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PLC Controlled Elevator System

Gurmeet Singh, Anshul Agarwal, Member, IEEE, R.K. Jarial, Member, IEEE, Vineeta Agarwal,
Senior Member, IEEE, and Mithun Mondal

The objective of this paper is to create the ladder logic


Abstract-- This paper presents the control of elevator system programming of a PLC controlled elevator system and control
using Siemens LOGO PLC. The system is programmed to drive a strategies involved in an elevator systems can also be used for
dc motor for forward and backward motoring mode with sensors educational purpose. The two floor elevator system ladder
at each floor, emergency STOP switch for maintenance purpose logic is designed using SIEMENS LOGO! Soft Comfort V7.0
or to prevent any accident inside the lift & door switch for safety software. SIEMENS LOGO! Soft V7.0 software provide
purpose. The system is also programmed to conserve energy by
automatically switch off lights and fans of cabin when motor is in
simulation mode for testing of your ladder logic program.
rest state for a specified duration of time. The software used in PLC can make a conventional elevator system into an
this elevator system is LOGO! Soft Comfort V7.0. This system automatic, energy saving, safe and reliable elevator system by
can be used for learning the control strategies involved in using various math functions, timers, creating interlocks etc.
elevator systems for educational purpose. into its program. The inputs in form of sensors, push buttons
etc and output in form of motor, light, fan etc are connected to
Index Terms — Automation, Energy saving, Elevator, Ladder the PLC input and output terminals.
logic and Programmable Logic Controller (PLC).
II. PLC LAYOUT
I. INTRODUCTION
PLC is an electronic device that is used to design the
I N modern time due to rapid population growth in the urban
areas, in multi-stored buildings need for elevators is being
increased. With rising life standards and attention towards
control circuits of industrial automation systems. It controls
the system via inputs/outputs and is equipped with
communication interfaces. The advantage of using PLC based
safety measures and with the development in modern system is to ensure the high reliability, small space
technologic, elevator systems are getting better, fast and more requirements, computing capabilities, reduced costs, ability to
reliable. In the past, most of the elevator systems were focused withstand harsh environments, expandability, high power
on the mounting of elevators, around 1980s the need for handling capacity and reduces the human efforts. The layout
elevator maintenance and fault staff had started to increase of the Siemens LOGO Series PLC is shown in Fig. 1. It has
[1]. For example, splash doors have been replaced by digital / analog input and digital outputs. It has 4 digital and 4
automatic doors system, cards with relay have been replaced analog inputs and all digital outputs are shown in Table 1.
by microprocessor electronic cards, in multi storage building These can be used as per the user’s requirement and also can
single-speed elevators have been replaced by double-speed or be extended using extension cards [8].
speed-controlled elevators. Such developments improve the
quality of elevator systems, therefore increase the reliability of
elevator system compared to previous years [2]. Elevator
control system [3-4], and its logic analysis [5-6] have been
creating interest to engineers and its context scheduling [7] is
still in research.

Gurmeet Singh is currently pursuing M.Tech.(Electrical Engineering) NIT


Hamirpur, H.P., India. He can be reached at: gsingh.ee@gmail.com
Anshul Agarwal is currently the faculty of Electrical Engineering
Department, NIT Hamirpur, H.P., India. He can be reached at:
agw.anshul@gmail.com.
R.K. Jarial is currently the faculty of Electrical Engineering Department,
NIT Hamirpur, H.P., India. He can be reached at: jarial@nith.ac.in
Vineeta Agarwal is currently the faculty of Electrical Engineering,
MNNIT, Allahabad, India. She can be reached at:
vineeta_agarwal123@rediffmail.com
Mithun Mondal is currently pursuing M.Tech.(Electrical Engineering)
NIT Hamirpur, H.P., India. He can be reached at: mithun1214@gmail.com

Fig. 1: Siemens Logo PLC.


978-1-4673-5630-5//13/$31.00 ©2013 IEEE
TABLE I The elevator’s control system is governed by PLC. The
SIEMENS LOGO PLC LABELING
input signals are: car-calls, emergency stop signal, door
Number Description open/close signal and leveling signal. PLC program contains
1 Rack with 8 inputs (I1 to I8) 4 Digital + 4 all logical functions of the elevator system, such as call
Analog registration, position judgment of elevator car, choose layer,
2 Supply rack (L1 – N). priority setting.
3 Rack with 4 outputs (Q1 to Q4).
4 Multi-character display screen
IV. I/O MODULES AND ELECTRICAL WIRING
A PLC is divided into parts, as shown in Fig.2 these are the
central processing unit (CPU), the input/output (I/O) modules, Elevators were used as vertical traction device, which
power supply, and programming device. The CPU is the belong to potential energy load and require frequent start and
called as “brain” of PLC, memory is also required for the stop [9]. Elevators are powered by electric motors (DC or AC)
program (EPROM or EEPROM type plus RAM). The I/O that can either drive traction cables or a counter weight
modules form the interface by which field devices are systems like a hoist, or pumped hydraulic fluid to raise a
connected to the controller. To enter the desired program into cylindrical piston [10-12]. In addition to all these a braking
the memory of the processor a programming device is used. system must also be used [13].The input and output modules
The program is done in ladder logic, which is one of the most of designed elevator system are listed in Table I and Table II.
popular programming languages. Power supply section also The input devices consists of three floor limit switches, one
supplies DC power to the I/O modules. For large PLC door limit switch for safety purpose, three floor selector push
systems, this power supply section does not normally supply buttons to select the maximum two floors out of three floors
power to the field devices. With larger systems, power to field and one emergency stop button to seize the elevator transition
devices is provided by external alternating current (AC) or instantaneously but PLC will remember its last status and as
direct current (DC) sources. For some small micro PLC soon as emergency button is released and the elevator will
systems, the power supply may be used to power field continue its transition from the moment at which emergency
devices. button was pressed. These switches do not consume
electricity. These switches are of make break type when it’s
open then there resistance in nearly infinite and when they are
close then there resistance is around zero. The wiring diagram
of PLC is shown in Fig. 3.

TABLE II
INPUT LISTING

Input ports Definition Type Location


I1 Ground floor call Push button On elevator
I2 1st floor call Push button On elevator
I3 2nd floor call Push button On elevator
I4 Ground floor limit Limit switch Between ground
switch floor platform
I5 1st floor limit Limit switch Between 1st
switch floor platform
I6 2nd floor limit Limit switch Between 2nd
switch floor platform
I7 Door limit switch Limit switch On elevator door
I8 Emergency stop Push button On elevator
Fig. 2: PLC block diagram.
The output device is a DC motor which can rotate in both
direction i.e. clockwise or anticlockwise direction. In ladder
III. ELEVATOR SYSTEM STRUCTURE logic program interlocks is provided so that elevator moves in
The motive of an elevator control system is to control the one particular direction during transition, otherwise
movement of an elevator according to the user’s requests. simultaneous operation of motor in both direction can cause
It is classified into two parts: wear and tear of motor which can lead to fatal accidents. The
other outputs are braking system; fans and lights loads. Fans
A. Electric power driving system and lightning loads are connected in parallel to each other i.e.
both of them are operate simultaneously. Brakes are applied
It includes the elevator cabin or car, DC motor and brake when motor is switched OFF.
mechanism.
TABLE III
B. Elevator control system
OUTPUT LISTING • Selected floor is reached, passenger out of lift and
Output port Definition Type Location door is closed.
Q1 Upward DC motor On top of elevator • When none of the floor call switches are pressed up
motion platform to 40 seconds time duration, then elevator’s cabin fan
Q2 Downward DC motor On top of elevator and light will automatically be switched OFF which
motion platform will save electricity.
Q3 Fan and lights Loads On elevator
• The whole elevator system is halted by emergency
Q4 Braking system Solenoid On pulley
stop button in case of emergency or for maintenance
purpose. During this process the elevator’s cabin fan
The PLC power supply is 24V DC, all the inputs to the PLC
and lights will be ON.
are connected to input ports I1,I2,I3,I4,I5,I6,I7,I8 and all the
• If there is a power failure during elevator transition,
outputs to the corresponding output ports Q1,Q2,Q3,Q4. The
PLC will remember the sequence last status. When
inputs and outputs should be used according to their
power is restored elevator will operate automatically
corresponding addresses while developing ladder logic
as per there past status.
program.

Fig.4 Floor calls with emergency stop button.

Fig. 3 Siemens LOGO PLC wiring diagram.

Pulley
V. OPERATIONAL SEQUENCE
The Fig. 4 and Fig. 5 shows the elevator structure
developed with I1, I2 and I3 are ground floor, 1st floor and 2nd Elevator
floor call switches; I8 is an emergency switch; I4, I5 and I6 Cabin I6 2nd Floor
are limit switches used to detect current lift position. The or Car
sequence operation for elevator system is shown in flowchart
of Fig.6 and is describe as follow:
• When the person enters in the elevator, light and fan I5 1st Floor
switched ON automatically. Counter
• Desired floors selected by person. Weight
• Then the door is closed, motor is switched ON and
Ground Floor
brakes released. I4
• The direction of rotation of motor depends upon floor
selected; current elevator position and when the
directions are different then the floor selected first
Fig.5 Elevator structure
will get the higher priority.
• When the selected floor is reached then the limit
switch of selected floor gets activated and switch
OFF the motor.
• Brakes get activated.
VII. IMPLEMENTATION
The PLC and motor control panel is shown in Fig.7 and its
inner view of the control panel is shown in Fig.8. Ladder logic
program is tested for various floor levels, automatic cabin fans
and lights are OFF when no one is inside the lift, braking
applied when motor is OFF, if there is a power cut when lift is
in transition then lift will resume transition when power is
restored. Fig. 9 displayed the front view of the lift.
When there is a call for 1st and 2nd floor, but the elevator is in
ground floor then under this condition the LOGO! Soft
comfort view is depicted in Fig. 10. With LOGO! Soft
comfort provide online mode in which we can easily get the
status of elevator on personnel computer (PC). This system
helps us to easily monitor the condition and status of elevator
system.

Fig. 6 Flowchart for elevator system

VI. MECHANICAL DESIGN


An elevator model is developed which uses a DC motor to
pull up the elevator cabin. The dimensions of cabin or car are Fig. 7 PLC and Motor control panel
as follows:
Height = 73 mm.
Length= 55 mm.
Width= 31 mm.
Material for cabin construction: Aluminum.
Density of Aluminum= 2710 kg/meter3.
Weight of cabin= 550 grams (approx.)
Weight of counterweight= 500 grams.
Radius of pulley = 5 cm
Torque required to pull the elevator cabin (Tc)
= force × perpendicular distance.
= (0.550×9.8) × (0.05) = 0.2695 N-m.
Torque provided by counterweight (Tw)
= force × perpendicular distance. .
= (0.500×9.8) × (0.05) = 0.245 N-m.
Net torque required (T) = Tc – Tw
= 0.2695-0.245 = 0.0245 N-m.
Therefore, the net torque required (T) is supplied by traction
motor of specification 0.0300 N-m (0.3 Kg-cm).
Fig. 8 Inner view of control panel Fig. 9 Lift front view
X. REFERENCES
Fig. 10 Designed view of LOGO! Soft comfort when lift is operated upward. [1] N. Toygar, “Vertical Motion on the Horizontal Direction,” Elevator
World Magazine, vol. 73, 2004.
[2] T. Arıtan, “Elevator Control Systems,” Kaynak Magazine, pp. 29-32.
VIII. CONCLUSION [3] M.A. Covington , “Logical control of an elevator with defeasible logic,”
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 45, pp. 1347–1349, July
A novel elevator system has been proposed on LOGO! Soft 2000.
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and it is the need of modern world, where everything is Electronics, vol. 45, pp. 364–366, April 1998.
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to safety verification of object-oriented design specification for an
used in industry, hospital, buildings or can also be used for elevator control system,” Proceedings of Third International Workshop
education purpose. The PLC based elevator system is an on Object-Oriented Real-Time Dependable Systems, 1997, pp. 256–263,
efficient tool to conserve electricity when elevator is not in 5-7 Feb. 1997.
use. The overall system ensures high reliability. Tests have [6] S. Nakamura, Y. Fujimoto, “Structure analysis of logic control
programs,” 30th Annual Conference of IEEE Industrial Electronics
been carried out to show the effectiveness and flexibility of Society, IECON 2004, vol. 3, pp. 2588-2593, 2-6 Nov. 2004.
the proposed method. [7] Thomas Strang and Christian Bauer, “Context-Aware Elevator
Scheduling,” 21st International Conference on Advanced Information
Networking and Applications Workshops, 2007, AINAW '07, vol. 2, pp.
276–281, 21-23 May 2007.
IX. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT [8] User’s guide to SIEMENS’S ‘LOGO!’ PLC.
The authors are thankful to the Technology Information [9] Richard von Holzen Beringer AG, “The frequency-controlled hydraulic
drive,” Elevator world, vol. 2, pp. 94-96, 1998.
Forecasting and Assessment Council and Centres of
[10] E. Ünalan, “Control Systems in Elevators,” Sektör Magazine, vol. 4,
Relevance and Excellence (TIFAC-CORE) at NIT Hamirpur pp. 29-32.
for providing the necessary facilities to perform the research [11] T. Öztürk, “Control of Elevator System with Programmable Logic
work. Controller,” Master Thesis, 1996 Kocaeli-TURKEY.
[12] E. İmrak, I. Gerdemeli, “Elevators and Escalators,” Birsen Publishing,
Istanbul 2000.
[13] K. Utsunomiya, Okamoto Ken-Ichi, “Active rollerguide system for
high- speed elevators,” ElevatorWorld, vol. 50, pp. 86-93, 2002.