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You are on page 1of 17

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/enconman

power-cooling cogeneration systems based on Kalina and absorption

refrigeration cycles

Jouan Rashidi, Pouya Ifaei, Iman Janghorban Esfahani, Abtin Ataei, Chang Kyoo Yoo ⇑

Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Center for Environmental Studies, Kyung Hee University, Seocheon-dong 1, Giheung-gu, Yongin-Si,

Gyeonggi-Do 446-701, Republic of Korea

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Two new power and cooling cogeneration systems based on Kalina cycle (KC) and absorption refrigera-

Received 4 July 2016 tion cycle (AC) are proposed and studied from thermodynamic and economic viewpoints. The first pro-

Received in revised form 26 August 2016 posed system, Kalina power-cooling cycle (KPCC), combines the refrigerant loop of the water-ammonia

Accepted 2 September 2016

absorption chiller, consisting of an evaporator and two throttling valves with the KC. A portion of the

Available online 10 September 2016

KC mass flow enters the evaporator to generate cooling after being condensed in the KPCC system.

KPCC is a flexible system adapting power and cooling cogeneration to the demand. The second proposed

Keywords:

system, Kalina lithium bromide absorption chiller cycle (KLACC), consists of the KC and a single effect

Kalina cycle

Power and cooling cogeneration

lithium bromide-water absorption chiller (ACLiBr-water). The KC subsystem discharges heat to the

Refrigeration ACLiBr-water desorber before condensing in the condenser. The performance and economic aspects of both

Sensitivity proposed systems are analyzed and compared with the stand alone KC. A parametric analysis is

Thermodynamic analysis conducted to evaluate the sensitivity of efficiencies and the generated power and cooling quantities to

the key operating variables. The results showed that, thermal efficiency and total annual costs decreased

by 5.6% and 8% for KPCC system but increased 4.9% and 58% for KLACC system, respectively. Since the

power-cooling efficiency of KLACC is 42% higher than KPCC it can be applied where the aim is cooling

generation without considering economic aspects.

Ó 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

decreasing the greenhouse gases emissions [4]. In some studies,

The increasing consumption of fossil fuels required to meet two cycles are integrated as a combined cycle to generate heat

energy demands has led to resource restrictions. Effective use of and power [5]. Other objectives of integrating cycles are the

the energy sources is the first step in avoiding more energy losses. generation of power and fresh water [6,7] power and cooling

One such concept is the utilization of low-grade heat sources, such [8,9], heating and cooling [10] cooling and freshwater [11] or

as exhaust or waste heat from other processes and renewable trigeneration of power, heat and water [12,13].

energy sources, to produce power [1], as well as cooling genera- Producing power and cooling using low-grade heat sources can

tion. Cycles with organic or multi component working fluids can satisfy the previously mentioned requirements because energy is

convert low heat resources into power and/or cooling by the effectively used. Power and cooling are needed in many regions,

organic Rankine cycle (ORC), Kalina cycle (KC), and absorption climates and industries. In some regions and climates, low-grade

refrigeration cycle (AC) [2,3]. heat resources are the only available sources, for cooling and

Applying new configurations, based on known thermodynamic power generation. Moreover, some industries that produce a lot

cycles, to increase a system efficiency is another solution to tackle of waste heat require cooling as well as power. To this end, the

these challenging issues. A significant amount of attention has KC and AC can be used with both binary and trinary working fluids

been paid to the integration of different cycles for the cogeneration to convert low temperature heat into power and cooling, respec-

of different products. Cogeneration systems provide energy savings tively [14].

The Kalina cycle is a fairly new thermodynamic power cycle

that uses ammonia water solution as the working fluid [15]. It is

⇑ Corresponding author.

a modified Rankine power cycle capable of producing more power

E-mail address: ckyoo@khu.ac.kr (C.K. Yoo).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2016.09.014

0196-8904/Ó 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

J. Rashidi et al. / Energy Conversion and Management 127 (2016) 170–186 171

Nomenclature

C cost abs absorber

Cp,min minimum value between heat capacity of hot and cold B primary

streams C,K condenser of Kalina cycle

CRF amortization factor C,ref condenser of refrigeration cycle

f mass ratio cold cold stream

g working fluid ratio c,i cold inlet stream

h enthalpy c,o cold outlet stream

i interest rate con contingency

m _ mass flow rate const construction

n plant life cycle c,p cooling-power

P pressure cw cooling water

Q_ heat rate D dilute

T temperature des desorber

U heat transfer coefficient EC electric control monitor system

W_ power eq equipment

x ammonia mass fraction elec electricity

Z capital cost eng engineering and supervision

g efficiency eva evaporator

v specific volume FT flash tank

e heat exchanger effectiveness h,i hot inlet stream

h,o hot outlet stream

Abbreviations hot hot stream

AC absorption refrigeration cycle hx heat exchanger

ACLiBr-water lithium bromide –water absorption chiller icon indirect contingency

ACC annual capital cost in inlet

AOC annual operation cost int intermediate

CI cost index K Kalina cycle

COP coefficient of performance L labor

DC direct cost M maintenance

IDC indirect cost net net value

KC Kalina cycle Out outlet

KLACC Kalina lithium bromide absorption chiller cycle pipe piping

KPCC Kalina power cooling cycle ph preheater

LMTD Logarithm mean temperature difference R reference

OFSC offsite cost ref refrigeration cycle

ONSC onsite cost ser service facility

OO other outlays Sh superheater

ORC organic Rankine cycle shx solution heat exchanger

PH preheater str civil structural and architectural work

POF plant operation factor th thermal

TCI total cost investment tur turbine

TAC total annual cost W working capital

WF working fluid

than the Rankine cycle [16]. Since the evaporation and condensa- KC with an ammonia mass fraction of 84% can produce 18% more

tion of ammonia water do not occur at a constant temperature net power and consume 17.8% less electricity [23]. Kalina [24] per-

compared to a pure fluid, it has a better thermal conformity formed analysis on combined cycles and waste heat recovery based

through condenser and evaporator to achieve enhanced perfor- on KC utilizing low-temperature heat for power generation. With

mance [17]. The KC has been analyzed by many researchers; Well regard to his study, the efficiency of KC is 1.5 times higher than

et al. [18] studied the exergy analysis on KC, Modi and Haglind [19] the best Rankine cycle while the cost per unit of power output is

optimized the KC for a central receiver solar thermal power plant, about two-thirds of the cost of a comparable Rankine cycle system.

and Knudsena et al. [20] analyzed KC from Energy and exergy view Jonsson [25] has done comparisons between the Kalina and Rank-

points for use in concentrated solar power plants. KC can be used ine cycles. He has shown that the KC has a better efficiency when

for a variety of applications ranging from bottoming cycles to pro- both systems are applied as bottoming cycles. It is reported that to

vide power using low temperature waste heat [15]. It is compared apply in a solar power plant, the Rankine cycle has a higher effi-

with applying other bottoming cycles in the literature. Kalina cycle ciency by 5% and that the highest efficiency is obtained at 0.60–

has one more degree of freedom compared to Rankine cycle that is 0.70 mol fraction of ammonia [20]. Yue et al. [26] compared KC

the fraction of the ammonia–water mixture, so the KC performance with transcritical ORC as a bottoming cycle for engine exhaust heat

greatly depends on the ammonia mass fraction [21]. Gholamian recovery. Their study revealed that Compared to KC, the transcrit-

and Zare [22] investigated employing KC in comparison with the ical ORC shows prominent advantages on the overall thermal effi-

organic Rankine cycle (ORC) for waste heat recovery from Hybrid ciency, low operation pressure and simple components

SOFC/GT system. According to a comparison of ORC and KC, the configuration. According to Marston and Hyre’s study [27] KC is

172 J. Rashidi et al. / Energy Conversion and Management 127 (2016) 170–186

more efficient than a triple-pressure steam cycle as the bottoming this goal, a portion of concentrated working fluid which is provided

cycle of a gas turbine combined cycle power plant. El-Sayed and by flash tank is throttled into the evaporator. Similar to an absorp-

Tribus [28] found that, when the temperature of the heat source tion chiller, the evaporator is located after the condenser. Plus, this

is below 537 °C, the second law efficiency of the KC may be arrangement improves the cycle into a controlling system. To gen-

10–20% higher than that of a simple Rankine cycle. erate cooling in the second proposed system, Kalina lithium

In 1996, developed model for the complete thermodynamic bromide-water absorption chiller cycle (KLACC), the heat require-

analysis, introducing correlations and simulations of the Kalina ment of refrigeration cycle is supplied by KC waste. On the other

unit has been represented by Rogdakis [29]. He found that the opti- hand the refrigeration cycle’s waste heat is recovered and used in

mum theoretical efficiency of the KC is from 42.7% to 46.6%. Het- two different points of the KC to compensate the extracted heat

tiarachchi et al. [2] have studied the performance of the KCe from the turbine exhaust; this integration not only generates cool-

system 11 (KCS-11) using geothermal low-temperature heat ing besides power, but also increases the efficiency of the whole

sources. They concluded that an optimum ammonia mass fraction system.

for a given turbine pressure can be defined. Regarding to Valdi- In this study, first thermodynamic and economic models are

marsson and Eliasson [30] and Mlcak [31] Studies about low and developed to simulate and calculate the energy efficiency, coeffi-

moderate temperature Kalina cycles the best mass fraction of cient of performance (COP) and total annual cost (TAC) of the base

ammonia is approximately 70%. Environmental impact of a refrig- and two proposed systems. Second according to these calculations,

erant is often studied according to the ozone layer depletion, global all three cycles are compared with each other as far as performance

warming potential (GWP) or toxicity [32]. Ammonia is known to and economic aspects are concerned. Third, for better process

have an indirect impact on ozone depletion contributing in nitrous understanding parametric analyses are carried out to investigate

compounds formation in the atmosphere which can be ignored in the effects of key parameters on the performance and TAC. These

small-scale systems [33]. Ammonia is also considered to be used parameters include ammonia mass fraction of the working fluid

widely as a natural refrigerant in the future as it was in the past (XWF), absorber pressure (Pabs), turbine pressure (Ptur), the

century for its low GWP100 in comparison with carbon compounds intermediate pressure (Pint), the mass flow ratio used to generate

[34]. However, the threshold limit value of ammonia is reported to cooling in KPCC (f), mass flow rate of the refrigeration cycle (mref),

be 50 ppm. The economically beneficial refrigerant is unbearable the high temperature (Thigh) and the low temperature (Tlow) of the

for man at 500 ppm, while its acute toxicity starts at 2500 ppm ACLiBr-water subsystem.

and the flammability at 15 vol% [35]. The flammability of ammonia

is still a serious consideration. Thus special safety standards are

devoted for those industries involved with this natural refrigerant 2. Materials and methods

[36]. Annoying odor of ammonia is considered as an advantage in

the case of leakage in open industries but those marine systems 2.1. System configuration

are not included in this group [37]. Thus higher concentration of

ammonia or its usage in large-scale systems should be restricted Three investigated systems are shown in Fig. 1. All three sys-

according to the safety and toxicity concerns. tems generate power based on Kalina cycle principles at the same

A KC, driven by flat solar collectors, that operates at low pres- operation conditions. Fig. 1a represents a schematic diagram of the

sure and a low maximum temperature of 130 °C has been studied KC using ammonia – water as the working fluid and a low-

by Lolos and Rogdakis [38]. This study showed that lower mini- temperature heat source [41]. In the KC the working fluid after

mum and higher maximum temperatures of the cycle results in passing through several preheaters to recover the recycled streams

higher performance and efficiency. Goswami [39] proposed a heat is concentrated in a flash tank and then condensed to enter

thermodynamic cycle to improve the efficiency and resource the boiler in a higher pressure level. Then it can produce power

utilization by producing power and cooling. He combined an passing the turbine. The saturated liquid at the lowest pressure

ammonia-based Rankine cycle with an ammonia- water absorp- level of the cycle (state 1) is pumped to an intermediate pressure

tion refrigeration cycle. A combined cooling and power system (state 2) and then passes through two preheaters where the work-

using ammonia-water mixture has been proposed by Wang et al. ing fluid is heated from the turbine exhaust (state 11) and one of

[40]. They have simulated the system using mathematical models the flash tank outlet streams (state 15). The preheated fluid (state

and performed exergy destruction analysis. Sensitivity analysis of 4) is sent to the flash tank where it is separated into two different

that study revealed that thermal and exergy efficiencies of the sys- ammonia concentrations streams. The stream with higher ammo-

tem increases by higher ammonia mass fraction. nia concentration (state 5) is the strong solution and the other

Recent research efforts have focused on thermodynamic and one (state 15) is weak solution. The weak solution exits the flash

parametric analysis of KC, comparing the KC with Rankine cycle, tank releases heat to state 3 through FP2 (state 16) and is throttled

application of KC as a bottoming cycle, power generation with to the absorber (state 17). The strong solution (state 5) is passed

low heat temperature using KC, and cooling and power cogenera- through a preheater to preheat the boiler feed solution (state 8)

tion using a combined organic Rankine cycle and ammonia- water leading to a decreased heat load in the condenser. The saturated

absorption cycle. However, combining a KC with a refrigeration liquid (state 14) is then pumped to the preheater (state 7), boiler

cycle to cogenerate power and cooling as a high efficient system (state 8), and superheater (state 9), consecutively, where the

has been rarely done. superheated solution at state 10 is expanded through the turbine

This study proposes two new combined systems based on to produce power. The turbine outlet stream (state 11) after giving

Kalina and absorption refrigeration cycles that simultaneously heat to state 2 enters the absorber where a basic mass fraction of

generate power and cooling. Two systems are investigated with a ammonia is produced by absorbing the weak solution from the

focus toward model-based thermodynamic and economic issues. flash tank. The absorbed solution (state 1) is then pumped and

The first proposed system provides cooling using ammonia-water the cycle is repeated.

absorption refrigeration cycle. Initially, a conventional KC with In the first proposed system shown in Fig. 1b, two throttling

three pressure levels is considered as the base system. Then, to valves and an evaporator are added to the base KC to generate

generate cooling in the first proposed system, Kalina power- cooling. As shown in Fig. 1b a portion of the condensed solution

cooling cycle (KPCC), an evaporator is placed to the base cycle (state13) is throttled to the evaporator (state 18) to generate

where the ammonia-water temperature is very low. To accomplish cooling and the evaporator outlet after throttling (state 20) enters

J. Rashidi et al. / Energy Conversion and Management 127 (2016) 170–186 173

(a) 7

8 9

Bo Super

10

P Preheat

14 Tur

C 5

6

FT 4 12 11

15 F

F 3

16

2

17 Absor P

1

(b) 7 8 9

Boil Super

10

P Preheat

14 6 5 Turb

C

13

4 12

FT 11

18 15 FP

Evaporat FP 3

16

19 2

17

20 Absor P

1

(c) 8 PH2 44

PH3

45 9

Boiler Super

h 10

7 14 43 13

P Cond 6

PH1 42 41 5 Tur

cond2 Desor

4

29 33 34

FT 12 11

38 SHX

1 FP

32 35 FP 3

P 16

39

31 36 2

Evapora

40 Absorb Absor P

17

1

2

Fig. 1. Schematic representation of (a) Kalina cycle [30], (b) proposed Kalina power and cooling cycle (KPCC) and (c) proposed combined Kalina and LiBr absorption chiller

(KLACC).

the absorber. Indeed, this system operates based on ammonia- the amount of produced power since the mass flow rate through

water absorption chiller, where the KC operates as the solution the turbine decreases.

loop and the assembly throttling valve with evaporator (states 13 The configuration of the second proposed system that combines

and 18–20) plays the role as the refrigerant loop. The pressure a KC with the ACLiBr-water is shown in Fig. 1c. A stream from the

due to the added evaporator is required to be between the inter- Kalina cycle which preheats the boiler inflow (state 6) can perform

mediate and low pressure levels of the base system in order to gain as the AC heat source. To compensate this heat extraction, the con-

more cooling and prevent crystallization. The cooling load of the denser and absorber from the refrigeration cycle give their waste

system can be controlled by changing the mass evaporator flow heat to states 7 and 8 of the KC subsystem. As shown in Fig. 1c,

rate and pressure. Using a controlling valve to change the mass the hot concentrated ammonia solution outflow leaving the flash

flow ratio of evaporator from 0 to 1, the system this cycle can be tank (state 5), after giving heat to the desorber at state 6, preheats

flexible to switch between only a power cycle or a cooling and the boiler inflow (state 45) through PH3 and then becomes con-

power cogeneration cycle or only a cooling generation cycle. It is densed (state14). The subcooled liquid at state 7 is preheated

obvious that generating cooling using this method will decrease through PH1 and PH2 which use the rejected heat of Absorber2

174 J. Rashidi et al. / Energy Conversion and Management 127 (2016) 170–186

and cond2, respectively. The amount of generated cooling through 2.2.1.1. Absorber. The energy balance of the absorber is presented

this cycle can be controlled by changing the temperature of the in Eq. (3) [41].

desorber (Thigh). Since higher temperatures for the desorber require

greater amounts of heat, more cooling generation may decrease

Q_ abs ¼ m

_ 12 h12 þ m

_ 17 h17 m

_ 1 h1 ð3Þ

the efficiency of the KC. where Q_ abs is the released heat from the absorber, and h is the speci-

fic enthalpy.

2.2. Thermodynamic modeling

2.2.1.2. Solution pumps. Power consumption of the solution pump

To conduct the energy analysis of the three systems, thermody- is given by Eqs. (4) and (5) [44].

namic properties of the systems at all states must be obtained _ in v in ðPout Pin Þ

_ pump ¼ m

using thermodynamic modeling. In this section mass, salinity and W ð4Þ

gpump

energy balance equations are presented. The models developed

by Fu et al. [42], Rogdakis [29], Fontalvo et al. [43], Hassan et al. where gpump, W_ pump , and v are the isentropic efficiency, power con-

[8] and Esfahani et al. [11] are used in this study. sumption of the pump, and the specific volume of the solution,

Several assumptions are used to simplify the analysis: respectively.

The system is under steady-state condition 2.2.1.3. Preheaters. The mass and concentration balance equation of

Pressure drops and heat losses within pipes and components all the cycle preheaters are given via Eqs. (5)–(8) and the effective-

are neglected ness and energy balance of the preheaters can be obtained using

The ammonia-water solution in the absorber, condenser, boiler Eqs. (9)–(11) [45].

and evaporator outlet of Kalina cycle is saturated.

m _ out;hot

_ in;hot ¼ m ð5Þ

The strong and weak ammonia-water solutions in the Kalina

cycle flash tank outflow are saturated vapor and liquid,

_ in;hot ¼ ðmxÞ

ðmxÞ _ out;hot ð6Þ

respectively.

The refrigerant in the condenser and evaporator of the absorp-

tion refrigeration cycle is saturated. m _ out;cold

_ in;cold ¼ m ð7Þ

The water/lithium bromide solution in the generator and absor-

ber outlet is saturated. ðmxÞ _ out;cold

_ in;cold ¼ ðmxÞ ð8Þ

Q ph

In this study, turbine pressure and temperature, absorber e¼ ð9Þ

pressure, ammonia mass fraction of the turbine inlet and the inter- cp;min ðT in;hot T in;cold Þ

mediate pressure are assumed to be the input operating data. The where

values for these parameters were picked from the studies per-

_ hot ðhin;hot hout;hot Þ ¼ m

Q ph ¼ m _ cold ðhout;cold hin;cold Þ ð10Þ

formed by Rogdakis [29] and Price [41]. Table 1 summarizes the

reference values for the input parameters. It should be noted that

in this study the temperature and pressure of working fluid enter- cp;min ¼ minðcp;hot and cp;cold Þ ð11Þ

ing the turbine assumed to be less than references values because also cp,min is the minimum value between heat capacity of hot and

the hot source is assumed to be low temperature heat recovered cold streams at constant pressure, e is the effectiveness of the heat

from other processes or renewable energy sources. exchanger and T is the temperature of the solution.

2.2.1. Base system thermodynamic modeling 2.2.1.4. Flash tank. The heat requirement of the flash tank is

The governing equations of the Kalina cycle as the base system obtained using the following concentration and energy balance

are expressed as follow: equations:

Mass balance and concentration balance equations for all com- m _ 5 x5 þ m

_ 4 x4 ¼ m _ 15 x15 ð12Þ

ponents can be obtained using Eqs. (1) and (2).

X X Q_ FT ¼ m

_ 5 h5 þ m

_ 15 h15 m

_ 4 h4 ð13Þ

_ in ¼

m _ out

m ð1Þ

Here x5, x4, x15, are introduced as XWF, XB, XD, which are the ammo-

X X nia mass fraction of working fluid, primary and dilute solution. m _ 5,

_ in xin ¼

m _ out xout

m ð2Þ

and m_ 15 also are defined as working fluid mass flow, m _ WF , and dilute

solution mass flow, m _ D , respectively. By substituting a mass balance

where m _ is the mass flowrate and x is the concentration of the

into Eq. (13), the ratio of the working fluid flow rate used to dilute

stream. In and out subscripts refer to inlet and outlet streams,

the stream flow rate (g) can be solved as follows [29]:

respectively.

_ WF X WF X B

m

g¼ ¼ ð14Þ

m_D XB XD

Table 1

The reference data of Kalina cycle [28,34].

2.2.1.5. Condenser, boiler and superheater of the Kalina cycle. Using

Parameter Unit Values in the Values in

references this study the energy balance for the condenser, boiler and superheater in

the Kalina cycle, the required or released heat from these compo-

Turbine pressure (Ptur) kPa 11,000 1500

Intermediate pressure (Pint) kPa 470 470 nents can be obtained using Eqs. (15)–(17).

Q_ C;K ¼ m

Absorber pressure (Pabs) kPa 170 170

Turbine inlet temperature (Ttur) °C 510 280

_ 6 ðh6 h13 Þ ð15Þ

Working fluid ammonia mass % 70 72

fraction (XWF) Q_ boiler ¼ m

_ 8 ðh9 h8 Þ ð16Þ

J. Rashidi et al. / Energy Conversion and Management 127 (2016) 170–186 175

Q_ Sh ¼ m

_ 9 ðh10 h9 Þ ð17Þ The coefficient of performance (COP), which is calculated for

refrigeration cycles, can be obtained as follows:

where Q_ C;K is the released heat from the KC condenser, Q_ boiler and

Q_ Sh are the required heat of boiler and superheater, respectively. Q_ ev a

COP kpcc ¼ ð26Þ

W _ in

2.2.1.6. Turbine. The turbine power is given by the following _ in is the quantity of required power due to the cooling gen-

where W

equation.

eration in comparison with KC as the base system. Since the mass

_ tur ¼ g m _

W tur 10 ðh11 h10 Þ ð18Þ flow of the turbine decreases, W _ in can be calculated using Eq. (27).

_ 10 ðf Þðh10 h11 Þ

tur W ð27Þ

turbine.

2.2.1.7. Throttling valve. It’s assumed that there is no heat exchange 2.2.3. KLACC system thermodynamic modeling

through the throttling valve. Thus the enthalpy of solution at inlet Eqs. (1)–(23), as well as the following equations are used for

and outlet of valve remains constant and the energy balance equa- KLACC system thermodynamic modeling. Thermodynamic model

tion can be given as follows [46]: of the absorption cycle subsystem is presented by Eqs. (28)–(36)

[45].

m _ out hout

_ in hin ¼ m ð19Þ

2.2.3.1. Refrigeration cycle absorber. The absorption components of

2.2.1.8. Thermal efficiency of the Kalina cycle. The first law efficiency the refrigeration cycle, including the absorber, desorber, solution

of the Kalina cycle (gth;K ) is defined by dividing the output of the heat exchanger, condenser and evaporator, are simulated by Eqs.

cycle by the required input. It is given by Eq. (22) [17]. (28)–(36).

The mass and concentration balance equations for ACLiBr-water

gth;K ¼ W_ net =Q_ in ð20Þ are given by Eqs. (1) and (2). It should be noted that when these

equations are used for the refrigeration cycle, x refers to the mass

where W_ net is the net generated power, and Q_ in is the required heat

fraction of lithium bromide in the H2O/LiBr solution.

which are obtained as follow: The energy balance of the absorber can be obtained as follow:

_ net ¼ W

W _ tur W

_ pump1 W

_ pump2 ð21Þ

Q_ abs;ref ¼ m

_ 36 h36 þ m

_ 40 h40 m

_ 31 h31 ð28Þ

Q_ in ¼ Q_ boiler þ Q_ Sh þ Q_ FT ð22Þ where Q_ abs;ref is the rejected heat from the absorber in the refriger-

ation cycle.

where Q_ boiler , Q_ sh and Q_ FT are required heat for boiler, superheater

_ tur , W

and flash tank, respectively. W _ pump1 , and W

_ pump2 are generated

2.2.3.2. Solution heat exchanger. The effectiveness of the ACLiBr-water

power of the turbine and consumed power of pump1 and Pump2, subsystem solution heat exchanger is given via Eq. (29), which is

respectively. the division of transferred heat through the heat exchanger by

the maximum possible heat transfer between the inlet and outlet

2.2.2. KPCC system thermodynamic modeling streams.

Eqs. (1)–(22) as well as the following equations are used to

model KPCC system. e ¼ Q_ shx =cp;min ðT 34 T 32 Þ ð29Þ

2.2.2.1. Mass flow ratio. The mass flow rate of the evaporator can be Here Cp,min is the minimum value between heat capacity of hot and

obtained by applying Eq. (1) (mass balance equation) and Eq. (23). cold streams entering the solution heat exchanger at constant pres-

This is an input parameter to calculate the mass flow rate of cool- sure and Q_ shx is the transferred heat between the hot and cold

ing generation which has a controlling role for cooling generation. steams which is calculated as follows:

Q shx ¼ m _ 34 ðh34 h35 Þ ð30Þ

where f is the mass flow ratio between the refrigerant and solution

loops. 2.2.3.3. Desorber. Eqs. (31) and (32) represent the mass and energy

balance equations of the desorber, respectively.

2.2.2.2. Evaporator. Mass and concentration balances are presented

_ 33 x33 ¼ m

m _ 34 x34 þ m

_ 37 x37 ð31Þ

by Eqs. (1) and (2). The generated cooling, Q_ ev a , can be calculated as

follows:

Q_ des ¼ m

_ 37 h37 þ m

_ 34 h34 m

_ 33 h33 ð32Þ

Q_ ev a ¼ m

_ 18 ðh18 h19 Þ ð24Þ

where Q_ des is the required heat for the desorber. The desorber out-

2.2.2.3. Performance criteria. To investigate the performance of the flow at point 37 is assumed to be pure water (x37 = 0). To calculate

system, three criteria were studied including thermal efficiency, h37 as the desorber outflow enthalpy, the solution quality is pro-

cooling-power efficiency and coefficient of performance. The ther- posed to the quality of solution in point 33. That is the vapor outlet

mal efficiency can be obtained using Eqs. (20)–(22). According to from the desorber is considered as the vapor component of a two

the study of Hassan et al. [8] the efficiency of cooling and power phase system where the solution in the desorber is in the liquid

cogeneration system is the amount ratio of net power and gener- phase. Therefore the thermodynamic state of this point assumed

ated cooling to the required heat of the cycle which can be calcu- to be equal to desorber inlet thermodynamic state [45].

lated as follows: Since the heat requirement of the desorber is supplied from

state 5, the enthalpy of state 13 can be calculated as follow:

_ net þ Q_ ev a

W

gc;p ¼ ð25Þ Q_ des ¼ m

_ 5 ðh5 h13 Þ ð33Þ

Q_ in

176 J. Rashidi et al. / Energy Conversion and Management 127 (2016) 170–186

2.2.3.4. Refrigeration cycle condenser. The waste heat of the con- Rodríguez et al. [23], Esfahani et al. [44] and Silveira and Tuna

denser in the refrigeration cycle can be obtained using the energy [52] were used in this section.

balance equation as follows: The total annual cost is given by Eq. (37) [44].

Q_ C;ref ¼ m

_ 37 ðh37 h38 Þ ð34Þ TAC ¼ ACC þ AOC ð37Þ

where Q_ C;ref is the waste heat of the refrigeration cycle condenser. where ACC and AOC are the annual capital cost and annual operating

The waste heat of the absorber and condenser components of cost, respectively.

the ACLiBr-water subsystem are used in the Kalina cycle for heating To find the ACC, the total cost investment, TCI, is multiplied by

the streams 7 and 8. Therefore states 30 and 48 can be modeled the amortization factor given in Eq. (38) [48].

using Eqs. (8)–(12). It should be noted that, the stream between n

i ð1 þ iÞ

states 28 and 29 is considered as the cold stream to cool down CRF ¼ n ð38Þ

the working fluid passing the absorber 2 and as the hot stream

ð1 þ iÞ 1

to heat the working fluid passing PH1. The stream between states where CRF is the amortization factor, i and n are the interest rate

41 and 42 is both cold stream for cond2 and hot stream for PH2. and total operation period of the system in years, respectively [53].

Total cost investment (TCI) is calculated by Eq. (39), which is a

2.2.3.5. Refrigeration cycle evaporator. Mass and concentration bal- summation of the direct cost (DC), including onsite and offsite

ance equations of the evaporator are calculated using Eqs. (1) and costs, indirect costs (IDC), and other outlays (OO).

(2) and cooling load of the evaporator, Q_ ev a , can be calculated as

TCI ¼ DC þ IDC þ OO ð39Þ

follows:

Here the costs which are related to equipment, piping, electric con-

Q_ ev a ¼ m

_ 38 ðh40 h39 Þ ð35Þ

trol monitor system, structural work, direct contingencies and ser-

vice facilities are introduced as direct cost. Also indirect cost

2.2.3.6. Performance criteria of KLACC. Eqs. (21)–(23) are used to represents the engineering, supervision and indirect contingencies

calculate the thermal performance of KLACC. The efficiency of the cost. The cost of startup and working capital are considered as other

cooling and power also, as with the KPCC system, can be obtained outlays in Eq. (39).

using Eq. (25). The coefficient of performance of KLACC is calcu- TCI is obtained via Eqs. (40)–(55) which are summarized in

lated as follows: Table 2 including the cost of pipes, electrical controls, the monitor-

ing system, civil structural and architectural work, service facili-

Q_ ev a ties, contingencies, and other outlays.

COP KLACC ¼ ð36Þ

Q_ des

2.3.1. Equipment cost

where COP KALCC and Q_ des are the coefficient of performance and the

2.3.1.1. Heat exchangers cost. Included are the condensers, evapora-

desorber heat requirement of KLACC, respectively.

tors, preheaters, flash tank, absorber, desorber, boiler and 4 super-

Thermodynamic characteristic of ammonia – water are

heaters, which are assumed to be operating as shell and tube heat

calculated based on the research work by Ibrahim and Klein [47].

exchangers. The cost of these heat exchangers is calculated accord-

Additionally, enthalpy and entropy for pure water and water –

ing to their heat transfer area (A) obtained by Eq. (56) [45].

lithium bromide solution have been calculated and adopted from

the previous literature [48–51]. The corresponding equation can Q_ k

be found in Appendices A and B. Ak ¼ ð56Þ

U k LMTDk

2.3. Economic modeling where Q_ k is the heat transfer flow rate through component k, U is

the heat transfer coefficient, and LMTD is the logarithmic mean tem-

The following equations were developed to assess the total perature difference. U values for different components, given in

annual cost (TAC) of each system. The models reported by units of kW/m2 K, are shown in Table 3.

Table 2

Equations for capital cost estimation [48].

Equations Description

DC ¼ ONSC þ OFSC ONSC is the onsite cost and OFSC is the offsite cost (40)

ONSC ¼ C eq þ C pipe þ C EC Ceq, Cp and CEC are the cost of equipment, piping and electric control monitor system, respectively (41)

C eq ¼ C hx þ C tur þ C pump Chx, Ctur and Cpump are the cost of heat exchangers, turbine and pumps, respectively (42)

C pipe ¼ 0:05 ðC eq Þ (43)

C EC ¼ 0:3 ðC eq þ C pipe Þ (44)

OFSC ¼ C str þ C ser þ C con Cstr, Cser and Ccon are the cost of the civil structural and architectural work, service facilities, (45)

and contingencies, respectively

C str ¼ 0:2 ðONSCÞ (46)

C ser ¼ 0:25 ðONSCÞ (47)

C con ¼ 0:15 ðONSCÞ (48)

IDC ¼ C eng þ C const þ C icon Ceng, Cconst and Cicon are the cost of engineering and supervision, construction including contractor’s profit, (49)

and indirect contingencies, respectively

C eng ¼ 0:15 ðDCÞ (50)

C const ¼ 0:15 ðDCÞ (51)

C icon ¼ 0:2 ðDCÞ (52)

OO ¼ C start þ C W Cstart and CW are the cost of startup and working capital, respectively (53)

C start ¼ 0:06 ðDC þ IDCÞ (54)

C W ¼ 0:05 ðDC þ IDCÞ (55)

J. Rashidi et al. / Energy Conversion and Management 127 (2016) 170–186 177

Table 3

Heat transfer coefficient of plant components [32,46,47].

Solution heat exchanger 1 1000 Thermal compr: 18

NH3 superheat: 0.2

Evaporator 0.9 900 1.2

Condenser 1.1 1100 1.1

Refrigerant (condensing – water – 650 –

Refrigerant (evaporating– water – 510 –

Absorber – – 0.785

Desorber – – 1.2 boiling/0.8 heating

Table 4 Table 5

The reference costs of components (AR = 100 m2) [33]. The operation conditions of analyzed systems.

Desorber 17,500 Ttur °C 280 [34]

Absorber 16,500 Ptur kPa 1500 –

Solution heat exchanger 12,500 Tabs °C 20 [34]

Evaporator 16,000 Pabs kPa 170 [34]

Condenser 8000 m_ kg/s 4 [34]

Expansion valve 300 XWF – 0.72 [28]

f – 0.1 –

Pevap kPa 250 –

XB – 0.43 [34]

m_ ref kg/s 2 –

The logarithmic temperature difference for the heat exchangers Phigh kPa 7.445 [38]

is obtained by Eq. (57) [54]. Plow kPa 0.637 [38]

Tdes °C 93 [38]

ðT h;i T c;i Þ ðT h;o T c;o Þ Tabs,ref °C 34 [38]

LMTDk ¼ ð57Þ

T T

ln T h;i T c;i gpump – 0.91 [10]

h;o c;o e – 0.9 [26]

gtur – 0.85 [26]

where subscripts h, c, i, and o refer to hot, cold, inlet and outlet i – 0.15 [46]

streams. n yr 20 [46]

Having the heat transfer area, the cost of all above mentioned CI2000 – 394.1 [11]

heat exchangers can be obtained using the power law relation CI2013 – 568.8 [11]

Csteam $/ton 6 [51]

given by Eq. (58) [23]. Celec $/kW h 0.084 [52]

0:6 Ccw $/ton 0.06 [52]

Ahx

Z hx ¼ Z R;hx ð58Þ POF – 0.9 [52]

AR CL 0.03TCI [22]

CM 0.06 TCI [53]

where Zhx, is the capital cost of the heat exchanger with a heat

transfer area of Ahx in a reference year. ZR,hx is the reference cost

2.3.2. Operation and maintenance costs

of the heat exchanger in the reference year which has a reference

Operation costs are assumed to include the steam, electricity,

heat transfer area of AR. The reference costs of the heat exchangers

and labor costs. The steam cost due to heating energy is the main

for the reference year 2000 are listed in Table 4 [44].

part of the operating cost and depends significantly on steam con-

ditions, source, and the cost evaluation method. Based on the

2.3.1.2. Pump. The capital cost of the pump is calculated using Eq. equivalent electricity-consumption cost method presented by Song

(59) [55]. et al. [56] and Hu et al. [57] where steam cost is evaluated as the

_ 0:8

C pump ¼ 1120 W ð59Þ cost of the electricity that can be produced in a steam turbine,

pump

the cost of the saturated steam at pressures of 0.25 MPa and

_ pump is the required pump power.

where W 0.5 MPa are $9.6/ton and $11.4/ton, respectively, where electricity

cost is $0.07/kW h [58]. In the current study, using the same

method, the cost of steam is estimated. Cost of electricity, cooling

2.3.1.3. Turbine cost. Eq. (60) gives the capital cost of the turbine

water labor and maintenance as well as plant operation factor and

[54].

CI are obtained from previous studies which is done by Wang and

_ tur Þ0:7

C tur ¼ 4405 ðW ð60Þ Lior [58] Kumar et al. [59] Harkin et al. [60] and Rodriguez et al.

[23]. The annual operating cost, AOC, is obtained using the follow-

where W _ tur is the output power of the turbine. ing unweighted linear equation.

Using Eq. (61) and chemical engineering plant cost index (CI), AOC ¼ C steam þ C cw þ C elec þ C L þ C M ð62Þ

all of the obtained costs were updated to represent equivalent

costs for the desired year of 2013 [44].

3. Results and discussions

CI2013

Z k;2013 ¼ Z k ð61Þ

CI2000

3.1. Energy and economic analysis

where Zk,2013 is the component cost in recent year 2013, Zk is the

component cost in year 2000 and CI2013, and CI2000 are equipment The energy and cost analyses were conducted to determine the

cost indexes in year 2013 and 2000, respectively. energy efficiency, performance, generated cooling and TAC of the

178 J. Rashidi et al. / Energy Conversion and Management 127 (2016) 170–186

Table 6 US dollar. As shown in Fig. 2b since the mass flow rate of most of

Performance and cost of analyzed systems. the KPCC components is less than the mass flow rate of KC compo-

KC KPCC KLACC nents, the ACC, AOC and TAC are less than the KC system by 6, 8.3

Energy efficiency 16.1% 15.2% 16.9 and 8%, respectively. On the other hand, since KLACC is a combina-

Power-cooling efficiency 18.8% 20.2% tion of KC and ACLiBr-water, the ACC, AOC and TAC are more than the

6

Total annual cost ($/yr) 6.11 ⁄ 10 5.62 ⁄ 106 8.89 ⁄ 106 KC system by 4.7, 34 and 45%, respectively. Therefore the ACC as

Produced power (kW) 1722 1550 1722 well as AOC and TAC for KLACC are the highest and for KPCC are

Generated cooling (kW) 277 393

the lowest among three systems.

Table 7 compares thermodynamic analysis results besides oper-

ation condition of KPCC and KLACC with some literature. As can be

Kalina cycle, KPCC and KLACC under the specified conditions pre- seen The power- cooling system studied by Wang et al. [40]

sented in Table 5. achieved 13.6% of thermal efficiency and 75 kW cooling load which

According to the summarized input conditions, the net pro- is significantly less than those of KPCC and KLACC. The power and

duced power, first law efficiency, generated cooling, coefficient of refrigeration cycle which analyzed by Hasan et al. [8] has a thermal

performance and efficiency of the power and cooling cogeneration efficiency around 12.3% at 95.9% of ammonia mass fraction. At the

are obtained by Eqs. (1)–(36). same ammonia mass fraction the thermal efficiency of KPCC and

Table 6. Summarizes the results of energy analysis for KC, KPCC KLACC is around 18.3% and 25.9% that is much higher. Fontalvo

and KLACC systems. According to this table, KLACC improves the et al. [43] reported a thermal efficiency equal to 16% which is also

energy efficiency of KC by 4.5% while the total annual cost of this less than the result of this study. Comparison between literature

system is much higher than both KPCC and KC. According to Table 6 results with this study shows that thermal efficiency of both KPCC

it can be resulted the net power and cooling production of KLACC and KLACC are higher than most of the other proposed power-

and KPCC are 23% and 6% higher than KC, respectively. Thermody- cooling cogeneration cycles which are based on Kalina cycle using

namic and economic results of three analyzed systems are pre- ammonia-water as the working fluid. From the results it can be

sented in Fig. 2. Fig. 2a compares the net output (power and deduced that cooling and power generation in KPCC and KLACC

cooling) and efficiency of each cycle. It is clear that KLACC has is a high efficient power-cooling cogeneration cycles.

the highest efficiency among the three cycles (16.9%). Since a frac-

tion of mass flow of turbine is separated to generate cooling, KPCC

has the lowest efficiency (15.2%), about 5.6% lower compared to 3.2. Parametric analysis

the base Kalina cycle. As can be seen in Fig. 2a, the power - cooling

efficiency of KLACC is 11% higher than that of KPCC. Parametric analysis was performed to evaluate the effects of

Fig. 2b shows the results of the economic analysis which is the key parameters on the energy efficiency, cooling generation, and

amount of annual operation, annual capital and total annual cost in TAC of KC, KPCC and KLACC. Key parameters for all three cycles

include ammonia mass fraction of the working fluid (XWF), absor-

ber pressure (Pabs), turbine pressure (Ptur), intermediate pressure

0.25 (Pint) and turbine temperature (Ttur). Two other key parameters

0.2 are considered for the first proposed system, KPCC, which are the

mass flow ratio of cooling (f) and the pressure of the evaporator

0.15 (Peva in the second proposed system, KLACC, the effect of higher

0.1 and lower refrigeration temperatures and the mass flow rate of

the absorption chiller on efficiencies and cost were also analyzed).

0.05 The variables change ranges are summarized in Table 8. In the

parametric analysis, one parameter was varied while the others

0

energy eﬃciency power-cooling were kept constant. Figs. 3–6 demonstrate the result of parametric

eﬃciency analysis for KPCC and KLACC on the thermal efficiency, coefficient

KPCC KLACC KC of performance, annual capital, annual operation and total annual

costs.

(a)

3.2.1. Effect of the absorber pressure (Pabs)

1.00E+07

The effect of absorber pressure on power production, cooling

9.00E+06

generation, energy efficiency, power-cooling efficiency, TAC, ACC

8.00E+06 and AOC of the systems are presented in Figs. 3a–c, 5a and b. As

7.00E+06 can be seen, by changing Pabs from 100 to 350 kPa, thermal effi-

6.00E+06 ciency increases by 1.2% for KPCC and 1% for KLACC system. Also

5.00E+06 power - cooling efficiency goes up about 1.3 and 1.1% in KPCC

and KLACC systems, respectively. Thus absorber pressure has a

4.00E+06

direct effect on efficiencies of cycles. Both efficiencies increase

3.00E+06 because the heat requirement of flash tank increases due to higher

2.00E+06 solution enthalpy in higher pressure while net produced power

1.00E+06 and generated cooling are constant.

0.00E+00 Fig. 3b describes the net power and cooling generation as a

AOC TAC ACC function of the absorber pressure variation. Since the absorber

KPCC KC KLACC pressure has no effect on cooling production, the generated cooling

(b) remains constant. Increasing the pressure of the absorber causes

both absorber waste heat and the required heat of the flash tank

Fig. 2. (a) Thermodynamic analysis of KC, KPCC and KLACC, (b) economic analysis to decrease; thereby increasing the thermal efficiency by for KPCC

of TAC, ACC and AOC of KC, KLACC and KPCC systems. and KLACC. Fig. 3c and 5b shows how ACC, AOC and TAC change

J. Rashidi et al. / Energy Conversion and Management 127 (2016) 170–186 179

Table 7

Comparison of proposed systems (KPCC and KLACC) with references.

XWF 0.963 0.959 0.530 0.72 0.959 0.72 0.959

Ptur (bar) 20 20 20 15 20 15 20

Pabs (bar) 1.5 2 8 1.7 2 1.7 2

Thermal efficiency 16% 12.3 13.6 15.2 18.3 16.9 25.9

Cooling load (kW) 3.6 3.7 75 277 271 393 473

Mass flowrate (kg/s) 1 1 1 4 1 4 1

Heat source temperature (K) 200 370 370 370 370 370 370

Net power (kW) 44.6 47.2 35.9 1550 301 1722 610

Table 8 slope. Also, TAC for KPCC system decreases 2.3% while for the

Range of effective parameters on analyzed systems.

KLACC system it increases slightly (0.2%).

Parameter Range Unit Relative change (%)

Pabs 100–350 kPa 250 3.2.4. Effect of ammonia mass fraction (XWF)

PTur 1.1–2 MPa 82 Figs. 4a, i, 6a and b demonstrate how performance and cost for

Pint, 420–560 kPa 33 the KPCC system vary with ammonia mass fraction changing from

XWF of KPCC 0.7–0.8 – 14

0.72 to 0.78. As shown in two proposed system, the thermal effi-

f 0.05–0.3 – 500

Pevap 250–475 kPa 90 ciency increases by 18 and 11% for KPCC and KLACC systems,

XWF of KLACC 0.71–0.77 – 84 respectively and power - cooling efficiency increases by 9 and

Thigh 76–87 °C 14 13.7% for KPCC and KLACC systems. Moreover, the COP for the

Tlow, 28–35 °C 25 KPCC system increases about 14% while for the KLACC system it

mref 0.5–3.5 kg/s 600

remains constant. Since having a higher amount of ammonia in

solution results in a higher average temperature of the required

heat as well as a lower average temperature of the heat dissipated,

with absorber pressure variation. When increasing Pabs, AOC the efficiency, according to Carnot cycle efficiency, increases. Also

remains constant while ACC, and therefore TAC, increase. the parametric analysis for cost shows that, for proposed

systems, increasing the ammonia mass fraction causes the ACC to

increase while the AOC decreases which is governing the TAC

3.2.2. Effect of the turbine pressure (Ptur)

calculations.

Figs. 3d, e, 5c and d show the effect of turbine pressure on ther-

mal efficiency, power - cooling efficiency, COP, TAC, ACC and AOC

3.2.5. Effect of the evaporator mass flow rate (f)

of the systems. While other parameters remain constant, Ptur varies

It is clear that increasing the mass flow rate through the evap-

from 1.1 to 2 MPa. As shown in Figs. 3d, e, 5c and d, increasing the

orator in the KPCC system results in higher cooling generation. The

turbine pressure from 1.1 to 2 MPa in both KPCC and KLACC sys-

effect of higher f on efficiencies and COP is demonstrated in Fig. 4c.

tems, causes both the thermal efficiency and power-cooling effi-

As can be seen, with increasing f the thermal efficiency decreases

ciencies face a dramatic decrease about 11 and 14%, respectively

about 16%, while power-cooling efficiency increases by 14.8%.

and subsequently increase slightly. The minimum value of these

Additionally, the COP for KPCC decreases by 40% before gradually

efficiencies occurs at 1.75 MPa of turbine pressure and the maxi-

rising. This is due to the direct effect of the mass flow rate on the

mum happens at lower turbine pressures. It happens because of

net power, required heat, and the net generated cooling. By

higher heat requirement than power production when turbine

increasing f, the net power and required heat reduce and the

pressure varies from 1.1 to 1.75 MPa. It is clear that increasing tur-

amount of cooling increases. TAC, AOC and ACC all have lower val-

bine pressure causes ACC, AOC and TAC to increase. Because the

ues with higher mass flow rates through the evaporator (Fig. 4d).

prices of higher pressure vapor for heating the turbine inlet is

higher and a turbine which works in higher pressure ratio is more

3.2.6. Effect of evaporator pressure (Peva) on KPCC system

expensive. Therefore lower turbine pressure is more reasonable to

The evaporator pressure assumed to change from 250 kPa to

achieve better performance and lower cost of systems.

475 kPa. The change range is selected according to the thermody-

namic limits of working fluid under the cycle condition. Increasing

3.2.3. Effect of intermediate pressures (Pint) Peva causes the ACC to decrease, however, the TAC remains nearly

The effect of intermediate pressure on the efficiency and total the same. Since at lower evaporator pressures the enthalpy differ-

annual cost was studied. Since the amount of required heat for ence in the vapor-liquid zone is larger than at higher pressures, the

water separation at higher pressures is more than that at lower generated cooling at higher evaporator pressures is less than at

pressure limits, the flash tank heat requirement for higher pressure lower pressures. It can then be said that COP as well as power -

is greater. Thus, by increasing the intermediate pressure, the input cooling efficiency decrease with increasing evaporator pressure.

heat requirement increases while the net produced power and Since the evaporator is not separated from the power cycle, the

cooling remain unchanged. As can be seen in Fig. 3f and e, by pressure in the evaporator has no effect on the thermal efficiency

changing Pint from 420 to 570 kPa for the KPCC system both ther- (Fig 4e and f).

mal, and power-cooling efficiencies decrease by 0.9% while the

intermediate pressure seems to have no effect on power-cooling 3.2.7. Effect of higher temperatures for the refrigeration cycle (Thigh)

efficiency of KLACC system. Comparing Fig. 5g and f, it can be con- The effect of desorber temperature on efficiencies and cost of

cluded that intermediate pressure has a different effect on the cost the KLACC system were analyzed. The results show that by increas-

of two proposed systems. As can be seen, for the KPCC system, the ing the desorber temperature from 76 °C to 87 °C, the evaporator

ACC has a minimum value at the intermediate pressure of 490 kPa heat rejection increases more than the desorber heat requirement,

while for the KLACC system the ACC increases with a constant therefore the COP of the cycle increases by 34%. When the desorber

180 J. Rashidi et al. / Energy Conversion and Management 127 (2016) 170–186

Fig. 3. KPCC energy and cost variations with respect to the effects of Pabs on (a) efficiency, (b) generated cooling and power, and (c) ACC, AOC and TAC, Ptur on (d) efficiency and

(e) ACC, AOC and TAC, Pint on (f) efficiency and (g) ACC, AOC and TAC.

temperature 83 °C is reached, then the COP remains almost According to Fig. 6d, it can be seen that by changing the desorber

constant. The efficiency of power and cooling goes up dramatically temperature from 76 to 87 °C, the TAC and AOC decrease a negligi-

(14.7%), but thermal efficiency decreases by about 0.2% (Fig. 6c). ble amount while the ACC increases.

J. Rashidi et al. / Energy Conversion and Management 127 (2016) 170–186 181

Fig. 4. KPCC energy and cost variations with respect to the effects of Xwf on (a) efficiency and COP and (b) ACC, AOC and TAC, f on (c) efficiency and COP and (d) ACC, AOC and

TAC, and Peva on (e) efficiency and COP and (f) ACC, AOC and TAC.

3.2.8. Effect of the lower temperatures on the refrigeration cycle (Tlow) smaller negative ones the bigger positive is picked. Fig. 6h demon-

Fig. 6e and f shows the effect of the absorber temperature of the strates that increasing mref will cause the annual operating cost to

refrigeration cycle on the efficiency and cost of the entire system. increase while ACC and TAC decrease slightly.

Increasing Tlow from 28 to 35 °C will cause the thermal efficiency

to increase slightly, this can be attributed to the fact that waste heat 3.3. Summary of results

at higher temperature transferred from the chiller absorber to the

stream before the boiler results in a lower heat requirement for 3.3.1. Energy and economic analysis

the boiler. On the other hand, the power and cooling efficiencies face The highest efficiency among the three cycles occurs in KLACC

a dramatic reduction since increasing this temperature decreases with 16.9% while KPCC contributes with the lowest efficiency

the COP by 48%. Changing Tlow, the AOC remains nearly constant (15.2%). The power - cooling efficiency of KLACC in comparison

while the ACC has a downward trend resulting in a lower TAC. to KPCC is1.4% higher. KPCC costs less than KC by 8% fewer TAC,

while KLACC is the most expensive one among three cycles. In

3.2.9. Effect of the mass flow rate of the refrigeration cycle (mref) summary besides cogeneration of cooling and power, KLACC

It is clear that increasing the mass flow rate of refrigeration sub- increases the performance and KPCC decreases the cost of KC.

system in KLACC from 0.5 to 3.5 kg/s will increase the amount of

cooling, resulting in higher power-cooling efficiency (about 15%). 3.3.2. Parametric analysis

However, as more heat becomes required by the power cycle to The parametric analysis results for both proposed systems are

supply the desorber within absorption cycle, the thermal efficiency summarized in Table 9 where the effect of each parameter on three

decreases slightly (about 0.05%) which can be seen in Fig. 6g. In variables including thermal efficiency, power-cooling efficiency

this situation when some positive changes happen with some and total annual cost is presented in percent. This table shows

182 J. Rashidi et al. / Energy Conversion and Management 127 (2016) 170–186

Fig. 5. KLACC energy and cost variations with respect to the effects of Pabs on (a) efficiency and (b) ACC, AOC and TAC, Ptur on (c) efficiency and (d) ACC, AOC and TAC, Pint on (e)

efficiency and (f) ACC, AOC and TAC.

the change of each variable via parameters change. In the last col- while power-cooling efficiency decreases by 17.07%. It means that

umn the ratio of variable changes to parameters (dx/dy) is calcu- lower turbine pressure can be selected to achieve more cooling

lated to have a better comparison between parameters. with lower cost. Since the total annual cost of KLACC is more sen-

According to the results in Table 9 ammonia mass fraction (XWF) sitive to turbine pressure than other parameters lower Ptur gives

has the greatest influence on KPCC system efficiencies and total higher quantity of power and cooling with a low cost. Mass flow

annual cost. Each percent increase in XWF causes thermal effi- ratio, f, has a minor effect on KPCC system, to achieve higher

ciency and power-cooling efficiency of KPCC to increase by 50 power-cooling efficiency and lower TAC, f should be increased

and 63.57%, respectively, while total annual cost decreases signifi- which has a negative effect on thermal efficiency. It means that

cantly (83.57%). KLACC thermal efficiency is also more sensitive to both effects are desirable for cooling generation, but it causes ther-

XWF than other parameters, which increases 17.14% via 1% increase mal efficiency to decrease. Higher temperature of absorption chil-

in XWF. These effects lead to desire higher fraction of ammonia in ler subsystem of KLACC has the most important influence on

the working fluid. On the other hand higher amount of ammonia power-cooling efficiency; each percent increase results in 105%

in the solution has worse environmental impact. The best range increase in power-cooling efficiency. Higher Thigh results in higher

of ammonia mass fraction respect to operational and environmen- power-cooling efficiency besides higher TAC, although it causes

tal issues can be investigated as a future research. Thigh has the thermal efficiency to decrease slightly. According to the parametric

most significant effect on power-cooling efficiency of KLACC. As analysis of Tlow, smaller values are preferable to reach a better

can be seen in Table 9 Ptur is the other important effective param- power-cooling efficiency but with a higher cost. The optimization

eter on both systems. Thermal efficiency and total annual cost of of the system operation condition as a result of parametric analysis

KPCC increase by 13.14% and 28.39% against 1% increase of Ptur will be done in future researches.

J. Rashidi et al. / Energy Conversion and Management 127 (2016) 170–186 183

Fig. 6. KLACC energy and cost variations with respect to the effects of Xwf on (a) efficiency and COP and (b) ACC, AOC and TAC, Thigh on (c) efficiency and COP and (d) ACC, AOC

and TAC, and Tlow on (e) efficiency and COP and (f) ACC, AOC and TAC and mref on (g) efficiencies and COP and (h) ACC, AOC and TAC.

184 J. Rashidi et al. / Energy Conversion and Management 127 (2016) 170–186

Table 9

Influence of effective parameters on both proposed systems.

KPCC Thermal efficiency Pabs 1.2% 0.48%

PTur 11% 13.41%

Pint 0.9% 2.73%

XWF 7% 50%

Pevap Constant Constant

f 16% 0.94%

Power –cooling efficiency Pabs 1.3% 0.52%

PTur 14% 17.07%

Pint 0.9% 2.73%

XWF 8.9% 63.57%

Pevap 10.8% 0.12%

f 14.8% 0. 87%

Total annual cost Pabs 0.09% 0.036%

PTur 23% 28.39%

Pint 2.3% 6.97%

XWF 11.7% 83.57%

Pevap 0.05% 0.05%

f 24.7% 1.45%

KLACC Thermal efficiency Pabs 1.1% 0.44%

PTur 1.1% 1.34%

Pint 0.3% 0.9%

XWF 14.4% 17.14%

Thigh 0.2% 1.42%

Tlow 0.2% 0.8%

mref 0.4% 0.07%

Power –cooling efficiency Pabs 1% 0.4%

PTur 13.7% 16.71%

Pint constant constant

XWF 14.5% 17.26%

Thigh 14.7% 105%

Tlow 1.3% 5.2%

mref 14.9% 2.48%

Total annual cost Pabs 0.05% 0.02%

PTur 28% 34.15%

Pint 0.2% 0.61%

XWF 19% 22.62%

Thigh 0.4% 2.86%

Tlow 0.4% 1.6%

mref 0.5% 0.08%

cooling generation despite the lowest thermal efficiency is the

In this study, two new cooling and power cogeneration systems best choice with the lowest TAC. However, in comparison

that combined KC and AC were proposed and investigated based on with KC, it has the ability to generate cooling in addition to

energy performance and cost analyses. Also the effect of cooling power.

generation on KC efficiency and total annual cost were studied 3. In comparison with other literatures which investigated

and the best configuration was introduced. Findings of the current power and cooling cogeneration using Kalina cycle KPCC

research were compared with literature and finally parametric and KLACC can be introduced as high efficient cycles. They

analyses were performed to investigate the sensitivity of cycles’ achieve 14–49% higher efficiency with 3.6–70 times higher

performance to different parameters. The main conclusions are generated cooling quantities At the same operation

shown below. conditions.

4. The most important results of Parametric analysis includes:

1. Energy analysis showed that the base system (Kalina Cycle) High Ammonia mass fraction operates better performance

produces 1722 kW power with 16.1% thermal efficiency and and fewer costs in both proposed systems.

6.11 ⁄ 106 ($/yr) total annual cost (TAC). Kalina Lithium- Lower turbine pressure makes better performance and

Bromide Absorption chiller cycle (KLACC) and Kalina Power- decreases the cost of KPCC. In contrast it leads converse

Cooling Cycle (KPCC) generate 277 and 393 kW cooling besides results in KLACC except cooling-power efficiency which

1550 and 1722 kW power with 5.62 ⁄ 106 and 8.89 ⁄ 106 ($/yr) increases as pressure of turbine goes up.

of TAC, respectively. Moreover KPCC and KLACC has a thermal KLACC system is more sensitive to the Thigh and Tlow varia-

efficiency of 15.2 and 16.9% with 18.8 and 20.2% tions; however both Thigh increasing and Tlow decreasing

power-cooling efficiency, in sequential. Cooling generation in has just this benefit to raise power-cooling efficiency.

KPCC and KLACC causes thermal efficiency and TAC to be

reduced by 5.6% and 8% and increased by 4.9% and 42%,

respectively. Acknowledgements

2. Among three compared systems, neglecting the cost, Kalina

Lithium-Bromide Absorption chiller cycle (KLACC) with the This work was supported by a National Research Foundation of

highest thermal and power-cooling efficiency is the best choice Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean Government (MSIP) (No.

for generating cooling and power. On the other hand Kalina 2015R1A2A2A11001120).

J. Rashidi et al. / Energy Conversion and Management 127 (2016) 170–186 185

Appendix A. Water/LiBr and pure water enthalpy correlations Appendix B. Water/LiBr and pure water entropy correlations

The following correlations were used to calculate pure water The following correlations a used to calculate pure water and

and water/LiBr enthalpy. water/LiBr entropy. In all cases of entropy calculation dead state

temperature was considered equal to 25 °C.

A.1. Pure water

B.1. Pure water

Pure water enthalpy at saturated liquid, saturated vapor,

and superheated vapor states can be calculated through Eqs. Saturated water entropy can be calculated by Eq. (B.1) which is

(A.1)–(A.6). valid for 5 6 T 6 200 C [50].

Saturated water (5 6 T 6 200 C) enthalpy [50]:

sf ¼ ð0:1543 þ 15:383 T 0:02996 T 2 þ 0:00008193 T 3

2 3

hf ¼ ð0:141355 þ 4:20207 T 0:000535 T þ 0:000004 T Þ=1000 0:000000137 T 4 Þ=1000 ðB:1Þ

ðA:1Þ

Saturated vapor enthalpy [51]:

B.2. Water/LiBr

hv ¼ hf þ hfg ðA:2Þ

Water/LiBr entropy cold be obtained using Eq. (B.2) which is

where hv is saturated vapor enthalpy, and hf is saturated water valid for 0 6 T 6 190 C and 40 6 x 6 75 wt:% [50].

enthalpy in Eq. (A.1).

Latent heat of evaporation (hfg) is calculated by Eq. (A.3) which sLiBrwater ¼ a1 þ a2 þ a3 T 2 þ A4 x þ a5 xT þ a6 xT 2 þ a7 x2 þ a8 x2 T

is valid for 0 6 T 6 200 C [50].

þ a9 x3 þ a10 x4

6 3 1 2

hfg ¼ ð2:501 10 2:369 10 T þ 2:678 10 T a1 ¼ 1:01961E3; a2 ¼ 1:101529E 1; a3 ¼ 1:042150E 2;

8:103 10 3 3

T 2:079 10 5 4

T Þ=1000 ðA:3Þ a4 ¼ 1:036935E2; a5 ¼ 5:87032E 2; a6 ¼ 8:63107E 5;

a7 ¼ 3:266802; a8 ¼ 3:16683E 4; a9 ¼ 4:100993E 2;

Superheated vapor enthalpy is also calculated by (A.4) as fol-

a10 ¼ 1:790548E 4

lows [49]:

ðB:2Þ

hðp; sÞ

¼ sðc0s þ crs Þ ðA:4Þ

RT where x and T are solution concentration and temperature of water/

LiBr solution, respectively.

where p ¼ p=p and s ¼ T =T with p = 1 MPa and T is 540 K. cs and

⁄ ⁄ 0

crs are the ideal-gas and residual parts of dimensionless Gibbs free

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