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SSC CGL Active and Passive Voice Rules and Tricks Short Notes:

Active voice: In Active sentences, the subject is Active or the subject performs the actions.
e.g. The cow (Subject) is eating (Verb) grass (Object).—Active Voice

Passive voice: In Passive sentences, the subject is no longer Active or the subject is acted upon by the verb
e.g. Grass (Subject) is being eaten (Verb) by the cow (Object).—Passive Voice

Active and Passive voice, rules, Examples for SSC CGL

Active and Passive voice with tenses:


Simple Present Tense
is,am,are+3rd verb
Active Voice Passive Voice
He lights the candle. The candle is lighted by him.
He does not light the candle. The candle is not lighted by him.
Do you eat meat? Is meat eaten by you?
Present Continuous Tense
is,am,are+being+3rd verb
Active Voice Passive Voice
I am driving a car. A car is being driven by me.
I am not driving a car. A car is not being driven by me.
Am I driving a car? Is a car being driven by me?
Present Perfect Tense
has,have+been+3rd verb
Active Voice Passive Voice
She has stolen my book. My book has been stolen by her.
She has not stolen my book. My book has been stolen by her.
Has she stolen my book? Has my book been stolen by her?
Simple Past Tense
was,were+3rd verb
Active Voice Passive Voice
She finished work. Work was finished by her.
She did not finish work. Work was not finished by her.
Did she finish work? Was work finished by her?
Past Continuous Tense
was,were+being+3rd verb
Active Voice Passive Voice
He was revising his books. His books were being revised by him.
He was not revising his books. His books were not revising by him.
Was he revising his books? Were his books revising by him?
Past Perfect Tense
had+been+3rd verb
Active Voice Passive Voice
I had completed the assignment. The assignment had been completed by me.
I had not completed the assignment. The assignment had not been completed by me.
Had I completed the assignment? Had the assignment been completed by me?
Simple Future Tense
will,shall+be+3rd verb
Active Voice Passive Voice
My uncle will pay my tuition fee. My tuition fee will be paid by my uncle.
My uncle will not pay my tuition fee. My tuition fee will not be paid by my uncle.
Will my uncle pay my tuition fee? Will my tuition fee be paid by my uncle?
Future Perfect Tense
will, shall+ have been+3rd verb
Active Voice Passive Voice
We shall have done our home-work. Our home -work shall have been done by us.
We shall not have done our home-work. Our home -work shall not have been done by us.
Shall We have done our home –work? Shall our home -work have been done by us?

Note: In Present perfect continuous tense, Past perfect continuous tense, Future perfect continuous tense,
Future perfect tense, we use the same sentence in Passive voice. It means these tense cannot be changed in
Passive form.

Active and Passive voice with modals

SSC CGL Active and Passive:


Auxiliary Verb in
Modals Active Voice Passive Voice
Passive Voice
I can solve these sums. These sums can be solved by me.
Can/ Can/Could+ be+ 3rd
I cannot solve these sums. These sums cannot be solved by me.
Could verb
Can I solve these sums? Can these sums be solved by me?
Has to/ Has to/ Have to+3rd He has to complete his His assignment has to be completed by
Have to verb assignment. him?
Must Must+3rd verb You must learn this book. This book must be learnt by you.
May may+be+3rd verb I may buy the book. The book may be bought by me.
Might might+ be+ 3rd Verb They might play chess. Chess might be played by them.
Should should+ be+3 verb
rd
Students should learn all lessons. All lessons should be learnt by students.

Active and Passive voice with Imperative Sentences

These are the sentences in which we express our feeling and emotions like command, order, advice, and
request.

Rules
1. Lets + new object + be/Not be +past participle or 3rd form.

2. For sentences containing, Request, advice and order, we will use you are Requested to, advised to and
ordered to.
Note: Always remove please and kind if they are given in the sentence.

Active Voice Passive Voice


Shut the door. Let the door be shut.
Post the letter at once. Let the letter be posted at once.
Always speak the truth. Let the truth always be spoken.
Do not starve the cow. Let the cow not be starved.
Let him help his brother. Let his brother be helped by him.
Clean your room. Let your room be cleaned.
Learn your lesson. Let your lesson be learnt.
Please do me a favor tonight You are requested to do me a favor tonight.
Get out of my house. You are ordered to get out of mu house.
Kindly do not smoke in public place. You are requested not to smoke in public place

To make Passive voice, first of all you have to use following rules.

1.Change the object into subject. If in object, we have a pronoun of object case convert that by following rules:
me I
You You
her She
them They
us We
him He
it It
whom Who

2. Change the subject into object. And use by before the object. If in subject, we have a pronoun of nominative
case convert that by the following rules.SSC CGL Active and Passive Voice:
I by me
You by you
She by her
They by them
We by us
He by him
It by it
Who by whom
Some basic rules of Active voice and voice are given below
First of all, find subject, object and the main verb it means find SVO .

Convert the object into subject.

Use the suitable helping verb or auxiliary verb according to the tense. If helping verb is given, use verb as it is.
But note that the helping verb used should be according to the object.

Convert the verb into past participle or 3rd form of the verb.

Use the preposition “by”.

Convert the subject into object.


Active and Passive Voice Solved Practice Set-2
Directions: In the following questions, the sentences have been given in Active/Passive voice. From the given
alternatives, choose the one which best expresses the given sentence in Passive/ Active voice.

1. How can anyone do this?


(a) This can be done by anyone.
(b) This could be done by anyone.
(c) How can this be done by anyone?
(d) How was this done by anyone?

2. I will not do this work.


(a) This work I will not do.
(b) I will not be doing this work.
(c) Let this work not be done by me.
(d) This work will not be done by me.

3. They are not laying down arms.


(a) Arms are not being laid down by them.
(b) Arms have not been laid down by them.
(c) Arms are not laid down by them.
(d) Arms will not be laid down by them.

4. They have painted the house green.


(a) The house green was painted.
(b) The house has painted green.
(c) The house has been painted green by them.
(d) The house had been painted green.

5. They visited the zoo last week.


(a) The zoo had visited them last week.
(b) The zoo was visited by them last week.
(c) Last week they had visited the zoo.
(d) Last week the zoo had been visited by them.

6. They first sun-dried the garbage for one to three days to bring down the moisture level.

(a) The moisture level was brought down by sun-drying the garbage for one to three days
(b) One to three days of sun-drying brought down the moisture level of the garbage
(c) The moisture level of the garbage came down when it was sun-dried for one to three days
(d) The garbage was first sun-dried for one to three days to bring down the moisture level

7. Women like men to flatter them.


(a) Men are liked by women to flatter them
(b) Women like to be flattered by men
(c) Women like that men should flatter them
(d) Women are liked to be flattered by men

8. What one must do, one must do properly.


(a) What must be. done, must be done properly
(b) It must be done properly what one must do
(c) It must be done what one must do properly
(d) One must do properly what has to be done

9. Look at the poll results - do they inspire hope?


(a) Let the poll results be looked - is hope inspired by them?
(b) Let the poll results be looked at - has hope been inspired by them?
(c) Let the poll results be looked at - is hope being inspired by them?
(d) Let the poll results be looked at - is hope inspired by them?

10. It is your duty to make tea at eleven O’ clock.


(a) You are asked to make tea at eleven O’clock
(b) Your are required to make tea at eleven O’clock
(c) You are supposed to make tea at eleven O’clock
(d) Tea is to be made by you at eleven O’clock

11. We all know that there is only one God.


(a) We are all known that there is only one God
(b) It is known to us all that there is only one God
(c) We have all known that there is only one God
(d) Only one God is known by us all

12. The people elected him Mayor.


(a) Him was elected Mayor the people
(b) He was elected Mayor by the people
(c) Mayor is elected by the people
(d) He is elected by the people Mayor

13. Don’t laugh at me.


(a) Let me be laughed at
(b) let me be not laughed at
(c) I am laughed at
(d) Let me be not laughed

14. I saw him leaving the house.


(a) Leaving the house he was seen by me
(b) He was seen leaving the house by me
(c) He had been seen leaving the house
(d) He was seen to be leaving the house

15. Someone pulled the bull violently.


(a) The bull had been pulled violently by someone
(b) The bull was to be pulled violently by someone
(c) The bull had been pulled violently
(d) The bull was pulled violently

Answer Key:

1. (c) 2 (d) 3. (a) 4. (c) 5. (b)


6. (d) 7. (b) 8. (a) 9. (d) 10 (c)
11. (b) 12. (b) 13 .(b) 14. (b) 15. (d)
Active and Passive voice
Active Passive Practice Set III:

1. Sita was reading the Gita.


The Gita was being read by Sita.

The Gita were being read by Sita.

Gita was being read by Sita.

The Gita was read by Sita.


2. We ought to have saved our environment.
Our environment ought to had been saved.

Our environment ought to have been save.

Our environment ought to have been saved.

Our environment ought to have saved.


3. I must help him.
He must helped by me.

I must held him.

He must get help from me.

He must be helped by me.


4. Switch on the cooler.
Let cooler be switch on.

Switch on the cooler please.

Let cooler be switched on.

Let the cooler be switched on.


5. He arrived at the conclusion.
The conclusion was arrived at by him.

The conclusion arrived at by him.

The conclusion had arrived at by him.

The conclusion have arrived at by him.


6. Sahil spoke the lie.
The lie was spoke by Sahil.

The lie spoken by Sahil.

Lie was spoken by Sahil.

The lie was spoken by Sahil.


7. Thief killed him.
He was kill by the thief.

He killed by the thief.

He was killed by the thief.

He was killed.
8. Rahul will pass the message.
The message will passed by Rahul.

The message would be passed by Rahul.

The message will pass by Rahul.

The message will be passed by Rahul.


9. Rahul mush have done that task.
That task must had been done by Rahul.

That task must have been done by Rahul.

That task must have done by Rahul.

That task must have been did by Rahul.


10. They are not playing the game.
The game has not being played by them.

The game is not being played by them.

The game is being not played by them.

The game has being not played by them.


11. His behaviour surprised me.
I was surprised for his behaviour.

I was surprised at his behaviour.

I was surprised with his behaviour.

I was surprised on his behaviour.


12. We must have obeyed our teachers.
Our teachers might have obeyed.

Our teachers might have been obeyed.


Our teachers must have been obeyed.

Our teachers must have obeyed.


13. There is no book to read.
To be read there is no book.

To read there is no book.

There is no book to read.

There is no book to be read.


14. Nobody can catch him.
He can not be caught.

He can not caught.

He could not be caught.

He could not caught.


15. Don’t touch the fence.
Let the fence not be touch.

Let the fence not be touched.

Let the fence not touched.

Let the fence to not be touched.


16. I asked Susheela why she was sad.
Susheela was asked by me that why she was sad.

Susheela was asked by me why she was sad.

Susheela was asked that why she was sad.

Susheela was asked why she was sad.


17. He asked me what my post was.
I get asked what my post was.

I could asked what my post was.

I was asked what my post was.

I had asked what my post was.


18. They may win the battle.
The battle may be win.

The battle may be won.

The battle may be won by them.

The battle may won.


19. My father has solved this matter.
This matter have been solved by my father.

This matter is solved by my father.

This matter has been solved by my father.

This matter had been solved by my father.


20. He was writing a love letter.
A love letter had being written by him.

A love letter being written by him.

A love letter was written by him.

A love letter was being written by him.


21. Please give me a pen.
You are ordered to give me a pen.

You are ought to give me a pen.

You are requested to give me pen.

You are requested to give me a pen.


22. We hate him.
He has hated by us.

He is hated by us.

He was hated by us.

He will hated by us.


23. Sit down.
You are requested to sit down.

You are ordered to site down.

You are told to sit down.

No change.
24. Let me do this task.
Let this task be did be me.

Let this task done be me.

Let this task be done be me.

Let this task be do be me.


25. Sunder will have closed the door.
The door would have closed by Sunder.

The door would have been closed by Sunder.


The door will have been closed by Sunder.

The door will have closed by Sunder.


26. Please keep quiet.
You are told for keep quiet.

You are requested to keep quiet.

You are requested for keep quiet.

You are told to keep quiet.


27. Savita does not like me.
I am not like by Savita.

I am not liked by Savita.

I was not liked by Savita.

I were not liked by Savita.


28. Don’t insult the deaf man.
Let the deaf man not be insult.

Let the deaf man not be insulted.

Let the deaf man not insulted.

Let deaf man not be insulted.


29. I have given him a perfume.
A perfume have been given to him by me.

A perfume has been given to him by me.

A perfume had been given to him by me.

A perfume was given to him by me.


30. Who wrote this noble ?
By whom has been this noble written ?

By whom had this noble written ?

By whom was this noble written ?

By whom this noble was written ?


ANSWERS:
1. A 2.C 3.D 4.D 5.A 6.D 7.C 8.D 9.B
11.B 12.C 13.D 14.A 15.B 16.D 17.C 18.B 19.C
21.D 22.B 23.B 24.C 25.C 26.B 27.B 28.B 29.B
Active and Passive voice Solved Practice Set 1
Directions: In the following questions, the sentences have been given in Active/Passive voice. From the given
alternatives, choose the one which best expresses the given sentence in Passive/ Active voice.
1. It is time to take tea.

(a) It was time that tea was taken

(b) It is time for tea to be taken

(c) It is time that tea should be taken

(d) It is time that tea had been taken

2. The members should adhere to all the decisions.

(a) All the decisions adhered to the members.

(b) All the decisions should be adhered to by all the members

(c) All the decisions should be adhered to by the members

(d) All should adhere to the decisions of the members

3. His subordinates accused him of various offences.

(a) They accused him of various offences

(b) It was accused by his subordinates that he had done various offences

(c) His subordinates accused that he had done various offences

(d) He was accused of various offences by his subordinates

4. Has someone made all the necessary arrangements?

(a) Has all the necessary arrangements been made by someone?

(b) Have the necessary arrangements been all made by someone?

(c) Have all the necessary arrangements been made by someone?

(d) All the necessary arrangements have been made by some?

5. We will know the outcome of these experiments after six months.

(a) The outcome of these experiments will be known after six months

(b) The outcome will be known of these experiments after six months

(c) After six months, we will know the outcome of these experiments

(d) These experiments will have a known outcome after six months

6. Do you understand what I mean?


(a) What I mean is that understood by you?

(b) Was what I mean understood by you?

(c) Is what I mean understood by you?

(d) What I mean is understood by you?

7. Whom does he look for?

(a) He is looked after for whom?

(b) Who is looked after for him?

(c) Who is looked for by him?

(d) He is looked after by whom?

8. They say that you did that.

(a) You are told to do that

(b) You are advised to do that

(c) You did that said by them

(d) You are said to have done that

9. I am doing sums.

(a) Sums are done by me

(b) Sums are being done by me

(c) I must be doing the sums

(d) Sums must be done by me

10. The noise of the traffic kept me awake.

(a) I was kept awake by the noise of the traffic

(b) The traffic kept me awake by the noise

(c) I kept myself awake due to the noise of the traffic

(d) I remained awake by the noise of the traffic

11. He was congratulated by his teacher on his brilliant success in the recent examination.

(a) His teacher congratulated him on his brilliant success in the recent examination

(b) His teacher congratulated him for his success in the examination
(c) His teacher congratulated him on his success

(d) His teacher congratulated him

12. People speak English all over the world.

(a) English is spoken all over the world

(b) English was spoken all over the world

(c) English was spoken by people

(d) English is spoken by people

13. Who gave you permission to enter?

(a) By whom were you given permission to enter?

(b) By whom was you given permission to enter?

(c) By whom you were given permission to enter?

(d) By whom given you permission to enter?

14. The Principal has granted him a scholarship.

(a) A scholarship has granted to him by the Principal

(b) He has been granted a scholarship by the Principal

(c) He has granted a scholarship by the Principal

(d) A scholarship was granted to him by the Principal

15. Before festivals the shops are thronged with men, women and children making various purchases.

(a) During festivals people throng the shops

(b) Men, women and children throng the shops before festivals making various purchases

(c) Men, women and children make purchases during festivals

(d) The shops are thronged by people making purchases

Answer

1. (b) 2. (c) 3. (d) 4. (c) 5. (a)

6. (c) 7. (c) 8. (d) 9. (b) 10. (a)

11.(a) 12. (a) 13.(a) 14.(b) 15.(b)


English Grammar: Rules of Active Passive Voice
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article

Here We are providing you English Grammar notes on Active/Passive Voice. These rules will
be so helpful to grab score better in SSC Exams.
Important Rules on Active Passive Voice
Active: They will do the work
Passive: The work will be done by them.
When the person doing the action is the subject, we use an Active verb. But when the
subject is what the action is pointed at, then we use a Passive verb.
As in the above Example, ACTIVE sentence is the one where the person (THEY) is also the
subject of the sentence.
While PASSIVE sentence is the one, where the subject is the action showing word (WORK).
NOTE: However, the sentences only with transitive verb (verb with object) can be changed into
PASSIVE VOICE.
For Example,
Active: The man is running.
Passive: Not Possible as the object after verb (Running) is missing.
To Recognize the Active & Passive Sentence easily ask these question.
What is the action/verb in this sentence?
What/who is the subject of this sentence?
Is the subject of the sentence PERFORMING the action/verb?
If the answer to the last question is YES, then the sentence is in the ACTIVE voice. If the
answer to the last question is NO, then the sentence is in the PASSIVE voice.
General Form:
Active: SUBJECT + VERB + OBJECT
Passive: OBJECT (OF ACTIVE VOICE) + HELPING VERB (FORM OF VERB “BE”) +
PAST PARTICIPLE OF TRANSITIVE VERB + BY + SUBJECT (if required).
NOTE: Sometime while converting sentence from Passive Voice to Active voice, the subject is
missing.
For Example,
Passive: The room was cleaned.
Active: Someone cleaned the room.
“BY SOMEONE” is missing from the Passive Sentence.
Conversion of Active to Passive Sentence in different Tenses
Present Simple Tense
Passive Voice: Object + is/am/are + Verb (3rd form) + by + Subject
Active voice: He sings a song.
He does not sing a song.
Does he sing a song?
Passive voice: A song is sung by him.
A song is not sung by him.
Is a song sung by him?
Past Simple Tense
Passive voice: Object + was/were + Verb (3rd form) + by + Subject
Active voice: I killed a snake
I did not kill a snake.
Did I kill a snake?
Passive voice:
A snake was killed by me.
A snake was not killed by me.
Was a snake killed by me?
Future Simple Tense
Passive Voice: Object + will/shall + be + Verb (3rd form) + by + Subject
Active voice:
She will buy a car.
She will not buy a car.
Will she buy a car?
Passive voice:
A car will be bought by her.
A car will not be bought by her.
Will a car be bought by her?
Present Continuous Tense
Passive Voice: Object + is/am/are + being + Verb (3rd form) + by + Subject
Active voice:
I am writing a letter
I am not writing a letter.
Am I writing a letter?
Passive voice:
A letter is being written by me.
A letter is not being written by me.
Is a letter being written by me?
Past Continuous Tense
Passive Voice: Object + was/were + being + Verb (3rd form) + by + Subject
Active voice:
He was driving a car.
He was not driving a car.
Was he driving a car?
Passive voice:
A car was being driven by him.
A car was not being driven by him.
Was a car being driven by him?
Present Perfect Tense
Passive voice: Object + has/have + been + Verb (3rd form) + by + Subject
Active voice:
She has finished his work
She has not finished her work.
Has she finished her work?
Passive voice:
Her work has been finished by her.
Her work has not been finished by her.
Has her work been finished by her?
Past Perfect Tense
Passive Voice: Object + had + been + Verb (3rd form) + by + Subject
Active voice:
They had completed the assignment.
They had not completed the assignment.
Had they completed the assignment?
Passive voice:
The assignment had been completed by them.
The assignment had not been complete by them.
Had the assignment been completed by them?
Future Perfect Tense
Passive Voice: Object + shall/will + have + been + Verb (3rd form) + by + Subject
Active voice:
You will have started the job.
You will have not started the job.
Will you have started the job?
Passive voice:
The job will have been started by you.
The job will not have been started by you.
Will the job have been started by you?
Important Points to Remember
Future continuous & perfect continuous tenses do not form Passive voice.
Some verb cannot be Passive like be, belong, exist, lack, resemble, seem, suit, have (=
own).
For Example:
Tom has a guitar.
The building seemed empty.
Certain verb take fixed preposition after them that replaces the “by”. Such verb are –
known to, surprised at/by, amazed at, astonished at, vexed at, annoyed with/at,
contained in, decorated with, filled with, tired of, engulfed in. etc.
For Example:
Active: The fire engulfed the building.
Passive: The building was engulfed in the fire.
Some verb have two objects like give, send offer award etc. The sentence having these
words have two possible Passive forms.
For Example:
Active: He gave me a book.
Passive 1: I was given a book by him.
Passive 2: A book was given to me by him.
Thanks,
English Grammar: Direct and Indirect Speech Rules
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Here we are providing you detailed rules of Direct & Indirect Speech which will be so helpful
for Upcoming SSC Exams.
Direct and Indirect Speech Rules
There are two ways of reporting the words spoken by a person. We can reproduce the words
exactly spoken or we can express in our own words the substance of what he said. The first of
there method is called Direct speech or Direct Narration. The second is called Indirect Speech or
Indirect Narration.
Example:
Direct Speech: Sandy said to his father, “I need more money”.
Indirect Speech : Sandy told his father that he needed more money.
The exact words of the speaker which are put within inverted commas are called the
Reported Speech.
The verb that introduces the Reported speech is called Reporting Verb. In the above
Example “said” is the reporting verb and “I need more money” is the reported
speech.
The following points should be observed about these two modes of narration.
The Direct speech is always enclosed within inverted commas and it always begins
with a capital letter. It is separated from the Reporting verb by a comma.
In the Indirect Speech, no inverted commas are used and no comma is used to
separate the Reporting Verb from the Reported Speech.

TENSE CHANGE - IN - INDIRECT SPEECH


Present simple tense into Past simple
Present Continuous tense into Past continuous
Present Perfect tense into Pas perfect
Present Perfect Continuous into Past perfect continuous
Past simple into Past Perfect
Past Continuous into Past Perfect Continuous
Past Perfect into Past Perfect
Future simple, will into would
Future Continuous, will be into would be
Future Perfect, will have into would have

Universal truth or a habitual fact


a) If the Reported Speech expresses a universal truth or a habitual fact, its tense
remains unchanged.
Examples:
The teacher said, “The earth revolves round the sun”.
The teacher said that the earth revolves round the sun.
b) When the Reported Speech contains a time clause and both the main verb and the verb in
the time clause are the simple past, these verbs are left unchanged.
Example:
He said, “The boy stuck to his post till his father ordered him to leave”.
He said that the boy stuck to his post till his father ordered him to leave.
However, if the main verb is in the simple past while the verb in the time clause as in
past continuous, it is usual to change the main verb to past perfect and leave the verb in the
time clause unchanged:
Example:
He said, “Asif slipped when he was trying to board a bus”.
He said that Asif had slipped when he was trying to board a bus.
RULES FOR THE CHANGE OF PRONOUNS:
(a) First Person:
Pronouns of the first person are changed into pronouns of the same person as the person
of the subject of the Reporting Verb:
Example:
(i) I said, “I have done my home work”.
I said the I had done my home work.
(ii) You said, “I have done my home work”.
You said that you had done your home work.
(iii) He said, “I have done my home work”.
He said that he had done his home work.
(b) Second Person:
Pronouns of the second person are changed into pronouns of the same person as that of
the object of the Reporting Verb:
Example:
The teacher said to me, “You have not done your work well”.
The teacher told me that I had not done my work well.
(c) Third Person:
Pronouns of the third person generally remain unchanged:
Example:
I said to you, “He should not be trusted”.
I told you that he should not be trusted.
When there are two or more third person pronouns in the Indirect Speech, the name of the person
referred to by each may be written in brackets against each of them to avoid confusion:
Example:
The servant said to his master,“I have told you the truth and I can do no more”.
The servant told his master that he had told him (master) the truth and he (servant)
could do no more
One has to be little careful while changing the Personal Pronoun “we”. “we” can be retained as
“we” or changed to “you” or “they” depending upon the relationship of the speaker, the person(s)
addressed and the person reporting the speech:
Example:
(i) He said to me, “We should have tried harder”.
He told me that we should have tried harder.
(ii) He said to you, “We should have tried harder”.
He told you that you should have tried harder.
Conversion of Interrogative Sentences
While changing the interrogative sentences into Indirect Speech, the following rules should be
observed:
Change the Reporting Verb into ask, enquire, demand, wonder, want to know, etc.
Change the Interrogative form into the Assertive form and remove the sign
of Interrogative
No conjunction is used when the sentence begins with question words like who,
whose,
whom, what, which, when, why, where, how, etc.
Tenses, pronouns and words denoting nearness are changed according to the rules.
Example:
(i) She said to me, “What can I do for you, dear?”
She asked me affectionately what she could do for me.
(ii) The old man said to his son, “What harm have I done to you?”
The old man asked his son what harm he had done to him.
Present modals are changed to past modals

Indirect speech for sentence having MODALS, should, ought to, might, would, and could”
Important Little Chages Direct to Indirect

Conversion of Imperative Sentences


While changing the imperative sentences into Indirect Speech, the following rules
should be observed:
The Reporting Verb is changed into a verb signifying a command, request, advice.
Command can be expressed by the words command, order, tell, charge etc.
Request can be expressed by the words request, beg, ask, implore, entreat, desire,
beseech, solicited, etc.
Besides these words, forbid, persuade, incite, etc. May also be used according to the
context.
The verb of the Reported Speech is changed into an Infinitive.
If the Reported Speech is negative, the word “not” is placed before the infinitive.
Tenses, pronouns and words denoting nearness are changed according to the rules.
Examples:
(i) He said to me, “Help him in setting the accounts”.
He requested me to help him in setting the accounts.
(ii) My friend said to me, “Please accept this invitation”.
My friend entreated me to accept that invitation.
(iii) The Doctor said to the patient, “Give up smoking”.
The Doctor advised the patient to give up smoking.
(iv) The Commander said to his men, “March further”.
The Commander urged his men to march further.
Conversion of Imperative Sentences with “Let”
“Let” is often used to make proposals in such cases, he said, “ Let us do it” is changed to they
suggested / proposed doing it or he suggested / proposed that they should do it.
Example:
(i) I said to my brother, “Let us go to some hill station for a change”
I suggested to my brother that we should go to some hill station for a change.
(ii) “Let us invite some friends to our son’s birthday”, said the father.
The father proposed that they should invite some friends to their son’s birthday.
Conversion of Exclamatory and Optative Sentences
While converting exclamatory and Optative Sentences from Direct to Indirect Speech
the following general rules have to be observed:
Rules 1:
In the case of exclamatory sentences the Reporting Verb is changed to exclaim with
sorrow/Joy/fear/anger, etc., applaud, regret, curse, coy out or any other such verb that properly
conveys the tone of exclamation.
Rules 2:
The Conjunction “that” is used to introduce the Reported Speech
Rules 3:
The Exclamatory sentence is changed into an assertive one before it is put
into Indirect Speech.
Rules 4:
Interjections and exclamations are omitted and their sense conveyed by means of
adverbs
or adverbial phrases.
Rules 5:
Tenses, pronouns and words showing nearness are changed according to the rules
already
stated.
Example:
1. “What a horrible sight!” we all exclaimed. (D.S.)
We all exclaimed that it was a very horrible sight. (I.S.)
2. “Alas! I have broken my brother’s watch” said he.
He exclaimed sorrowfully that he had broken his brothers watch. (I.S.)
3. “How beautiful she is!” said Boon. (D.S.)
Boon exclaimed joyfully that she was very beautiful. (I.S.)
4. He said, “Just my luck! I never thought I would fail this time too”
He exclaimed that he was as usual unlucky and added that he had never thought he would
fail that time too.