Nodal Displacement
FRAME
Frame element is a combination of beam element and bar element. The frame element
BAR equation is obtained by adding the axial component in the beam equation.
Bar is a simple structural element, which can carry only axial force and results in axial
deformation (lengthening or shortening). In a bar structure, all elements have the same axis
(coaxial axis), and the applied axial load is at the same axis of bars. If the bar elements have
different axis, the structure is termed as truss.
TRUSS
A framework composed of bar members joined at their ends to form a rigid structure is known
as a truss. In truss structures, the end connections are assumed to be pin jointed connections.
Bridges, roof supports, and derricks are common examples of trusses.

Frame in local coordinate
{f}=[K]{d}
[K]=tA[B]T[D][B]
Strain Displacement
{ɛ}=[B]{d}
[B]=[Bi Bj Bm]
Internal force of the element 2:
All external forces on the beam are illustrated in the figure below.
Example  Frame
Example Beam Obtain the node displacements and reaction forces of the twomember frame structure
It is required to obtain the displacements and reaction forces of the beam structure as loaded as shown in the figure. Find also the internal forces of element 2.
shown in the figure. The structure is a statically indeterminate and discretized into two `
elements. It is important to note that nodes are positioned at points of load application For each member,
and supports. E = 30E6 psi I = 100 in4 A = 10 in2
The structural (global) matrix: The element equation (global coordinate) is,
(element 1 + element 2) =
sin(θ) = 0
cos(θ) = 1
By introducing the boundary conditions, d2y= d3y= φ3=0, the structural equation can be
written in algebraic simultaneous equations,
Σ Fx ≡ 376.7  376.7 = 0
Σ Fy ≡ 372.3  372.3 = 0
Σ M ≡ 376.7 (100) + 372.3 (100)  50000  12334.6  12558 = 0 (the calculation of
moment was done with respect to node 1)
The internal forces of element 2 (in global coordinate) can be found,
Frame (Steps)
1. Finite Element model
2. Find {f}=[K]{d} for each element
3. [K]=tA[B]T[D][B] for each element
4. [K]T=[K]1+[K]2
5. {F}={f}1+{f}2
6. Apply Boundary Condition
7. Find d