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ABSTRACT

Mechanic Properties of Steel or tensile test is known as a basic and universal engineering
test to achieve material parameters such as ultimate strength, yield strength, % elongation, % area
of reduction and Young's modulus. These important parameters obtained from the standard tensile
testing are useful for the selection of engineering materials for any applications required. The
tensile testing is carried out by applying longitudinal or axial load at a specific extension rate to a
standard tensile specimen with known dimensions till failure. The applied tensile load and
extension are recorded during the test for the calculation of stress and strain. During the
experiment, the extensometer equipment will measured the yield point that lead to classification
of elastic and plastic regions, which the elongation of the material. The steel rod that are used for
this experiment is 16mm diameter. Based on the result that obtained from the experiment, the stress
and strain can be calculated and the application of the Hooke’s Law can be apply and understand
by student.

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Study Background

For the save and strong concrete construction, of the structural component like in a
building, bridge etc., the tensile properties of the material used such as steel reinforcement bar
should be analyze. The tensile strength of the material should meet the strength requirement of the
structural application. Experiment of tensile by using Universal Testing Machine is used because
it is easy to perform, can be done in a short time and with care, gives repeatable results. The test
can be used to predict the tensile properties and they are conducted by the by the application of the
application of axial or longitudinal forces to a specimen. These force are applied on the specimen
until its cause a failure. Then, the data will be recorded for the calculation to find and determination
of stress and strain.

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1.2 Goal and Objectives

i. To investigate the mechanical properties of steel reinforcement bar under tensile test by
using Universal Testing Machine.
ii. To determine the relationship of strain and stress by using the application of Hooke’s Law.
iii. Determine the yield strength of steel.
iv. Determine the modulus of elasticity of steel.

1.3 Laboratory Scope

The experiment is to identify the yield strength and modulus of elasticity of the steel
reinforcement bar with a 16mm diameter and 600mm length. This experiment is using the
Universal Testing Machine and extensometer to collect all the data needed. To make a lab report,
the main guideline used that referred to the important steel deformation modes under elastic and
plastic regions, the relationship between stress and strain obtained and verification of the tested
material against the acceptable strength as authorized from the certificate issued by the MILL Test
Certification as shown in Figure 1

Figure 1: MILL Test Certification

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1.4 Significance of Laboratory Testing

Strength of materials, also called mechanics of materials, is a subject which deals with the
behavior of solid objects like steel subject to stress and strains. The theory is began with the
consideration of the behavior of one and two dimensional members of structures, whose states of
stress can be approximated as two dimensional, and was then generalized to three dimensions to
develop a more complete theory of the elastic and plastic behavior of materials. After the
experiment been done, the students can understand how the theory can me apply in the application
of the principle of the mechanic of material.

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CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

Young’s modulus, numerical constant, named for the 18th-century English physician and
physicist Thomas Young, that describes the elastic properties of a solid undergoing tension or
compression in only one direction, as in the case of a metal rod that after being stretched or
compressed lengthwise returns to its original length. Young’s modulus is a measure of the ability
of a material to withstand changes in length when under lengthwise tension or compression.
Sometimes referred to as the modulus of elasticity, Young’s modulus is equal to the longitudinal
stress divided by the strain. Stress and strain may be described as follows in the case of a metal bar
under tension.
If a metal bar of cross-sectional area A is pulled by a force F at each end, the bar stretches
from its original length L0 to a new length Ln. (Simultaneously the cross section decreases.) The
stress is the quotient of the tensile force divided by the cross-sectional area, or F/A. The strain or
relative deformation is the change in length, Ln − L0, divided by the original length, or (Ln − L0)/L0.
(Strain is dimensionless.) Thus Young’s modulus may be expressed mathematically as Young’s
modulus = stress/strain = (FL0)/A (Ln − L0).
This is a specific form of Hooke’s law of elasticity. The units of Young’s modulus in the
English system are pounds per square inch (psi), and in the metric system newton’s per square
meter (N/m2). The value of Young’s modulus for aluminum is about 1.0 × 107 psi, or 7.0 × 1010
N/m2. The value for steel is about three times greater, which means that it takes three times as
much force to stretch a steel bar the same amount as a similarly shaped aluminum bar.
Young’s modulus is meaningful only in the range in which the stress is proportional to the
strain, and the material returns to its original dimensions when the external force is removed. As
stresses increase, Young’s modulus may no longer remain constant but decrease, or the material
may either flow, undergoing permanent deformation, or finally break.
When a metal bar under tension is elongated, its width is slightly diminished. This lateral
shrinkage constitutes a transverse strain that is equal to the change in the width divided by the
original width. The ratio of the transverse strain to the longitudinal strain is called Poisson’s ratio.

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The average value of Poisson’s ratio for steels is 0.28, and for aluminum alloys, 0.33. The volume
of materials that have Poisson’s ratios less than 0.50 increase under longitudinal tension and
decrease under longitudinal compression.

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CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

Figure 2 : Flow Chart From The Beginning To The End Of Laboratory

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Figure 3: Procedure During Carryout the Experiment

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Figure 4 Steel Rod

Figure 5 Universal Testing Machine

Figure 5 Extensometer

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Load (kgf) Stroke (mm) Load (N) Stress Strain
47.53600 -0.00020 466.32816
44.28500 -0.00131 434.43585
44.27900 0.00008 434.37699
55.47300 -0.00065 544.19013
58.50800 -0.00056 573.96348
71.13100 -0.00054 697.79511
72.83900 -0.00029 714.55059
70.15000 -0.00017 688.1715
76.47300 -0.00006 750.20013
71.01800 0.00006 696.68658
87.12500 0.00011 854.69625
91.41100 0.00020 896.74191
87.03400 0.00050 853.80354
94.01700 0.00062 922.30677
84.57700 0.00069 829.70037
82.96500 0.00067 813.88665
84.07000 0.00065 824.7267
107.71100 0.00065 1056.64491
99.39100 0.00068 975.02571
105.28700 0.00073 1032.86547
115.27700 0.00142 1130.86737
143.58800 0.00167 1408.59828
142.22300 0.00200 1395.20763
157.15400 0.00250 1541.68074
195.97800 0.00307 1922.54418
201.08200 0.00388 1972.61442
231.27200 0.00471 2268.77832
255.14200 0.00572 2502.94302
266.81800 0.00680 2617.48458
309.84500 0.00860 3039.57945
341.44400 0.01031 3349.56564
373.84100 0.01256 3667.38021

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429.82900 0.01461 4216.62249
472.68100 0.01569 4637.00061
505.63800 0.01587 4960.30878
584.37200 0.01590 5732.68932
614.39600 0.01586 6027.22476
687.72200 0.01581 6746.55282

755.08800 0.01554 7407.41328


803.12600 0.01543 7878.66606
861.97400 0.01539 8455.96494
941.27300 0.01523 9233.88813
1039.06800 0.01513 10193.25708
1081.82000 0.01503 10612.6542
1184.02200 0.01490 11615.25582
1240.16300 0.01473 12165.99903
1345.36500 0.01467 13198.03065
1436.46400 0.01464 14091.71184
1503.58400 0.01457 14750.15904
1615.09600 0.01461 15844.09176
1696.96100 0.01480 16647.18741
1825.57800 0.01490 17908.92018
1914.41300 0.01493 18780.39153
2032.45000 0.01512 19938.3345
2139.74700 0.01627 20990.91807
2216.92400 0.01773 21748.02444
2360.80100 0.01926 23159.45781
2458.63800 0.02064 24119.23878
2578.68700 0.02209 25296.91947
2700.78100 0.02406 26494.66161
2854.09500 0.02560 27998.67195
2968.52200 0.02734 29121.20082
3114.37500 0.02875 30552.01875
3224.27500 0.03049 31630.13775
3367.18500 0.03215 33032.08485

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3528.43800 0.03377 34613.97678
3660.98700 0.03542 35914.28247
3789.32100 0.03697 37173.23901
3905.17100 0.03848 38309.72751
4051.69400 0.04012 39747.11814
4195.01300 0.04154 41153.07753
4293.97200 0.04310 42123.86532
4422.27900 0.04459 43382.55699
4538.29400 0.04620 44520.66414
4658.95400 0.04730 45704.33874
4760.62100 0.04861 46701.69201
4924.55000 0.05055 48309.8355

5042.50100 0.05214 49466.93481


5189.74700 0.05399 50911.41807
5347.86500 0.05595 52462.55565
5481.81100 0.05773 53776.56591
5624.24800 0.05973 55173.87288
5775.24300 0.06147 56655.13383
5914.85000 0.06319 58024.6785
6079.64200 0.06455 59641.28802
6215.44900 0.06635 60973.55469
6351.59700 0.06790 62309.16657
6458.47000 0.06972 63357.5907
6607.40500 0.07096 64818.64305
6723.79600 0.07264 65960.43876
6884.36800 0.07395 67535.65008
7004.08000 0.07540 68710.0248
7150.64000 0.07714 70147.7784
7267.70400 0.07858 71296.17624
7424.02700 0.08035 72829.70487
7540.37700 0.08206 73971.09837
7689.82800 0.08366 75437.21268
7811.95300 0.08521 76635.25893

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7941.28900 0.08686 77904.04509
8101.79200 0.08830 79478.57952
8228.97800 0.09021 80726.27418
8386.59300 0.09192 82272.47733
8518.67500 0.09358 83568.20175
8647.98300 0.09554 84836.71323
8802.12900 0.09705 86348.88549
8926.79500 0.09877 87571.85895
9078.08100 0.10032 89055.97461
9197.61100 0.10231 90228.56391
9327.34800 0.10365 91501.28388
9472.98900 0.10535 92930.02209
9640.52100 0.10690 94573.51101
9770.73200 0.10870 95850.88092
9888.78800 0.11011 97009.01028
10039.20000 0.11184 98484.552
10153.99600 0.11315 99610.70076
10286.09700 0.11499 100906.6116

10438.85900 0.11644 102405.2068


10580.36800 0.11826 103793.4101
10708.60500 0.11960 105051.4151
10812.59100 0.12122 106071.5177
10958.31800 0.12256 107501.0996
11082.97800 0.12376 108724.0142
11166.22700 0.12573 109540.6869
11280.54500 0.12823 110662.1465
11404.13400 0.13139 111874.5545
11521.33300 0.13403 113024.2767
11625.64800 0.13722 114047.6069
11742.63700 0.14031 115195.269
11842.82400 0.14380 116178.1034
11958.89800 0.14648 117316.7894
12074.80800 0.14945 118453.8665

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12176.93700 0.15266 119455.752
12259.45800 0.15559 120265.283
12372.99800 0.15808 121379.1104
12466.64000 0.16046 122297.7384
12545.28900 0.16297 123069.2851
12611.67000 0.16597 123720.4827
12710.59100 0.16879 124690.8977
12744.65000 0.17135 125025.0165
12796.33400 0.17278 125532.0365
12809.04600 0.17462 125656.7413
12847.40100 0.17578 126033.0038
12812.09900 0.17652 125686.6912
12809.26600 0.17703 125658.8995
12799.39700 0.17694 125562.0846
12768.03600 0.17462 125254.4332
12721.15000 0.17302 124794.4815
12730.23400 0.17142 124883.5955
12740.88400 0.17597 124988.072
12713.11300 0.17609 124715.6385
12809.20200 0.17493 125658.2716
12796.76600 0.17476 125536.2745
12784.83400 0.17665 125419.2215
12831.83900 0.17710 125880.3406
12823.77100 0.18331 125801.1935

12798.64000 0.20466 125554.6584


12800.06900 0.25002 125568.6769
12796.12300 0.31564 125529.9666
12817.74500 0.38023 125742.0785
12819.09300 0.43361 125755.3023
12795.61900 0.49223 125525.0224
12833.54400 0.56287 125897.0666
12786.34600 0.64720 125434.0543
12803.54000 0.71568 125602.7274

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12788.79300 0.80271 125458.0593
12783.75000 0.88990 125408.5875
12618.16300 1.04200 123784.179
12877.72700 1.19455 126330.5019
13065.22700 1.28952 128169.8769
13090.16300 1.35014 128414.499
13154.53700 1.39951 129046.008
13221.01700 1.44421 129698.1768
13259.16500 1.48623 130072.4087
13306.26100 1.52807 130534.4204
13367.17000 1.56989 131131.9377
13380.59800 1.61563 131263.6664
13452.24700 1.66252 131966.5431
13470.79200 1.70818 132148.4695
13544.81100 1.75802 132874.5959
13562.35700 1.80751 133046.7222
13629.67800 1.85963 133707.1412
13677.39900 1.91391 134175.2842
13718.00000 1.96806 134573.58
13765.61200 2.02565 135040.6537
13769.01700 2.08407 135074.0568
13828.89100 2.14542 135661.4207
13841.54900 2.20497 135785.5957
13887.91700 2.26652 136240.4658
13921.06600 2.32850 136565.6575
13935.79900 2.39253 136710.1882
13967.34400 2.46219 137019.6446
14035.47900 2.53132 137688.049
14051.70900 2.59935 137847.2653
14073.63300 2.67077 138062.3397
14102.31500 2.74290 138343.7102
14144.28400 2.81728 138755.426
14147.14500 2.89463 138783.4925

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14193.89500 2.97709 139242.11
14211.10000 3.06346 139410.891
14209.34100 3.15008 139393.6352
14229.01500 3.23756 139586.6372
14259.78400 3.33100 139888.481
14271.57300 3.42642 140004.1311
14233.21200 3.52724 139627.8097
14246.31600 3.62624 139756.36
14287.32000 3.72941 140158.6092
14257.80100 3.84597 139869.0278
14307.31200 3.96479 140354.7307
14300.91200 4.08133 140291.9467
14318.73700 4.20898 140466.81
14267.54600 4.34458 139964.6263
14256.53700 4.48012 139856.628
14267.88900 4.62898 139967.9911
14274.65800 4.78256 140034.395
14287.77600 4.94410 140163.0826
14228.22500 5.11836 139578.8873
14214.97800 5.30218 139448.9342
14213.62200 5.50877 139435.6318
14148.20200 5.74897 138793.8616
14086.20200 6.02941 138185.6416
13886.12800 6.35890 136222.9157
13687.18800 6.72839 134271.3143
13431.74900 7.12601 131765.4577
13107.85400 7.57661 128588.0477
12799.11400 8.05473 125559.3083
12354.29500 8.56777 121195.634

Table 1 Tensile Test Result


Formula: 1. Stress = P/A
P = Load x 9.81, A = 201
2. Strain (Length expand (Storke:mm) / length original (50) ) x100

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CHAPTER 4

RESULTS, DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSIONS

4.1 Result

Stroke (mm)
Load (kgf) Load (N) Stress Strain
47.53600 -0.00020 466.32816 2.320040597 -0.0004
44.28500 -0.00131 434.43585 2.161372388 -0.00262
44.27900 0.00008 434.37699 2.161079552 0.00016
55.47300 -0.00065 544.19013 2.707413582 -0.0013
58.50800 -0.00056 573.96348 2.855539701 -0.00112
71.13100 -0.00054 697.79511 3.471617463 -0.00108
72.83900 -0.00029 714.55059 3.55497806 -0.00058
70.15000 -0.00017 688.1715 3.423738806 -0.00034
76.47300 -0.00006 750.20013 3.732338955 -0.00012
71.01800 0.00006 696.68658 3.466102388 0.00012
87.12500 0.00011 854.69625 4.252220149 0.00022
91.41100 0.00020 896.74191 4.461402537 0.0004
87.03400 0.00050 853.80354 4.247778806 0.001
94.01700 0.00062 922.30677 4.588590896 0.00124
84.57700 0.00069 829.70037 4.127862537 0.00138
82.96500 0.00067 813.88665 4.049187313 0.00134
84.07000 0.00065 824.7267 4.10311791 0.0013
107.71100 0.00065 1056.64491 5.256939851 0.0013
99.39100 0.00068 975.02571 4.850874179 0.00136
105.28700 0.00073 1032.86547 5.138634179 0.00146
115.27700 0.00142 1130.86737 5.626205821 0.00284
143.58800 0.00167 1408.59828 7.007951642 0.00334
142.22300 0.00200 1395.20763 6.941331493 0.004
157.15400 0.00250 1541.68074 7.670053433 0.005
195.97800 0.00307 1922.54418 9.564896418 0.00614
201.08200 0.00388 1972.61442 9.81400209 0.00776
231.27200 0.00471 2268.77832 11.28745433 0.00942
255.14200 0.00572 2502.94302 12.45245284 0.01144
266.81800 0.00680 2617.48458 13.02231134 0.0136
309.84500 0.00860 3039.57945 15.12228582 0.0172

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341.44400 0.01031 3349.56564 16.66450567 0.02062
373.84100 0.01256 3667.38021 18.24567269 0.02512
429.82900 0.01461 4216.62249 20.97822134 0.02922
472.68100 0.01569 4637.00061 23.06965478 0.03138

505.63800 0.01587 4960.30878 24.67815313 0.03174


584.37200 0.01590 5732.68932 28.52084239 0.0318
614.39600 0.01586 6027.22476 29.98619284 0.03172
687.72200 0.01581 6746.55282 33.5649394 0.03162
755.08800 0.01554 7407.41328 36.85280239 0.03108
803.12600 0.01543 7878.66606 39.19734358 0.03086
861.97400 0.01539 8455.96494 42.06947731 0.03078
941.27300 0.01523 9233.88813 45.93974194 0.03046
1039.06800 0.01513 10193.2571 50.71272179 0.03026
1081.82000 0.01503 10612.6542 52.79927463 0.03006
1184.02200 0.01490 11615.2558 57.78734239 0.0298
1240.16300 0.01473 12165.999 60.52735836 0.02946
1345.36500 0.01467 13198.0307 65.66184403 0.02934
1436.46400 0.01464 14091.7118 70.1080191 0.02928
1503.58400 0.01457 14750.159 73.38387582 0.02914
1615.09600 0.01461 15844.0918 78.82632716 0.02922
1696.96100 0.01480 16647.1874 82.82182791 0.0296
1825.57800 0.01490 17908.9202 89.09910537 0.0298
1914.41300 0.01493 18780.3915 93.43478373 0.02986
2032.45000 0.01512 19938.3345 99.19569403 0.03024
2139.74700 0.01627 20990.9181 104.4324282 0.03254
2216.92400 0.01773 21748.0244 108.1991266 0.03546
2360.80100 0.01926 23159.4578 115.2211831 0.03852
2458.63800 0.02064 24119.2388 119.9962128 0.04128
2578.68700 0.02209 25296.9195 125.8553207 0.04418
2700.78100 0.02406 26494.6616 131.8142369 0.04812
2854.09500 0.02560 27998.672 139.2968754 0.0512
2968.52200 0.02734 29121.2008 144.8815961 0.05468
3114.37500 0.02875 30552.0188 152.0000933 0.0575

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3224.27500 0.03049 31630.1378 157.3638694 0.06098
3367.18500 0.03215 33032.0849 164.3387306 0.0643
3528.43800 0.03377 34613.9768 172.2088397 0.06754
3660.98700 0.03542 35914.2825 178.6780222 0.07084
3789.32100 0.03697 37173.239 184.9414876 0.07394
3905.17100 0.03848 38309.7275 190.5956593 0.07696
4051.69400 0.04012 39747.1181 197.7468564 0.08024
4195.01300 0.04154 41153.0775 204.7416793 0.08308
4293.97200 0.04310 42123.8653 209.5714693 0.0862
4422.27900 0.04459 43382.557 215.8336169 0.08918

4538.29400 0.04620 44520.6641 221.4958415 0.0924


4658.95400 0.04730 45704.3387 227.3847699 0.0946
4760.62100 0.04861 46701.692 232.3467264 0.09722
4924.55000 0.05055 48309.8355 240.3474403 0.1011
5042.50100 0.05214 49466.9348 246.1041533 0.10428
5189.74700 0.05399 50911.4181 253.2906372 0.10798
5347.86500 0.05595 52462.5557 261.0077396 0.1119
5481.81100 0.05773 53776.5659 267.545104 0.11546
5624.24800 0.05973 55173.8729 274.49688 0.11946
5775.24300 0.06147 56655.1338 281.8663375 0.12294
5914.85000 0.06319 58024.6785 288.6799925 0.12638
6079.64200 0.06455 59641.288 296.722826 0.1291
6215.44900 0.06635 60973.5547 303.3510184 0.1327
6351.59700 0.06790 62309.1666 309.9958536 0.1358
6458.47000 0.06972 63357.5907 315.211894 0.13944
6607.40500 0.07096 64818.6431 322.4808112 0.14192
6723.79600 0.07264 65960.4388 328.1613869 0.14528
6884.36800 0.07395 67535.6501 335.9982591 0.1479
7004.08000 0.07540 68710.0248 341.8409194 0.1508
7150.64000 0.07714 70147.7784 348.9939224 0.15428
7267.70400 0.07858 71296.1762 354.7073445 0.15716
7424.02700 0.08035 72829.7049 362.3368401 0.1607
7540.37700 0.08206 73971.0984 368.0154148 0.16412

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7689.82800 0.08366 75437.2127 375.3095158 0.16732
7811.95300 0.08521 76635.2589 381.2699449 0.17042
7941.28900 0.08686 77904.0451 387.5823139 0.17372
8101.79200 0.08830 79478.5795 395.4158185 0.1766
8228.97800 0.09021 80726.2742 401.6232546 0.18042
8386.59300 0.09192 82272.4773 409.3158076 0.18384
8518.67500 0.09358 83568.2018 415.7621978 0.18716
8647.98300 0.09554 84836.7132 422.0732001 0.19108
8802.12900 0.09705 86348.8855 429.5964452 0.1941
8926.79500 0.09877 87571.859 435.6808903 0.19754
9078.08100 0.10032 89055.9746 443.0645503 0.20064
9197.61100 0.10231 90228.5639 448.8983279 0.20462
9327.34800 0.10365 91501.2839 455.2302681 0.2073
9472.98900 0.10535 92930.0221 462.3384184 0.2107
9640.52100 0.10690 94573.511 470.5149801 0.2138
9770.73200 0.10870 95850.8809 476.8700543 0.2174

9888.78800 0.11011 97009.0103 482.6318919 0.22022


10039.20000 0.11184 98484.552 489.9728955 0.22368
10153.99600 0.11315 99610.7008 495.5756257 0.2263
10286.09700 0.11499 100906.612 502.0229431 0.22998
10438.85900 0.11644 102405.207 509.4786407 0.23288
10580.36800 0.11826 103793.41 516.3851248 0.23652
10708.60500 0.11960 105051.415 522.643856 0.2392
10812.59100 0.12122 106071.518 527.7189936 0.24244
10958.31800 0.12256 107501.1 534.8313412 0.24512
11082.97800 0.12376 108724.014 540.9154934 0.24752
11166.22700 0.12573 109540.687 544.9785416 0.25146
11280.54500 0.12823 110662.146 550.5579425 0.25646
11404.13400 0.13139 111874.555 556.5898236 0.26278
11521.33300 0.13403 113024.277 562.3098345 0.26806
11625.64800 0.13722 114047.607 567.4010293 0.27444
11742.63700 0.14031 115195.269 573.1107909 0.28062
11842.82400 0.14380 116178.103 578.0005146 0.2876

19
11958.89800 0.14648 117316.789 583.6656188 0.29296
12074.80800 0.14945 118453.866 589.3227188 0.2989
12176.93700 0.15266 119455.752 594.3072237 0.30532
12259.45800 0.15559 120265.283 598.3347412 0.31118
12372.99800 0.15808 121379.11 603.876171 0.31616
12466.64000 0.16046 122297.738 608.4464597 0.32092
12545.28900 0.16297 123069.285 612.2850004 0.32594
12611.67000 0.16597 123720.483 615.5247896 0.33194
12710.59100 0.16879 124690.898 620.3527249 0.33758
12744.65000 0.17135 125025.017 622.0150075 0.3427
12796.33400 0.17278 125532.037 624.5374952 0.34556
12809.04600 0.17462 125656.741 625.1579167 0.34924
12847.40100 0.17578 126033.004 627.0298697 0.35156
12812.09900 0.17652 125686.691 625.3069213 0.35304
12809.26600 0.17703 125658.899 625.168654 0.35406
12799.39700 0.17694 125562.085 624.6869879 0.35388
12768.03600 0.17462 125254.433 623.1563839 0.34924
12721.15000 0.17302 124794.482 620.8680672 0.34604
12730.23400 0.17142 124883.596 621.3114206 0.34284
12740.88400 0.17597 124988.072 621.8312042 0.35194
12713.11300 0.17609 124715.639 620.4758136 0.35218
12809.20200 0.17493 125658.272 625.1655304 0.34986

12796.76600 0.17476 125536.274 624.5585794 0.34952


12784.83400 0.17665 125419.222 623.9762266 0.3533
12831.83900 0.17710 125880.341 626.2703512 0.3542
12823.77100 0.18331 125801.194 625.8765846 0.36662
12798.64000 0.20466 125554.658 624.6500418 0.40932
12800.06900 0.25002 125568.677 624.7197855 0.50004
12796.12300 0.31564 125529.967 624.5271972 0.63128
12817.74500 0.38023 125742.078 625.5824799 0.76046
12819.09300 0.43361 125755.302 625.6482703 0.86722
12795.61900 0.49223 125525.022 624.502599 0.98446
12833.54400 0.56287 125897.067 626.3535654 1.12574

20
12786.34600 0.64720 125434.054 624.0500212 1.2944
12803.54000 0.71568 125602.727 624.889191 1.43136
12788.79300 0.80271 125458.059 624.1694494 1.60542
12783.75000 0.88990 125408.588 623.9233209 1.7798
12618.16300 1.04200 123784.179 615.8416867 2.084
12877.72700 1.19455 126330.502 628.5099596 2.3891
13065.22700 1.28952 128169.877 637.661079 2.57904
13090.16300 1.35014 128414.499 638.8781046 2.70028
13154.53700 1.39951 129046.008 642.0199401 2.79902
13221.01700 1.44421 129698.177 645.264561 2.88842
13259.16500 1.48623 130072.409 647.1264112 2.97246
13306.26100 1.52807 130534.42 649.4249772 3.05614
13367.17000 1.56989 131131.938 652.3977 3.13978
13380.59800 1.61563 131263.666 653.0530666 3.23126
13452.24700 1.66252 131966.543 656.5499655 3.32504
13470.79200 1.70818 132148.47 657.4550722 3.41636
13544.81100 1.75802 132874.596 661.0676413 3.51604
13562.35700 1.80751 133046.722 661.9239909 3.61502
13629.67800 1.85963 133707.141 665.2096576 3.71926
13677.39900 1.91391 134175.284 667.5387273 3.82782
13718.00000 1.96806 134573.58 669.5202985 3.93612
13765.61200 2.02565 135040.654 671.8440484 4.0513
13769.01700 2.08407 135074.057 672.0102327 4.16814
13828.89100 2.14542 135661.421 674.9324413 4.29084
13841.54900 2.20497 135785.596 675.5502273 4.40994
13887.91700 2.26652 136240.466 677.8132625 4.53304
13921.06600 2.32850 136565.657 679.4311316 4.657
13935.79900 2.39253 136710.188 680.15019 4.78506
13967.34400 2.46219 137019.645 681.6897743 4.92438
14035.47900 2.53132 137688.049 685.0151691 5.06264
14051.70900 2.59935 137847.265 685.80729 5.1987
14073.63300 2.67077 138062.34 686.8773121 5.34154
14102.31500 2.74290 138343.71 688.2771649 5.4858

21
14144.28400 2.81728 138755.426 690.3255027 5.63456
14147.14500 2.89463 138783.492 690.4651366 5.78926
14193.89500 2.97709 139242.11 692.7468157 5.95418
14211.10000 3.06346 139410.891 693.5865224 6.12692
14209.34100 3.15008 139393.635 693.5006727 6.30016
14229.01500 3.23756 139586.637 694.4608813 6.47512
14259.78400 3.33100 139888.481 695.9625922 6.662
14271.57300 3.42642 140004.131 696.5379658 6.85284
14233.21200 3.52724 139627.81 694.66572 7.05448
14246.31600 3.62624 139756.36 695.3052734 7.25248
14287.32000 3.72941 140158.609 697.3065134 7.45882
14257.80100 3.84597 139869.028 695.86581 7.69194
14307.31200 3.96479 140354.731 698.2822424 7.92958
14300.91200 4.08133 140291.947 697.9698842 8.16266
14318.73700 4.20898 140466.81 698.8398506 8.41796
14267.54600 4.34458 139964.626 696.3414242 8.68916
14256.53700 4.48012 139856.628 695.8041193 8.96024
14267.88900 4.62898 139967.991 696.3581646 9.25796
14274.65800 4.78256 140034.395 696.6885322 9.56512
14287.77600 4.94410 140163.083 697.328769 9.8882
14228.22500 5.11836 139578.887 694.4223246 10.23672
14214.97800 5.30218 139448.934 693.7757919 10.60436
14213.62200 5.50877 139435.632 693.709611 11.01754
14148.20200 5.74897 138793.862 690.5167245 11.49794
14086.20200 6.02941 138185.642 687.4907543 12.05882
13886.12800 6.35890 136222.916 677.7259487 12.7178
13687.18800 6.72839 134271.314 668.016489 13.45678
13431.74900 7.12601 131765.458 655.5495407 14.25202
13107.85400 7.57661 128588.048 639.741531 15.15322
12799.11400 8.05473 125559.308 624.6731758 16.10946
12354.29500 8.56777 121195.634 602.963353 17.13554

Table 2 Tensile Test Result

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4.2 Data Analysis

1. Load (N)
Based on table:
(Load: kgf) x 9.81
For example: 47.53600 x 9.81 = 466.32816N
2. Stress
Formula: P/A
Area given is 201, which diameter of steel bar is 16mm.
Based on table:
For example, 466.32816 / 201 = 2.320040597
3. Strain
(L/Lo)*100%
L: Length expand Lo:
Length original = 50
Based on table:
For example: (-0.00020/ 50) x 100% = -0.0004

4.3 Discussion

From the results that we obtain that shown on Table 4.1, we gain the result for stress and
strain for steel bar 16mm diameter. Next, for the graph, it shown the elastic condition is from 0 to
7.20 at y-axis. Yield is condition is from 0 to 2.0 at x-axis. Meanwhile yield strength is at 624
N/mm². Plastic condition is 2.0 to 18.0 at x-axis. Besides, from this task which use 16mm diameter
steel bar, the max strength is 699N/mm² and percentage of total elongation at maximum force
(AGT) is 8.36%.

23
CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSIONS

The objective of the lab was to investigate the mechanical properties of steel reinforcement
under tensile test by using universal testing machine. The other one is to adapt the application of
Hooke’s law and characterize the behavior of a material under stress and strain action. Based on
the results taken from the table, the stress and stress can be calculated. Also from the experiment
that have been done, the yield strength and the modulus of elasticity can be obtain. Basically the
experiment has fulfill and achieve the main objective of the experiment and student can be for clear
the application of the Hooke’s Law theory in the practical way.

REFERENCE

[1] Tensile Test Lab Report, : Peter Namisi.


[2] Youngs Modulus, : The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica
[3] R.C Hibbeler (2014), Mechanic of Materials, Singapore : Pearson Education South Asia
Pte Ltd, 9th Edition.

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