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‘aman017 Flow Meter Types Based on Measurement Techniques Y Pipinc ewcimeerinc Engineering information Piping-engineering Your one stop source for Piping ping Components Increased reach using Digital? - Tell your businesses’ story Q) ‘Appy no for SMB Heroes and let our sucess Be celebrated, Goto refs. hoooe com Inefficient Pressure Calibration? New technology helps you maintain pressure standards. Get FREE article Now! Flow Meter Types Based on Measurement Techniques mount of iid pang through the Mow mete daring a ime penod (such a 100 ters per mine) whereas other fo meters measure the totalized amount of Mi tha has passed though the flow miter (ach a 100 ites). mary dove ate sensed bythe transducer while the tanseiver Transducer and uansmiter are the primary devices of low meter The Mui tha pastes though othe chal low mer ny be ve ox tors pista devices. rodoces « exble lw sigal Go the attends sigaal These componrats ee fen coun Selection of flow meter: (One specific ow meter des ot fill the applications. Hach type of ow meter has its own applications and constans (Generaly particular fow mete i selected based on aplication and not he ecko Depending upon the tchniqesof measurement the flow meters are generally catgorzed as low Volumetric flow meters + 1, Disferental Head type # A Orifice plates SB. Venu meter + C.Annuber + 2. Differential Area ype (Rotameters) {+ 3. Electromagnetic flowmeter 1. Vortex flowmeter 5S Ulimsonie flowmeter 2 6 Turbine dowmeter + T posave displacement flowmeter ss flow meters “+ 1. Coriolis Mass Nowmneter 121 Thermal Mass lowmeters . DIFFERENTIAL HEAD TYPE FLOWMETERS, A-ORIFICE PLATES. Difference in pressure exists bstween the upettem & downstream sides ofa restcton in confined fhid steam, which relted tothe sguare of ui velocity ~Qavar where 7 Volume AP = Diferetial pressure between aps hhipshwww piping-enginesringcomow-meter-measurement-tochniques-yoos hilt wie ‘2904017 Flow Meter Types Based on Measurement Techniques a nage pea ow 2 .. ron | meetin UY 7 er ZI Ofc plates ‘Types of Ortce plates Concent orifice plate: Most comamony wed Seymental & Eecentticoifie plate: Used for Mids conning suspended solids Q@® © “Types of Orifice plates ‘Tapplogs forthe Orifice plates 1. Comer tps (© 1 inch) 2 Dad DI2 tps (21 16 inch) 3. Flange taps (> 16 inet) hhipshww piping-enginesringcomMow-meter-measurement-tochniques-lyoos Nini an ‘2904017 Flow Meter Types Based on Measurement Techniques a ee | 4 4 too ot l Carver Toes D and O72 Tape Flange Tepe m= Flow Dieston for all Orice eos Flange tps eatures of Orifice plates 4 Design Pressure: No limitation, Limited by DP transmiter 1. Design Temperature: No liniation Limited by DP transmiter © Sives Maximum size i pipe size {Flow ange: ited only by pipe ses Fluids! Applications: Cryogenic clean gases & iui! Stem sauatelsupesbeated) MOC: No limitation (Steel Monelnickel haste alloy) Accuracy varies from 30.25% lo 40.5% of aetual ow. The accuracy of DPtrnsmiter varies from 40.1% to 40.3% of il sae eo 1, Rangeabiliy is 21 c 5:1 1 Upateam leng Downstream straight length i 20/5 Advantage of Orifice plates «Easily installed between Bangs. 1, Fabrication simple and inoxpensive «No linutations om the material of construction, line size and Dow rte 4. Cost elaively independent of pipe diameter since cost of DPT is feed «No proces intsruption for exchange of DP uansiter Disadvantages of Orifice plates High permanent pressure los & hence high enegy consumption to overcome pressure ls ‘impractical for systems with Iw static pressure Measuring range to about 3:11 5: 4. Accuraciesdesreate wit Bela ratios above approximately 0.7. Subject to damage by wale ammer and Foreign objec B, VENTURI METERS, ‘4A vents tube also measures Hw aes by consti Duds and measuring a diferent presse deop. Inthe upstream cone of the Veotuimeter, velocity is increased, pressure is decreased 1 Presrue rapt the upetream cones ulined to measure the rte of low though the isrument \, “Throat Section Connected to a differential Manometer Venturi flowmeter Features of Venurimeters ‘4 Design Pressure; No limitation. Limite by DP tansmite! pipe press ratings. 1 Design Temperature: No limason, Limited by DP transmit! pipe pressure ratings fe Sizes 25 mm to 3000 mt hhipshww piping-enginesringcomMow-meter-measurement-tochniques-lyoos Nini ane ‘2904017 Flow Meter Types Based on Measurement Techniques 14. Fide Applications Clean Liguid! clean gases Limited applications: Dy Jeorosielitcous Liguide & Diy gaset Fle ange: ited ony by pipe size and beta ratio. fg, MOC: No limitation (cast on! carbon see SS/Menel, Titanium, Teflon, Hastelloy, Naval Broaze haste alloy) 1B Accuracy: Ivares fom 0.25% wo #0, 75% of actual low. The aceuracy of DP wansmie varies fom 20.1% to 0, 3% of fl cle ero is Rageabiity is 311051 4 Upsteam length’ Dowasicam stright length is 20/5 ‘Advantages of Venturimeters 44 Lower head sss than orifice plates reducing the capital expedite on pumping apt. /save pump energy cos +, Noprocesinemuption for exchange of DP tense. ¢Canbe usd fr tompersture exrmes-Cryogsnics ot High Temperatures Disadvantages of Venturlanters 4 Highly expensive ‘Larger and heavier to handle. C-ANNUBAR FLOWMETER “The probe small inthe media ine a pressure sensor ‘wit the flow, the probe resords both the ste andthe dynamic pressure va the probe openings ln the mins chamber of the aut Iyingon the opposes, only the sate pressure has any effect ‘The differential pressure corresponds to the dynamic pressure i the pieline the low ea i aleulated diel epee Annuber flowmeter a an } Aanobar flowmeter Features of Annubar Design Pressure: Upto 97 bar (38 deg.) 55 bars (70 degC) Design Temperature: Upto 400 deg. See 50 mm to 3000 mt Fluids: Clean Liguids, gases and steam |MOC: Bre sto! stainless eee Hseelloy ‘Accuracy: It varies fom +1% 10 =2% of actual flow. Th acouacy of DP taster varies fom #0.1% t 40.3% of il sae enor neepee hhipshww piping-enginesringcomMow-meter-measurement-tochniques-lyoos hilt an ‘2904017 Flow Meter Types Based on Measurement Techniques 1 Rangeabiiy 831 to S 1 Upsteam length’ Downstream strip length 20 5 ‘Advantages of Annubar ‘Integra manifold nea allows dice mounting of DP transmits Hot tapping Insertion installation without system shutdown, Very low presse drop Disndvantages of Annubar 1. Not suitable for viscous and sumy applications 2 Can be se fr only fr elean ads 2, VARIABLE AREA FLOWMETER (ROTAMETERS) 1A fee moving leat is balanced inside averical tapered tube 2 As the Mud flows upward the Moat remains steady when te dynamic forces ating on it ae 220, 5. The flow rate indicated by the position of he lat relative tos calibrated sale Float _f-~ Net gravitational ] force Flow Variable ares fow meter 4 _-— Calraton scale ter >} Float enension rod inet teat gee hhipshww piping-enginesringcomMow-meter-measurement-tochniques-lyoos Nini sr ‘2904017 Flow Meter Types Based on Measurement Techniques Variable tea fow meter Features of Rotameters Design Pressure: Upto 350 PSIG (GLASS TUBE) 720 PSIG (METAL TUBE) Design Temperature: Upto 400 deg (GLASS TUBE) 538 Deg.C (METAL TUBE) Sizet upto 75 am Five! Applications: Clean Huis, ges and vapours Flow range: upo 920 cub for figuis 2210 eu moh for gases MOC: Borosilicate platy! bats sel sans tel Hately ‘Acruracy It varies fom 1% 10 2% of sts How Rangeablity i 10:1 Upetcam length’ Downszcam staight length is 10/5 Advantages of Rot 4 Simple robust and liner output Doce mot rogie extemal impulse o ea ines, Pressure dep is nina ana aly constant. Disudvantages of Rotameters | Vertical istalltion only, 1. Glass tubes lint pressure & temperature and subject to breskage fom hydraulic & thermal shock Gla tubes eroded by undissolved ylds& unstable for metering alkaline soluons {4 Metal tbe meters more expensive Foreign particles can accumulate around the Noa & block the ow 3, ELECTROMAGNETIC FLOWMETERS Operate on Fraday’s Law of magrti induction 1. When condactive lsd moves ina magnetic Held, a voage i generated between two eecrodes right angles othe Mid velocity and ld orienta, ‘€ Thetlow tube has axed arca& field intensity so the developed volage is nearly propartoua the volumetric How ate ‘Magnetic Flowmeter Operating Principle ise Magnetic Now Features of Magnetic flow meters 4 Design Pressure: 20 BARS t0 172 BARS. 1. Design Temperature: Upto 120 deg.C wit teflon liners, 180 Deg.C wih ceramic ners hhipshww piping-enginesringcomMow-meter-measurement-tochniques-lyoos Nini an ‘2904017 Flow Meter Types Based on Measurement Techniques 4. Sizes:25 nm 1 3000 Fluids Liquids (clean comosiveldiyivscou! sary) F Velocity range: 0.1 t0 10 m8 MOC: Lier: ceamic!teionubber Electrodes: Patinuny bavelloyS Accuracy I varies from 10.5% to 11% of acta low, iL Rangeaitys 10-1 5 Upstcam length’ Dowastcam suaight length is 10/5 Advantage of Mag 4 Flow rae unafeced by Pui densi, consistency, viscosity tubulence or piping configuration. ‘Highly accurate du o absence of moving par extemalseasing lines ‘ fc flow meter Csion-esistnt using Teflon lier and platinum electrodes ‘Wile low measuring ranges & no presse drop Disudvantages of Magnetic Nw meter Cons, relative tothe Now meter types Temperature ofthe fads being metered limited by the ier material © Cant be used for gas low measurements 4. VORTEX FLOWMETERS, 5, An obsttion it placed sos the pe bore aright angle to Mud Naw 2.As tu lows, vortices are shed fam aerating sides ofthe Body & his shedding frequency is directly proportional to id vost 3. Detection ofthe vortices by means of pressure changes in he Vorex steam. 44. Rate of ereaton of vortices divecly proportional to the flow ae aN Vorex flowmeter Features of Vortex flow meters a Design Presture: [38 bars, 1. Design Temperature: 200 Deg, Cw 400 Deg Sit 1S om to 300 mm {4 Fhids: Gases (clean diy) an clean liquids Velocity range: 0.3 10 mis (iguids) and to 80 mvs (gases) MOC: mos in sane ste, some in plastic f:_ Accuracy I varies from 20.560 4194 of acta low for iid and Fhngeo 15% for gases fh, Rangeabiltys 20-1 i. Upstoam length’ Downstram straight length is 20/5 Advantages of Vortex fowmeters 4 Minin esinenanee, no moving pas, . Caliration using Maid Dow nol required & unafected hy visosiy,densily, pressre and temperate within operating specification, ©. Digital or analog ox, Disadvantages of Vortex owmeters ‘4 Aow fos, pulses are not generated and the lw meter in ted low or even zo, ', Reynolde number shoud be eeator han 10000 ‘Vibration ca cause eons inaccuracy 44 Correct instalation is cra aa prtruding gasket or weld bends can cause vortices o form, leading ta insecure Long lee lng of upstream pipework must be provided, 8 fr one plate low mers, 5, ULTRASONIC FLOWMETERS 1A pair (or pis) of tansducers, each having is own wansmiter and receives, ar placed onthe pipe wall one (se) onthe upsueam andthe other st) onthe downatet, hhipshww piping-enginesringcomMow-meter-measurement-tochniques-lyoos Nini am ‘2904017 Flow Meter Types Based on Measurement Techniques 2. The time for acoustic waves to travel ftom the upstream wansducer othe dowastcam tansduce iis sores than the imei equites forthe same waves to ave fom the dotrsrear othe upstream 3. The larger the difference, the higher the Now velocity Fenaiecr Utrasonic flow meter Features of Ultrasone flowneters Design Pressure: 207 bars insertion type} wlited (lamp on ype) Design Temprstre «180 Deg. C10 260 Deg.C Sizes: mmo 3000 Fld cleo gates, cleaicorosiv iid (wth ilo solid! bubbles) Velocity range 0.31015 mis MOC: mostly in stainless sel alloy Accuracy is 10.5% of flowrate for isston type *1% to +3% of flowrate for clamp on ype Range ability i 101 1 300 Uprteam length! Downstream straight length is 10/5 litetional flow measurement 1. For ingestion type, hot taping in pressurize pipelines possible Advantages of Ultrasonic ow meters [No obstruction moving parts in theo path [No presste drop Low maintenance cost ‘Multipath modes have higher accuracy for wider ranges of Reynolds number Cat be used in corrosive ui lowe Portable mods availble for Feld aly ad dignosis npenee Disudvantage of Ultrasone low meters 4 Only clean Higuids and gases canbe measured 1. Higher sil et up cost 6. TURBINE FLOWMETERS 1. Consists of muli-bade rotor mounted at right angles fo the flow & suspended in the fi sream ona feesunning bering 2 The diameter ofthe rotor i slighty lee than the nade iamter ofthe ow tring chats. 4 Speed of otation of tor proprtonal to the volun low rae. Ssopeegts ete fre “Tubine Now meter eatures of Turbine flow meters ‘a Design Pressure: 1500 PSIG 1. Design Temperature: 150 Deg. C Sizes mm to 600mm (Full bre type’ 78 mm for nserton type Fluide: Clean tiga gases and vapours Velocity ange: 0.30 15 mis ‘MOC: mostly stiles sel’ astoloy Accuracy i 20.25% to 0.5% of lowrte for fl ore ype 1% to 33% of Nowrate for isetion ype Range ability is 10:1 Upteaenlenth Downstrera straight length is 15/5 hhipshww piping-enginesringcomMow-meter-measurement-tochniques-lyoos Nini are ‘2904017 Flow Meter Types Based on Measurement Techniques j.. Bidizectional low measurement For insezion type ot tapping in resurized pipelines possible Advantages of Turbine low meters ‘2 Very accurate. Commonly use to prove ober mets. 1. Dial output provides for direct oulzing, batching, o digital blending without reducing accuracy {© Theres es tendeney to read high in pisating lw han in head or varable-area type meters Disadvantages of Turbine Nowmeters 4 Nor usable in liny steams o with corosve materials 1 Subject to forking by fren materia fibers, tr ‘© Bearings subject to wear of damage. Shift n calibration if bearings replaced 4. Can be damaged by overspeeding (over 150 perce) or by hydraulic shock. Preture lop t atd Dow varios &@ can be hig 7. POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT METERS 44 This meter sepeately entrap he Mud into a own quantity and than pases it out, ‘The quay ofthe Mid that has passed is bused onthe numer of entrapment The volume flow re an be calculated Som the revolution ae ofthe mechanical device, Positive displacement meter eatures af PD flow meters |. Design Pressure: 1500 PSIG (gids) 00 ps tases) ‘,_ Design Temperature: 293 Deg. C (igus) “ao 60 Deg, (ge) ‘Size: 6 mm to 400 ma Fluids: Clean Liguid! gases Flow range: 0= 20000 GPM (liga) (03000 exb mr (gases) ‘MOC: mostly im aluminum, sans see, Accuracy i 0 Sto 4 De flowrate ange ability i 151 Advantages of PD flow meters 4. Good accuracy and high ange aii 1. Gabe uted in viscous igi flow {© Lowto medium inital ef up com ‘4 Require no power supply and availabe in wide varey of read out devices Disadvantages of PD ow meters 44 Maintenance required a fequent intervals because ofthe ‘moving pat 1 High pressure atop due to obstucton Not suitable for low flow rate 4 Not itable for Suid with suspended solids Gas (bubbles) in guid could significantly decrease the accuracy Applications of Flowmeters “The selection ofthe fowmeters primarily depends upon te application or service for which isto be used. Based on accuracy, cot, ability and reliability you ean sect the technology you wish ous, So the ude for slestonofight flowmeter isthe appieation rather than he tesbnolog: Based onthe application blow ste list of lwmeter which canbe used, 1, Clean LiguidsGases + orifices 1 Venta meters hhipshww piping-enginesringcomMow-meter-measurement-tochniques-lyoos Nini ane ‘2904017 Flow Meter Types Based on Measurement Techniques + Annuber Variable Area {+ Magnetic nly igus) 1 UitasonicFlowmeter 1 VortenPlownneter * Corols Mass Flowmeter 2 themat 2 PD Flown lower (only gases) 2. Dirty Liquids Most sited + MagaeticFlowmetr + Coriolis Mass Flowmeter Limited applications + Venta meters 3. Dirty Gases Mot sited + Vortex Flowmsters Limited apliations + Vent meters 1 Thermal mess Flowmeter 1 Variable area Flowmeter’ Magnetic Flowme 1 Ulrconie Flowmeter + Coriolis Mass Flowmeter Coriolis Mass Flowneet Magnetic Positive Displacement Meter ‘Magnetic Flowmeter Coriolis Mass Flowmeter Magnetic Flowmeter ‘Conois Mass Flowmeter (linted applications) Corrosive Liquid [Nom-Newtonian Liquids Viscous Liquids Abrasive Shurries Fibrous Slrries Saturated Steam, Most suited + Orifice DP meter 2 Mores Flowmeter Limited aplistions + Vent meters 2 Variable ares flowmeter 10, Superbeaed Steam Mos sited + orifice DP meter Limited appitions + ent tere + once pa 1. Cryogene Ste his on WhatsAve More read Different Steam Trap Arrangements on Steam Headers in Piping System hhipshww piping-enginesringcomMow-meter-measurement-tochniques-lyoos Nini sw ‘2904017 Flow Meter Types Based on Measurement Techniques February 2016 Piping Stress Cri 1 Linelist: Format and Use, Responsibilities and Method of Operation May 15,2018, March 16,2016 2 comments Francesco Apa 16 2015 1:29 am ube orifice plats is used justo drop the pressure upscam the network, which should he the standard to use in order 0 size the bore? Plaine ensinccring ‘Anal Uh 2015 1624 om (rive plate bore size calculation shall be dane a pr 80 5167/ BS 1042, Rea Leave a Reply ‘Your couil address wil not be published Required ols are markeé* a | Bat 7 chee Sobsre icin fr se poss Post Coneent Confirm you re NOT a spammer aaa] Follow son Geogle= Demand Precision = *| Find the Right Flow Meter Solution for your application. Piping engineering [e+ rom || Subscribe Updates. 1's Free! Your email [ner anal actos. «+ Piping Layout Drawings Abbreviations and Legends hhipshww piping-enginesringcomow-meter-measurement-tochniques-lyoos Nini swe ‘2904017 Flow Meter Types Based on Measurement Techniques May 14,2015 + Nozzle Orientation Drawing May 15,2018, + Centrifugal Pum Design Layout May 15,2018 «+ Tank farm: Types, Design Considerations, Plot Plan Arrangement, Dyke Enclosure- Part 1 May 15,2015, May 30,2016 + Different Steam Trap Arrangements on Steam Headers in Piping System February 8, 2016 May 15,2015 Piping Stress Critical Lines: Procedure Defining the Basis For Piping Critical Line List March 16,2016 vi May 15,2015 sepa aan very wee vad Koouledge world Plaming: Tacks so very mush for vou ff ‘OTST COPYSCAPE DONOT COPY Orreach me ona @piping-eeincering com Gast ‘© copyright Piping-onginerng 2017 Al Rights Reserved. Privacy Ply | About Us| hhipshww piping-enginesringcomMow-meter-measurement-tochniques-lyoos Nini vane