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Solution

Problem 1. (a) Given the values of σm (70 M Pa) and σa (210 M Pa) we are asked t o compute σmax and σmin.

From Equation 1

σ max + σ min

σm = = 70 MPa

2

Or,

σ max − σ min

σa = = 210 MPa

2

Or,

σ min = − 140 MPa (−20, 000 psi)

R= = = − 0.50

σ max 280 MPa

σ r = σ max − σ min = 280 MPa − (−140 MPa) = 420 MPa (60, 000 psi)

1

Problem 2. This problem asks that we determine the minimum allowable bar diameter to ensure that fatigue

failure will not occur for a 1045 steel that is subjected to cyclic loading for a load amplitude of 66,700 N (15,000

lbf). From Fig. 1, the fatigue limit stress amplitude for this alloy is 310 MPa (45,000 psi). Stress is defined in as

F

σ = . For a cylindrical bar

A0

⎛ d ⎞2

A0 = π ⎜ 0 ⎟

⎝2 ⎠

F F 4F

σ = = =

A0 ⎛d ⎞2 πd02

π⎜ 0 ⎟

⎝2 ⎠

We now solve for d0, taking stress as the fatigue limit divided by the factor of safety. Thus

4F

d0 =

⎛σ⎞

π⎜ ⎟

⎝N ⎠

(4)(66,700 N)

= = 23.4 x 10−3 m = 23.4 mm (0.92 in.)

⎛ 310 x 10 6 N / m2 ⎞

(π) ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟

⎝ 2 ⎠

2

Problem 3. We are asked to determine the fatigue life for a cylindrical 2014-T6 aluminum rod given its diameter

(6.4 mm) and the maximum tensile and compressive loads (+5340 N and –5340 N, respectively). The first thing

that is necessary is to calculate values of σmax and σmin using stress equation. Thus

F Fmax

σ max = max =

A0 ⎛ d ⎞2

π⎜ 0 ⎟

⎝2 ⎠

5340 N

= = 166 x 10 6 N/m2 = 166 MPa (24, 400 psi)

⎛ 6.4 x 10−3 m ⎞2

(π) ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟

⎝ 2 ⎠

Fmin

σ min =

⎛ d ⎞2

π⎜ 0 ⎟

⎝2 ⎠

−5340 N

= = − 166 x 10 6 N/m2 = − 166 MPa (−24, 400 psi)

⎛ 6.4 x 10−3 m ⎞2

(π) ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟

⎝ 2 ⎠

σa = = = 166 MPa (24, 400 psi)

2 2

From Fig. 1, for the 2014-T6 aluminum, the number of cycles to failure at this stress amplitude is about 1 x

107 cycles.

3

Problem 4. This problem asks that we compute the maximum and minimum loads to which a 15.2 mm (0.60 in.)

diameter 2014-T6 aluminum alloy specimen may be subjected in order to yield a fatigue life of 1.0 x 10 8 cycles;

Fig. 1 is to be used assuming that data were taken for a mean stress of 35 MPa (5,000 psi). Upon consultation

of Fig.1, a fatigue life of 1.0 x 10 8 cycles corresponds to a stress amplitude of 140 MPa (20,000 psi). Or,

from Equation

Simultaneous solution of these two expressions for σmax and σmin yields

σmin = –105 MPa (–15,000 psi)

F ⎛ d ⎞2

Now, inasmuch as σ = (Equation ), and A0 = π ⎜ 0 ⎟ then

A0 ⎝2 ⎠

2

σ max π d 20 (175 x 10 6 N / m2 ) (π) (15.2 x 10−3 m)

Fmax = = = 31,750 N (7070 lbf )

4 4

2

σ min π d 20 (−105 x 10 6 N / m2 ) (π) (15.2 x 10−3 m)

Fmin = = = − 19,000 N (−4240 lbf )

4 4

4

Creep Problems

Solution

Problem 1. This problem asks that we determine the total elongation of a low carbon-nickel alloy that is exposed

to a tensile stress of 70 M Pa (10,000 psi ) at 427°C for 10,000 h; t he instantaneous and pri mary creep el ongations

are 1.3 mm (0.05 in.).

From the 427°C line in Fig.1, the steady state creep rate ε Ýs is about 4.7 x 10 -7 h-1 at 70 MPa. The

steady state creep strain, εs, therefore, is just the product of εÝs and time as

εs = εÝs x (time)

Strain and elongation are related as in Equation; solving for the steady state elongation, ∆ls, leads to

Finally, t he total elongation is just the sum of this ∆ls and the total of both instantaneous and primary creep

elongations [i.e., 1.3 mm (0.05 in.)]. Therefore, the total elongation is 4.8 mm + 1.3 mm = 6.1 mm (0.24 in.).

5

Problem 2. We are asked to determine the tensile load necessary to elongate a 635 m m long low carbon-nickel

alloy specimen 6.44 m m after 5,000 h at 538°C. It is first necessary to calculate the steady state creep rate so that

we m ay utilize Fig. 1, in order to determine the tensile stress. The steady state elongation, ∆ls, is just th e

difference between the total elongation and the sum of the instantaneous and primary creep elongations; that is,

∆ ls4.64 mm

∆ε l0 635 mm

εÝs = = =

∆t ∆t 5,000 h

Employing the 538°C line in Fig.1, a steady state creep rat e of 1.46 x 10 -6 h-1 corresponds to a st ress σ of

about 40 M Pa (5,800 psi ) [si nce l og (1.46 x 10 -6) = -5.836]. From t his we m ay com pute t he t ensile l oad usi ng

Equation as

⎛ d ⎞2

F = σA0 = σπ ⎜ 0 ⎟

⎝2 ⎠

⎛ 19.0 x 10−3 m ⎞ 2

= (40 x 10 6 N/m2 ) (π) ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = 11, 300 N (2560 lbf )

⎝ 2 ⎠

6

Problem 3. This problem asks us to calculate the rupture lifetime of a com ponent fabricated from a low carbon-

nickel al loy exposed to a tensile stress of 31 MPa at 649 °C. All that we need do is read from the 649 °C lin e in

Fig. 2 the rupture lifetime at 31 MPa; this value is about 10,000 h.

7

8-32

Problem. 4 We are asked in this problem to determine the maximum load that may be applied to a cylindrical low

carbon-nickel alloy component that must survive 10,000 h at 538°C. From Fig. 2, the stress corresponding to

104 h is about 70 M Pa (10,000 psi ). Since st ress i s defi ned i n Equat ion as σ = F/A0, and for a cylindrical

⎛ d ⎞2

specimen, A0 = π ⎜ 0 ⎟ , then

⎝2 ⎠

⎛ d ⎞2

F = σA0 = σπ ⎜ 0 ⎟

⎝2 ⎠

⎛ 19.1 x 10−3 m ⎞2

= (70 x 10 N/m ) (π) ⎜⎜

6 2 ⎟⎟ = 20,000 N (4420 lbf )

⎝ 2 ⎠

8

Data Extapolation Problems Solution

Problem. 2 We are asked in this problem to calculate the temperature at which the rupture lifetime is 200 h when

an S-590 iron component is subjected to a stress of 55 M Pa (8000 psi). From the curve shown in Fig. 1, at 55

MPa, the value of the Larson-Miller parameter is 26.7 x 103 (K-h). Thus,

Or, solving for T yields T = 1197 K (924°C).

9

Problem. 3 This problem asks that we determine, for an 18-8 Mo stainless steel, the time to rupture for a

component that is subjected to a stress of 100 M Pa (14,500 psi) at 600 °C (873 K). From Fig. 2, the value of

the Larson-Miller parameter at 100 MPa is about 22.4 x 103, for T in K and tr in h. Therefore,

25.66 = 20 + log tr

10

.

Problem 4. We are asked in this problem to calculate the stress levels at which the rupture lifetime will be 1 year

and 15 y ears when an 18-8 M o stainless steel component is subjected to a tem perature of 650 °C (923 K). It first

becomes necessary to calculate the value of the Larson-Miller parameter for each time. The values of tr

corresponding to 1 and 15 years are 8.76 x 103 h and 1.31 x 105 h, respectively. Hence, for a lifetime of 1 year

[ ]

T (20 + log tr ) = 923 20 + log (8.76 x 10 3) = 22.10 x 10 3

[ ]

T (20 + log tr ) = 923 20 + log (1.31 x 105) = 23.18 x 10 3

Using the curve shown in Fig. 2, the stress values corresponding to the one- and fifteen-year lifetimes

are approximately 110 MPa (16,000 psi) and 80 MPa (11,600 psi), respectively.

11

.

Problem 1. This problem asks that we com pute the maximum allowable stress level to give a rupture lifetim e of

20 days for an S-590 iron com ponent at 923 K. It is fi rst necessary to com pute th e value of the Larson-Miller

parameter as follows:

= 20.9 x 103

From the curve in Fig . 1, this value of the Larson-Miller parameter corresponds to a stress level of about 280

MPa (40,000 psi).

12

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