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Engineering (IJERECE)

Vol 5, Issue 4, April 2018

Massive MIMO Systems

[1]

Dr G.Indumathi, [2] C.Prabhabathi Devi, [3] V.Priyadharshini

Department of ECE, Mepco Schlenk Engineering College, Sivakasi.

Abstract: - This paper proposes a unified channel estimation scheme for multiuser massive multiple input multiple output (MIMO)

systems in time-varying environment. In this paper, a new discrete Fourier transform (DFT) based spatial-temporal basis

expansion model (ST-BEM) is introduced to mitigate the training overhead and feedback cost by reducing the dimensions of uplink

and downlink channel. This model is suitable for both time division duplex (TDD) and frequency division duplex (FDD) systems. A

new greedy user scheduling algorithm is also introduced to improve the Spectral efficiency. Various simulation results are provided

to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: - Massive MIMO, Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), ST-BEM, FDD, TDD.

downlink training and feedback overhead are significantly

One of the most important physical layer techniques in 5G reduced. But acquisition of channel covariance matrix

communication is massive MIMO or large scale multiple becomes a difficult task and it also leads to Eigen value

input and multiple output [8]. It can simultaneously serve decomposition (EVD) problem for high dimensional

tens of terminals in the same frequency-time with the help of covariance matrices. In this paper, using antenna array

hundreds of antennas located in Base Station (BS) side that theory and array signal processing we propose an alternate

provides robustness, high Energy efficiency and Spectral low rank model for massive Uniform linear array (ULA).

efficiency [9]. To utilize the benefits of massive MIMO This model is based on mean direction of arrivals and

effectively, the perfect channel state information (CSI) for angular spread (AS) of incident signals of each user. This

both Uplink and downlink should be acquired by Base model is known as Spatial Basis Expansion Model

station. Usually channel is estimated via pilot sequences. But (SBEM). The proposed unified transmission strategy for

in massive MIMO it leads to pilot overhead in downlink the multiuser TDD/FDD massive MIMO systems includes

channel estimation because the no of training sequences Uplink (UL) channel estimation and user scheduling for

should be equal to the no of transmit antennas and length of data transmission. It is shown that the Uplink channel

the training stream should be greater than the no of transmit estimation of multi users can be carried out with very few

antennas based on orthogonal training strategy. In uplink if training resources, and thus, the overhead of training and

the no of users or no of antennas of each user increases, then feedback can be also reduced significantly. Meanwhile,

pilot overhead problem occurs. If the training sequences are the pilot contamination in UL training can be immediately

Non-orthogonal, then so called pilot contamination problem relieved. To enhance the spectral efficiency during the

occurs. These problems are diminishing the system data transmission, a greedy user scheduling algorithm is

performance. In [10] and [11], the closed-loop training proposed where users with orthogonal spatial information

schemes were applied to sequentially design the optimal pilot are allowed to transmit simultaneously.

beam patterns. The Compressive sensing (CS)-based

feedback reduction in [12] and the distributed compressive II. SYSTEM MODEL AND CHANNEL

channel estimation in [3] extracted the channel sparsity to CHARACTERISTICS

reduce large amount of measurements feeding back to the

Base station. This Method requires knowledge of the sparsity As shown in figure.1 multiuser massive MIMO system is

level in channel matrices but it’s not an easy task to considered where the Base station (BS) is equipped with

accurately acquire such information. After these types of M (>>1) antennas in the form of uniform linear array

attempts low rank channel estimation approaches are (ULA) and K single antenna users are spread over the

introduced. These approaches reduce the effective channel coverage area. The propagation from user k to BS is

dimensions. In [1], Covariance aware pilot Assignment composed of Pr-rays (Pr>>1) due to scattering, reflection

ISSN (Online) 2394-6849

Engineering (IJERECE)

Vol 5, Issue 4, April 2018

and refraction. The channel is considered to be time selective The normalized DFT of channel vector exhibits some

flat fading and it will change symbol level. It’s safe to specific properties in massive ULA case. This property

assume that the physical position of users seen by the BS is used to minimize the complexity of transceiver design.

unchanged within a single block N. The corresponding M x 1 The normalized DFT can be represented as

uplink channel can be expressed as,

Pr

1

kp where, F=>MxM DFT matrix whose (p,q)th element is,

hk kp e a( kp ) (1)

pr p 1

composed of p rays. While considering single ray i.e.,

hk k a( k ) and M is infinite, the normalized DFT

has only one non-zero point and this point reflects the

When M is large but not infinite, the power leakage may

happen. For most cases, Non-zero point is not an integer

and the channel power will leak from the ([M(d/λ)sinθ k])th

DFT point to other DFT points. The DFT outputs are

discrete samples of DTFT of a (θk).i.e., a sinc function, at

the points of 2πq/M, q=0, 1 ….M-1. Hence the degree of

leakage in fhk is inversely proportional to the M. When

M is infinite, the large but not power leakage is not a

problem because most power of fhk is still concentrates

Fig.1 System model. Users are surrounded by pr local around this Non-zero point as shown in Fig.2. For the Multi-ray

scatterers and the mean DOA and AS f user-k are case, let Dk is the index set of continuous DFT points that

k and k respectively. When users are move around contains % of the channel power [7].

in a circle, the spatial AS seen by BS is generally

unchanged.

frequency, kp is the angle between the uplink transmitted

signal and the motion direction of user-k. kp signifies the

initial phase, which is uniformly distributed in [0,2 ]

and a( kp ) is the array manifold vector and it varies based

on antenna structure.

For ULA case, array manifold vector can be represented as

2d 2d

j sin kp j ( M 1) sin kp

a(kp ) [1, e

,.........e

] (2)

where, d is the antenna spacing, λ denotes the signal

carrier wavelength, θkp represents DOA of the p-th ray. Fig.2 fhk of single incident ray with =90, M=128

The incident angular spread of user k with mean DOA It can be represented as,

( k ) is assumed to be limited in a narrow region, i.e.,

[ k k , k k ] and this angular spread (AS) of

each user is normally unaltered when the user moves Where, θk ,Δθk are DOA and AS respectively. Cmax is the

within the circular region as shown in Fig.1. maximum no of leakage points. These indices can be

viewed as spatial signature of each user. This model is

known as Spatial Basis Expansion Model (SBEM). To

ISSN (Online) 2394-6849

Engineering (IJERECE)

Vol 5, Issue 4, April 2018

deduce this, a perfect DOA is to be acquired. For this The preceding optimization can be achieved by sliding a

purpose, a Spatial Rotation operation is introduced. So the window of size τ over the elements in

new channel vector can be formulated as,

together by a 1-D search over

where,

A unified transmission strategy for a TDD/FDD massive

MIMO system is introduced that utilizes the spatial

The Spatial Rotation operation, further concentrate the

signatures to realize orthogonal training and data

channel power within the fewer entries fhkro of for a certain

transmission among different users. As shown in Fig.4,

value of ϕ. For one-ray case, When DOA of the incident

this framework always starts with preamble period. The

signal is not arcsin(qM/λd) for some integer q i.e.,

preamble period is used to obtain the spatial signature of

mismatched with DFT points, then power leakage will

each user. After tracking spatial information of each user

happen. Formulate a new channel vector as, fh ro F ( )h .

k k the users are grouped based on their spatial signature for

If then has only one Non-zero further process.

eliminated, where ϕ is the shift parameter. For example in

Fig.3, Spatial rotation with ϕk= 0.34375 radian can help to

strengthen the channel sparsity of. . For the Multi-ray

cases, a new channel vectors is formulated and define

as the continuous index set such that Fig.4 Communication Framework

contains at least ŋ% of the channel power and search ϕ from Here we consider the users are present within a cell and τ

(< K) orthogonal training sequences with length L (< T)

and select the optimal ϕk that minimizes the are available and the corresponding orthogonal training

The standards are normally regulated by considering channel set will be S=[s1,s2,.....sτ] € CLxτ with SiHSj=Lσp2δ(i-j)

parameters to be estimated as fixed but here a dynamically where σp2 is the signal training power.

changing parameter is considered. Define the set containing

continuous τ integers as where τ is the number of Tracking of Spatial information through preamble Assume

channel parameters that system could handle. Then select the K=Gτ. Since we do not have any prior spatial information

spatial signature set and corresponding shift parameter for about users, we will have to divide the users into G groups

user k by using following optimization, each containing τ users such that τ orthogonal training

sequences are enough for each group and conventional

estimation methods are applied and length of the preamble

is Gτ.

The received signals at the BS is given by,

Pkut

D=diag[d1,……dτ] and dk is used to satisfy the

p2

uplink training energy constraint for user-k, N is the

Fig.3 Comparison of single ray channels with/without additive white Gaussian noise. Repeating the similar

spatial rotation operations in (7) for all G groups is used to obtain the

ISSN (Online) 2394-6849

Engineering (IJERECE)

Vol 5, Issue 4, April 2018

estimates of all K users. The next step is to obtain the optimal

shift parameter ϕk and spatial signature set of size τ for each

user, as described in (5). The obtained channel information

from preamble may only last for a short period for example

one coherent time while it needs to be re estimated or

tracked for later transmission. When a user and its

surrounding obstacles does not change the position within the

comparable time then no need to track the spatial information

for few channel coherent times and only the accompanied

[ fhkro ] B ro ,: should be re estimated. The Non-overlapping

k

overcome the insufficient problem of orthogonal training

sequences. After obtaining of spatial signature of each user

we may schedule them using Non-overlapping property of

spatial signatures and also throughput is considered to

improve the performance of each group.

SECHEDULING

strongest channel gain first join the empty group and then

other users with non-overlapping spatial signatures can join

the same group only if the achievable sum rate increases In this section the effectiveness of the proposed strategy is

afterwards. demonstrated using numerical examples. We select

________________________________________ M=128, K=32,d=λ/2. The channel vectors of different

User scheduling Algorithm users are formulated using (1) and we consider Pr=100,

STEP-1:Calculate the Euclidean norm of the estimated fd=200 Hz and Ts=1μs and kp is randomly taken from

channel vectors, i.e., [ fhkro ]B ro ,: for all users. CN(0,1) for all rays and all users, kp is distributed

k

dd

STEP-2:Initialize g=1, P=0, Ug = NULL, R(Ug |P)= 0 and the dd

inside [ k k , k k ] . And AS = 2 degree for

remaining user set Ur={1,…….K}.

all users. The system coherence interval is set as T=128

STEP-3:For the gth group, select the user with the maximum norm

of channel in user set l ' arg max and τ =16. The length of the pilot symbol should satisfy

lU r

ehl and remove the 16≤L≤128. L may be 16, 32 and 64. The signal to noise

user

from user set and add the user in Ugdd. p2

STEP-4:Select all users Ur whose spatial signatures are Non- ratio defined as, . The channel estimation

overlapping with users in Ugdd and denote them by, Ug’. For Eg., n2

u' g {mur Bmro Blro , l U gdd } performance metric in terms Mean square error(MSE) is

represented as

different L values. It is observed that when L increases the

MSE decreases. The total power for uplink training

considered is Pkut= Lρ for all users.

ISSN (Online) 2394-6849

Engineering (IJERECE)

Vol 5, Issue 4, April 2018

VI. CONCLUSIONS

proposed a simple DFT based ST-BEM to represent the

channel vectors with reduced parameters which helps to

reduce the pilot overhead and feedback cost. The Uplink

spatial signatures can be used for Downlink also based on

the property angle reciprocity. This method applicable for

both TDD/FDD massive-MIMO systems. Various

numerical results are provided to demonstrate the

effectiveness of the proposed approach.

REFERENCES

Fig.5 MSE performances for different L values

[1] A.Adhikary, J. Nam, J.-Y. Ahn, and G. Caire, ―Joint

spatial division and multiplexing— the large-scale array

Fig.6 explains about MSE performance improvement with

regime,‖ IEEE Trans. Inf.Theory,vol. 59, no. 10, pp.

and without spatial rotation operation.

6441–6463, Oct. 2013.

coordinated approach to channel estimation in large-scale

multiple-antenna systems,‖ IEEE J. Sel.Areas Commun.,

vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 264–273, Feb. 2013.

estimation and feedback for FDD multi-user massive

MIMO systems,‖ IEEE Trans.Signal Process., vol. 62, no.

12, pp. 3261–3271, Jun. 2014.

[4] Hongxiang Xie, Feifei Gao, Shun Zhang, and Shi Jin,

―A Unified Transmission Strategy for TDD/FDD Massive

MIMO Systems With Spatial Basis Expansion Model,‖

Fig.6 MSE performances for with and without spatial IEEE Transactions on vehicular technology, vol. 66, no. 4,

rotation Apr 2017.

expansion models and diversity techniques for blind

identification and equalization of time-varying channels,‖

Proc. IEEE, vol. 86, no. 10, pp. 1969–1986,Oct. 1998.

Optimization. Cambridge,MA, USA: Cambridge Univ.

Press, 2004.

[7] Hongxiang Xie, Feifei Gao, Shun Zhang, and Shi Jin,

―A Simple DFT-aided Spatial Basis Expansion Model and

Channel Estimation Strategy for TDD/FDD Massive

Fig.7 AASR of the proposed scheme and conventional MIMO Systems,‖ arXiv:1511.04841v6 [cs.IT] 9 Jan 20.

LS From Fig.7, it is observed that the AASR of proposed

SBEM is providing better performance than conventional [8] F. Rusek et al., ―Scaling up MIMO: Opportunities and

Least square (LS) method. challenges with very large arrays,‖ IEEE Signal Process.

Mag., vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 40–60, Jan. 2013.

ISSN (Online) 2394-6849

Engineering (IJERECE)

Vol 5, Issue 4, April 2018

―Massive MIMO for next massive MIMO systems: Open-

loop and closed-loop training with memory,‖ IEEE J. Sel.

Topics Signal Process., vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 802–814, Oct. 2014.

techniques for FDD massive MIMO systems: Open-loop and

closed-loop training with memory,‖ IEEE J. Sel. Topics

Signal Process., vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 802–814, Oct. 2014.

loop beam alignment for massive MIMO channel

estimation,‖ IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 18, no. 8, pp. 1439–

1442, Aug. 2014.

sensing based channel feedback protocols for spatially-

correlated massive antenna arrays,‖ in Proc. IEEE WCNC,

Shanghai, China, Apr. 2012, pp. 492–497.

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