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Introduction: -
With an increase in global competition, technology advances and fast
informed consumers, it has become important for business to make a powerful impact on
target audiences and markets. Therefore marketing communication strategies has become
an important part of company’s overall performance.
Advertising has been defined as “a powerful communication force and a vital marketing tool
helping to sell goods and services, image and ideas…” (Wright 1983). Similarly, Roderick
(1980) defines advertising as “a message specified by its originator, carried by a
communication system and intended to influence and/or inform an unknown audience”.
Advertising may also be seen as “a group of activities aiming at and including dissemination
of information in any paid product or service to compel action in accordance with the intent
of an identifiable sponsor.” (Doghudje,1985)
Advertising has a long history, with some opinions tracing its origin to the story of Adam, Eve
and the Serpent in the Bible (Okigbo 1985 and Klepper 1985). Wright
(1983) however opines that advertising started in ancient Babylon at about 3000 BC when
inscriptions for an ointment dealer, a scribe and a shoe maker were made on clay tablets.
Sandage and Fryburger (1963) argue that Egyptians first wrote runaway – slave
announcements on papyrus at about 3200 BC.

Situation in India
In India, town-crying and hawking were the earliest forms of advertising. These have
survived in many Indian villages till date. With respect to media advertising, which is the
focus of this paper, Sandage and Fryburger, 2006:) suggest that the first media advertising
was done in London in 1477 when a prayer book was announced for sale while the first
newspaper advertising appeared in the Boston Newsletter in 1704.
The print media came into India in 1859 with the appearance of a Yoruba language
newspaper, iwe Iroyin published by Reverend Henry Townsend at Abeokuta. The publication
carried an advert in the form of an announcement for the Anglican Church.

Advertisement: -
Advertisement consists of all activities involved in presenting to target
audiences, non-personal paid massage relating to a product, idea or service. It can be done
through various Media.
i) Electronic Media.
ii) Multi Media.
iii) Print Media.
iv) Outdoor Media etc…

Future advertisement classified as: -

Social Advt. Political Advt. Retail Advt. Financial Advt. Corporate Advt.

However for any kind of advertisement media selection is an important & challenging
taste for the Company or Firm.
Advertisement through print media specially in newspapers is gaining important due
to increase in literacy, circulation & improvement in quality of printing.
According to the 1993 annual report of the register of Newspapers, there has been a
growth in total circulation of details in 1998 over 1991 circulation increased from 5.3 crore in
1991 to 10.6 crore in 1998, it directly 100% increment.
Hence statement of problem is that a comparative study of advertisements in Time of
India and Indian Express.
Someone once said “effective advertising- it’s a bit like trying to interest a deaf tortoise”
(unknown). By glossary terms, ‘effectiveness’ has been described as ‘the degree to which a
system’s features and capabilities meet the users’ needs (Carnegie Mellon Glossary, 2004).
This falls apt for the field of advertising too. Effective advertising can be described as a paid
form of communicating a message which is persuasive, informative, and designed to
influence purchasing behavior or thought patterns, and meets the goals that it set out to do.
It is such advertising that welcomes one into the world of advertising in India.
1) Objectives of the study: -
The present study has the following specific objectives:
i) To study and assess, advertisements in Times of India.
ii) To study and assess, advertisements in India Express.
iii) To compare advertisements of Times of India and Indian Express.
iv) To Study and understand impact of print-media advertisements on trade and

2) Hypotheses of the study: -

This study is an attempt of understanding the impact of print-media advertisement
with special reference to Times of India and Indian Express. To execute this study
following hypotheses are drawn:
H1 Trade of advertisement in Times of India is higher than Trade of
advertisements in Indian Express.
H2 The numbers of advertisements in Times of India is higher than trade of
advertisements in Indian Express.
H3 Times of India earns higher income through advertisements than Indian

3) Scope of the study: -

The coverage and scope of the study provide insight into advertisements in two
leading newspaper of India published from Mumbai, which include Times of India and
Indian Express. Times of India and Indian Express involve advertisements on the
study. for the period of January – 2013.

4) Significance of the Study: -

The study will help in understanding the impact of print-media advertisements to the
Government, Politicians, Industrialist, Traders and Commercial Activities, as various
types of advertisements are appeared in Times of India and Indian Express. It will
further help in understanding the positive impact on students and housewives. It will
also examine the role and performance of advertisements and its positive impacts on
foreign investors and foreign institutes who are interested in dealing with Indian
Trade and Commerce. The findings of this study will also provide an insight to
various corporate houses. Thus, the study by enlarge will help the impact of print-
media advertisements with reference to leading newspaper of India published from
Mumbai touch all groups of society.

Meaning and definitions of advertisement

Randal (2003) defines market driven or market oriented journalism as ‘an organization
which selects target markets for its product, identifies the wants and needs ofpotential
customers in its target markets, and seeks to satisfy those wants and needs as efficiently as
possible’ (2003). For a news organization, a strong market orientation implies that the
newspaper, magazine, or television station will aggressively seek to determine the kinds of
information that readers or viewers say they want or need and will provide it, says Randal
(2003).In his famous book, “Market Driven Journalism-Let the Citizen be aware?”. Verma
(1999), writes, ‘adopting sensitivity to audience ratings similar to that of local television
news, news papers has diminished the traditional role of ‘professional’ journalists as arbiters
of which events and issues are news worthy’. He states further, ‘managers are telling
journalists to let the public decide what becomes news by paying attention to what kinds of
reports are most highly valued in the marketplace. Citing the present market driven
corporate model of print media in operation, Manus says, ‘this market
driven journalism may lead to four social impacts: the consumers are likely to learn less
from the news, consumers may be misled, news may become manipulative, and viewers
may become apathetic about politics (1994).
Verma (1999) wrote that news papers are now moving ‘to embrace such topics as parenting
or hobbies or shopping, and willingness to billboard such subjects onthe front page-often at
the expense of the government news papers have diminished. (1991). Bogart (1982),former
executive vice-president of the Newspapers
Advertising Bureau, wrote, ‘many editors appear to have been convinced that more and
bigger photographs and more ‘features’ and ‘personality journalism’ were necessary
counters to the visual and entertainment elements of TV (1982). Nash (1998), a former
journalist, argues that competition for audiences is driving a trend toward trivial news. He
argues further, ‘by chasing the passing whims of focus groups and surveys, most news
papers have shriveled coverage of major political, economic and social issues in favor of
soft features, personality profiles, how to advice and a focus on the process rather than the
substance of governance’. Thussu (2007, 2005 and 2000) too concurs with the same
definitions of Randal. The media scope of the South, writes Batra et al (2005) has-been
transformed in the 1990s under the impact of ‘neo-liberal, market-oriented economic
policies’ that encourage privatization and deregulation. In India, the increasing mercerization
of news, Thussu (2005) argues, has created a façade of media plurality when in fact it is
‘contributing to a democratic deficit in the world’s largest democracy’. Batra et al (2005) also
address that theme:
‘’…crude market-oriented media systems do not allow for any distinction between people’s
roles as consumers, which are private and individual, and their roles as citizens, which are
public and collective. This is why market-oriented media have a tendency to produce
economic benefits while simultaneously creating democratic deficits.’
In his latest book, ‘News as Entertainment’, Verma (1999) argues, ‘fierce competition
between proliferating news networks for ratings and advertising has prompted them to
provide news in an entertaining manner and broadcasters have adapted their news
operations to retain their viewers or to acquire them anew’. ‘In the process, symbiotic
relationship between the news and news formats of current affairs and factual entertainment
genres, such as reality TV has developed, blurring the boundaries between news,
documentary and entertainment’, says Thussu (2007).Such policies include opening up the
media industries to profit-seeking transnational corporations who are more interested in
entertainment than public service (Shakuntala and Navjit, 2007). “With post cold–war
globalization, the US inspired news and entertainment programs made up of game, chat,
and reality shows; programming that Clausen (2004) calls ‘the transnational genre
conventions’ has come to dominate the medias cape of the South, including the content of
the Indian media” (Shakuntala and Johal,
2007). Today, the Indian media are passing through dramatic shift in favor of consumerism
and the content of the media is becoming more and more market driven (Sharma, 2002).
Batra et al (2005)points out that a similarsituation in the US has caused the market driven
journalism in print media in the post 1990s. Randal
(2000), in his extensive studies, quoting the works ofAlbers (1995), Kohli and Jaworski
(1990), and Batra et al (2005) on the US print media market-driven journalism, including
content analysis, found that thereare two types of market driven journalisms: Strong market
orientation and Weak market orientation. Strong market orientation media had lesser
content of publicsphere or public service and public affairs than weak market orientation.
However, Randal (2003) observed that despite market driven journalism of the strong
market oriented media,
the latter retained the accountability to the public and its adversarial role. One more
assumption about the market driven journalism of strong market oriented print media is,
‘they devote excessive resources to the publication’s Murthy et al. appearance and to
providing readers with devices that allow easy processing of information’ (Randal,
2000;Manus, 1996). Nash (1998), for example argues that the ‘editors are spending less
time considering content and much more on layout, graphics, typefaces, pictures or photos
and grabby headlines”. Randal (2003) applied his methodology of content analysis only to
analyze two things broadly: i.) content differences among strong andweak newspapers, ii.)
lay out differences in making up pages. Robin (2000) in his exhaustive study on Indian news
paper revolution placed much of the emphasis on the strategies the strong corporate
houses adopted, which got Indian print media in treating the localization of news as a
saleable commodity. He observed that commercialization of local news in the form of color
supplements on a variety of subjects has been the singular strategy for increasing
advertisements and revenues, besides expanding the readership zones state and district
wise (2000).
Writing about the revolution of Hindi news papers in the heart land of India, Sevanti (2007)
traced that the upsurge in the post 1990s was due to the synchronous working of several
factors such as increased literacy and political awareness among the rural people due to the
BJP and Mandal politics, besides the tilt of the bigger corporate media from the elitist class
to literacy class. Secondly, she also noted that the rural revolution in the Hindi heart land
was also a post television phenomenon. People who happened to access the television got
excited at the developments and the reporting’s seen on the small screen and liked to
curiously know more about them in the print media next day (Nina, 2007). Thirdly, there was
a phenomenal localization of news in the form of additional supplements which placed
emphasis on the local crime, politics, entertainment and life styles. All this added to the
growing popularity of Hindi news papers region wise and by 2006, the Hindi news papers
occupied the top 5 positions among the top 10 positions throwing English news papers like
the Times of India logo for 11th position (Nina, 2007).
Though the works of Robin (2000), Thussu (1995 -2007) and Nina (2007) indicated the
existence of the characteristics of market driven journalism in the Indian print and TV media,
they are based more on observations than any systematic study. We, however, found that in
Nina’s latest work (2007), she had indeed collected samples of regional editions and
examined the items against the characteristics of market driven journalism, a chapter which
she had exclusively done under the title ‘The Universe of the Local News’ on the Hindi
papers. But such a study was not done against the English news dailies such as what we
have taken in our study. Randal Beam (2003) argued that the strong market oriented media
players still retained the grit for the accountability and not pandered to the audience
The Role of Gender in Advertisements
Gender has certainly been a critical factor in market segmentation strategy for advertisers
(Wolin & Korgaonkar, 2003).Given the different ways men and women process information,
researchers have recommend that retailers employ specifics strategies to appeal to the
differences between genders (Ray, 2002). Results from studies in traditional advertising
mediums (e.g., television, radio, print) have been consistent with expectations from
information processing theories; where men preferred simple ads with straightforward
comparative appeals, while women responded better to more verbal, complex, and
informative ads (Putrevu, 2002). Men also respond more favorably to ads that reference self
where as women responded better to ads referencing self and others (Meyers-Levy, 1988).
Both genders responded favorably towards ads that corresponded with respective gender-
roles (Ray, 2002); however, in a study of participants self-referencing as either traditional
(gender-stereotyped) or non-traditional (androgynous, feminine-men, masculine-women),
when encouraged to self-reference, both traditional and non-traditional participants were
more responsive to non-traditional or gen-der-neutral advertisements (Morrison & Shaffer,
2003). Again, these findings were been based on traditional advertising mediums (i.e., off-
Verifying these same dispositions towards advertising in an online environment can be
difficult because the highly dynamic online environment make it not just an advertising
medium but a customer communications forum and channel of distribution (Wolin &
Korgaonkar, 2003). The capacity of multi-media messages in the web, both solicited and
unsolicited by consumers, allows retailers broad reach in their advertising abilities. However,
there have been some studies that exam-ine the information processing similarities and
differences between males and females, as presented in
Role of Age in Advertisements
As children’s activities online change as they grow older, so does their exposure to and
engagement with digital advertising (Brady, Farrell et al. 2008; Rideout, Foehr et al. 2010).
Tweens for example are a social group given much attention both by advertisers and
academics. At this age (8-12) children are increasingly consuming digital media but their
use has different patterns from that of older teenagers on whom much of the research has
been focused (Ray, 2002).
On the link between age and television-viewing behavior, Shavitt et al. (1998) found that
younger consumers (age 18 to 34) generally reported more favorable advertising attitudes
than older people did and were more likely to believe that advertising lowers prices for the
products that they buy.
McCarty and Shrum (1993) found that age has been shown to correlate with both values
and television viewing. They found that as age increased, news programming tended to
constitute a greater proportion of total viewing, and movies represented a lower proportion.

Marital Status and Attitudes towards Advertising

Moser and Reed (1998) in their research of consumers' attitudes toward optometrist
advertising also found a significant relationship between marital status and consumers’
attitudes toward optometrist advertising.
Income Level and Attitudes towards Advertising
Shavitt et al. (1998) found that respondents with lower income were demonstrating a more
favorable attitudes towards advertising and believe that advertising results in lower prices
McCarty and Shrum (1993) found that those with more income tend to watch less television
and women with higher family incomes watched less television in general, and less drama
and action/adventure in particular. Women with higher family incomes tended to view a
greater proportion of news programming. Aurangzeb (1994) examined the effects of income
level on attitudes toward hospital advertising but no significant relationship has been

Educational Level and Attitudes towards Advertising

Shavitt et al. (1998) found that respondents with less education were demonstrating a more
favorable attitudes towards advertising and believe that advertising results in lower prices.
Aurangzeb (1994) found education level was related to consumer dispositions toward
hospital advertising. The higher the education level of the consumers, the more likely they
were to favor hospital advertising. McCarty and Shrum (1993) found that that those with
more education tend to watch less television, and education was related to male viewing of
action/adventure programming, with more education associated with a lower proportion of
viewing of this genre.

Ethnicity and Attitudes towards Advertising

Shavitt et al. (1998) also took into consideration the impact of ethnicity in attitudes
towards advertising and found that nonwhites like advertising overall more than white
respondents do, less likely feel that advertising insults their intelligence, and more likely to
believe that advertising results in lower prices for the products.
Verma (1999) explores the issue of audience alienation by assessing the reactions of non-
targeted groups to ethnically targeted advertising in a multicultural Asian country, namely
India It utilizes the dominant ethnic group (tamil) and a major non-dominant ethnic group
(Bhojpuri). His findings include Bhojpuri will react negatively to tamil language
advertisement and vice versa (to a point). The issue raised in his research is the impact of
the language chosen for the advertisements that are adapted to the local country and target
As the findings indicate, if the language used in an ethnically targeted advertisement is not
the dominant group’s language, there is a possibility of negative reactions from those not

The Links between Personal Values and Attitudes towards Advertising

In order to understand the consumers’ way of perception on global brand advertising, so

that to decide which strategy, standardization or customization, to choose one very
possibility is to understand their value system. Orput it another way, the relationship
between consumers’ personal values and their attitudes towards advertising must be
understood. The link between personal values and attitudes towards sex/humor appeals
and attitudes towards advertising in general. It have been addressed before by Rastogi et al
(1996). They conducted a study in US and India to examine and contrast the relationship
between personal values (using Rokeach value system) on the one hand and attitudes
toward sex/ humor appeals and attitudes towards advertising in general on the other hand.
Using path analysis technique, among their findings are one set of personal values will
influence attitudes toward a given advertising appeal in the U.S (for eg. RVS items such as
“Obedient” and “
Ambitious” influence attitudes towards sex appeals in advertising in negative fashion in both
India and the US. In the
US case, “Obedient” presents a further negative influence through its negative effect on
attitudes towards advertising in general). They also found that while “Comfortable life”
shows an indirect and positive effect on attitudes towards sex appeals in advertising in

Culture and Attitudes towards Advertising

Culture is “a mental map which guides us in our relations to our surroundings and to other
people” (Downs, 1971). Culture affects a person’s view of the world, as well as how they
perceive themselves (Alkhafajii, 1995). Culture also affects and reflects the values and
attitudes of members of a society. In a marketing context, consumer behavior is predicted by
values (Henry 1976 and Kahle 1990), and as Levy (1971) indicates, values offer
explanations for the way consumers behave. Thus the importance of studying value
differences across cultures has long been accepted by researchers (Uelttschy, Ryans
1997). On the cultural fit between advertising for global brands and customers’ expectation,
Pae, Samiee and
Rai (2004) mentioned that the cultural values are reflected both in advertising themes and in
their execution styles.
Even when advertisements are standardized, based on similar consumer expectations from
products (e.g uses), cultural differences will make it difficult to standardize their execution
style. Therefore, the central requirement in global advertising is the cultural fit between the
values in the advertising message and the values of the receiver. Pae et al also emphasized
that “It is important to understand the differences in learning and thinking patterns between
local consumers and the home markets (eg US or European) when formulating international
advertising strategy

5) Company Profiles
Indian Express
The Indian Express Group was the unifying voice behind India‘s struggle for independence.
Today, it is the leading light in the battle against corruption as well as empowering the
people of India.
The Indian Express began its journey in 1932. Since then, the Group has grown from
strength to strength. From a single edition to 35 national editions, 14 publication centers and
7 language dailies that reach over 19 million people across the country.
For the millions of readers, the name "Indian Express" evokes a feeling of faith and trust in
the belief that ‗their Express‘ will provide the true picture of India and the world at large.
Published from 21 centers across the country, the newspaper has been identified with
credible and fiercely independent journalism in India. One of the most influential
newspapers of the Indian subcontinent, The Indian Express has been the watchdog for the
Indian people, fiercely treading the terrains of investigative and pro-active journalism.
Some of the most shocking stories in the history of Indian journalism are credited to this
newspaper. For instance, it showed how slavery existed in 20th century India when an
Express reporter actually bought a woman from the market and wrote the famousstory of
Kamla. When the Press was muzzled and gagged and democracy kept in prison in 1975
during the Emergency, The Express was one of the few papers to stand up and speak out
against the anti-democracy moves of the government, it was the loudest voice and the
strictest critic to bring the guilty to account, at the highest levels of power wielding authority,
and enable the return of freedom to the people of India. Express, virtually single-handedly,
overthrew the then government by forcing it to hold a free and fair national elections.
Now, adapting to the changing world are the brands of the Group that cover every sector
one can conceive of. The aggressively independent The Indian Express, the courageous
style of The Sunday Express, the supremely analytical nature of The
Financial Express, the indomitable Locate, the insightful Lokprabha, the sprightly
Screen, the breaking-news-at-breakneck-speed providing Express Online and the
comprehensive Business Publications Division throw light on a range of topics such as
Indian politics, economy, business, society and culture.
As India evolves, you can be sure that the Indian Express Group will evolve too, to keep
pace with whatever tomorrow will bring in an unending effort to arm India with the
knowledge to deal with an uncertain future and ensure it remains the champion of freedom
for the world at large.
To turn the above into reality, The Indian Express Group boasts an extensive newsgathering
and marketing infrastructure as well as a state-of-the-art communications network that is
one of the best in the Indian publishing industry.

The Founder: Ramnath Goenka

For Ramnath Goenka, the founder of the Indian Express Group, a newspaper was not just
another business. It was a mission, a vocation and a calling. The running of
The Indian Express was, for him, not a matter of profit and loss but a vehicle of national
Two elements made him a true original. His sense of history and his instinct of patriotism.
He was one of the few who preferred to stay away from the corridors of power, watching,
counseling and cautioning instead. From the 1960s, when he felt that the country's
leadership had strayed from the moorings of the nation's founders, he led a relentless
campaign against corruption in public life.
The persecutions he suffered in the process have since become a part of journalistic
folklore. In the process, he scripted a new chapter in the history of India. That of Journalism
of Courage. It is this pioneering, intrepid spirit that drives the Group even today.
Ramnath Goenka matters because he was the first to conceive of one newspaper covering
the whole of India. Functioning as a beacon for all those who wanted to know the true and
right path. He switched on the light, we are guided by it.

Chairman & Managing Director : Viveck Goenka

An Engineer by qualification, a newspaper publisher by profession and a socially committed

citizen by choice, Mr. Viveck Goenka is the Chairman & Managing Director of Indian
Express Newspapers (Mumbai) Ltd., one of the most widespread newspaper publishing
groups in India.
He is also a Director of the United News of India. He has been Director of The
Press Trust of India (PTI), a Council member of the Audit Bureau of Circulation
(ABC), and was one of the youngest past presidents of the Indian Newspaper Society (INS).
He continues to be an Executive Committee Member at the INS.
His commitment to the progress and development of media had led him to be a
Council Member of the National Readership Studies Council and was on the Board of
Governors of the Media Research Users Council, two leading organizations providing
research data on media in India. He is a member of the Advertising Association, India
Chapter. He was also a member of the International Advertising Association Inc., New York.
He has developed several business publications like Express Computer in imparting
information in development of modern technology. One of his initiatives, a North American
edition of ―The Indian Express‖, is a reflection of his commitment to disseminate
information about India to the millions of Indians living abroad.
In a country where most media, especially print is closely held, and does not believe in
professional management, Mr. Goenka has actively supported, nurtured and encouraged
professionals not just in management but also in editorial. He has created an atmosphere of
freedom and independence for editorial teams of all
Express publications. His only stipulation, be just, be free of bias, be dauntless in the spirit
of the Express founder Ramnath Goenka and live up to the Express ethos of ―Journalism
of Courage‖. It is his commitment to editorial independence that has made the Express
Group the first choice of editorial professionals across the country.
As a concerned citizen of India, Mr. Goenka has set up various Trusts to help the less
privileged in some of India's most backward areas. His personal beliefs also found
expression in the group publications which are always at the forefront in taking up socially
relevant causes.

Their Brands
Today, the Indian Express Group boasts an extensive news gathering and marketing
infrastructure as well as a state-of-the-art communications network within the Indian
publishing industry.
From a single edition to 35 national editions, 14 publication centers and 7 language dailies
that reach over 19 million people across the country.
As dynamic and multi-dimensional as the communications industry itself, the
Group is constantly evolving to keep in touch with tomorrow. Technology is being constantly
updated. Innovative ways of doing business are explored. Expansion plans into newer areas
of communication are under way.
Adapting to the changing world are the brands of the Group that cover every sector you can
think of. The courageous style of The Indian Express, The Sunday Express, and the
supremely analytical nature of The Financial Express, the indomitable Loksatta, the
insightful Lokprabha, the sprightly Screen, the Express
Online and the Business Publications Division throw light on a range of topics such as
Indian politics, economy, society and culture.
As India evolves, you can be sure that the Indian Express Group will evolve too, to keep
pace with whatever tomorrow will bring.
The Times of India

The Times of India was founded on 3 November 1838 as The Bombay Times and Journal of
Commerce In Bombay,during an intermediate period between the Mughal and British Raj.
Published every Saturday and Wednesday, The Bombay Times and Journal of Commerce
was launched as a semi-weekly edition by Raobahadur Narayan Dinanath Velkar, a
Maharashtrian Reformist. It contained news from Britain and the world, as well as the Indian
Subcontinent. The daily editions of the paper were started from 1850 and in 1861, the
Bombay Times was renamed as The Times of India after amalgamation of three more
newspapers. In the 19th century, this newspaper company employed more than 800 people
and had a sizeable circulation in India and Europe. After India's independence the
ownership of the paper passed on to the then famous industrial family of Dalmiyas and later
it was taken over by Sahu Shanti Prasad Jain of the Kunal Jain group from Bijnore, UP.
India's press in the 1840s was a motley collection of small-circulation daily or weekly sheets
printed on rickety presses. Few extended beyond their small communities and seldom tried
to unite the many castes, tribes, and regional subcultures of India. The Anglo-Indian papers
promoted purely British interests. Robert Knight (1825–1892) was the principal founder and
the first editor of the Times.
The son of a London bank clerk from the lower-middle-class, Knight proved a skilled writer
and passionate reformer. Knight helped create a vibrant national newspaper industry in
British India. When the Sepoy Mutiny erupted, Knight was acting editor of the Bombay
Times and Standard. He broke with the rest of the English language press (which focused
on Indian savagery and treachery) and instead blamed the violence on the lack of discipline
and poor leadership in the army. That angered the Anglo-Indian community but attracted the
Times's Indian shareholders, who made him the permanent editor. Knight blasted the
mismanagement and greed of the Raj, attacking annexation policies that appropriated
native lands and arbitrarily imposed taxes on previously exempt land titles, ridiculing income
taxes, and exposing school systems that disregarded Indian customs and needs.
Knight led the paper to national prominence. In 1860, he bought out the Indian shareholders
and merged with the rival Bombay Standard, and started India's first news agency. It wired
Times dispatches to papers across the country and became the Indian agent for Reuters
news service. In 1861, he changed the name from the Bombay Times and Standard to The
Times of India. Knight fought for a press free of prior restraint or intimidation, frequently
resisting the attempts by governments, business interests, and cultural spokesmen.
21st century
The Times of India is published by the media group Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd. This
company, along with its other group companies, known as The Times Group, also publishes
The Economic Times, Mumbai Mirror, Pune Mirror, Bangalore Mirror, Ahmedabad Mirror, the
Navbharat Times (a Hindi-language daily broadsheet), the Maharashtra Times (a Marathi-
language daily broadsheet) and Ei Samay (a Bengali daily).
In late 2006, Times Group acquired Vijayanand Printers Limited (VPL). VPL used to publish
two Kannada newspapers, Vijay Karnataka and Usha Kiran, and an English daily, Vijay
Times. Vijay Karnataka was the leader in the Kannada newspaper segment then.
In April 2008, the Chennai edition was launched. The paper's main rivals in India are
Hindustan Times and The Hindu, which hold second and third position by circulation.
In Feb 2013, the Kolhapur edition was launched.
The Times of India has its markets in major cities such as Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai, Kolkata,
Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Indore, Jaipur, Ahmedabad, Coimbatore, Madurai, Patna, Pune,
Kochi, Lucknow, Nagpur, Nashik, Panaji, Mysore, Hubli, Mangalore, Bhubaneswar,
Visakhapatnam, Chandigarh, Raipur, Ranchi, Guwahati, Trivandrum, Aurangabad, Kolhapur
and Bhopal.

TOI's first office is opposite the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus in Mumbai where it was

Notable employees

• Girilal Jain, Former editor of TOI

• Vineet jain, MD, current Chairperson
• Samir Jain, Vice-Chairman & Publisher
• Jug Suraiya (associate editor, columnist, "Jugular Vein," cartoonist, "Dubyaman II")
• Swaminathan Aiyar (columnist, "Swaminomics")
• R. K. Laxman ("You Said It" editorial cartoon, featuring the famous Common Man)
• Shobha De, columnist
• M J Akbar, Columnist, "The Siege Within" and former Editorial Team
• Gurcharan Das, Columnist
• Chetan Bhagat, Columnist, Sunday TOI
Times Group Network
Zigwheels: ZigWheels brings to its visitors reviews, road tests, technology, tools and tips, as
well as special features on cars and bikes. It features easy-to-use widgets such as the new
car & bike prices, Resale value of used cars, information on dealerships across cities and
best deals. It has emerged as a hassle free platform for buyers as well as car and bike
enthusiasts looking for new car search as per budget or make, latest news in the industry or
hot launches, and exclusive previews and videos.
Speaking Tree: Speaking is the India's largest online spiritual network that offers one
on one interaction between spiritual masters and seekers. With over 100 acclaimed masters
including Deepak Chopra, Jaggi Vasudev and Sri Sri Ravi Shankar the site encourages
spiritual conversations among users across multiple forums. HealthMeUp covers modern day health concerns like diet and fitness,
workouts, weight loss advice, healthy living tips, and even low-fat, quick and easy recipes.
2. Literature Review

2.1 Overview of Advertising in India

This section highlights the salient features of the advertising industry in India and how
globalization has played a key role in making Indian ads so important to understand.
India’s Advertising Industry grew by 23% in the year 2000-01. Hindustan Thompson
Associates (HTA) maintained the number one position out of India’s top 100 advertising
agencies, with a gross income amounting to 2074 million Rupees (US$42.9 million) in 2000-
01. The agency which came in second place in terms of gross income was Ogilvy & Mather
(O&M) with 1258.7 million Rupees (US$26.04 million), and Mudra Communications came in
third place with 1069.9 million Rupees (US$22.1 million).
With the liberalization and globalization of the Indian economy, firms have been
aggressively and vigorously promoting their products and services. These practices raise
questions about truthfulness and fairness of representation of products and services. In a
competitive environment such as that in India, every representation of a product or service
is about what others are not.
The Indian population is becoming very sophisticated about advertising now. They have to
be entertained. Time is a scarce and precious resource. The approach to the advertisement
and the consumer has to be changed constantly to keep grabbing the attention of the
consumer over and over again. “Honesty” could be a prerequisite for a product in India. “In
this business, you can never wash the dinner dishes and say that they are done. You have
to keep doing them constantly” (Wells, 1996). Indian advertising has been placing more
emphasis on the importance of both recall and persuasion as brand differentiating
Another factor that needs to be considered is the language in the country. Englishlanguage
advertising in India is among the most creative in the world. TV advertising (especially in the
Hindi language) has made major headway in the past 10 years, especially with the advent
of satellite TV. Indian TV channels have fashioned themselves after Western channels. Most
advertising on such channels is glitzy, smart and tailored for the different classes. The
importance of the Hindi-speaking market (which is also fluent in English) is borne out from
the fact that STAR TV, once an all-English channel, is now rich in Hindi programs such as
Tanha (literal translation being ‘lonely’, an Indian soap opera), and Kaun Banega Karodpati
(who will be a millionaire), which is a Hindi version of the famous Who Wants To Be A
Millionaire. Even the British Broadcasting
Corporation is reportedly toying with the idea of airing Hindi programs (Bullis, 1997).
Most major international advertising firms have chosen local Indian partners for their work in
this market. Mumbai (formerly Bombay) remains the centre of the advertising business in
India also has a diverse and growing number of daily newspapers. Since 1991, the increase
of business and financial news reports in English-language and vernacular dailies has
paralleled the economic reform program and the movements of the stock markets. Leading
business newspapers include Business Standard and Economic Times.
Magazines include India Today, Business India, Business Today, and Business World.
In addition, the Internet is now emerging as a truly global medium that does not conform to
country boundaries. Creativity and advertising will affect the perceptions and values so
much that the shape of culture soon is simply an advertisement-induced version of culture.
Print Media Advertising
Concept of Print Media
Throughout the history of mass communication, print was the only readily accessible means
of storing information and retrieving it at will. Print is the keeper of records, great literature
and accomplishments. It differs from broadcast media in several ways. For example, print
media delivers messages that is one topic at a time and one thought at a time, whereas
television and electronic media use a simultaneous approach, delivering a great deal of
information in a rapid fire manner. Furthermore, print advertising has a history and credibility
unmatched by broadcast advertising. These differences have important consequences for
advertisers and media planner to consider.
Print Advertising
The foundation of modern advertising message strategy and design lies in the early print
formats. The earliest mass produced commercial messages either
Comparative analysis of The New Indian Express, Times of appeared in newspapers or as handbills. Thus many
advertising guidelines originated with print and print techniques, such as headline writing,
are still considered basic concepts. Many things have changed over the years. Television
has had a tremendous impact on advertising. Visuals, which were limited in the early press
to infrequent woodcuts, are now as important as worlds. Print advertising continues to be
important, however and still serves as a foundation in that its techniques are the easiest to
understand and analyze.
Print Media in India
Compared with many other developing countries, the Indian press has flourished since
independence and exercises a large degree of independence. In 2001, India had 45,974
newspapers, including 5364 daily newspapers published in over 100 languages. The largest
number of newspapers were published in Hindi (20,589), followed by English (7,596),
Marathi (2,943), Urdu (2,906), Bengali (2,741), Gujarati (2,2,15), Tamil (2,119), Kannada
(1,816), Malayalam (1,505) and Telugu (1,289) The Hindi daily press has a circulation of
over 23 million copies, followed by English with over 8 million copies. There are four major
publishing groups in India; the Times of India Group, the India Express Group, the
Hindustan Times Group, and the Anandabazar Patrika Group. India has more than forty
domestic news agencies. The Express News Services, the Press Trust of India, and the
United News of India are among the major news agencies.

India, one of the World’s Greatest Media Markets

Bazar is an apt analogy for the country‘s media melee, which with more than 55,000
newspapers and periodicals, 16 round – the –block news stations among its 100-odd
television out an information soup as varied as it is vibrant. The newspaper- some have
suave front type on thick white newsprint, some printed on paper so thin that the ink
smudges on the fingers-are peddled in large swathes from the capital New Delhi to tiniest
towns and hamlets.
Even though its literacy rate is about 65 percent, its billion-strong population, its vibrant
tradition free speech and its myriad tongues, coupled with constitutionally enshrined
democratic freedoms, make India home to perhaps the largest numbers of news papers and
periodicals in the world.
The capital alone sustains more than a dozen national dailies, with multiple editions and
bureaus around the country unheard of in any world capital. In the beginning of this
millennium, newspapers were published in as many as 101 languages and dialects besides
English and 18 principal languages.
Subsequently, the circulation of newspapers has shot up from 115 million in 2001/02 to 142
million in 2002/03- a whopping 24 percent increase. At last count, the total number of
registered newspapers in India stood at 55,780 and the total circulation of newspapers was
142 million. Experts say India‘s multitudinous media is gathering ever rising numbers of
addicts who tune in and pore over its content, a growth that has been faster than the growth
of literacy. Indian viewers have access to about 100 channels in various languages,
including 16 round-the-clock channels broadcasting in English, the national language Hindi,
or several regional languages. With viewer ship for news growing, a news channel has
become an essential ingredient in any distribution bouquet for cable providers.
Sensing the tremendous potential of the Indian media, leading players from the global
industry are now flocking to the sub-continent-Financial Times, Business Week and The
Wall Street Journal, to name a few.
The floodgates opened after the government lifted a five-decade ban to allow foreign
investors to buy up to 26 percent in the Indian print media. Newspaper owners saw the
potential of roping in strategic investors who could improve the quality of their products and
pump in fresh funds.
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