performance of the building, and
there is a mechanism in place to collect maintain the performance. There are
energy and water consumption, three credits available when project
compare this with what was expected develops and provides Operations and
and analyze any discrepancies. In M a i nte n a n c e M a n u a l, E n e rg y
addition, a contract or commitment to Management Manual, and develop and
provide aftercare support to all the undergo Operator training and
building occupiers must be in place. demonstrate adequate maintenance
Projects may also achieve two points facilities are provided for operations
when documenting relevant section/ and maintenance work.
clauses of the building specification or
CoreNet Global | International Sustainability Systems Comparison 37
In the Green Mark Scheme, up to 4
points are available for energy-efficient
Car Park Lighting only the overall energy use of a building,
BEAM Plus and Green Mark provide
ventilation in car parks under credit
NRB 1-7. Four points are achieved with
and Ventilation specific credits for reductions in Car a naturally-ventilated car park. The use
Park energy use. of a fume extract system regulated by a
CO sensor achieves 2.5 points and
Within BEAM Plus, car park ventilation mechanical ventilation system regulated
(EU 4) and lighting (EU 5) obtain specific by CO sensors achieves 2 points.
credits within the BEAM Plus system for
improvement relative to baseline by
20% and 25%, for one credit and two
credits each, respectively.

38 March 2014 | Arup

4.9 Several credits are found only in a single
sustainability system. These are
• Contact local utility representatives to
discuss participation in future DR
System-Specific summarized below: programs.

Credits Demand Response (LEED v4 only) Peak Demand Limiting

(BEAM Plus Eu 2)
This credit provides up two credits as
follows: This credit provides up to three credits
for reduction of the peak energy
1. Where a Demand Response (DR) demand compared with the baseline
Program is available and the building case as-follows: 15% decrease = 1
owner participates in this system, credit; 23% decrease = 2 credits and
providing either fully-automated DR 30% decrease = 3 credits.
based on external initiation by the DR
provider or semi-automated DR. Two Air Conditioner Installation
credits will be rewarded for satisfying (BEAM Plus Eu 7)
the following requirements:
Installation of window Air Conditioning
• minimum one year commitment with Units according to the guidelines in the
the intention of multiyear renewal for BEAM Plus guide achieves one credit in
at least 10% of the estimated peak this system.
demand as calculated in the EA
prerequisite “Minimum Energy Use of Energy Efficient Appliances
Performance” (BEAM Plus Eu 9)

• Development of a comprehensive One credit is available when 60% of

plan for meeting the contractual total appliances are certified energy
commitment during a DR event efficient products. This is increased to 2
credits when 80% of appliances are
• Include DR processes in the scope of certified.
work for the Commissioning Authority,
including participation in at least one Energy Efficient Building Layout
full test of the DR plan. (BEAM Plus Eu 13)

Where a Demand Response (DR) Five strategies are outlined in the BEAM
Program is not available, 1 credit will be Plus system to optimize the building
provided for the provision of l ayo u t fo r e n e rg y ef f i c i e n cy:
infrastructure to take advantage of consideration of built form and
future DR programs or dynamic, real- orientation, consideration of optimal
time pricing programs and completion space planning, consideration of
of the following: building permeability for natural
ventilation, provision of fixed or movable
• Install interval recording meters with external shading and provision of
communications and ability for the movable external shading devices for
Building Automation System to major atrium façade windows or
accept an external price or signal skylights. If all are implemented, two
control credits are awarded. If only three are
implemented, a single credit is awarded.
• Development of a comprehensive It should be further noted that if the
plan for shedding at least 10% of the passive design alternative is used for
building estimated peak demand as credit Eu 1, there are several prescriptive
calculated in the EA prerequisite requirements including gla zing
“Minimum Energy Performance” allowance by orientation. Refer to the
BEAM Plus guide for more information.
• Include DR processes in the scope of
work for the Commissioning Authority,
including participation in at least one
full test of the DR plan
CoreNet Global | International Sustainability Systems Comparison 39
5.0 Water Credits are included sustainability
rating systems to respond to the
Water Credits increasing scarcity of potable water
resources globally. The figure below
shows the increasing water scarcity
globally, showing a consistent increase
in the increasing water stress globally
from 1995 data to 2025 projections.


1995 2025
Water withdrawal as a percentage of total available water
more than 40 % from 20 % to 10 %
from 40 % to 20 % less than 10 %

40 March 2014 | Arup

To address this issue, water credits This section provides an overview of the
focus on several design elements to energy credits found in the sustainability
decrease both indoor and outdoor systems under consideration.
water consumption, promote the use of
low-flow fixtures, minimize the use of The chart below summarizes the major
potable water for irrigation, cooling water-related credit types across the
towers and sewage conveyance, considered system. These are
monitor for system leaks, as well as compared in each of the following
increase the use of rainwater harvesting subsections, which will each indicate
and treated greywater for non-potable the requirements for this credit type in
purposes. each category, the associated credit
name or number and, where direct
comparison is possible across systems,
a comparison of the relative
requirements of each system.

Yes No
BREEAM LEED v4 LEED 2009 Green Mark BEAM PLUS Green Star

UK USA USA Singapore Hong Kong Australia

Baseline Water

Indoor Water Use Reduction

Outdoor Water Use Reduction

Specifications for Water

Fittings/ Facilities

Leak Detection System

Water Metering

Flood Risk

Potable Water Consumption

Water Recycling

Water Runoff

Cooling Tower Water

Water Filtration System

Water Modeling During Design

Rainwater Use

CoreNet Global | International Sustainability Systems Comparison 41

5.1 Water consumption reduction is
addressed in a similar way across all the
• BEAM Plus: WU P2 Minimum Water
Saving Performance.
Indoor Water Use schemes, each rating system has a
specific water calculation tool that BEAM Plus has a second credit, WU 6
Reduction establishes a baseline case and water
consumption reduction prerequisites
Effluent Discharge to foul sewers, related
to decreasing sewage conveyance,
and thresholds will vary. The individual which is similar to the LEED 2009
credits in each system are: Innovative WE Credit 2: Innovative
Wastewater Technologies credit.
• BREEAM: Wat 01 Water Consumption

• LEED v4: WE Credit: Indoor Water

Use Reduction

• LEED 2009: WE Credit 3: Water Use


• Green Star: Wat 1 Occupant Amenity


• Green Mark: NRB 2-1 Water Efficient


42 March 2014 | Arup

= 500 liters per day [lpd]


UK USA Singapore Hong Kong Australia Australia










CoreNet Global | International Sustainability Systems Comparison 43

5.2 Outdoor Water The BREEAM Wat -4 Water Efficient
Equipment credit aims to reduce water
Green Mark projects may achieve up to
three points in the Wu 3 Water Efficient
Use Reduction dedicated for landscape irrigation
require projects to implement irrigation
Irrigation credit by using non potable
water for landscape irrigation, using
controls, reclaimed water, no irrigation automatic water efficient irrigation
at all or only manual irrigation. systems (with rain sensor) and using
drought tolerant plants.
LEED v4 includes a minimum
requirement (WE Pre-requisite: Outdoor BEAM Plus awards projects with 1 point
Water Use Reduction for all projects to in the NRB 2-3 credit by demonstrating
achieve at least 30% potable water that irrigation does not rely on municipal
consumption reduction from baseline, fresh water or using reclaimed water,
and up to two points available under the implementing highly efficient irrigation
WE Credit: Outdoor Water Use technologies that reduce water
Reduction to increase this to 50% and consumption in 50% or more.
100% reduction.
NABERS and Green Star will award
LEED 2009 encourages projects to limit projects with up to 6 and 5 credits, in
or eliminate the use of potable water the Water Reduction and Wat-1
used in irrigation awarding with up to 4 Occupant Amenity Water credits,
points in the WE 1: Water Efficient respectively by reducing the water
Landscaping credit by reducing 50% consumption dedicated to irrigation
and 100% from midsummer baseline over baseline case.



100 0

30 50 100 0

0 0 0



POTABLE WATER: % Reduction in potable water use for irrigation Number indicates
% reduction
RECLAIMED WATER: % Use of reclaimed water for irrigation

NATIVE SPEICIES: Native Species/drought tolerant plants

(not requiring irrigation after an establishment period)

RAIN SENSORS: To control irrigation based on rainfall

44 March 2014 | Arup

5.3 Fixture Within the water reduction credits
discussed previously, some schemes
rating based on Water Efficiency
Labelling Scheme (WELS), and BEAM
Specification include prescriptive requirements for
water fixtures to comply with local
Plus, which awards projects with one
credit when water efficient appliances
Credits labelling requirements. These include
Green Mark, which encourages
that have Water Efficiency Labelling
Scheme Grade 2 or above.
projects to include water fixtures with

5.4 Leak Water leakage is a silent issue that Similarly, Green Mark awards one point
when it is noticed by building managers in the NRB 2-2 Water Usage and Leak
Detection Credits or occupants, damage to the building Detection credit when projects include
can be substantial. Only BREEAM, linking all private meters to the Building
Green Mark and BEAM Plus provide a Management System for leak detection.
credit specific to leak detection, as
described in detail below. In other BEAM Plus encourages projects to
systems (LEED and Green Star), leak reduce potential leaks during installation
detection is indirectly addressed of buried pipework within the
through the water sub-metering credit assessment requirements for Plumbing
(see Section 5.5). and Drainage credit.

BREEAM recognizes projects that For Green Star projects, a leak detection
reward projects with one point in the system is a requirement within the Wat-
Wat 03 Water Leak Detection and 2 Water Meters credit.
Prevention credit when leak detection
system is in place and one additional
credit when flow control devices are
included in each WC area/facility.

5.5 Water Monitoring water consumption within evaporative heat rejection, irrigation and
buildings encourages water wash-down systems, recycled and
Metering Credits consumption reductions, most rainwater supply and humidifiers as
sustainability frameworks address major water uses that require metering
metering requirements in specific in the Wat-2 Water Meters credit
credits where projects may achieve
points by demonstrating compliance by All LEED v4 projects must commit to
having in place meters and sub-meters sharing water usage data with USGBC
for specific water uses. for a five-year period as part of the WE
Prerequisite: Building-Level Water
Water meter on incoming supply to Metering. They are also required to have
each building and sub-meters for plants permanent water meters for total
or building areas that consume 10% or potable water use and sub-meters for
more of the building’s total water cooling tower make-up and evaporative
demand is required by BREEAM to condenser systems. One additional
achieve the Wat 02 Water Metering point can be earned in the WE Credit:
credit. For the NRB 2-2 Water Usage Water Metering credit by installing
and Leak Detection credit in Green permanent metering for at least two of
Mark there is one point for projects that the water subsystems such as irrigation,
include private meters to monitor the indoor plumbing fixtures and fittings,
major water usage such as irrigation, domestic hot water, boilers, reclaimed
cooling tower and tenants’ use. Green water and other process water.
Star considers bathrooms, showers,

CoreNet Global | International Sustainability Systems Comparison 45

Yes Maybe No

BREEAM LEED v4 LEED 2009 Green Mark BEAM PLUS Green Star

UK USA USA Singapore Hong Kong Australia

Whole Building 1
Water Metering



Water-Cooled Heat Rejection

(e.g. Cooling Tower)


Reclaimed Water Supply

Rainwater Supply



Boiler Feedwater

Domestic Hot Water

Indoor Plumbing Fixtures

and Fittings

Notes 1
Prerequisite All submeters
to be moni-
With Process tored by BMS
Loads for leak
two or more of
the above
with each
serving at
least 80% of
the total
installed for
that category

46 March 2014 | Arup

5.6 Potable Water quality is considered in few of the
sustainability systems, reducing the risk
required, and accessible potable
drinking water is supplied in
Water Quality of wate r c o nt a m i n ati o n a n d
guaranteeing clean and fresh sources
permanently staffed areas.

of water is the main objective in BEAM Plus requires all projects to

BREEAM’s Hea 04 Water Quality credit. demonstrate potable water quality
All water systems must be designed in compliance with Water Supplies
compliance with national health and Department (WSD) Guidelines drinking
safety best practice guides for microbial water quality standards at all points of
contamination avoidance, failsafe use as part of the WU Prerequisite 1
humidification system is provided if Water Quality Survey.

5.7 Water The use of recycled water within

projects is considered as a strategy
building sewage conveyance or a
minimum of 50% of wastewater is
Recycling across all sustainability systems. For
Green Star, the use of recycled water
treated on site to tertiary standards.

counts towards water consumption BEAM Plus allocates three points under
reduction in Indoor uses. In addition to the EU 6 credit for projects that use
indoor calculations, BREEAM and LEED rainwater and/or greywater to reduce
v4 consider the use of reclaimed water 5% or 10% of fresh water consumption
for irrigation reduction calculations.

LEED 2009 awards projects with up to

two points in the WEC2: Innovative
Wastewater credit when recycled water
is used to reduce at least 50% of

5.8 Cooling Tower Projects can achieve up to two points

under WU Credit: Cooling Tower Water
quality are awarded with one point and
an additional point is available by using
Water Management Use in LEED v4 by achieving maximum
number of cycles without exceeding
NEWater or on-site recycled water from
approved sources for cooling purpose.
maximum concentrations for specific
parameters in condensed water for Green Star recognises projects with up
cooling towers and evaporative to 4 points in the Wat-4 Heat Rejection
condensers (1 point < 10 cycles ≤ 2 Water credit when potable water
points), or by meeting the minimum consumption of water-based heat
number of cycles and using a minimum reaction systems is reduced. Thresholds
of 20% recycled non potable water. are 50% reduction and 90% reduction
or no water-based heat rejection
Green Mark’s NRB 2-4 Water systems are included in the project.
consumption of Cooling Tower credit is
similar but thresholds, projects that Cooling tower water management does
achieve 7 or better cycles of not have its own credit in BEAM Plus,
concentration at acceptable water however it is included in other credits.

CoreNet Global | International Sustainability Systems Comparison 47

Vignettes of Certified
Buildings in Various Systems

6.1 • Multilevel Steel Building Steel Design
water heat rejection, low flow water
fixtures, and a high performance facade
Award, Winner, Australian Steel
One Shelley St. Institute, Commercial NSW, 2010
and central atrium that promotes natural
light and mitigates solar load. The
Sydney, Australia • Excellence Award, Winner, Engineers
innovative external steel diagrid
structural system encompasses the
Australia, Commercial, National, 2010 building's sleek glass facade, eliminating
the need for perimeter columns and
Ratings Achieved • Excellence Award, Winner, Engineers maximising the flexibility of the internal
Australia, Commercial, NSW, 2010 floor space.
• 6 Star Green Star – Office Design v2
rating, • Estate Master Property Development The design has raised industr y
Award, Australian Property Institute standards in environmental sustainability
• 6 Star Green Star – Office As-Built  v2 Excellence in Property Awards, and workplace functionality. The
rating Commercial, NSW, 2009 triumphant design achieved world's
best practice certification and a six-star
• NABERS 5 Star Energy (2013/2014) • H i g h l y Commended BPN Green Star rating. Two innovation points
Sustainability Awards - Large were awarded; one for being the first
• NABERS 5 Star Water (2013/2014) C o m m e rc i a l C ate g o r y, B PN building in Australia to utilise 100 per
Sustainability Awards, Environmental, cent NLA with passive chilled beams
• NABERS 4.5 Star Indoor Environment NSW, 2009 and harbour heat rejection and the
(2013/2014) second for undertaking a study with
• Excellence in Constructions Best Use Macquarie Group to better understand
Awards of Steel, Winner, Masters Builders the relationships between green
Association, Commercial, NSW, 2009 buildings, indoor environmental quality,
• Architectural Steel Design Award, occupant perception and satisfaction
Winner, Australian Steel Institute, One Shelley Street was the tenth and productivity.
Commercial, NSW, 2010 building in Australia to achieve the
Green Star 6 Star certification and "To achieve a Green Star ‘Design’ rating
• Structural Engineering Steel Design achieved it in both ‘design’ and ‘as built’ requires a commitment to innovation
Award, Winner, Australian Steel categories. Spanning 33,000 square and a holistic approach to green
Institute, Commercial, NSW, 2010 metres over 11 levels, the project has building design. By backing this up with
received much attention for its a Green Star ‘As Built’ rating, Brookfield
innovative and unique design. The has confirmed that the sustainable
Key energy- and water-conserva- award-winning property, owned and design intentions were implemented
tion features include a high-perfor- operated by Brook field Of fice during the construction process. We
Properties, is fully leased to Macquarie congratulate the project team for
mance façade, the use of a passive Group and was built by Brookfield delivering a truly world-class green
chilled beam HVAC system, har- Multiplex. building," says Chief Executive of the
Green Building Council of Australia,
bour water heat rejection and low A range of sustainable design features Romilly Madew.
flow fixtures. have been achieved including a passive
chilled beam HVAC system, harbour

48 March 2014 | Arup

©Brookfield Properties
6.2 Rating Targeted:
• LEED® Gold
the plus-15 skywalk system and the
Calgary LRT on 7th Ave. The property
Brookfield Place, Brookfield Place Calgary is a full-block
will house an innovative bicycle parking
facility accessible by dedicated bike
Calgary, Canada commercial development located
between 1st & 2nd Streets and 6th &
ramps separate from vehicular traffic
and electric car plug-in recharge
7th Avenues SW in downtown Calgary. stations.
This block represents one of the best
remaining undeveloped sites in the city
and affords Brookfield the opportunity
to create another landmark development
that significantly contributes to the
public realm.
The development, consisting of 2.4
million square feet, includes what will be
the tallest building in western Canada at
56 storeys and 247 meters tall to be
located at the northeast corner of the
block. Leading North American oil
company Cenovus has committed to
one million square feet of the east tower
as the anchor tenant.
In addition to the east tower,
development plans call for an additional
office tower totaling approximately one
million square feet, a 60-foot-high
transparent glass pavilion, restaurants,
retail shops and amenities at street
level, and underground parking
accommodating 1,100 parking stalls.
A half-acre lit public plaza will traverse
the site and will feature restaurants and
cafés, public art displays, cultural
This project will has a special focus activities and programmed activity
provided by Brookfield’s award-winning
on neighbourhood connectivity Arts & Events program.
and encouraging both cycling and The development will be constructed to
a high standard of sustainability and is
transit to reduce fossil fuel use and expected to achieve the LEED Gold
CO2 emissions associated with standard for Core & Shell development.
Commuters will have direct access to
personal vehicle use.

CoreNet Global | International Sustainability Systems Comparison 49

©Thomas Graham / Arup
6.3 Rating Achieved The environmental strategy was
addressed throughout the design and is
The Shard, • BREEAM “Excellent” key to the Shard’s iconic appearance.
The project has achieved a BREEAM
London, UK Awards “Excellent” rating for the offices,
aparemtnts and hotel, and includes the
• Engineering News Record ENR : following sustainable elements:
Global Best Project Award, 2013
• 95% of materials from demolition
• Constructing Excellence National: recycled
Major Project of the Year, 2013
• 50% of all steelwork from recycled
• Council on Tall Buildings and Urban sources
Habitat: Best Tall Building (Europe) ,
2013 • 1MW combined heat and power
(CHP) generation to reduce CO2
At 310 metres tall, the Shard is Western emissions by 10% annually,
Europe’s tallest building. Designed by compared with grid utilities
architects Renzo Piano Building
Workshop, the Shard is a model for • Triple skin intelligent façade to
densely-packed, low-energy, mixed use maximize daylighting while reducing
development. Located above the solar gains in the cooling season
transport hub of London Bridge Station,
it will house a retail area, 25 floors of • Winters gardens providing naturally
This project will has a special focus commercial offices (approx. 60,000m²), ventilated workspaces
on neighbourhood connectivity three floors of restaurants, a 20,000m²
Shangri La hotel, residential apartments • Connectivity to mainline rail, tube and
and encouraging both cycling and and public viewing galleries. The project bus hub integrated into the
transit to reduce fossil fuel use and also includes an upgrade to London development to facilitate use of public
Bridge Station Concourse involving a transit for commuters and residents
CO2 emissions associated with new roof and retail units.
personal vehicle use. • Efficient land use (plot ratio of 32.1%)

50 March 2014 | Arup

6.4 Rating Achieved This building was Hong Kong’s first zero
carbon building and the first to actively
Construction • BEAM Plus Platinum feed on-site renewable energy from a
combination of photovoltaic panels and
Industry Council Awards a biodiesel tri-generation system back

Zero Carbon • Grand Award in New Building

to the grid to offset the power consumed
on an annual basis.
Building, Hong Categor y (Building under
Construction) of The Green Building Going beyond traditional zero-carbon
Kong Award 2012 performance, the excess energy is
exported to the local grid to cover the
• Innovation Award of the Year of the embodied energy of its construction
RICS Hong Kong Property Awards process and building materials.
The large-scale use of biodiesel as a
• One of the first buildings in Hong renewable tri-generation fuel is also a
Kong which achieve Platinum Rating first in Hong Kong. The system uses
of Building Environmental waste cooking oil to generate power,
Assessment Method (BEAM) Plus, solving two problems – waste treatment
the highest rating for excellent and energy generation – in one go.
building environmental performance;
and The ZCB also features Hong Kong’s first
urban native woodland with 220 native
• The Champion Award of The trees of over 40 species and a diversity
Key strategies to reduce ener-
Innovative Award for the Engineering of shrubs. The woodland creates a high
gy and water consumption in- Industry 2012/2013 quality ecosystem embedded in a built-
up area to benefit both the environment
clude high efficiency lighting at an
Opened in June 2012, the Construction and people.
achieved lighting power density of Industry Council’s (CIC) Zero Carbon
Building (ZCB) is a pioneering project to
6 W/m2, advanced building con-
showcase state-of-the-art zero carbon
trols including microclimate moni- building technologies and raise
community awareness of sustainable
toring stations, a high temperature
living in Hong Kong.
cooling and dehumidification sys-
tem and an envelope to optimize
energy use. Coupled with energy
generation from on-site renewa-
bles, this zero-energy building.

CoreNet Global | International Sustainability Systems Comparison 51

6.5 Rating Achieved The Changi City Point Mall was awarded
the BCA Universal Design Award
Changi City, • Green Mark GoldPlus (Silver), for the use of natural light and
greenery to enhance the ambience of
Singapore Awards the mall. The mall design demonstrates
th at s h o p p e r s' c o m fo r t a n d
• BCA Universal Design Award (Silver), convenience were top priorities for the
2012 management. For instance, they
catered for seamlessly accessible
Changi City is Singapore’s largest features such as a sheltered bus-stop,
integrated business park, including: taxi stand, passenger drop-off/pick up
points and sheltered covered walkway.
• Changi City Point with three levels of In addition to family-friendly amenities
retail and F&B outlets totalling such as a nursing room, diaper
28,500m², a roof-top garden with play changing station, children toilet, the mall
grounds, and a 450-seat Arena for also has first aid rooms and ample
arts performances. seats for the elderly.

• 12-storey hotel development (313 Key sustainability features include:

rooms, 19,000m²)
• Estimated energy savings: 15,050,221
• ONE@Changi City Commercial Office kWh/yr; estimated water savings:
(71,200m²) 299,582 m3/yr; ETTV: 40.77 W/m².

• Designation control system for lifts in

office building.

• AHU installed with UVC emitter to

improve indoor air quality.
This mixed-use facility used Univer- • Skylight at retail atrium to provide
sal Design principles from an early natural daylight.
stage to incorporate key sustainable • Recycling of AHU condensate in
feature to achieve significant energy office building and hotel
and water savings while providing
an enhanced occupant experience
through the use of natural light and
indoor vegetated areas.

52 March 2014 | Arup

7.0 The majority of the data regarding individual systems discussed in this report was
obtained directly from the official system websites listed below:
References LEED®:


Green Star:

Green Mark:

Beam Plus:




In addition, a large amount of country-specific information was obtained or cross-

checked with the Green Building Council for each country discussed. The World
Green Building Council maintains a database of established and emerging Green
Building Councils here:

The following publications are also referenced within the body of this report:

Asia Green Buildings, “Green Buildings in Asia – Keeping up with the Environmental
Pace”, May 10, 2013.

BCA 2009: BCA/GM GFA/2009-04-TD01 URA/PB/2009/04-DCG

(published at

BCA 2012: BCA/GM GFA/2012-07-TD URA/PB/2012/09-DCG

(Published at

Harpa Birgisdottir, “Lessons learned from testing four different certification methods
for buildings – LEED, BREEAM, DGNB and HQE”, SBI Danish Building Research
Institute, 2009.

Richard Bowmand and John Mills, “Valuing Green - How green buildings affect
property values and getting the valuation method right”, published by the Green
Building Council Australia, 2009

Richard Reed, Sara Wilkinson, Anita Bilos and Karl-Werner Schulte, “A Comparison
of International Sustainable Building Tools – An Update”, 17th Annual Pacific Rim
Real Estate Society Conference, Gold Coast (Australia), 16-19 January 2011

RICS, “Going for “Green” – Sustainable Building Certification Statistics Europe,

Status May 2011”, 2011.

RICS, “Going for “Green” – Sustainable Building Certification Statistics Europe,

Status September 2013”, 2013.

CoreNet Global | International Sustainability Systems Comparison 53

Ya Roderick, David McEwan, Craig Wheatley and Carlos Alonso, “Comparison of
Energy Performance Assessment between LEED, BREEAM and Green Star”, Eleventh
International IBPSA Conference, Glasgow, Scotland, July 27-30, 2009

Thomas Saunders, “A Discussion Document Comparing International Environmental

Assessment Methods for Buildings”, BREEAM 2008

UNEP: “An Overview of the State of the World’s Fresh and Marine Waters”, 2nd
Edition, 2008

54 March 2014 | Arup

8.0 Glossary ABGR - Australian Building Greenhouse Rating

AHRI – American Heating and Refrigeration Institute

AQUA - High Environmental Quality (in Portuguese, Brazil)

ASHRAE – American Society for Heating Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning


BCA – Building Construction Authority (Singapore)

BEC – Building Energy Code (Hong Kong)

BEE - Building Environmental Efficiency score (Japan)

BRE - Building Research Establishment (UK)

BREEAM – BRE Energy Assessment Method

BREEAM-NL – BRE Energy Assessment Method for the Netherlands

CASBEE - Comprehensive Assessment System for Building Environmental

Efficiency (Japan)

CDL - City Developments Limited

CFC - Chlorofluorocarbon (refrigerant causing damage to the ozone layer)

CGBL - China Green Building Label

DGNB - Deutsche Gesellschaft für Nachhaltiges Baue

EA – Energy and Atmosphere (LEED® credit category)

EPA - Environmental Protection Agency (USA)

EPBD - Energy Performance of Buildings Directive

EPR - Energy Performance Ratio (BREEAM energy use normalized value)

EU – European Union

GFA - Gross floor area

GGBA - German Green Building Association

GPR - Gross Plot Ratio

HQE - Haute Qualité Environmentale

IEQ – Indoor Environmental Quality

LEED – Leadership in Environmental Excellence and Design

kWh - Kilowatt hour

NABERS - National Australian Built Environment Rating System

CoreNet Global | International Sustainability Systems Comparison 55

NABERSNZ - National Australian Built Environment Rating System adapted for
New Zealand

NECB - National Energy Code for Buildings (Canada)

SEDA - Sustainable Energy Development Authority

SF - Square foot

SS – Singapore Standard

URA - Urban Redevelopment Authority (Singapore)

56 March 2014 | Arup

Appendix A

Region-Specific Information

CoreNet Global | International Sustainability Systems Comparison 57

Region-Specific The following sections provide have been provided with their own write-

Information information by region and country.

Countries with more than 30 CoreNet
up. All other countries with CoreNet
Global members are covered at a higher
Global members as of January 1, 2014 level in regional discussions.

A1.0 Americas LEED® is widely used across North

America. At the time of this writing,
and would be typically in response to a
particular tenant request.
LEED® v4 is being rolled out in the USA
and Canada, and LEED® 2009 is still Incentives, including rebates, tax credits
the version most commonly used in and accelerated depreciation rates, are
Mexico. provided by utilities as well as
governments at the federal, provincial
As in other regions, the global and municipal levels. Examples of such
agreement on alternate compliance incentives are accelerated capital cost
paths allows the use of local energy allowance for Green Power generation
codes for energy savings calculations. (e.g. on-site photovoltaics) and the High
In Canada, LEED® 2009 allows the use Per formance New Construction
the Model National Energy Code for programme offered by the Ontario
Buildings (1997) as an alternative Power Authority in cooperation with
compliance path. For LEED® v4, in Enbridge and a number of electrical
Canada, this has been changed to the utilities across Ontario.
National Energy Code for Buildings
(NECB, 2011). United States of America

LEED® is the most common ENERGY STAR was created in 1992 by

sustainability rating system used in the US Environmental Protection
Canada for new construction and Agency and it was created to rate
LEED® v. 4 is being rolled out in 2014, existing buildings based on their energy
to replace LEED® 2009 used at efficiency performance compared to
present. other buildings nationwide that have the
same primary use. However New
Canada Buildings are rated as “Design to Earn
the ENERGY STAR”. With over 24,000
LEED® Gold is considered the standard buildings certified, ENERGY STAR® is
for any new office construction, and the most common certification scheme
several of the major financial clients now in the United States.
require LEED® Platinum Certification for
any new leased spaces. LEED© was developed by the US
Green Building Council and was initially
In many cities, the incremental cost of released in 2000, currently there are
achieving LEED® Gold is reduced due over 18,600 buildings certified in the
to the existence of a local Green United States. Cities, Counties, and
Standard (for example, the Toronto States as well as Federal and other
Green Standard) which is mandatory for public agencies might require buildings
permitting and overlaps with several to achieve a specific LEED certification
LEED® requirements to achieve a Silver level (commonly established for LEED
certification. Silver) or else it is stabilised as an
alternative to local by-laws. The US
Green Globes is another Canadian General Services Administration uses
standard but has had limited adoption LEED certification system as a tool for
within the commercial building market. evaluating and measuring achievements
Other sustainability rating systems are in sustainable design.
rarely used for commercial buildings,

58 March 2014 | Arup

In addition there are incentives being design does not meet minimum LEED
implemented at city or state, where energy standards due to lack of specific
LEED certified buildings have property buildings codes for energy efficiency.
tax exemptions and exemption from This means that a LEED Level Certified
local taxes to specific construction Buildings is already considered of
materials, tax credits, tax breaks etc. highe r pe r for ma nce. Tr iple A
commercial towers of international
Other sustainability frameworks have visibility; however usually aim for Gold,
been developed by local administration which is becoming a standard for this
and agencies, mainly based on LEED niche of the market.
requirements and threshold.
The Green Building Council Brasil,
Created in 2006 Living Building associated with the World GBC was
Challenge is a sustainable building founded in 2007. The organisation has
certification program, where buildings focused their efforts in producing a
are assessed based on actual national version for LEED Homes, which
performance rather than modeled or is a growing market demand. This is
anticipated. There are mandatory supposed to be launched in August
requirements for projects pursuing the 2014.
Living Building Challenge certification.
Certification process and requirements There are no mandatory requirements
are considered to be amongst the most for buildings in Brazil to meet any
rigorous ones. In 2010 the first project certification, so it is completely
was certified and currently there are voluntary, including public buildings.
over one hundred buildings certified
mostly in the United States. Brazil has its own green building
certification that comes in second place
Central & South America of market preference. It is called AQUA
(Acronym in Portuguese for High
Few Green Building Councils have been Environmental Quality) which is a local
established in Central and South adaptation of the French HQE. It has
America, and LEED® is the dominant been applied to commercial and
system in this area. residential buildings. The benchmarks
are relatively easy to achieve and are
Brazil has adopted LEED as the primary less restrictive than LEED’s. The audit
green building rating system in the process is extremely flexible and the
country. The first LEED project was system has recently certified buildings
certified in 2004, and since then, Brazil with clearly low environmental
has reached second place worldwide in performance, which has impacted in
number of registered or certified reduced credibility of the system
projects. In 2014, the country has nationwide. AQUA is being reformulated
achieved 843 registered projects and at the moment and stricter benchmarks
151 certified projects. 47% of the and audit process is expected to take
projects are Commercial of fice place in the near future.
buildings. There is currently no locally
adapted version of LEED to Brazil, Procel Edifica is the energy efficiency
although local projects can benefit from label for Commercial, public and
regional priority credits established for residential buildings. It is a national
Brazil by the USGBC. energy efficiency certification that
considers both the building envelope
The LEED projects are irregularly and systems. It is voluntary and did not
ge ographically distributed and grow a lot in the recent years (it was
investments are concentrated at the created around 2004-2005). It may
economic centre of the country (Sao become mandatory for public buildings
Paulo and Rio de Janeiro), which within the next couple of years (not date
accounts for 77% of the total amount of has been established yet)
projects. Business as usual building

CoreNet Global | International Sustainability Systems Comparison 59

A2.0 Europe Neighbourhoods: There are currently a
few projects in the county attempting
for a new office building, while BREEAM
Excellent is becoming more commonly
LEED Neighbourhood Development pursued. Outside of these areas,
and AQUA Bairros (Neighbourhood) BREEAM Good (or LEED® Silver) is
that are under development. This is more common, with BREEAM Very
expected to grow in the next few years. Good (or LEED® Gold) considered
The European Union adopted the
Energy Performance of Buildings The Netherlands
Directive (EPBD) (Directive 2002/91/EC)
in 2002 as the central policy for building The Netherlands obtained a localized
energy performance improvement. In version of BREEAM (BREEAM-NL,
2006, mandatory building energy in 2008, which
labelling began to be introduced, and is is the dominant sustainability system in
now required across the EU. Energy the region, with 25 BREEAM-NL
Performance Certificates have been certified buildings as of 2013 (RICS,
widely used since 2010 and must 2013). The BREEAM-NL rating is
include information on the energy frequently requested by tenants and
needs/consumption of a building, has marketing value for a new property.
including reference values to allow Further, because it is based on Dutch
comparison with other buildings. regulations and building practices, the
Further, recommendations for cost- incremental work to achieve the
effective improvement options to raise certification is relatively small and the
the rating of the building are now increasing number of online tools is
mandatory in EPCs. In most countries, further decreasing this level of effort.
ratings are expressed on a letter scale The BREEAM-NL system is understood
(e.g. A to G, where A is very efficient to have marketing value and is frequently
and G is very inefficient), with some requested by tenants. In Amsterdam’s
exceptions. financial district, for example, BREEAM-
NL Excellent (4-star rating) has become
In addition to this mandatory building the standard expectation and BREEAM-
labeling, throughout Europe, LEED® NL Outstanding (5-stars) is required to
and BREEAM use is generally driven by distinguish a building as being
tenant desire to occupy certified space, particularly sustainable. Elsewhere in
and in many cases, the tenant will have the Netherlands, the expectations drop
a specific system and rating certification to BREEAM-NL Very Good (3-star
requirement. rating) has become the standard
expectation and BREEAM-NL Excellent
There are several notable trends in the (4-star rating), respectively.
adoption of sustainability rating systems
in the EU, which are described at a high Two other rating systems are commonly
level as-follows: BREEAM (with local used in the Netherlands. The first is
variants) are most dominant in Ireland, GPR, which
Netherlands and Eastern & Central is commonly requested by several
Europe, while LEED® is increasingly municipalities. This is a relatively simple
common in Germany, Switzerland and (web) tool for advisors and is a validated
Southern Europe. The French HQE on the building site by visual inspections.
(Haute Qualité Environmentale) is used Like BREEAM-NL, it is based on Dutch
in French-speaking areas (France, regulation and building practice and can
Belgium and Luxembourg) but there be combined with BREE AM-NL
have been several LEED® and BREEAM certification without duplication of effort.
projects in each of these areas as well. The market expectation for GPR
certification is 3 stars, while 4-star and
Within Eastern Europe, two cities that 5-star buildings are considered
stand out are Warsaw (Poland) and exceptional.
Prague (Czech Republic) where
BREEAM Very Good is a typical The other common rating system is
requirement (and market expectation) Energielabel (http://www.rijksoverheid.

60 March 2014 | Arup

n l /o n d e r w e r p e n /e n e r g i e l a b e l - Germany
gebouwen/uitleg-energielabel), which is
based on the demanded EPC G e r m a ny d eve l o p e d i ts ow n
calculation (based on EPBD) for building sustainability rating system, the
permits and is mandatory for building, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Nachhaltiges
selling or leasing a building. Baue (DGNB, http://www.dgnb-system.
E xpectations and requests for campaign=evtilesystem) in 2005. This
certification to a particular standard system can be tailored to other regional
vary across the country. GPR is contexts and has been used for several
requested by many municipalities for building certifications. In September
permitting. Like BREEAM-NL, it is 2013, it was the dominant system only
based on Dutch standards. in Germany and Austria but there have
been several new certified buildings in
United Kingdom eastern Europe under this system, from
Czech Republic to Turkey (RICS, 2011).
The United Kingdom (UK) developed
the first sustainability rating system There has been significant growth in
(BREEAM) in 1990. This is by far the sustainable building certifications in
most commonly used system in the UK, Germany over the past couple years
with over 99% of building certifications and a strong shift toward the LEED®
(approximately 4000 in 2011, compared system. As of 2013, 359 of the certified
with 8 LEED® certifications, rising to buildings in Germany were certified to
6940 BREEAM certifications, compared DGNB, compared with 46 LEED, 9
with 38 LEED® in 2013). BREEAM and 1 HQE (RICS, 2013). This
is a significant increase from 2011 when
BREEAM Excellent is considered the the breakdown for certified buildings
standard for any new office construction were 171 for DGNB, 9 for LEED® and 6
in a major urban centre, while “Very for BREEAM (RICS, 2011) and shows a
Good” is standard in suburban contexts dramatic increase in the number of
and smaller centres. Several of the LEED-certified buildings (nearly 500%)
major financial clients require BREEAM compared with DGNB (210%) and
Excellent or Outstanding Certification, BREEAM (150%). A key impetus to this
notably in the financial districts. It should increasing market share for LEED® was
be further noted that many cities and the 2012 LEED® agreement between
municipalities across the country the German Green Building Association
require a BREEAM “Very Good” as a (GGBA) and USGBC.
planning requirement.
The market expectations for sustainable
In the UK, many local planning building certification vary widely across
authorities required a BREE AM the country. Public sector buildings
assessment to be undertaken when typically use a separate system
constructing a new building. It is also a (developed as an off-shoot of DGNB)
requirement than new publically funded and are rarely LEED® certified. At the
buildings obtain BREEAM certification. other extreme, in the financial district of
Frankfurt, LEED® Gold is considered a
minimum rating, while an increasing
number of tenants are seeking to
occupy LEED® Platinum space. In other
urban areas, this same trend is present
but less pronounced, while in suburban
areas, there are few certified buildings.

CoreNet Global | International Sustainability Systems Comparison 61

France Switzerland

France was one of the first countries to In 2011, Switzerland only had one
develop its own certification system, the certified building and it was certified
Haute Qualité Environmentale (HQE, under the DGNB (RICS, 2011). By 2013,
h t t p : //a s s o h q e . o r g / h q e /s p i p . this had increased to 11, of which 9
php?rubrique9) in 1996. HQE is clearly used the LEED® certification system
dominant in France, though there has (RICS, 2013). As of the time of this
been a noticeable increase in the writing, there was no common
adoption of LEED® (up to 11 certified expectation in the market of a particular
buildings in 2013 from one in 2011 and minimum level of building certification.
BREEAM (83 in 2013, up from 15 in
2011. At the same time, the number of Spain
HQE-certified buildings in France rose
from 579 to 955. (All data from RICS Sustainable building certification in
2013 and 2011) Spain has picked up dramatically since
2011, with an increase in certified
commercial buildings from 15 (12
LEED® and 3 BREEAM) to 44 (35
LEED® and 9 BREEAM) between 2011
and 2013 (RICS 2011 & 2013).

A3.0 Oceania For new office construction, we have

noted an increasing trend towards
any state governments, as well as large
corporates, have of fice leasing
LEED® rather than BREEAM as the standards that list a green star rating as
preferred system and LEED® is one of the requirements. Certification to
perceived to add value to the project in a 4 or 5 Star level is a de facto
the form of reduced energy and water requirement of an A-Class building in
costs, while BREEAM is seen as more this market.
holistic in nature.
The NABERS Energy rating is set such
Australia that the average of all existing buildings
achieves 2.5 stars. For new
NABERS ( construction, the market expectation is
and Green Star ( a 4 star NABERS energy rating for a
green-star/) are the two most common typical building as this correlates with
systems used in Australia. LEED® is the code baseline. 5 star Green Star is
also used to a lesser extent, typically an achievable benchmark for a building
when a landlord is looking to attract a adopting excellent practice in design. 5
US-based corporate tenant or investor, star Green Star and 4.5 to 5 star
or for airport projects. NABERS are fairly standard. Higher
office Green Star ratings tend to occur
NABERS is an energy benchmarking in response to a brief from a major
standard that is mandatory for any tenant looking for a new building. 6 star
c omme rcia l building >20 0 0 m2 Green Star is a lot more difficult and
(21,520sf) in Australia. Several portfolio tends to require significant onsite
owners use the NABERS ratings to generation and/or water recycling plant.
measure portfolio performance. 6 star NABERS only came into existence
in the past couple of years and is still
Green Star is a voluntary ratings system quite rare.
that is more comprehensive in nature
(i.e. addresses water, sustainable The NABERS Water rating is increasingly
materials, etc., and not just energy). common and reflects the water scarcity
Green Star has the benefit of access to in many parts of Australia.
a wider tenant market. The federal and

62 March 2014 | Arup

New Zealand 50%”. There is a sense in the market
that the incremental cost to achieve 6
New Zealand has adapted the Green star does not correlate with a similar
Star sustainability system and the increase in building value, and thus
energy component of the NABERS while there was an initial push for 6 star
system (adapted for the New Zealand ratings, these are not commonly
context in 2013, http://www.nabersnz. pursued at this time. As the system is ). As in Australia, the push for still new, mandatory disclosure is not
Green Star has been market driven and yet required for NABERS ratings, and
through government buildings setting only 12 buildings had received NABERS
minimum criteria for their Energy ratings as of this writing.
NABERS water is just starting to
Premium offices are currently targeting penetrate the New Zealand market and
5 star NABERS minimum, with several a 4 star water rating is considered
targeting a higher rating of “5 star + achievable.

A4.0 Asia There is a strong trend in the adoption

of LEED® across all parts of Asia (Gulf
Silver certification. We have not noted
much variation between cities within
region, Central Asia, South Asia, East China, but have found this to be a fairly
Asia and Central Asia. In addition, there consistent requirement for sustainable
are systems used in specific countries buildings. In general, the Chinese
or regional blocks as follows: building codes have more stringent
pump and fan power requirements than
The Estidama Pearls system and design LEED®, however the envelope and
guide (developed in Abu Dhabi in 2010) chiller and boiler efficiencies are less
is quite widely used in Abu Dhabi. It has stringent and must be upgrades from
been used elsewhere in the Gulf region, the code minimum to meet the LEED
albeit to a lesser extent than LEED. baseline.

BEAM Plus is the dominant system in In addition, China has a national building
Hong Kong and has found some energy labelling system known as the
traction in Macau and southern China China Green Building Label (CGBL),
(Guangdong Province). and commonly referred as “3-star”
which was still voluntary at the time of
Singapore’s Green Mark (http:// this writing, but as each province has an has been gaining agreed target for the number of certified
popularity with certified buildings in buildings to be ach. 3 star rating is
Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand as well as typically requested by tenants and is
eastern China. eligible for an incentive of 80rmb/m2
(approx. US$13/m2) of gross floor area,
BREEAM has limited adoption at upon completion of both the “Design”
present in this region. Similarly and “Operation” stages of certification.
CASBEE’s application is limited to As the 3 star rating is difficult to achieve,
projects in Japan at the time. 2 star is the most common and is
eligible for a reduced incentive of
China 45rmb/m2 (approx. $US 7/m2) of GFA.
No incentive is provided for achievement
LEED® has been tailored to the Chinese of a 1 star rating. Additional financial
context and China is one of the incentives can also be applied for from
countries with the most LEED®-certified Provincial Governments but these vary
buildings. LEED® Gold is typical for from Province to Province. Each
new construction, although some of the province has a mandated number of
very large developments only pursue a buildings to achieve the CGBL

CoreNet Global | International Sustainability Systems Comparison 63

accreditation, resulting in pressure from stringent, requiring on-site treatment
the municipal and provincial bodies to of 100% of wastewater to tertiary
achieve this accreditation. standards

BREEAM is rare in China, but • Energy Credits: The baseline for

Outstanding and Excellent building LEED® India is ASHRAE 90.1-2004
ratings have been achieved on and the number of credits has been
ambitious projects. reduced to 10 (achieved with a 42%
savings relative to the baseline)
Hong Kong
• Refrigerant management credits are
The BEAM Plus system described in somewhat dif ferent, with the
detail in the report is the most common Fundamental Refrigerant
sustainability standard used in this area. Management prerequisite limited to
For new government buildings in HK, not using CFCs and a credit available
the target is BEAM Plus Gold or above. for avoiding the use of HCFCs and
Major developers for commercial Halons
buildings commonly set a target of
BEAM Plus Gold as well. For developers, • The Green Power credits are
a key benefit of BEAM Plus certification dramatically different; with LEED®
in this market is that the HKSAR 2009, this credit refers to the
Government has provided a concession contracting to purchase a minimum
on the allowable Gross Floor Area (GFA) 35% green power for the facility. In
of up to 10% for sustainable elements LEED® India, 50% is required to be
for a certified building. This allows generated by the company (i.e. the
developers to build more on a site than building owner) at any location within
other wise permitted by zoning the country. There are several
ordinances. incentive programmes for the
purchase of solar panels and other
LEED® is commonly adopted in Hong green power systems from the
Kong, while BREEAM is extremely rare. Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy
Sources (MNES) to help subsidize this
India credit requirement.

LEED® has been tailored to the Indian Japan

context and designed primarily for new
commercial office buildings. Since its Japan was one of the first countries to
first certified green building in 2003, develop a sustainability rating system.
India has the second largest number of The CASBEE Sustainability Rating
green buildings per square foot after the system was developed in 2001. In its
US. It has 269 LEED certified buildings, current version, it is specifically for use
up from just five in 2005. (Asia Green in Japan and is heavily based on the
Buildings, 2013) Japanese building code. As a result, it is
not used to any measurable extent
There is a reduced number of credits outside Japan but is widely used within
overall, so while most of the credit the country. The system is broken into
categories have been maintained two broad themes – Built Environment
(exclusions below), the number of Quality (covering Indoor Environment
credits available for each has been (including lighting, acoustics and indoor
de cre ase d. T he re is thus a air pollution, Quality of Service (i.e.
corresponding reduction in the number operational considerations) and Outdoor
of credits required to achieve each Environment on-Site) and Built
rating level: Certified (26), Silver (33), Environment Load Reduction (covering
Gold (39) and Platinum (52). The Energy, Resources and Materials
following energy and water credits are (including water conservation, recycled
noticeably different from LEED 2009: materials and avoiding CFCs, Halons,
etc.) and Off-site Environment (including
• There is no prerequisite for water use consideration of global warming, air
reduction pollution, heat island effect , local
infrastructure and light pollution).
• T h e Innovative Wa s te w a te r
64 March 2014 | Arup Technology credits Option 2 is more Each cre dit lists pre scr ipti ve
requirements to achieve Level 1 through standards of certification for projects
Level 5 for that credit. The building developed on government sales sites
overall rating is based as "BEE" (total of and as a land sales condition as-follows:
Built Environment Quality scores / total
of Built Environment Load scores). The • Marina Bay & Downtown core:
overall rank is showed as C (poor) Platinum/ GoldPLUS rating is the
through S (Excellent). minimum requirement

Singapore • Jurong Gateway in Jurong Lake

District: GoldPLUS
Singapore’s Green Mark Scheme has
been very successfully adopted across • Kallang Riverside: GoldPLUS
Singapore. One of the largest
developers in the city/state, CDL (City • Paya Lebar Central: GoldPLUS
Developments Limited) made a
commitment to GoldPLUS or higher for In addition to these minimum standards,
all new projects (source: http://www.cdl. Gross Floor Area (GFA) incentives are available to new private developments
csr_philosophy.xml). In addition, the (including Major Retrofitting of existing
government also set goals for 80% of buildings over 10 years old with “Energy
existing buildings to meet certified Enhancements”). For buildings attaining
status by 2030 (source:  http://app. Green Mark Platinum or GoldPLUS,
m e w r. g o v. s g / w e b / C o n t e n t s / URA will grant additional floor area over
ContentsSSS.aspx?ContId=1034). and above the Master Plan Gross Plot
Ratio (GPR) control as follows:
The local building codes in Singapore
are more stringent than the LEED® • Green Mark Rating of Platinum: up to
baseline for both energy and water, and 2% to a maximum of 5,000 sqm
buildings designed to the Singapore
Building Code minimum requirements • Green Mark Rating of GoldPLUS: up
are well on their way to achieving the to 1% to a maximum of 2,500 sqm
LEED® Minimum Energy Performance
pre-requisite and will typically meet the The allowable additional GFA is
Ind o o r Wate r Use Re d u c tio n calculated as follows:
prerequisite. Despite this, dual
certification is still uncommon in Maximum allowable GFA = (Proposed
Singapore; Green Mark is the most GFA based on allowable intensity) x
typical overall building rating, while (Prescribed Green Premium) divided by
LEED® Commercial Interiors is Land Value (source: BCA 2009, 2012).
beginning to become more popular than
the Green Mark Office Interiors rating for It must be noted that a security deposit
individual tenant spaces. of 50% of the market value of the
allowable of the allowable GFA is
To encourage the private sector to retained by the BCA upon application of
develop buildings that attain higher tier the GFA incentive and there are
Green Mark ratings (i.e. Green Mark significant financial penalties for failing
Platinum or Green Mark GoldPLUS), the to achieve the agreed level of
Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA) compliance, which may exceed the
and BCA identified four “strategic security deposit value. (source: BCA
growth areas to be developed in an 2009, 2012).Finally, projects funded by
environmentally sustainable manner” the Government are often mandated to
and set, minimum Green Mark achieve a higher Green Mark rating.

A5.0 Africa Sustainable building rating systems BREEAM and LEED® have both found
have been adopted to a limited extent in limited traction in Africa to date and
Africa. South Africa is the notable where there have been projects seeking
exception, with 50 Green Star certified certification, this has generally been due
buildings. Interest in Green Star has to a request from a specific investor or
also been rising in East Africa (Kenya). tenant.

CoreNet Global | International Sustainability Systems Comparison 65

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