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NAME: Syed Ameed

LAB #:
TITLE: Turning Forces
AIM: To verify the principle of moments
 Metre rule
 Pivot
 Balance
 Three (3) measured masses
Diagram showing the rule on the pivot with the three (3) masses
1. The three different masses were weighed using a balance and their individual
masses were recorded. They were labeled as m1, m2 and m3.
2. The rule was placed onto the pivot and adjusted until the rule balanced (formed an
equilibrium). The position of the centre of gravity was recorded.
3. The three masses were placed on the meter rule; m1 and m2 on the left side of the
rule (causing anti-clockwise moment) and m3 on the right side (causing clockwise
4. The masses were then adjusted to form equilibrium (that is, the rule was
balanced). The distances were recorded from the pivot and were labeled as d1, d2
and d3 corresponding to their respective masses.
5. Moment of force was then calculated using the formula: Moment of F = F × d
Note: x1, x2 and x3 represent the Moment of F for the masses (m1, m2 and m3) and
the distances (d1, d2 and d3) respectively.

Table showing the calculations to determine the Moment of F in the experiment

m Newtons d x Direction of Moment
1 102.91g  0.10kg × 22.2cm  0.22m 1.00N × Anti-clockwise
0.10kg 9.8 = 1.00N 0.22m =
2 47.23g  0.04kg 0.05kg × 19.2cm  0.19m 0.46N × Anti-clockwise
9.8 = 0.46N 0.19m =
3 295.00g  0.29kg × 10.8cm  0.11m 2.89N × Clockwise
0.29kg 9.8 = 2.89N 0.11m =

In order to calculate the Force, all the masses must be converted to kg:
102.91g → 0.10291kg
47.23g → 0.04723kg
295.00g →0.295kg

Finding the force of each masses in N (Newtons) using 9.8 as the acceleration due to
0.10291kg × 9.8 = 1.008518N
0.04723kg × 9.8 = 0.462854N
0.295kg × 9.8 = 2.891N

In order to calculate the Moment of F, all distances must be converted to m:

22.2cm → 0.222m
19.2cm → 0.192m
10.8cm → 0.108m
Therefore, the Moment of F can be calculated:
x1 → 1.008518N × 0.222m = 0.223890996Nm
x2 → 0.462854N × 0.192m = 0.088867968Nm
x3 → 2.891N × 0.108m = 0.312228Nm
To prove the theory that anti-clockwise moments = clockwise moments:
x1 + x 2 = x 3
∴, 0.223890996Nm + 0.088867968Nm = 0.312228Nm
∴, 0.312758964Nm = 0.312228Nm

The moment of a force is a measure of the turning effect of the force about
a pivot or hinge. That is, the moment of F is the product of the force (F) and the
perpendicular distance (d) from the point to the line of action of the force.
Therefore, Moment of F = F ✕ d.
In order to justify the theory anti-clockwise moments = clockwise
moments, the pivot had to be on the centre of gravity of the rule so that the
masses would be adjusted to form an equilibrium.
Some of the sources of errors may include: readings of the distance of the
masses may be taken from different angles of viewing that may result in parallax
error. A precautionary measure may include: the string going around the rule
(refer to the diagram) should be perpendicular on both ends of the surface of the
rule to reduce the inaccuracy of readings. Limitations in this experiment include:
the surface on which the pivot was placed was not leveled therefore caused a
slight inaccurate calculation (a difference of 5.30964 ✕ 10-4).

Within the limits of experimental error, it can be concluded that in an
equilibrium, the sum of clockwise moments = sum of anti-clockwise moments.
NAME: Syed Ameed
LAB #:
TITLE: Production of Biogas
HYPOTHESIS: Biogas can be produced effectively for domestic uses.
PROBLEM STATEMENT: Increased use of fossil fuels (resulting in depletion of
fossil fuels), unaffordable prices and extensive use of fuel has lead a research in
seeking substitutive ways of obtaining energy from relatively new sources. One of
them being biogas/biofuel which can be affordable to produce at home for efficient
and economical domestic use.
AIM: To design an effective means of producing biogas for domestic use
THEORY: Biogas is a renewable and organic energy source obtained by the break
down of organic matter (waste products of plants and animals) anaerobically (without
the use of oxygen). It can be produced industrially or domestically by the use of
recycled waste and raw materials, which is environmentally friendly and CO2 neutral.
It also provides very clean energy with small labour input, without the firewood or
fossil fuel consumption, which is now becoming extinct as demand increases.
 Shovel

 Barrel

 Pipes

 Large ball shaped vessel

 Low powered pump

 Small tank

 Aluminium Oxide (Al2O3)

 Concentrated Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH)

 Potassium Iodide (KI)

 Mesh material

 Charcoal

 Organic waste
Diagram showing the biogas extraction apparatus arrangement according to the
1. Dig a hole wide enough in the ground to place the barrel inside it so that it
can act as the digester.
2. Acquire the large ball-shaped vessel and place it at a higher elevation than
digester so it can act as the central storage unit.
3. Form holes on the top of the barrel and on the bottom of the vessel (if not yet
formed) and run a pipeline between them. Place the low-powered pump in
between as the intermediator (to pump the gas from the barrel to the storage
4. Insert an open tap in the pipe line (closer to the digester (barrel)): add some
Aluminium Oxide (Al2O3) filling at least half the area of the pipe.
5. Run pipes from the vessel to the bottom of a small tank, then fill the tank
with three quarter (3/4) of concentrated Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH).
6. Then place a pipeline from the (top of the) tank to the resource that needs
7. Add bio-degradable materials to the digester.
8. Cut a piece of mesh material (enough to tightly fit within the barrel) and
place it approximately three quarter (3/4) ways up the barrel and at a
distance away from the connecting pipe hole.
9. Add charcoal on the mesh and add Potassium Iodide (KI) to the charcoal.
10. Cover and leave the barrel for biogas production.
It is expected that a low quality of biogas may be produced composing of
Methane (CH4) (roughly 65%) alongside Carbon Dioxide (CO2) (roughly 34%),
with trace elements of Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) and some amount of water. The
charcoal and Aluminium Oxide (Al2O3) are expected to increase the percentage of
CH4, producing higher quality of biogas.
Is the biogas produced (as above) effective?
Can the production of biogas (as above) be used for daily purposes like cooking?
Biogas is an affordable and effective method of producing Methane (CH4)
as a fuel for domestic and home uses. It uses biodegradable organic fuel (animal
and plant wastes) that contains anaerobic bacteria, which acts on the organic
matter. Due to the anaerobic respiration of the bacteria, the sugars are broken
down (without the use of oxygen) to produce CH4 and CO2, each resulting in the
composition of the biogas about roughly 65% and 34% respectively. This can be
represented in the following equation:
C6H12O6 (S) → 3CO2 (g) + 3CH4 (g)
The main purpose of setting up the bio gas-plant/bio digester is to
acquire the fuel gas (CH4) and it should be placed inside a dug hole so that it can
be prevented from sunlight, in order to stabilise the temperature within it.
However, other gaseous products may be produced which are potentially
hazardous to the environment. To improve the effectiveness and efficiency of
this source, other compositions must be reduced to only obtain CH4, which is a
clean gas fuel.
In order to decompose the biogas to its cleaner form factor, charcoal,
Potassium Iodide (KI), Aluminium Oxide (Al2O3) and concentrated Sodium
Hydroxide (NaOH) may be used. When the unclean biogas is produced
anaerobically, the charcoal acts as a reducing agent to reduce Silicon content and
it causes Sulphur to precipitate from Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S), making the gas
much cleaner and less dangerous. By passing the gas through the Al2O3 reduces
the water content in the gas. Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) is then used to remove
the CO2 from the biogas which gives rise to a higher concentration percentage of
By producing this biogas, less damage to the human ecosystem is made
and energy is produced in a very effective, affordable and efficient manner.
Controlled - The size of the digester, ball-shaped vessel and the tank
Manipulated - Amount of organic waste used
Responding - Volume of CH4 and biogas produced
Biogas can only be obtained after a number of days to weeks.
It is expected that biogas will be produced effectively and can be used for
purposes such as cooking.
NAME: Syed Ameed
LAB #:
TITLE: Pressure and Depth
AIM: To investigate pressure with respect to depth
 Large Styrofoam cup
 Water
 Draining area (sink)
Diagram showing the holes bored on a Styrofoam cup
1. Three holes of nearly the same diameter were made on a side of Styrofoam
cup which were labeled as: A, B and C; at three different heights of the large
Styrofoam cup (with C in the lowest level, B in the middle and A at the top).
2. The holes were temporarily covered with scotch tape.
3. Water was poured into the cup to its maximum capacity.
4. The scotch tape was removed to release water for observations.
It was observed that water was draining (out of the cup) at a higher
pressure from hole C than at B and A. Water was draining at a higher pressure
from hole B than at A. As the water drained out, the pressure at the three holes
became much lower, until eventually all the water was drained.

Pressure is produced when objects exert forces on each other. The
pressure is independent of the total volume or the shape of the container.
From the observation above, the pressure at the bottom of the cup
increases because of the weight of water and the atmospheric pressure acting
from the top, therefore, pressure in liquid increases with depth. From the
observations above, the pressure exerted by an incompressible fluid is directly
proportional to the depth in the fluid (h), its density (ρ) and the acceleration due
to gravity (g), therefore, the pressure due to the liquid of density, ρ, at a depth, h,
and acceleration due to gravity, g, is given by P = ρ g h.
One of the sources of error may include: boring holes of different
diameters that may cause inaccuracy in pressure. Using one tool to bore all the
three holes can reduce this.

From the discussion above, it can be concluded that pressure in liquids increases
with depth.