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direct carving is the practice of producing sculptures out directly into stone or wood without using intermediate

models or maquettes to produce replicas. using hammer and chisel, the sculptor's directly carve the materials
to create forms as they envisage confined in the materials. often referred to as taille directe, this direct method
of carving requires that sculptors uphold aesthetic tenets and ethical standards. inherent in the aesthetic tenets
are the sculptor's understanding of and respect for the media-the quality, nature, beauty, texture, density, and
shape. the sculptors as a rule feel a strong emotional involvement with the materials, sensing an indefinable
mystical force that transposes his imagination to the materials. it is the sculptor's perception of the materials
elements that helps produce powerfully expenssive artworks. as the process of transposing takes place, they
refine the design and surface of the works to perfection. in other words, the touch of hammer and chisel is the
actual expressions of the sculptors themselves.
turning the carving work over to artisans in a studio does not meet the ethical standards of direct carving.
sculptures produced by assistants by imitating clay or wax models using pointing machines in workshops are not
the works of the sculptors. john ruskin, a british art critic (1819-1900), disagreed with this method in carving on
grounds of the absence of the sculptors manifestation of their skills. neither the sculptors nor the public will
recognize the pieces are mass-produced.
jacob epstein (1880-1959), an american born sculptor was among the pioneers of the direct carving resurgence
starting in the 1900's. he studied at the art students league, new york, and discovered his love for carving when
he carved ice on greenwood lake, new jersey. when moving to paris in 1902, he studied arts seriously there. one
of his masterpieces, the tomb of oscar wilde, carved from an immense stone block in london and placed in paris,
authority and expressiveness of the materials, one of the direct carving aesthetic and ethical principles.
1. The word “intermediate” is closest in meaning to ___________
a. Moderate
b. Controling
c. Average
d. Transitional
2. The word “forms” is used to refer to _________
a. Scuptures
b. Models
c. Replicas
d. Materials
3. The word “indefinable” is closest in meaning to ________
a. Indescribable
b. Unbalanced
c. Unmistakable
d. Infinite
4. Which is one of the basic aesthetic tenets of direct carving?
a. Models are used to create sculptures.
b. Sculptors must have the strenght to cut into the material
c. Sculptures should stir emotions in the viewers.
d. The material determines what artwork is to be produced
5. How does direct carving meet the ethical standards in sculpture?
a. Sculptors hire experienced assistants in a studio
b. Sculptors express their feelings thought their skilled hands.
c. Machines can be used to produce replicas of sculptures.
d. Replicas of the models are produced in great quantity
6. The phrase “on ground of” in line 24 is closest in meaning to _______
a. Because of
b. Contrary to
c. In accordance with
d. As a proof of
7. Where did Jacob Epstein first learn the art of carving?
a. In New York
b. In New Jersey
c. In Paris
d. In London
8. The Tomb of Oscar Wide has all of the following traits EXCEPT _____
a. It was made of stone
b. It was sculpted based on a clay model
c. It was carved in line with the direct carving principles
d. It was a display of the material’s elements
birds are notable for their tendency to build colony nets in which one or more species of birds nest together at
a particular location. obviously,, birds gain some benefits by nesting in colonies.
breeding synchrony, in which colonial female birds are at a similar breeding stages-laying eggs, incubating, or
feeding chicks at similar age-is most probably the result of living in colonies. non-breeding birds are stimulated
by the strong social cumulative value of the voice and presence of the breeding members, and may start
breeding themselves. some birds colonies host thousands of nesting pairs of various species that display site
loyalty, returning to the same burrow, nest, or site for many years. colonies also provide place for returning
mates to unite, and this increases breeding succes.
another's benefit is the change to forage in groups. for example, blackbirds seek food together in short
vegetation around ponds and streams, mostly close to their colony site. their colonial nesting habit apperently
developed because it allows less-adept birds to follow more-succesful foragers when they leave the colony to
feed. those birds appear to primarily on emerging damselflies and other insects, and seem to concentrate their
feeding in areas where their prey is most abundant. barn swallows, usually nesting in small colonies in barns and
others outbuildings, as well as under bridges and in culverts, also forage in groups. most of their hunting is done
near ground level, over open fields and especially near water.
lastly, communal nesting offers better defense against predators and ensures survival. the presence of many
birds nets the colony a safer place for individual birds to build nets, as there are more pairs of eyes and ears
available to false the alarm. one experiment with laughing doves showed that the more the number of the birds
in their colony, the quicker the reaction against predators and the more successful the defence. deterred by a
large number of flocks of birds, predators might be asily driven away. however, a large number of birds can
backfire since they are so conspicuous that they attract predators. in this case, the birds at the margins have the
greater risk of being preyed on.
9. What does the passage mainly discuss?
a. How certain birds find places to nest
b. How birds profit from nesting in colonies
c. Why some species of birds groups together
d. Why birds promote breeding sychrony
10. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passange as an aspect of breeding success?
a. Bird of similar age breed at similar time
b. Breeding birds influence no-breeding ones in the colony
c. Nesting pairs always come back to the same colony site
d. Colonies offer a home for returning mates to breed
11. The word “stimulated” is closest in meaning to ________
a. Stirred
b. Cared
c. Preferred
d. Gathered
12. The word “cumulative” is closest in meaning to ________
a. Treasured
b. Selective
c. Collective
d. Important
13. Black birds feed by _______
a. Following other bird species
b. Hunting food on the nesting site
c. Nesting together with less-skilled birds
d. Finding food in groups
14. The writer mentions “barn swallows” as an example of birds that __________
a. Forage together
b. Nest in barns
c. Hunt damselflies
d. Live in a colony
15. The word “their” refers to foraging of ______
a. Blackbirds
b. Damnselflies
c. Insects
d. Barn swallows
16. Which of the following statement about laughing doves is TRUE?
a. Lots of food ensures their chances of survival
b. They can defend their nests agaist other birds
c. In large numbers, they scare off predators
d. Senior birds protect the young in the colony
17. The word “Deterred” is closest in meaning to ________
a. Offended
b. Angered
c. Discouraged
d. Troubled
18. Which of the following does the passage mention as a disadvantage of communal defense?
a. It is easy for birds to defend themselves in colonies
b. There are more birds to warn approaching dangers
c. Predators are afraid of birds in a large quantity
d. Their large number can be easily spotted by their hunters
19. The word “conspicuous” is closest in meaning to _________
a. Visible
b. Remarkable
c. Abundant
d. Unusual
food preservation methods have been developed by humans because food is of utmost important to survival
various preservation techniques have been developed and perfected since ancient times.
geographic areas and cultures most often dictated the ways foods were preserved in the past, although they
were very simple. in many tropical countries, the sun and wind were the agents to dry meat, fish, vegetables,
and fruits and used fire to smoke foods. in colds areas, people used freezing temperatures to prolong food
storage time. preservatives such as alcohol, vinegar, salt, and sugar, were also utilixed for preserving foods.
these old ways have endured up till now.
in the 1790's, canning, a new way of preserving food by heating the food in sealed glass containers, was
developed, 1810, peter durand from england introduced the use of to cans instead of breakable glass bottles,
and as this method became popular, canned foods were available in a number of countries. nonetheless, the
inventor, nicholas appert, did not fully understand why the food in the container did not detericrate. it was not
until 1864, when louis pasteur discovered the relationship between food spoilageand microorganisms, that the
method became clear. the process of pasteurization to destroy bacteria in foods without eliminating their
nutrional values has been refined, especially for dairy products.
people also realized the value of putting foods in cold storage to keep them fresh. in america, large estates built
ice houses to store food, and ice houses became ice boxes. the year 1805 saw the first refrigeration machine by
oliver. it was developed, and beginning in the 1930's, the refrigeration became a household name, and
continued to be. in 1925, clarence birdseye learned that the quick freezing could retain the food's freshness
when thawed and cooked months later. his quick freeze machine resultes in the forming of small crystals that
did not break the cell walls of the food to keep its maximum texture, flavor, and taste. when his frozen products
reached the market, it marked the birth of retail frozen foods that has envolved into a multi-billion dollar
industry.
20. What does the passage mainly discusss?
a. Ways of using preservatives in foods
b. Developments in food preservation
c. Inventors of food preservation techniques
d. Process of food spoilage
21. The word “dictated” is closest in meaning to ________
a. Demanded
b. Classified
c. Estimated
d. Determined
22. The word “they” refers to _______
a. Areas
b. Cultures
c. Ways
d. Foods
23. The word “agents” is closest in meaning to __________
a. Means
b. Grades
c. Substances
d. Reasons
24. In early times, food preservation _________
a. Was affected by climate and way of living
b. Was more developed in warn climates
c. Was restricted due to the lack of chemicals
d. Was more advances in cold countries
25. It can be inferred that the cause of food spoilage was fully revealed in _______
a. 1790
b. 1809
c. 1810
d. 1864
26. The word “Nonetheless” is closest in meaning to ____________
a. Even though
b. Even so
c. Therefore
d. Otherwise
27. The writer implies that in the 1790’s people began to __________
a. Try out new techniques in food preservatio
b. Sell preserved food around the world
c. See the advantages of the food industry
d. Restore food storage systems
28. The phrase “a household name”refers to _______
a. A practical equipment
b. A poor-quality appliance
c. A well-known item
d. A valuable object
29. Which of the following methods of food preservation is NOT mentioned in the passage?
a. Artificial additives
b. Drying
c. Smoking
d. Quick freezing
30. Which of the people following statements is supported by the passage?
a. People began to preserve foods about 2000 years ago
b. When firdt made public, pasteurization was unpopular
c. Inboxes could freeze foods fast but change their texture.
d. Freezing foods slowly damages their quality when cooked.
the ability of bats, the only mammals that can fly to find food and navigate in the dark to avoid collisions has
drawn the attention of researchers. besides using their vision, smell, and hearing, most bat species have a
remakable navigation system called echolocation that enables them to locate and assess objects. while flying to
seacrh for prey, the bats, through their mouth or nose, continually produce a series of short, high-frequency
sound pulses that are beyond human hearing range. by interpreting the echoes of there sounds, the bats can
determine the directions, distances, and physical properties of objects or insect prey in the area.
the frequency structure of bat echolocation pulses or calls consist of frequency mudulated (FM) calls and
constant frequency (CF) tones, depending on acoustic enviroments, hunting behaviors and food source. FM calls,
many extremely rapid call through a range of frequencies, enable bats to get a stream of information from the
echoes. this ability is essential in a cluttered setting to distinguish between two very close targets that will pass
by quickly. on the other hand, CF calls, staying constant at one frequency throughout the duration, permit the
bats to locate target at great distances in an open environment. based on the echoes of FM and CF calls, bats
can detect the doppler effect, the change in frequency of sound waves. the echoes getting stronger indicate that
the targets are moving towards the bats, and those getting weaker show the opposite. some bats may use FM
calls, or CF calls, or a mix of the two. this feat requires highly sensitive and greatly developed integration of vocal
and auditory centers of the bat brain.
the echoes getting stronger indicate that the targets are moving towards the bats, and those getting weaker
show the opposite. some bats may use FM calls, or CF calls, or a mix of the two. this feat requires highly sensitive
and greatly developed integration of vocal and auditory centers of the bat brain.
echolocating bats may undergo acoustic interference from various sources of noise in the area or from the calls
of same species bats. an experiment by E.H. Gilam et. al. in 2006 revealed the bats response to such an
occurence. using prececorded FM and CF calls of same bat species as stimuli, the researches reported that the
bats in the vicinity shifted the structures of their sound waves. they responded by either increasing above or
decreasing below the frequencies of the stimuli, a strategy known as jamming avoidance response (JAR)
31. What does the passage mainly discuss?
a. A breakthrough in echolocation
b. Detection of sound waves produced by bats
c. An explanation of the navigation system of bats
d. The differences between FM and CF calls
32. According to the passage, bats are able to avoid collisions mainly by using their ___
a. Sharp eyes
b. Sensitive nose
c. Senses
d. Echolocation
33. Which of the following can be inferred about the frequency structures of the bats calls?
a. They can be adapted for different purposes
b. Interpretation of the structures is difficult for the bats
c. The bats use the doppler effect to increase the frequency
d. They are constant tones to measure distances
34. The word “stream” is closest in meaning to _______
a. Style
b. Fragment
c. Flow
d. Variety
35. The word “cluttered” is closest in meaning to ________
a. Narrowed
b. Crowded
c. Shallow
d. Large

36. Why is the ability of bats to use FM calls, or CF calls, or mix of the two mentioned in lines 27 and 28
referred to as a “feat”?
a. The calls are so soft that humans cannot hear them
b. The insect prey cannot escape from the calls
c. The calls are an essential aspect in echolocation
d. The bats can successfully interpret the echoes of the calls
37. How did researchers find out about the bats strategy known as JAR in their experiment?
a. By creating static and dynamic stimuli
b. By prerecording the response
c. By jamming the frequency of the bats calls
d. By analyzing the bats reaction to the stimuli
38. The word “occurrence” refers to ________
a. Echolocation of bats
b. Acoustic interference
c. The researchers experiment
d. Jamming avoidance response (JAR)

urban sprawl, often viewed as the spreading of cities and their suburbs outwards, is a concept that changes with
times. because of its increasingly complex aspects, urban sprawl is just one name for many conditions of city
expansions.
Started as far back as acient babylon and rome, the expansion began when cities grew economically, attraacting
migrating industrial workes. as cities became densely populated the affluent did the opposite, moving to
suburban locations to reside in a better environment in 1908, the emerging national association of real estate
exchanges held their first annual meeting with an agenda to controkk unregulated city development. however
the expansion of cities continued into the 1900's with an increasing intensity as the working class could afford
their own houses in the suburbs, have their private transportation, or commute using available public transports.
this conditions has led to urban sprawl characterized by a single land use that separate residential, commercial,
and industrial zones. sprawl has been negatively linked to environment and health problems because the
growing number of vehicles polutes the air and walking and cycling are not viable options to cars, buses, and
trains. the term sprawl was first printed in 1955 by the london times, as a disapproving reference to the
haphazard spreading out of London into the nearby countryside. some organizations refer to sprawl as scattered
development that consumes farms, meadows, annd forests, transforming them into various sectors such as strip
malls, golf courses, and residential areas.
sprawl was not perceived solely as a negative trend in 2000, when george galster, a professor of urban affairs at
wayne state university, along with several policy makers, saw sprawl as a development pattern continuum, some
parts of which involved positive changes in land use. for example, the arragement of the built environment for
public facilities, residential sectors, employment activities, and agricultural areas in the city periphery was seen
as favorable urban expansions.
another term that is the flipside of the same coin os "gentrification, a process of renewal and rebuilding of
dilapidated sections of the cities where the poor used to live. this is accompanoed by an influx of the wealthy
into these areas left by those who moves out to the suburbs.
39. What does the passage mainly discuss?
a. How urban sprawl has taken place in the U.S.
b. The changing concepts of urban sprawl
c. How problems have arisen in urban areas
d. Various cities expansions and their problems
40. According to the passage, the first attemp to keep uncontrolled urban expansion was recorded in
_______
a. Acient times
b. 1908
c. 1955
d. 2000
41. Why did people come to urban areas in ancient times?
a. To build the city
b. To have a better environment
c. To find work
d. To expand their businesses

42. In the 1900’s how did urban sprawl take place?


a. Gradually
b. At greater speed
c. In a systematic way
d. In better conditions
43. Which of the following is NOT part of the realization of land use?
a. The creation of industrial zones
b. The establishment of housing complexes
c. The construction of public facilities in the suburbs
d. The manufacture of vehicles for commuters
44. The wor “haphazard’ is closest in meaning to _________
a. Negative
b. Rapid
c. Disorderly
d. Worrisomee
45. In 2000, how did George Galster and other experts view urban sprawl?
a. As a negative city expansion
b. As the cause of some health problems
c. As an important part ofthe goverment policy
d. As an array of changes in city development
46. Which of the following concerning urban sprawl is NOT mentioned by the writer?
a. It has been related to increasing air polution
b. It has eaten up open lan in rural areas
c. It has been well planned by city developers
d. It has causes parts of the city deteriorate
47. The word “which” refers to ________
a. Trend
b. Sprawl
c. Pattern
d. Continuum
48. Where in the passage does the writer mention a process opposite to urban sprwal?
a. Lines 9-12
b. Lines 24-27
c. Lines 32-35
d. Lines 36-38
49. The word “dilapidated” is closest in meaning to ________
a. Decaying
b. Crwowded
c. Messy
d. Deserted
50. The word “those” refers to _________
a. Sections
b. The poor
c. The wealthy
d. Areas
Ukiran langsung adalah praktik pembuatan patung secara langsung ke batu atau kayu tanpa menggunakan
model menengah atau maquettes untuk menghasilkan replika. Dengan menggunakan palu dan pahat, pemahat
itu langsung mengukir bahan untuk membuat bentuk saat mereka membayangkan terbatas pada bahan. sering
disebut sebagai taille directe, metode ukiran langsung ini mengharuskan pematung menjunjung tinggi estetika
dan standar etika. Yang melekat dalam prinsip estetika adalah pemahaman pemahat dan penghormatan
terhadap media - kualitas, keindahan alam, tekstur, kerapatan, dan bentuknya. Pematung sebagai suatu
peraturan merasakan keterlibatan emosional yang kuat dengan materi, merasakan kekuatan mistik yang tidak
dapat didefinisikan yang mentranspos imajinasinya ke materi. Ini adalah persepsi pemahat elemen material yang
membantu menghasilkan karya seni yang sangat mahal. Sebagai proses transposing berlangsung, mereka
menyempurnakan desain dan permukaan karya dengan sempurna. Dengan kata lain, sentuhan palu dan pahat
adalah ekspresi sebenarnya dari pematung itu sendiri.
Mengubah karya ukiran ke pengrajin di sebuah studio tidak memenuhi standar etika ukiran langsung. Patung
yang diproduksi oleh asisten dengan meniru model tanah liat atau lilin menggunakan mesin penunjuk di bengkel
bukanlah karya pematung. john ruskin, seorang kritikus seni Inggris (1819-1900), tidak setuju dengan metode
ini dalam mengukir dengan alasan tidak adanya pemahat manifestasi keterampilan mereka. Baik pematung
maupun masyarakat tidak akan mengenali potongan-potongan itu diproduksi secara massal.
jacob epstein (1880-1959), seorang pematung kelahiran Amerika adalah salah satu pelopor kebangkitan
karangan langsung yang dimulai pada tahun 1900-an. Ia belajar di liga mahasiswa seni, new york, dan
menemukan cintanya untuk ukiran saat ia mengukir es di danau greenwood, jersey baru. Saat pindah ke paris
pada tahun 1902, ia belajar seni dengan serius di sana. salah satu karya besarnya, makam oscar wilde, yang
diukir dari sebuah blok batu besar di london dan ditempatkan di paris, otoritas dan ekspresi material, salah satu
prinsip estetika dan etika langsung.
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Burung terkenal karena kecenderungan mereka membangun jaring koloni di mana satu atau lebih spesies
burung bersarang di lokasi tertentu. Jelas, burung mendapatkan beberapa keuntungan dengan bersarang di
koloni.
berkembang biak, di mana burung betina kolonial berada pada tahap pengembangbiakan yang serupa -
menelurkan telur, mengerami, atau memberi makan anak ayam pada usia yang sama - kemungkinan besar
adalah hasil tinggal di koloni. Burung yang tidak berkembang biak dirangsang oleh nilai kumulatif sosial yang
kuat dari suara dan kehadiran anggota pengembangbiakan, dan mungkin mulai berkembang biak sendiri.
beberapa koloni burung menjadi tuan rumah ribuan pasangan bersarang dari berbagai spesies yang
menampilkan loyalitas situs, kembali ke liang, sarang, atau situs yang sama selama bertahun-tahun. Koloni juga
menyediakan tempat bagi pasangan yang kembali untuk bersatu, dan ini meningkatkan keberhasilan
berkembang biak.
Manfaat lain adalah perubahan hijauan dalam kelompok. Sebagai contoh, burung hitam mencari makanan
bersama di vegetasi pendek di sekitar kolam dan sungai, sebagian besar dekat dengan lokasi koloni mereka.
Kebiasaan bersarang kolonial mereka dikembangkan dengan apik karena memungkinkan burung yang kurang
mahir mengikuti para nelayan yang lebih sukses saat mereka meninggalkan koloni untuk diberi makan. burung-
burung itu terutama muncul pada para damselflies dan serangga lainnya, dan tampaknya memusatkan makanan
mereka ke daerah di mana mangsanya paling banyak. burung walet, biasanya bersarang di koloni kecil di
lumbung dan bangunan luar lainnya, serta di bawah jembatan dan di gorong-gorong, juga pakan ternak dalam
kelompok. Sebagian besar perburuan mereka dilakukan di dekat permukaan tanah, di atas lapangan terbuka
dan terutama di dekat air.
Terakhir, persawahan komunal menawarkan pertahanan yang lebih baik melawan predator dan memastikan
kelangsungan hidup. Kehadiran banyak burung jaring koloni tempat yang lebih aman bagi burung individu untuk
membangun jaring, karena ada lebih banyak pasang mata dan telinga yang tersedia untuk menghilangkan alarm.
Satu eksperimen dengan merpati tertawa menunjukkan bahwa semakin banyak jumlah burung di koloni mereka,
semakin cepat reaksi melawan predator dan semakin berhasil pertahanan. Terganggu oleh sejumlah besar
burung, predator mungkin akan segera diusir. Namun, sejumlah besar burung bisa menjadi bumerang karena
sangat mencolok sehingga menarik predator. Dalam kasus ini, burung-burung di pinggiran memiliki risiko lebih
besar untuk menjadi mangsa.
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Metode pelestarian pangan telah dikembangkan oleh manusia karena makanan sangat penting untuk
kelangsungan hidup berbagai teknik pelestarian telah dikembangkan dan disempurnakan sejak zaman kuno.
wilayah geografis dan budaya paling sering mendikte cara makanan dipelihara di masa lalu, meski sangat
sederhana. Di banyak negara tropis, matahari dan angin adalah agen untuk mengeringkan daging, ikan, sayuran,
dan buah-buahan dan menggunakan api untuk mengisap makanan. Di daerah pilek, orang menggunakan suhu
beku untuk memperpanjang waktu penyimpanan makanan. Pengawet seperti alkohol, cuka, garam, dan gula,
juga digunakan untuk melestarikan makanan. cara lama ini telah bertahan sampai sekarang.
Pada tahun 1790, pengalengan, cara baru untuk melestarikan makanan dengan memanaskan makanan dalam
wadah kaca tertutup, dikembangkan, 1810, peter durand dari Inggris memperkenalkan penggunaan kaleng
bukan botol kaca pecah, dan karena metode ini menjadi populer, kalengan makanan tersedia di sejumlah
negara. Meskipun demikian, penemu, nicholas appert, tidak sepenuhnya mengerti mengapa makanan dalam
wadah tidak terhalang. Baru pada tahun 1864, ketika louis pasteur menemukan hubungan antara pembusukan
makanan dan mikroorganisme, metode tersebut menjadi jelas. Proses pasteurisasi untuk menghancurkan
bakteri dalam makanan tanpa menghilangkan nilai gizi mereka telah disempurnakan, terutama untuk produk
susu.
Orang juga menyadari nilai makanan dalam penyimpanan dingin agar tetap segar. Di amerika, perkebunan besar
membangun rumah es untuk menyimpan makanan, dan rumah es menjadi kotak es. tahun 1805 melihat mesin
pendinginan pertama oleh oliver. Ini dikembangkan, dan dimulai pada tahun 1930an, pendinginan menjadi
nama rumah tangga, dan terus berlanjut. Pada tahun 1925, burung birdie berkeringat mengetahui bahwa
pembekuan cepat bisa mempertahankan kesegaran makanan saat dicairkan dan dimasak beberapa bulan
kemudian. Mesin pembekuannya yang cepat menghasilkan pembentukan kristal kecil yang tidak merusak
dinding sel makanan untuk menjaga tekstur, rasa, dan rasanya yang maksimal. Ketika produknya yang beku
mencapai pasar, ia menandai kelahiran makanan beku eceran yang telah masuk ke dalam industri bernilai
miliaran dolar.
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Kemampuan kelelawar, satu-satunya mamalia yang bisa terbang mencari makanan dan bernavigasi dalam
kegelapan untuk menghindari benturan telah menarik perhatian para periset. Selain menggunakan penglihatan,
penciuman, dan pendengarannya, kebanyakan spesies kelelawar memiliki sistem navigasi yang remajabel yang
disebut echolocation yang memungkinkan mereka untuk menemukan dan menilai objek. Saat terbang ke seacrh
untuk mangsa, kelelawar, melalui mulut atau hidung mereka, terus menghasilkan serangkaian pulsa suara
pendek dan berfrekuensi tinggi yang berada di luar jangkauan pendengaran manusia. Dengan menafsirkan gema
suara di sana, kelelawar dapat menentukan arah, jarak, dan sifat fisik benda atau mangsa serangga di daerah
tersebut.
Struktur frekuensi pulsa atau panggilan echolocation kelelawar terdiri dari frekuensi panggilan (FM) dan nada
frekuensi konstan (CF), tergantung pada lingkungan akustik, perilaku berburu dan sumber makanan. Panggilan
FM, banyak panggilan yang sangat cepat melalui berbagai frekuensi, memungkinkan kelelawar mendapatkan
arus informasi dari gema. Kemampuan ini sangat penting dalam pengaturan yang berantakan untuk
membedakan antara dua target yang sangat dekat yang akan berlalu dengan cepat. Di sisi lain, panggilan CF,
tetap konstan pada satu frekuensi sepanjang durasi, biarkan kelelawar menemukan target pada jarak yang jauh
di lingkungan yang terbuka. Berdasarkan gema panggilan FM dan CF, kelelawar bisa mendeteksi efek doppler,
perubahan frekuensi gelombang suara.
gema semakin kuat menunjukkan bahwa target bergerak menuju kelelawar, dan yang semakin lemah
menunjukkan hal yang sebaliknya. Beberapa kelelawar dapat menggunakan panggilan FM, atau panggilan CF,
atau gabungan keduanya. Prestasi ini membutuhkan integrasi yang sangat sensitif dan sangat berkembang dari
pusat vokal dan pendengaran otak kelelawar.
kelelawar echolocating dapat mengalami gangguan akustik dari berbagai sumber kebisingan di daerah tersebut
atau dari seruan kelelawar spesies yang sama. sebuah percobaan oleh E.H. Gilam dkk. Al. Pada tahun 2006
terungkap respon kelelawar terhadap kejadian tersebut. Dengan menggunakan FM dan CF yang telah
diprakarsai dari jenis kelelawar yang sama seperti rangsangan, para peneliti melaporkan bahwa kelelawar di
sekitarnya mengubah struktur gelombang suara mereka. Mereka merespons dengan baik di atas atau menurun
di bawah frekuensi rangsangan, sebuah strategi yang dikenal sebagai respons penghambat jamming (JAR)
urban sprawl, sering dipandang sebagai penyebaran kota dan pinggiran kota ke luar, merupakan konsep yang
berubah seiring berjalannya waktu. Karena aspeknya yang semakin kompleks, urban sprawl hanyalah satu nama
untuk berbagai kondisi ekspansi kota.
Mulai sejauh Babilonia dan Roma, ekspansi dimulai ketika kota-kota tumbuh secara ekonomi, tanpa henti
bermigrasi ke industri. Saat kota-kota menjadi padat penduduk, orang-orang kaya justru sebaliknya, pindah ke
lokasi pinggiran kota untuk tinggal di lingkungan yang lebih baik pada tahun 1908, asosiasi bursa real estat
nasional yang baru muncul mengadakan pertemuan tahunan pertama mereka dengan agenda untuk
mengkonsep pembangunan kota yang tidak diatur. Namun perluasan kota berlanjut sampai tahun 1900an
dengan intensitas yang semakin meningkat karena kelas pekerja dapat membeli rumah mereka sendiri di
pinggiran kota, memiliki transportasi pribadi, atau bepergian dengan menggunakan angkutan umum yang
tersedia.
Kondisi ini menyebabkan urban sprawl ditandai dengan penggunaan lahan tunggal yang memisahkan kawasan
hunian, komersial, dan industri. gepeng telah dikaitkan secara negatif dengan masalah lingkungan dan
kesehatan karena semakin banyak kendaraan yang mengotori udara dan jalan kaki dan bersepeda bukanlah
pilihan yang tepat untuk mobil, bus, dan kereta api. istilah sprawl pertama kali dicetak tahun 1955 oleh london
times, sebagai referensi yang tidak setuju dengan serampangan yang menyebar dari London ke daerah pedesaan
terdekat. beberapa organisasi merujuk pada pengembangan terpencar yang menghabiskan pertanian, padang
rumput, hutan, mengubahnya menjadi berbagai sektor seperti mal strip, lapangan golf, dan kawasan
perumahan.
Perangkap tidak dianggap semata-mata sebagai tren negatif pada tahun 2000, ketika george galster, seorang
profesor urusan perkotaan di universitas negeri wayne, bersama beberapa pembuat kebijakan, melihat sprawl
sebagai rangkaian pola perkembangan, beberapa bagian di antaranya melibatkan perubahan penggunaan lahan
secara positif. . Misalnya, pengaturan lingkungan binaan untuk fasilitas umum, sektor perumahan, kegiatan
ketenagakerjaan, dan daerah pertanian di pinggiran kota dipandang sebagai perluasan perkotaan yang
menguntungkan.
istilah lain yang merupakan flipside dari coin os yang sama "gentrifikasi, proses pembaharuan dan pembangunan
kembali bagian-bagian yang bobrok di kota-kota tempat orang-orang miskin dulu tinggal. Hal ini diikuti oleh
masuknya orang-orang kaya ke daerah-daerah yang ditinggalkan oleh mereka yang bergerak keluar ke pinggiran
kota