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Unified Channel Estimation and Scheduling for

Massive MIMO Systems

Department of ECE,
Department of ECE, Department of ECE,
Mepco Schlenk Engineering College,
Mepco Schlenk Engineering College, Mepco Schlenk Engineering College,
Sivakasi. Sivakasi.
Abstract—This paper in downlink channel estimation difficult task and it also II. SYSTEM MODEL AND
proposes a unified channel because the no of training leads to Eigen value CHANNEL
estimation scheme for sequences should be equal to decomposition (EVD) CHARACTERISTICS
multiuser massive multiple the no of transmit antennas and problem for high As shown in figure.1
input multiple output (MIMO) length of the training stream dimensional covariance multiuser massive MIMO
systems in time-varying should be greater than the no of matrices. In this paper, system is considered where the
Base station (BS) is equipped
environment. In this paper, a transmit antennas based on using antenna array
with M (>>1) antennas in the
new discrete Fourier orthogonal training strategy. In theory and array signal form of uniform linear array
transform (DFT) based uplink if the no of users or no of processing we propose (ULA) and K single antenna
spatial-temporal basis antennas of each user increases, an alternate low rank users are spread over the
expansion model (ST-BEM) is then pilot overhead problem model for massive coverage area. The propagation
introduced to mitigate the occurs. If the training sequences Uniform linear array from user k to BS is composed
of Pr-rays (Pr>>1) due to
training overhead and are Non-orthogonal, then so (ULA). This model is
scattering, reflection and
feedback cost by reducing the called pilot contamination based on mean direction refraction. The channel is
dimensions of uplink and problem occurs. These problems of arrivals and angular considered to be time selective
downlink channel. This model are diminishing the system spread (AS) of incident flat fading and it will change
is suitable for both time performance. In [10] and signals of each user. This symbol level. It’s safe to assume
division duplex (TDD) and [11], the closed-loop model is known as that the physical position of
users seen by the BS is
frequency division duplex training schemes were Spatial Basis Expansion
unchanged within a single block
(FDD) systems. A new greedy applied to sequentially Model (SBEM). The N. The corresponding M x 1
user scheduling algorithm is design the optimal pilot proposed unified uplink channel can be expressed
also introduced to improve the beam patterns. The transmission strategy for as,
Spectral efficiency. Various Compressive sensing the multiuser TDD/FDD Pr

simulation results are provided (CS)-based feedback massive MIMO systems hk  kp e kp a( kp ) (1)
to demonstrate the reduction in [12] and the includes Uplink (UL) pr p 1
effectiveness of the proposed distributed compressive channel estimation and
method. channel estimation in [3] user scheduling for data
extracted the channel transmission. It is shown  kp  CN (0,  p2 ) [Complex
gain of
 the pth ray] and
kp   j ( 2f d nTs cos  kp   kp )
Keywords— Massive MIMO, sparsity to reduce large that the Uplink channel
Discrete Fourier Transform amount of measurements estimation of multi users
(DFT), ST-BEM, FDD, TDD feeding back to the Base can be carried out with
station. This Method very few training
I. INTRODUCTION requires knowledge of resources, and thus, the
One of the most important the sparsity level in overhead of training and
physical layer techniques in 5G channel matrices but it’s feedback can be also
communication is massive not an easy task to reduced significantly.
MIMO or large scale multiple accurately acquire such Meanwhile, the pilot
input and multiple output [8]. It information. After these contamination in UL
can simultaneously serve tens of types of attempts low training can be
terminals in the same rank channel estimation immediately relieved. To
frequency-time with the help of approaches are enhance the spectral
hundreds of antennas located in introduced. These efficiency during the data
Base Station (BS) side that approaches reduce the transmission, a greedy
provides robustness, high effective channel user scheduling Fig.1 System model. Users are
Energy efficiency and Spectral dimensions. In [1], algorithm is proposed surrounded by pr local scatterers and
efficiency [9]. To utilize the Covariance aware pilot where users with the mean DOA and AS f user-k are
benefits of massive MIMO Assignment Strategy is orthogonal spatial  k and  k respectively.
effectively, the perfect channel used. Here uplink pilot information are allowed When users are move around in a
state information (CSI) for both contamination, downlink to transmit circle, the spatial AS seen by BS is
Uplink and downlink should be training and feedback simultaneously. generally unchanged.
acquired by Base station. overhead are significantly
Usually channel is estimated via reduced. But acquisition where, fd is the Doppler
pilot sequences. But in massive of channel covariance 
kp and Ts is the
MIMO it leads to pilot overhead matrix becomes a sampling frequency,
fhkro  F ( )hk

is the angle between the zero point is not an integer and introduced. So the new channel
uplink transmittedsignal
kp and the channel power will leak vector can be formulated as,
a ( kp )
the motion direction of user-k. from the ([M(d/λ)sinθk])th DFT fhkro  F ( )hk ( 4)
signifies the initial phase, which point to other DFT points. The
is uniformly distributed in DFT outputs are discrete where,
[0,2 ] and is the samples of DTFT of a(θ k).i.e., a  ( )  diag{[1, e j ,.............e j ( M 1) ]}
array manifold vector and it sinc function, at the points of
varies based on antenna 2πq/M, q=0,1 ….M-1. Hence The Spatial Rotation operation,
structure. the degree of leakage in fhk fhkro
further concentrate the channel
For ULA case, array manifold is inversely proportional to the power within the fewer entries
vector can be represented as, M. When M is large but not of for a certain value of ϕ. For
infinite, the2d
power leakage is one-ray case, When DOA of the fhkro  F ( )hk .
j sin  kp j ( M 1) sin  kp
not a problem because most incident signal is not
a ( kp )  [1, e  ,.........e  ] ( 2)
power of fhk is still arcsin(qM/λd) for some integer Fig.3 Comparison of single
concentrates around this Non- q i.e., mismatched with DFT ray channels with/without
where, d is the antenna spacing, spatial rotation
zero point as shown in Fig.2. points, then power leakage will
λ denotes the signal carrier The preceding optimization can
For the Multi-ray case, let D k is happen. Formulate a new
wavelength, θkp represents DOA
the index set of continuous DFT channel vector as, (fhkro
be achieved by sliding a window

of the p-th ray. The incident of size τ over the elements in
points that contains  % of the 2q 2d together by a 1-D search over
angular spread of user k with
channel power [7]. Ifk  ( )( sin  k ),
mean DOA (  k ) is assumed to 
M one Non-zero
be limited in a narrow region,
i.e., [  k   k ,  k   k ] ro WITH SBEM
element and so fhk , q at q, with
and this angular spread (AS) of A unified transmission
the power leakage is eliminated, strategy for a TDD/FDD
each user is normally unaltered fhk
where ϕ is the shift parameter. massive MIMO system is
when the user moves within the
For example in Fig.3, Spatial introduced that utilizes the
circular region as shown in
ϕk= 0.34375 radian [ fhkro ]D roto,: realize
spatial signatures
Fig.1. orthogonal training  and data

can help to strengthen the
The normalized DFT of channel
channel sparsity of . . For the
| Dk | . among to
vector exhibits some specific users. As shown in M Fig.4, M this
Multi-ray cases, a new channel
properties in massive ULA case. framework always starts with
vectors is formulated and define preamble period. The preamble
This property used to minimize
as the continuous index set such period is used to obtain the
the complexity of transceiver spatial signature of each user.
that contains at least
design. After tracking spatial
ŋ% of the channel power and
The normalized DFT can be information of each user the
search ϕ from and
represented as, users are grouped based on their
Fig.2 fhk of single incident ray select the optimal ϕk that
fhk  Fhk (3)with  k =90, M=128 spatial signature for further
minimizes the process.
where, F=>MxM DFT matrix The standards are normally
whose (p,q)th element is, regulated by considering
It can be represented as,
 j(
) pq
channel parameters to be
[ F ] pq  e M |/DkM  d 
estimated as Bfixed but here a
|  2M | cos  k |  kdynamically
 1  Cmax k
changing parameter
The propagation from user to   
is considered. Define the set
BS is assumed to be composed containing continuous τ
where, θk ,Δθk are DOA and AS
of p rays. While considering integers as where τ is the
respectively. Cmax is the qnumber of channel parameters
single ray i.e.,
maximum no of  k  arcsin(
leakage points. ). system could handle. Then
hk   k a ( k ) and M is
These indices can be viewed as Md select the spatial signature set
infinite, the normalized DFT and corresponding shift Bkro
spatial signature of each user.
has only one non-zero point and parameter for user k by using
This model is known as Spatial
this point reflects the DOA of following optimization,
Basis Expansion Model
the impinging signal, namely
(SBEM). To deduce this, a max ro
[ fhkro ] B ro ,: s.t Bkro   (5)
perfect DOA is to be acquired.  k , B k
Fig.4 Communication
When M is large but not Framework
For this purpose, a Spatial
infinite, the power leakage may
Rotation operation is Here we consider the users are
happen. For most cases, Non-
present within a cell and τ (< K)
orthogonal training sequences should be re estimated. The V. SIMULATIONS
with length L (< T) are available Non-overlapping properties of
If R (U g  {m} | P ' )  R (U g In U gtheeffectiveness
U g  {m' },
dd dd dd dd
and the corresponding different spatial signatures are | Pthis
) section
orthogonal training set will be used to overcome the , set of the proposed strategy is

P  P ' ,U  U \ {m'}
S=[s1,s2,.....sτ] € CLxτ with insufficient problem of a demonstrated using numerical
SiHSj=Lσp2δ(i-j) where σp2 is the orthogonal training sequences. nd go to step 4;Else go to examples. We select M=128,
signal training power. After obtaining of spatial step 6.
r r K=32,d=λ/2. The channel
signature of each user we may vectors of different users are
Tracking of Spatial schedule them using Non- U r   , using (1) and we
STEP-6: Store Ug dd and R(Ugdd |
information through preamble overlapping property of spatial consider Pr=100, fd=200 Hz and
P).If let g=g+1, go to
Assume K=Gτ. Since we do signatures and also throughput is
step 3; Else, go to Step 7. Ts=1μs and  kp is randomly
not have any prior spatial considered to improve the
information about users, we will performance of each group. taken from CN(0,1) for all rays
STEP-7: When the algorithm is
have to divide the users into G and all users,  kp is
stopped, the minimum number
groups each containing τ users distributed inside
IV. DATA TRANSMISSION of user group Gdd is set as the
such that τ orthogonal training [ k   k ,  k   k ] .
WITH USER current g, and the optimal user
sequences are enough for each
SECHEDULING scheduling result is accordingly And AS = 2 degree for all users.
group and conventional
given by U1,…….UGdd. The system coherence interval
estimation methods are applied A greedy user scheduling 2
h k  ehk
is set as T=128 and1τ =16. The
and length of the preamble is Gτ.
The received signals at the BS is
algorithm is considered where To maximize the Throughput of MSE 
length of the pilot K k 1 symbol  2

given by,
the strongest channel gain first each group the following should satisfy 16≤L≤128. Lhk
join the empty group and then constraint is adopted.
1 may be 16, 32 and 64. The

G other users with non-
Y  HD 2 S H  N   d i hk siH  spatial
overlapping N (6signatures
) max R (U dd | P )  g (1 to noise
logsignal ) ratio
2 (8)defined as,
{ k }
i 1 i 1 can join the same group only if k U gdd  2p
 . The channel
the achievable sum rate
hk can be estimated using Least increases afterwards. s.t k P  n2
Square as, k U gdd estimation performance metric
1 User scheduling Algorithm in terms Mean square
ehk  YS k (7 )
d k L p2 where,  k is the Equivalent error(MSE) is represented as,
STEP-1:Calculate the Euclidean Signal to Noise ratio, P is the
norm of the estimated channel total power constraint of each
where, H=[h1,h2,…….hτ] € CMxτ ,
S=[s1,s2,.....sτ] € CLxτ and
vectors, i.e., [ fhk ]B ro ,: for group. It will vary dynamically
D=diag[d1,……dτ] and
k based on no of users in that
all users. group. Fig.5 shows comparison of
P ut MSE performances with
d k  k2 is used to satisfy STEP-2:Initialize g=1, P=0, U dd
 k can be represented as,
p = NULL, R(Ugdd|P)= 0 and the
g different L values. It is observed
2 when L increases the MSE
the uplink training energy remaining user set Ur={1,  k [hkro ]Bkro ,:decreases. The total power for
constraint for user-k, N is the …….K}. k  uplink training (9considered
) is

2 2
additive white Gaussian noise. 1 (  l hkH hlPkut/= h Lρl for all users.
Repeating the similar operations STEP-3:For the gth group, select l K g
in (7) for all G groups is used to the user with the l ' maximum
arg max lU ehl
obtain the estimates of all K norm of channel in user set
users. The next step is to obtain and remove the user
the optimal shift parameter ϕk This optimization problem can
and spatial signature set of size τ from user set and add the user in be solved by Water filling
for each user, as described in (5). Ugdd. algorithm [6].
The obtained channel
information from preamble may STEP-4:Select all users Ur
only last for a short period for whose spatial signatures are
example one coherent time while Non-overlapping with users in
it needs to be re estimated or Ugdd and denote them by, Ug’. For
tracked for later transmission. Eg.,
When a user and its surrounding
obstacles does not change the u ' g  {mu r Bmro  Blro   , l  U gdd }
position within the comparable
STEP-5: IfU g  
time then no need to track the set
spatial information for few P’=P+ρ and find a user m’ in Ug’
channel coherent times and only such that
[ fhkro ] B ro ,:
the accompanied k m'  arg max R (U gdd  {m} P ' )
mU g'
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