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Peiner Umformtechnik GmbH

Woltorfer Straße 20-24


31224 Peine
Deutschland/Germany

Tel. No + 49 (0) 5171 545 - 0


Facsimile + 49 (0) 5171 545 -180
e-mail info@peiner-ut.com
Internet www.peiner-ut.com

A company of
Sundram Fasteners Ltd., India
Leading in steel construction
PEINER HV-bolt-sets

PEINER Umformtechnik is a company of


Indian Sundram Fasteners Limited (SFL).
Sundram is a member of the TVS Group,
one of India’s largest automotive suppliers.
The Peine factory of PEINER Umformtechnik
has produced bolts, nuts and other fastening
elements for steel structures and bridges,
fasteners for wind turbines as well as
high-end automotive parts for well-known
car and truck makers throughout the world
for more than 80 years.

Our key accounts provide technology support


for our customers on all aspects of fastening
technology, from the selection of fastener
elements, the design of the fastening points
or calculation and installation. By cooperation
with universities and colleges under research
agreements and by active involvement with
standardisation bodies, such as national (DIN)
and international (CEN, ISO) standardization
committees, we are always abreast of the
state-of-the-art and help advance it. We make
our customers aware of changes in product
standards, calculation or installation
provisions and other features in seminars
and training courses.

Through wholesale channels, which provide


the logistics services, PEINER Umformtechnik
supplies high-strength HV-bolt-sets and HV-
fit-bolt-sets complying with DIN EN 14399-4,
DIN EN 14399-6 and DIN EN 14399-8 to the
steel construction industry.

PEINER high-strength preloaded


(HV) bolt-sets are preferably used in slip-re-
sistant connections, flexurally rigid plate
connections, shear type connections and
in ring flange connections of wind turbines.

As construction elements serving a safety


function, these fasteners must comply with
strict quality requirements. Consequently,
we have installed high-precision standards
and invested heavily in quality assurance.
Each Peiner HV-bolt and HV-nut carries a code
– a serial number – to make the end product
traceable right down to the batch of input
material. This code adds transparency to the
production process and, at the same time, is
an expression of our quality demand. Accor-
ding to DIN 18800-7:2008-11, this makes test
certificates 3.1 which DIN EN 10204 requires
for HV-bolts, unnecessary. However, test
certificates 3.1 will still be issued on request.

PEINER HV-sets are available ex stock in the


standard size range from M12 to M36. Larger
sizes up to M64, especially for installation
in wind turbines, complying with DASt-guide-
line 021 and the corresponding PEINER com-
pany standard, are also available.
PEINER HV-bolt-sets

kw
Serial No. Bolt acc. to Washer acc. to

ø dw
X DIN EN 14399-4 DIN EN 14399-6
c

ø da
ø ds

ød

r
e
Nut acc. to
Is u DIN EN 14399-4
15° to 30 ° s
Ig
k I
h
Thread end acc. to DIN 78-K Detail X
Clamping length ∑t m
u = incompl. thread = max. 2P

Table 1 Nominal size M12 M16 M20 M22 M24 M27 M30 M36
P 1) 1,75 2 2,5 2,5 3 3 3,5 4
Bolt dimensions* c min. 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,4
max. 0,6 0,6 0,8 0,8 0,8 0,8 0,8 0,8
Dimensions of da max. 15,2 19,2 24 26 28 32 35 41
PEINER HV-bolts with nom. 12 16 20 22 24 27 30 36
large widths across ds min. 11,3 15,3 19,16 21,16 23,16 26,16 29,16 35
flats DIN EN 14399-4 max. 12,7 16,7 20,84 22,84 24,84 27,84 30,84 37
for GV, SLV and SL dw 2) min. 20,1 24,9 29,5 33,3 38,0 42,8 46,6 55,9
connections in steel e min. 23,91 29,56 35,03 39,55 45,20 50,85 55,37 66,44
construction nom. 8 10 13 14 15 17 19 23
k min. 7,55 9,25 12,1 13,1 14,1 16,1 17,95 21,95
*Dimensions in millimeters max. 8,45 10,75 13,9 14,9 15,9 17,9 20,05 24,05
kw min. 5,28 6,47 8,47 9,17 9,87 11,27 12,56 15,36
r min. 1,2 1,2 1,5 1,5 1,5 2 2 2
max. 22 27 32 36 41 46 50 60
s
min. 21,16 26,16 31 35 40 45 49 58,8
nom. 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 6
h min. 2,7 3,7 3,7 3,7 3,7 4,4 4,4 5,4
max. 3,3 4,3 4,3 4,3 4,3 5,6 5,6 6,6
nom. = max. 10 13 16 18 20 22 24 29
m
min. 9,64 12,3 14,9 16,9 18,7 20,7 22,7 27,7
Note: The dimensions are for hot dip galvanized bolts, nuts and washers before galvanization
1) 2)
P = Thread pitch (standard thread) dw,max.= sact.

l Shank lengths ls and lg


M12 M16 M20 M22 M24 M27 M30 M36
Nominal size ls lg ls lg ls lg ls lg ls lg ls lg ls lg ls lg
min. max. min. max. min. max. min. max. min. max. min. max. min. max. min. max.
30 1,75 7
35 6,75 12 1 7
40 11,75 17 6 12
45 16,75 22 11 17 4,5 12
50 21,75 27 16 22 9,5 17 8,5 16 2 11
55 26,75 32 21 27 14,5 22 13,5 21 7 16
60 31,75 37 26 32 19,5 27 18,5 26 12 21 10 19
65 36,75 42 31 37 24,5 32 23,5 31 17 26 15 24
70 41,75 47 36 42 29,5 37 28,5 36 22 31 20 29 15,5 26
75 46,75 52 41 47 34,5 42 33,5 41 27 36 25 34 20,5 31
80 51,75 57 46 52 39,5 47 38,5 46 32 41 30 39 25,5 36 16 28
85 56,75 62 51 57 44,5 52 43,5 51 37 46 35 44 30,5 41 21 33
90 61,75 67 56 62 49,5 57 48,5 56 42 51 40 49 35,5 46 26 38
95 66,75 72 61 67 54,5 62 53,5 61 47 56 45 54 40,5 51 31 43
100 71,75 77 66 72 59,5 67 58,5 66 52 61 50 59 45,5 56 36 48
105 76,75 82 71 77 64,5 72 63,5 71 57 66 55 64 50,5 61 41 53
110 81,75 87 76 82 69,5 77 68,5 76 62 71 60 69 55,5 66 46 58
115 86,75 92 81 87 74,5 82 73,5 81 67 76 65 74 60,5 71 51 63
120 91,75 97 86 92 79,5 87 78,5 86 72 81 70 79 65,5 76 56 68
125 96,75 102 91 97 84,5 92 83,5 91 77 86 75 84 70,5 81 61 73
130 101,75 107 96 102 89,5 97 88,5 96 82 91 80 89 75,5 86 66 78
135 106,75 112 101 107 94,5 102 93,5 101 87 96 85 94 80,5 91 71 83
140 111,75 117 106 112 99,5 107 98,5 106 92 101 90 99 85,5 96 76 88
145 116,75 122 111 117 104,5 112 103,5 111 97 106 95 104 90,5 101 81 93
150 121,75 127 116 122 109,5 117 108,5 116 102 111 100 109 95,5 106 86 98
155 126,75 132 121 127 114,5 122 113,5 121 107 116 105 114 100,5 111 91 103
160 131,75 137 126 132 119,5 127 118,5 126 112 121 110 119 105,5 116 96 108
165 136,75 142 131 137 124,5 132 123,5 131 117 126 115 124 110,5 121 101 113
170 141,75 147 136 142 129,5 137 128,5 136 122 131 120 129 115,5 126 106 118
175 146,75 152 141 147 134,5 142 133,5 141 127 136 125 134 120,5 131 111 123
180 151,75 157 146 152 139,5 147 138,5 146 132 141 130 139 125,5 136 116 128
185 151 157 144,5 152 143,5 151 137 146 135 144 130,5 141 121 133
190 156 162 149,5 157 148,5 156 142 151 140 149 135,5 146 126 138
195 161 167 154,5 162 153,5 161 147 156 145 154 140,5 151 131 143
200 166 172 159,5 167 158,5 166 152 161 150 159 145,5 156 136 148
Standardized
210 176 182 169,5 177 168,5 176 162 171 160 169 155,5 166 146 158
nominal
220 186 192 179,5 187 178,5 186 172 181 170 179 165,5 176 156 168
length range
230 189,5 197 188,5 196 182 191 180 189 175,5 186 166 178
Additional 240 199,5 207 198,5 206 192 201 190 199 185,5 196 176 188
nominal 250 209,5 217 208,5 216 202 211 200 209 195,5 206 186 198
length range 260 219,5 227 218,5 226 212 221 210 219 205,5 216 196 208
PEINER HV-bolt-sets

kw
Serial No. Bolt acc. to Washer acc. to
X DIN EN 14399-8 DIN EN 14399-6
c

ø dw
ø da
ø ds

ød

r
e
Nut acc. to
Is u DIN EN 14399-4
Ig s
15° to 30 ° m
k I
h
Thread end acc. to DIN 78-K Detail X
u = incompl. thread = max. 2P Clamping length ∑t

Table 2 Nominal size M12 M16 M20 M22 M24 M27 M30 M36
P 1) 1,75 2 2,5 2,5 3 3 3,5 4
Fit bolt dimensions* c min. 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,4
max. 0,6 0,6 0,8 0,8 0,8 0,8 0,8 0,8
Dimensions of da max. 15,2 19,2 24 26 28 32 35 41
PEINER HV-fit-bolts nom. 13 17 21 23 25 28 31 37
with large widths ds min.2) 12,74 16,74 20,71 22,71 24,71 27,71 30,67 36,67
across flats max.2) 12,85 16,85 20,84 22,84 24,84 27,84 30,83 36,83
DIN EN 14399-8 for dw 3) min. 20,1 24,9 29,5 33,3 38,0 42,8 46,6 55,9
GVP, SLVP and SLP e min. 23,91 29,56 35,03 39,55 45,20 50,85 55,37 66,44
connections in steel nom. 8 10 13 14 15 17 19 23
construction k min. 7,55 9,25 12,1 13,1 14,1 16,1 17,95 21,95
max. 8,45 10,75 13,9 14,9 15,9 17,9 20,05 24,05
The nut for HVP-sets kw min. 5,28 6,47 8,47 9,17 9,87 11,27 12,56 15,36
according to r min. 1,2 1,2 1,5 1,5 1,5 2 2 2
DIN EN 14399-8 is max. 22 27 32 36 41 46 50 60
s
identical with the min. 21,16 26,16 31 35 40 45 49 58,8
HV-nut according to nom. 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 6
DIN EN 14399-4 h min. 2,7 3,7 3,7 3,7 3,7 4,4 4,4 5,4
max. 3,3 4,3 4,3 4,3 4,3 5,6 5,6 6,6
*Dimensions in millimeters nom.= max. 10 13 16 18 20 22 24 29
m
min. 9,64 12,3 14,9 16,9 18,7 20,7 22,7 27,7

Note:
The dimensions are for hot dip galvanized bolts, nuts and washers before galvanization
1) 2) 3)
P = Thread pitch (standard thread) Corresponds to tolerance class b11 dw,max. = sact.

l Shank lengths ls and lg


M12 M16 M20 M22 M24 M27 M30 M36
Nominal size ls lg ls lg ls lg ls lg ls lg ls lg ls lg ls lg
min. max. min. max. min. max. min. max. min. max. min. max. min. max. min. max.
50 20,5 27 14,5 22 8,5 17
55 25,5 32 19,5 27 13,5 22 12,5 21 6 16
60 30,5 37 24,5 32 18,5 27 17,5 26 11 21 9 19
65 35,5 42 29,5 37 23,5 32 22,5 31 16 26 14 24 9,5 21
70 40,5 47 34,5 42 28,5 37 27,5 36 21 31 19 29 14,5 26
75 45,5 52 39,5 47 33,5 42 32,5 41 26 36 24 34 19,5 31
80 50,5 57 44,5 52 38,5 47 37,5 46 31 41 29 39 24,5 36
85 55,5 62 49,5 57 43,5 52 42,5 51 36 46 34 44 29,5 41 20 33
90 60,5 67 54,5 62 48,5 57 47,5 56 41 51 39 49 34,5 46 25 38
95 65,5 72 59,5 67 53,5 62 52,5 61 46 56 44 54 39,5 51 30 43
100 70,5 77 64,5 72 58,5 67 57,5 66 51 61 49 59 44,5 56 35 48
105 75,5 82 69,5 77 63,5 72 62,5 71 56 66 54 64 49,5 61 40 53
110 80,5 87 74,5 82 68,5 77 67,5 76 61 71 59 69 54,5 66 45 58
115 85,5 92 79,5 87 73,5 82 72,5 81 66 76 64 74 59,5 71 50 63
120 90,5 97 84,5 92 78,5 87 77,5 86 71 81 69 79 64,5 76 55 68
125 95,5 102 89,5 97 83,5 92 82,5 91 76 86 74 84 69,5 81 60 73
130 100,5 107 94,5 102 88,5 97 87,5 96 81 91 79 89 74,5 86 65 78
135 105,5 112 99,5 107 93,5 102 92,5 101 86 96 84 94 79,5 91 70 83
140 110,5 117 104,5 112 98,5 107 97,5 106 91 101 89 99 84,5 96 75 88
145 115,5 122 109,5 117 103,5 112 102,5 111 96 106 94 104 89,5 101 80 93
150 120,5 127 114,5 122 108,5 117 107,5 116 101 111 99 109 94,5 106 85 98
155 125,5 132 119,5 127 113,5 122 112,5 121 106 116 104 114 99,5 111 90 103
160 130,5 137 124,5 132 118,5 127 117,5 126 111 121 109 119 104,5 116 95 108
165 135,5 142 129,5 137 123,5 132 122,5 131 116 126 114 124 109,5 121 100 113
170 140,5 147 134,5 142 128,5 137 127,5 136 121 131 119 129 114,5 126 105 118
175 145,5 152 139,5 147 133,5 142 132,5 141 126 136 124 134 119,5 131 110 123
180 150,5 157 144,5 152 138,5 147 137,5 146 131 141 129 139 124,5 136 115 128
185 143,5 152 142,5 151 136 146 134 144 129,5 141 120 133
190 148,5 157 147,5 156 141 151 139 149 134,5 146 125 138
195 153,5 162 152,5 161 146 156 144 154 139,5 151 130 143
200 158,5 167 157,5 166 151 161 149 159 144,5 156 135 148
Standardized 210 168,5 177 167,5 176 161 171 159 169 154,5 166 145 158
nominal 220 178,5 187 177,5 186 171 181 169 179 164,5 176 155 168
length range 230 188,5 197 187,5 196 181 191 179 189 174,5 186 165 178
Additional 240 198,5 207 197,5 206 191 201 189 199 184,5 196 175 188
nominal 250 208,5 217 207,5 216 201 211 199 209 194,5 206 185 198
length range 260 218,5 227 217,5 226 211 221 209 219 204,5 216 195 208
Calculation of steel construction fastenings using HV-bolts
according to DIN 18800-1:2008-11 and DIN EN 1993-1-8:2005

Categories of stuctural bolted joints


The classification of bolted connections
in DIN 18800-1 was revised and a new
classification adopted by DIN EN 1993-1-8.
The new classification is based on the
direction of force transmission in relation
to the bolt longitudinal axis. Tables 3 and 4
below illustrate the performance criteria,
which will be explained later, and the
respective classification according to
DIN 18800-1, each for the serviceability
limit state (GdG) and the ultimate limit
state of load-bearing capacity (GdT).

Calculation of HV-bolted connections


Verification of the performance capacity
of HV-connections using HV-bolts will, for
some time, still be based on the German
standard DIN 18800-1 and also the European
standard DIN EN 1993-1-8 and
DIN EN 1993-1-9. So it is reasonable to
consider both verification formats and
expose technically relevant differences
where such differences exist.

1. Verification of bolt shear


1.1. The design value of the ultimate limit
state, Va, must not exceed the limit shear
forces Va,R,d in DIN 18800-1:2008-11.

Va
Va,R,d ≤1

The limit shear force, Va,R,d is

Va,R,d = A . ta,R,d = A . aa . fu,b,k gM

A Shank diameter ASch , if the smooth


shank is located in the shear joint.
Stressed cross section ASp , of the
thread part of the shank is located
in the shear joint.

aa 0,55 for HV-bolts of property class


10.9, if the smooth shank is located
in the shear joint.

0,44 for HV-bolts of property class


10.9, if the threaded part is located
in the shear joint.

fu,b,k Typical tensile strength of the bolt


material, for HV-bolt: 1000 N/mm2

gM = 1,1 partial safety factor for resistance


Calculation of steel construction fastenings using HV-bolts
according to DIN 18800-1:2008-11 and DIN EN 1993-1-8:2005

2. Verification of bearing resistance


2.1 According to DIN 18800-1:2008-11, the
design values of bearing resistance Vl must not
exceed the ultimate bearing strength Vl,R,d .

Vl
Vl,R,d
≤1

The ultimate bearing strength VI,R,d is

VI,R,d = t . dSch . sI,R,d


=t.d .a .f gM
Sch I y,k

Where
t Thickness of the part

dSch Shank diameter of the bolt

al Factor for determining the bearing


strength, depending on the hole
pattern (Figure 2)

fy,k Typical yield stress of the part


material

gM = 1,1 partial safety factor for


resistance

For e2 ≥ 1,5 dL and e3 ≥ 3,0 dL is


a I = 1,1 e1 /dL - 0,30 (end bolt)
a I = 1,08 e /dL - 0,77 (inner bolt)
For e2 = 1,2 dL and e3 = 2,4 dL is
aI = 0,73 e1 /dL - 0,20 (end bolt)
aI = 0,72 e /dL - 0,51 (inner bolt)
with e1 = Edge distance in direction
of force
e = Hole pitch in direction of force
e2 = Edge distance vertical to the
direction of force
e3 = Hole pitch vertical to the
direction of force
dL = Hole diameter

2.2 The ultimate bearing strength according


to DIN EN 1993-1-8 is calculated as:

k1 . ab . fu . d . t
Fb,Rd =
gM2

Where ab min. (ad ; fub /fu;1,0)


for edge bolts:
ad = e1 / 3 . d0
for inner bolts:
ad = p1 / 3 . d0 - 0,25
Calculation of steel construction fastenings using HV-bolts
according to DIN 18800-1:2008-11 and DIN EN 1993-1-8:2005

so that the resistance capacity according to


the old and the new norm can be assumed
to be the same.

4. Combination of tension and shear


According to DIN 18800-1, the verification of
the following interaction must be provided:

N 2 Va
( ) +( )
2

NR,d Va,R,d ≤1

Where
N, Va Design values of tension and ultimate
limit states
NR,d see 3
Va,R,d see 1.1

No verification of interaction is required if


N / NR,d or Va / Va,R,d is smaller than 0,25.

According to DIN EN 1993-1-8, the interaction


3. Verification of the tensile stress of HV-bolts term is obtained form the analysis of experi-
by calculating the ultimate tensile force mental results as
based on very similar approaches (Table 5).
Fv, Ed Ft,Ed
For HV-bolts, the following equation applies:
Fv,Rd
+
1,4 Ft,Rd
≤ 1,0

Ft ,Rd
= 0,99 Thus, interactions between both loads are
NR,d rated differently (Figure 3).

Table 5
DIN 18800-1:2008-11 DIN EN 1993-1-8:2005
Calculation of ultimate
tensile force to prove
the tensile load of
HV-bolts

ASp . fu, b, k k2 . fub . AS


NR,d = Ft,Rd =
1,25 . gM gM2

ASp Tension cross section AS Tension cross section

fu,b,k for property class 10.9 = 1000 N/mm2 fub for property class 10.9 = 1000 N/mm2

1,25 = Coefficient for higher safety against k2 = 0,9


tensile strength
gM2 = 1,25
gM = 1,1
Calculation of steel construction fastenings using HV-bolts
according to DIN 18800-1:2008-11 and DIN EN 1993-1-8:2005

Where
kS Hole coefficient, depends in hole
configuration and clearance, e.g.,
for normal hole clearance: kS = 1
n Number of contact surfaces
μ Coefficient of fiction in the contact
surfaces, grouping according to
preloading forces and tightening
classes, e.g., for class A : μ = 0,5
Fp,C = 0,7 . fub . As (= 1,11 . Fv )
gM3 = 1,25 partial safety factor for GdT
gM3,ser = 1,1 partial safety factor for GdG

In the ultimate state of serviceability (cate-


gory B acc. to DIN EN 1993-1-8), this value is
about 16 % higher than the ultimate slip force
according to DIN 18800-1. It should be noted,
however, that the assumed preloading force
Fp,C is about 11% higher than the preloading
force Fv according to DIN 18800-7 and cannot
safely be obtained with torque methods
because the effect of friction acting in that
case is subject to a certain scatter.
For this reason, the combined preload
method according to DIN EN 1090-2 should
be applied here. The preliminary tightening
torques and the additional angle of rotation
of PEINER HV-bolts are given as manufac-
turer recommendations in Table 8.

5.3 A simple comparison of the resistance


capacity of slip-resistant connections accor-
ding to DIN EN 1993-1-8 and DIN 18800-1
under combined shear and tensile stress by
a ratio or specification of a percentage
difference is not possible because the
resistance capacity depends on the relation
between tensile stress and preloading force.

© Maurer Söhne GmbH & Co. KG, München


Table 6 contains the calculation equations
for the resistance capacity in the respective
standard. Only DIN EN 1993-1-8 contains
information on slip-resistant connections
in the ultimate limit state of load-bearing
capacity (GdT, category C).

To make a comparison in the ultimate state


of serviceability (GdG), the external tensile
stress is equated and the preloading force
according to DIN EN 1993-1-8 expressed as
a function of the preloading force according
to DIN 18800-7.

Where
Fp,C = 1,11 . Fv and Ft,Ed,ser = N and μ = 0,5
as well as Fv according to DIN 18800-7,
Preloading
PEINER HV-bolt connections

1. Provisions in DIN 18800-7:2008-11 because they are rarely applied in practice.


For a specified preload, HV-bolt-sets shall The detailed procedures are described in
be preloaded to the preload Fv specified in the standard.
Table 7. The specified preload is obtained as
the product of nominal tension cross section With the turning impact wrench method, the
of the thread (ASp) x 0,7 x yield point preload is produced by rotary impacts, i.e.,
(fy,b,k = 900 N /mm2 for 10.9). by tangential rotary strokes. The tightening
The preferred method of preloading by tool should be set to the preload specified
turning, normally by turning the nut, is the for this method in DIN 18800-7 with a
torque method. The specified preload Fv is suitable setting device.
produced by a tightening torque MA .
For HV-bolt-sets of k-class K1, a uniform The turning angle method provides for
tightening torque MA in Table 7 applies preloading in 2 stages. At first, a fairly low
irrespective of the surface condition. pretightening torque is applied which, in
This method enables a stepwise preloading practice, involves a certain risk that the
of connections with many bolts and retigh- parts to be joined do not make full contact
tening for checking or as compensation for with each other at this stage. The additional
preload loss after a few days. angle of rotation then to be applied should
be determined after a method check. Lack of
For preloading to the level in Table 7, full contact of the joined parts before the
DIN 18800-7 offers several other methods, additional angle of rotation is applied can
which will be touched upon only briefly cause high scatter of preload forces.

Table 7
Tightening torque method
Preloads and
tightening torques for
tightening torque
Sizes Specified preload Tightening torque MA to be applied for obtaining
preloading methods
Fv [kN] the specified preload Fv [Nm]
for HV-bolt-sets of
(complies with
k-class K1 for pre-
Fp,C*= 0,7 . fyb . As)
loading according to
DIN 18800-7 Surface hot dip galvanized and lubricated a
and as processed and lubricated a

1 M 12 50 100

2 M 16 100 250

3 M 20 160 450

4 M 22 190 650

5 M 24 220 800

6 M 27 290 1250

7 M 30 350 1650

8 M 36 510 2800

a
Nuts as delivered by the manufacturer are treated with molybdenum disulfide or equivalent lubricant.
In contrast with earlier requirements, the tightening torque is always the same, whatever the state when
delivered.
User guide
for HV-bolt-sets

To ensure the standardized tightening Notes specifically for bolt connections of


performance and, in case of hot dip specified preload:
galvanized fastening elements also the • When preload is applied by turning the
thread fit, PEINER HV-bolts must only be bolt head, the specified preload should
assembled with PEINER HV-nuts and be obtained, for example, by checking the
PEINER HV-washers. method for the preloading behavior by
PEINER HV-nuts are lubricated ready for suitable lubrication of the bolt head-end
assembly. Additional lubrication of the bolts, washer or the contact area of the bolt head.
nuts or washers changes the preload • For coatings of contact faces of SLV and
characteristics and is a cause of assembly SLVP connections, observe
failure. DIN 18800-7:2008-11, table 4. Preload losses
can be compensated by retightening the
All fasteners of the same nominal size can bolted connection.
be combined into sets but should have the • If a specified preload set is opened, it
same surface state (no „mixed applications“, should be removed and a new set installed.
e.g., a as processed bolt and a hot dip If for opened sets preloaded by the torque
galvanized nut). or impact wrench method it is shown that
no permanent damage was done to the
Storage of HV-sets bolt during first preloading, that bolt can
The parts of a bolt-set for systematic pre- be preloaded with a new nut and a new
loading should be stored in such a way that washer from the same manufacturer.
their surface conditions and therefore the Our recommendation is: In case of opening
functional properties cannot be impaired an installed bolt tightened up to the full pre-
(for example, due to corrosion or dirt/dust). load one usually does not know and cannot
A set consists of any combination of a bolt, identify which tightening procedure has
a nut and a washer from one manufacturer. been applied before and whether the bolt
sat perfectly in place or even has already
Arrangement of fastening elements got some plastic deformation. Therefore it is
Washer: Face with the identification code advisable to completely replace it anyway.
showing towards the part
chamfers towards the bolt head Bolt projection
and the nut, respectively In bolt connections with specified preload
Nut: Face with the identification code and in SL and SLP connections with
showing visibly outwards additional tensile stress, at least one full

X
15 to 30°
ds