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Technology Nexus for the Resonance of Nature and Humans

REMODELLING THE MUNICIPAL WASTE BY-LAWS


BASED ON INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT
AND WASTE-TO-ENERGY CONCEPTS: A
PARADIGM SHIFT FOR THAILAND TOWARDS
CIRCULAR ECONOMY
Chacrit Sitdhiwej
Thammasat University Faculty of Law, Thailand
schacrit@tu.ac.th

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June 10-13, 2018 Daemyung Resort, Hongcheon, Gangwan, Korea


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MUNICIPAL WASTE SITUATION
28 1.2

26.75 1.125

25.5 1.05

24.25 0.975

23 0.9
2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

total (million tonnes) per person (kg/day)

Source: Pollution Control Department <goo.gl/NZNn2w> 3


LANDFILLS (2008)

Bangkok Metropolitan (87%)


Others (92%) 35%
37%

Municipalities (67%)
27%

Sources: Department of Alternative Energy Development and Efficiency <goo.gl/kYFsQ5> 4


ON THE ONE HAND,
THIS SITUATION IS A THREAT :(

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FINAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION
(1,000 BARREL OIL EQUIVALENT)
natural gas
178 Only 12% is renewable energy
lignite
12

imported coals
154

refined oil products


727

electricity
292
refined oil products electricity imported coals lignite natural gas

Source: Department of Alternative Energy Development and Efficiency <goo.gl/kYFsQ5> 6


ON THE OTHER HAND,
IT IS AN OPPORTUNITY:)

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DEDE’S GUIDELINES ON
WASTE-TO-ENERGY INVESTMENT

incineration landfill-gas to energy

gasification bioreactor

anaerobic digestion refuse-derived fuel

Source: Department of Alternative Energy Development and Efficiency <goo.gl/kYFsQ5> 11


National Master Plan on Municipal
Waste Management (2016-2021)

Pollution Management Strategies


(2017-2036)

1992 Public Health Act

Source: Pollution Control Department <goo.gl/KbuFxJ> 12


WEAKNESSES:(

Bangkok Metropolitan
2,441 municipalities
Administration

total 7,852 local governments

5,333 subdistrict administration


Pattaya City
organisations
PROPOSITION:)

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model municipal waste by-laws


based on integrated waste management and
waste-to-energy concepts
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DISCUSSION