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Four Quick Steps To QC A Segmented Bond Tool (SBT) Log

The DS from rig site would call me at 2am or 3am to evaluate the cement quality from a
CBL log. Depending on the service contractor for the well, I would receive an SBT log, a
type cement evaluation log provided by Baker Hughes.

Instead, I’ve come up with a 4-item checklist to QC an SBT log so that I could reduce my
own human error and I could evaluate the cement bond log properly. It's like a checklist
that a pilot uses.

1. Logging speed and cable tension are stable

Make sure your logging speed and tool tension are stable and consistent. Your logging
speed log and cable tension should look smooth and straight.

2. Tool is centralized

Look at your DTMIN and DTMAX curves. If the values differ by 20 microsec/ft, then
your tool might be ran decentralized. If DTMIN and DTMAX reads within 10 to 20
micro-sec/ft between each other, then your SBT tool is centralized. Also, look if the casing
itself is ec-centralized. You will see galaxy-like patterns on your cement maps if your
casing is not centered.

Poor pad contact in highly deviated well could also lower the attenuation. Sometimes,
cement or oil (particularly heavy oil ) on the surface casing could cause poor pad contact.
Pumping hot fluid to remove oil or bit and scraper to remove cement inside the casing
before relogging the SBT could improve the pad contact.

3. Attenuation values are within range

The attenuation values should read within the expected limits between free pipe to strong
cement. Refer to the SBT log response chart for these values. As far as I know, the chart is
only good for class G cement. It might not work in lighter class cement, unless you use
newer generation tools (which I am still not familiar with, so I can't really comment
much).

4. The cement map is good

Check the scale for the cement map. Darker color means better cement. Lighter color
indicates poorer cement. In most cases, the field engineer assumes specific cement
strength to produce the cement map. Under the log header remarks, look for the cement
strength used to produce the cement map. Even better, ask the field engineer for the
parameters he or she used. You can have a better idea if you compare the scale of the
cement map with the individual attenuation curves.

The following QC points apply for most CBL logs in general:

5. Know your cement properties


Find out your cement type, and when was cementing done. Ask does the CS value
match the cement properties? These are the important cement parameters that will
affect the cement bond log response.

6. Know your formation properties

CBL won't likely work in fast formation. Instead of cement arrival, you will get
formation response in fast formation.

7. Do all log responses match the VDL display

You want all the curve responses to match the VDL display.

8. Look at the repeat section

Is there a repeat log done? If so, does it? Repeat section should be obtained over the
zone of interest or over a significant change in log response. Why do I need to repeat
the bottom 100 feet if no one cares about that interval or if there is no change in
cement condition?

Gary Batcheller

The SBT is presented in attenuation rather than in an "amplitude" measurement, which


makes it easier to differentiate between mud and cement to determine true mud filled
channels. Even if cement is contaminated with mud it will still become solid and
impermeable and prevent fluid flow. There is a distinguishable difference between the
attenuation due to mud (typically in the range of 2 db/foot) and cement, even if the cement
compressive strength is less than planned due to mud contamination.

1. Is TT +/- 4-5us/ft of free pipe? 2. Is free pipe confirmed by chevrons on the VDL across
casing collars? 3. Is formation arrival time from VDL consistent with off-set DTC? 4. Is
casing arrival time from VDL consistent with theoretical? 5. Was a normalisation pass
performed? If so do the Sum of correction factors = 1 (specific to SBT)?

Finally I would add that the Petrophysicist should supply the cement UCS for input into
the CEMO. If it is unknown then ask for a multiple CEMO playback at different cement
UCS. If it was measured, what was the cure time of the sample?

For CBL - confirm the fluid compensation factor and cement acoustic impedance (ZCMT)
values used. Are they correct?