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# Basic Concepts Beam in global coordinate

## –An analysis tool to predict the responses of certain engineering systems

–Originally FE was developed for structural stress analysis
–Wide spread application: Structural Analysis, Dynamic Analysis, Heat Transfer, Magnetic Field,
etc.
–Based on discretization of Continuum
Spring
- axial load only

Nodal Displacement

FRAME
Frame element is a combination of beam element and bar element. The frame element
BAR equation is obtained by adding the axial component in the beam equation.
Bar is a simple structural element, which can carry only axial force and results in axial
deformation (lengthening or shortening). In a bar structure, all elements have the same axis
(co-axial axis), and the applied axial load is at the same axis of bars. If the bar elements have
different axis, the structure is termed as truss.

TRUSS
A framework composed of bar members joined at their ends to form a rigid structure is known
as a truss. In truss structures, the end connections are assumed to be pin jointed connections.
Bridges, roof supports, and derricks are common examples of trusses.
-
Frame in local coordinate

## C1=AE/L and C2=EI/L3

Frame in global coordinate
K=(E/L) x [k]
[k]=

## C=cosƟ and S=sinƟ

BEAM
Beam is a structure which can carry the bending moments and shear forces. Frame, on the
other hand, can carry bending moments, shear forces, and axial forces. Beam members (or
elements) are oriented in the same axis, while the frame members are possible to have
different orientations.
Potential Energy Method
Concept of Potential Energy
The Direct Equilibrium method is not practical to use for higher order elements
and not normally used in non-structural domains.
The Minimum Potential Energy (MPE) approach is more adaptable for
the determination of element equations for complicated elements such as
plane stress/strain elements, axisymmetric elements, plate bending, shell,
and 3-D solid elements.
MPE is included in the category of variational methods which make
use the variational functions (or functionals). A functional is defined
as a function of another function.
For structural problem, the total potential energy of the structure, ∏p, can
be expressed in terms of displacement (or nodal displacements). Example
Spring and Bar

## Plane Element – Constant Strain Triangle

The simplest 2-D element is the membrane
element. Membrane elements can transfer
only in-plane loads. There is no out of plane
loads in membrane elements.
As a consequence, membrane elements can
carry only in-plane stresses and can not
transfer bending moment or torsion.

{f}=[K]{d}
[K]=tA[B]T[D][B]
Strain Displacement
{ɛ}=[B]{d}

[B]=[Bi Bj Bm]
Internal force of the element 2:

All external forces on the beam are illustrated in the figure below.

## It can be shown that the force equilibrium:

Σ Fx = 0
Σ Fy ≡ P - 2.5P - 1.5Mo/L + 1.5P + 1.5Mo/L = 0
And moment equilibrium (with respect, say, to node 1):
Σ M ≡ Mo - (-2.5P - 1.5Mo/L) L - (1.5P + 1.5Mo/L) 2L - (-0.5PL - 0.5Mo) = 0

Example - Frame
Example Beam Obtain the node displacements and reaction forces of the two-member frame structure
It is required to obtain the displacements and reaction forces of the beam structure as loaded as shown in the figure. Find also the internal forces of element 2.
shown in the figure. The structure is a statically indeterminate and discretized into two `
elements. It is important to note that nodes are positioned at points of load application For each member,
and supports. E = 30E6 psi I = 100 in4 A = 10 in2

## Hence, for each member or element,

12 I / L2 = (12) (100) / (1002) = 0.12
6 I / L = (6) (100) / 100 = 6
E / L = 30E6 /100 = 3E5
Element 1:

The structural (global) matrix: The element equation (global coordinate) is,
(element 1 + element 2) =

sin(θ) = 0
cos(θ) = 1

By introducing the boundary conditions, d2y= d3y= φ3=0, the structural equation can be
written in algebraic simultaneous equations,

## The boundary conditions are: d1x=d1y=φ1= d2x=d3x=d3y=φ3=0

The reaction forces at the supports, can be found by substituting the displacement values Introducing the boundary conditions, the structural equation becomes,
to Equation (5-9), and that will yield,
The solution is,
d2y = -1.241E-4 in φ2 = 2.093E-4 rad
Reaction Forces:
F1x = (3E5) (-6) φ2 = -376.7 lb
F1y = (3E5) (-10) d2y = 372.3 lb
M1 = (3E5) (200) φ2 =12558 lb.in
F2x = (3E5) (6) φ2 = 376.7 lb
F3x = 0
F3y = (3E5) [ (-0.12) d2y - (6) φ2 ] = -372.3 lb
M3 = (3E5) [ (6) d2y + (200) φ2 ] = 12334.6 lb.in
The external forces and moments can be shown to be in equilibrium,

Σ Fx ≡ 376.7 - 376.7 = 0
Σ Fy ≡ 372.3 - 372.3 = 0
Σ M ≡ 376.7 (100) + 372.3 (100) - 50000 - 12334.6 - 12558 = 0 (the calculation of
moment was done with respect to node 1)
The internal forces of element 2 (in global coordinate) can be found,

Frame (Steps)
1. Finite Element model
2. Find {f}=[K]{d} for each element
3. [K]=tA[B]T[D][B] for each element
4. [K]T=[K]1+[K]2
5. {F}={f}1+{f}2
6. Apply Boundary Condition
7. Find d

## 8. Find Stresses in each element {σ}=[D][B]{d}

Beam is a structure which can carry the bending moments and shear forces.
Frame, on the other hand, can carry bending moments, shear forces, and axial
forces. Beam members (or elements) are oriented in the same axis, while the
frame members are possible to have different orientations.

## Frame element is a combination of beam element and bar element.

The frame element equation is obtained by adding the axial
component in the beam equation.