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American Water Works Association

ANSI/AWWA E101-88
(Revision of ANSI/AWWA E101-77 [R82])

AWWA STANDARD
FOR
VERTICAL TURBINE PUMPS— LINE SHAFT
AND SUBMERSIBLE TYPES

Effective date: Aug. 1, 1988.


First edition approved by AWWA Board of Directors May 11, 1955.
This edition approved Jan. 24, 1988.
Approved by American National Standards Institute May 31, 1988.

AMERICAN WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION


6666 West Quincy Avenue, Denver, Colorado 80235

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
AWWA Standard
This document is an American Water Works Association (AWWA) standard. It is not a specification.
AWWA standards describe minimum requirements and do not contain all of the engineering and
administrative information normally contained in specifications. The AWWA standards usually con-
tain options that must be evaluated by the user of the standard. Until each optional feature is
specified by the user, the product or service is not fully defined. AWWA publication of a standard
does not constitute endorsement of any product or product type, nor does AWWA test, certify, or
approve any product. The use of AWWA standards is entirely voluntary. AWWA standards are
intended to represent a consensus of the water supply industry that the product described will
provide satisfactory service. When AWWA revises or withdraws this standard, an official notice of
action will be placed on the first page of the classified advertising section of Journal AWWA. The
action becomes effective on the first day of the month following the month of Journal AWWA publi-
cation of the official notice.

American National Standard


An American National Standard implies a consensus of those substantially concerned with its scope
and provisions. An American National Standard is intended as a guide to aid the manufacturer, the
consumer, and the general public. The existence of an American National Standard does not in any
respect preclude anyone, whether that person has approved the standard or not, from manufactur-
ing, marketing, purchasing, or using products, processes, or procedures not conforming to the stand-
ard. American National Standards are subject to periodic review, and users are cautioned to obtain
the latest editions. Producers of goods made in conformity with an American National Standard are
encouraged to state on their own responsibility in advertising and promotional materials or on tags
or labels that the goods are produced in conformity with particular American National Standards.

CAUTION NOTICE: The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) approval date on the front
cover of this standard indicates completion of the ANSI approval process. This American National
Standard may be revised or withdrawn at any time. ANSI procedures require that action be taken
to reaffirm, revise, or withdraw this standard no later than five years from the date of publication.
Purchasers of American National Standards may receive current information on all standards by
calling or writing the American National Standards Institute, Inc., 11 West 42nd St., New York,
NY 10036 (212) 642-4900.

Copyright © 1988 by American Water Works Association


Printed in USA

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Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
Committee Personnel
The Subcommittee on Revision of ANSI/AWWA E101, which developed this
standard, had the following personnel at the time:

Chester A. Green, Chairman


Dale D. Curtis
Denis L. Maher Jr.
Walter N. Moline
Chi-Seng Yang

The AWWA Standards Committee on Vertical Turbine Pumps, which reviewed


and approved this standard, had the following personnel at the time of approval:

Chester A. Green, Chairman

Consumer Members

George Bryant, City of Montgomery, Montgomery, Ala. (AWWA)


R.H. Hohenstein, Board of Water and Light, Lansing, Mich. (AWWA)
R.E. Pillow, Baton Rouge Water Works Company, Baton Rouge, La. (AWWA)
F.E. Withrow Jr., Production & Pumping, Wichita, Kan. (AWWA)

General Interest Members

Manuel Carreno, CH2M Hill Southeast, Inc., Gainesville, Fla. (AWWA)


B.R. Elms,* Standards Engineer Liaison, AWWA, Denver, Colo. (AWWA)
C.A. Green, Parkhill, Smith & Cooper, Inc., Lubbock, Texas (AWWA)
W.R. Inhoffer,* Passaic Valley Water Commission, Clifton, N.J. (AWWA)
W.A. Kelley, Michigan Department of Public Health, Lansing, Mich. (CSSE)
D.L. Maher Jr., The Maher Corporation, North Reading, Mass. (NEWWA)
C.S. Mansfield Jr.,† Amory Engineers, Duxbury, Mass. (NEWWA)
S.C. McLendon, Holzmacher, McLendon & Murrell, Melville, N.Y. (AWWA)
J.F. Schultes, A.C. Schultes & Sons, Inc., Woodbury, N.J. (GWI)
Charles Stauffer, Stauffer & Associates, Inc., Overland Park, Kan. (AWWA)
T.J. Stolinski Jr., Black & Veatch, Kansas City, Mo. (AWWA)
A.F. Vondrick, Arthur Beard Engineering, Phoenix, Ariz. (AWWA)

Producer Members

Merrill Berman, Layne & Bowler, Inc., Memphis, Tenn. (AWWA)


D.D. Curtis, Crane Company, Columbus, Ohio (AWWA)
H.A.J. Greutink, Johnston Pump Company, Glendora, Calif. (AWWA)
W.N. Moline, Byron Jackson Pumps, Inc., Los Angeles, Calif. (AWWA)
Chi-Seng Yang, Goulds Pumps, Inc., Lubbock, Texas (AWWA)

________________
*Liaison, nonvoting
†Alternate

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Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
Contents

SEC. PAGE SEC. PAGE

Foreword A-6.4 Capacity Measurement ................... 24


I History of Standard.......................... vi A-6.5 Head Measurement ......................... 25
II Information Regarding Use of A-6.6 Velocity Head................................... 26
This Standard ................................ vi A-6.7 Horsepower Input............................ 26
III Major Revisions .............................. vii A-6.8 Measurement of Speed.................... 26
A-6.9 Large-Pump Tests ........................... 27
Part A—Line-Shaft Vertical Turbine A-6.10 Hydrostatic Tests ............................ 27
Pumps A-6.11 Recording and Computation of
Test Results................................... 27
A-1 Scope and Purpose ........................ 1 A-6.12 Other Tests ...................................... 30

A-2 Definitions ....................................... 1 Part B—Submersible Vertical Turbine


Pumps
A-3 General
A-3.1 Standard Nomenclature .................... 5 B-1 Scope and Purpose ...................... 31
A-3.2 Order Form ........................................ 5
A-3.3 Inspection and Certification by B-2 Definitions ..................................... 31
Manufacturer .................................. 5
B-3 General
A-3.4 Information to Be Supplied by
Bidder .............................................. 5 B-3.1 Standard Nomenclature.................. 32
A-3.5 Sanitary Codes................................... 5 B-3.2 Order Form ...................................... 32
B-3.3 Inspection and Certification by
A-4 Specifications Manufacturer ................................ 32
A-4.1 Pump Components............................. 5 B-3.4 Information to Be Supplied by
A-4.2 Oil-Lubricated Pump Column ........ 16 Bidder ............................................ 32
A-4.3 Water-Lubricated Pump B-3.5 Sanitary Codes ................................ 32
Column........................................... 17
B-4 Specifications
A-5 Engineering Data B-4.1 Submersible Motor .......................... 33
A-5.1 Discharge Column Pipe................... 18 B-4.2 Submersible Cable........................... 33
A-5.2 Column-Friction Loss ...................... 18 B-4.3 Surface Plate.................................... 41
A-5.3 Discharge Head Loss....................... 18 B-4.4 Strainer ............................................ 41
A-5.4 Mechanical Friction......................... 20 B-4.5 Discharge Pipe................................. 41
A-5.5 Line-Shaft Selection ........................ 23 B-4.6 Pump Bowls ..................................... 42
B-4.7 Impellers .......................................... 42
A-6 Factory Inspection and Tests B-4.8 Pump Motor Coupling..................... 42
A-6.1 Tests ................................................. 24
B-5 Engineering Data
A-6.2 Running Test ................................... 24
A-6.3 Typical Laboratory Test B-5.1 Discharge Pipe................................. 42
Arrangement ................................. 24 B-5.2 Discharge Friction Loss .................. 42
B-5.3 Discharge-Elbow Head Loss ........... 42

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Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
SEC. PAGE SEC. PAGE

B-6 Factory Inspection and Tests 7 Typical Submersible-Pump


B-6.1 Tests ................................................. 42 Assembly (Bowl Assemblies) ........ 34
B-6.2 Running Test ................................... 43 8 Submersible-Pump Discharge
B-6.3 Typical Laboratory Test Styles and Surface-Plate
Arrangement ................................. 44 Assemblies ..................................... 35
B-6.4 Capacity Measurement ................... 44 9 Head-Loss Chart for Standard
B-6.5 Head Measurement ......................... 46 Pipe ................................................ 43
B-6.6 Velocity Head ................................... 46 10 Head-Loss Chart for 90o Elbow ...... 44
B-6.7 Power Input to Pump Motor........... 46 11 Typical Laboratory-Test
B-6.8 Large-Pump Tests ........................... 46 Arrangement—Submersible
B-6.9 Hydrostatic Tests............................. 46 Vertical Turbine Pumps ............... 45
B-6.10 Recording and Computation of 12 Power-Loss Chart for Three-
Test Results................................... 46 Conductor Copper Cable............... 48
B-6.11 Other Tests ...................................... 49 A.1 Field-Test Diagram for Line-Shaft
Vertical Turbine Deep-Well
Appendices Pump .............................................. 55
A.2 Field-Test Diagram for
A Field Testing of Vertical Submersible Pump ........................ 56
Turbine Pumps A.3 Field-Test Diagram for Vertical
Purpose of Field Tests..................... 50 Turbine Pump for Booster
Accuracy of Field Testing................ 50 Service............................................ 56
Definitions and Symbols ................. 54 A.4 Piping Requirements for Orifices,
Approved Instrumentation.............. 55 Flow Nozzles, and Venturi
Test Procedure ................................. 61 Tubes.............................................. 57
A.5 Field-Test Report Form................... 62
B Suggested Specification Form
for the Purchase of Tables
Vertical Turbine Pumps .......... 66 1 Standard Nomenclature—Line-
Shaft Vertical Turbine Pumps ....... 8
Figures
2 Diameters and Weights of
1 Open Line-Shaft Pump (Surface Standard Discharge Column
Discharge, Threaded Column, Pipe Sizes....................................... 17
and Bowls) ....................................... 6 3 Line-Shaft Selection Chart for
2 Enclosed Line-Shaft Pump Type B Material ............................ 22
(Discharge Below Base, Threaded 4 Standard Nomenclature—
Column, and Bowls)........................ 7 Submersible Vertical Turbine
3 Friction-Loss Chart for Standard Pumps ............................................ 36
Pipe Column .................................. 19 A.1 Limits of Accuracy of Pump-
4 Head Loss in Discharge Heads....... 20 Test Measuring Devices in
5 Mechanical Friction in Line Field Use........................................ 51
Shafts ............................................. 21
6 Typical Laboratory Test
Arrangement—Line-Shaft Vertical
Turbine Pumps.............................. 25

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
Foreword
This foreword is for information only and is not a part of AWWA E101.

I. History of Standard. This standard for vertical turbine pumps presents


the composite findings from studies conducted from 1949 to 1986 by committees
consisting of manufacturers, consumers, and engineers. The first standard was pub-
lished in 1955. In 1961 the standard was revised to include standards for submers-
ible vertical turbine pumps. Additional technical changes were added in the 1971
revision. Solid shaft motors were added in the 1977 revision, together with numer-
ous editorial changes and soft conversions to the international system of units. The
1977 standard was reaffirmed in 1982 without revision.
The standard is intended to serve as a guide in the preparation of specifica-
tions for the procurement of vertical turbine pumps in normal water service, as well
as an aid in designing pumps to be used for special conditions. Material lists are
provided from which the purchaser can select the proper pump metals or alloys for a
particular installation or wear environment. If any special items are not listed by
the purchaser, the selection of pump material will be made by the pump manufac-
turer.
II. Information Regarding Use of This Standard. The pump manufac-
turer will require local basic data prior to furnishing a pump and driver that will
meet the buyer’s needs. The information will include such items as the type of prime
mover and pump that is being requested, as well as the operating range and other
pertinent items that will be necessary in designing the unit. A specification form
that will provide the manufacturer with the needed information, as well as any
exceptions to the standard that the user may wish to include, is given in Appendix
B.
In addition to the information required on the suggested specification form, the
purchaser should include provisions for the following items in supplementary speci-
fications.
1. In all cases
a. Standard used—that is, AWWA E101, Standard for Vertical
Turbine Pumps—Line Shaft and Submersible Types.
b. Certification and test results by manufacturer (Sec. A-3.3.2, Sec. A-
6.2.2,
Sec. B-3.3.2, and Sec. B-6.2.2), if required.
c. Sanitary codes (Sec. A-3.5 and Sec. B-3.5).
d. Liquid to be pumped (Sec. A-1 and Sec. B-1).
e. Details of installation, if other than a well (Sec. A-1 and Sec. B-1).
f. Whether the impellers are to be enclosed, open, or of the semiopen type
(Sec. A-4.2.2 or Sec. A-4.3.2 and Sec. B-4.7), if there is a preference.
g. Performance tests (Sec. A-6.1 and Sec. B-6.1) that will be required, if
any.
h. If field conditions of installation are to be duplicated in the laboratory
test arrangement (Sec. A-6.3 and Sec. B-6.3), provide complete details
and a description of the arrangement.
i. If pump bowl assembly tests are not to be made in open sumps
(Sec. A-6.5 and Sec. B-6.5), specify test conditions.

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Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
j. If bowl size exceeds 20 in. (500 mm) OD, specify the basis for
performance guarantees (Sec. A-6.9.3 and Sec. B-6.8).
k. If tests other than those specified in this standard are to be performed
(Sec. A-6.12 and Sec. B-6.11), specify.
2. For line-shaft vertical turbine pumps, also specify
a. Type of motor, if other than specified in Sec. A-4.1.2.
b. Whether an oil-lubricated pump (Sec. A-4.2) or a water-lubricated pump
(Sec. A-4.3) is desired.
c. Table 1 lists two or more materials for certain parts. If there is a
preference for one material or the other, specify in each instance.
d. Whether pump-column sections are to be joined by threaded couplings
or by flanges.
3. For submersible vertical turbine pumps, also specify
a. Whether a strainer (Sec. B-4.4) will be required.
b. Discharge-elbow head loss (Sec. B-5.3), if this is essential.
c. Table 4 lists two or more materials for certain parts. If there is a
preference for one material or the other, specify in each instance.
d. Whether pump column sections are to be joined by threaded couplings
or by flanges.
III. Major Revisions. The AWWA Standards Committee on Vertical Turbine
Pumps (formerly ANSI B58) was reactivated in 1985 to review the 1977 standard
and to make revisions. The committee made several editorial changes for clarity and
accuracy. The material lists in Tables 1 and 4 were revised to delete references to
obsolete standards and to comply with current manufacturing practices. A formula
for design of shaft couplings was added as Sec. A-4.1.4. Tables for selection of elec-
trical cables for submersible pumps, which were included in earlier standards, were
deleted as not appropriately being a part of a pump standard.

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Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
American Water Works Association

AWWA E101-88
(Revision of ANSI/AWWA E101-77 [R82])

AWWA STANDARD FOR

VERTICAL TURBINE PUMPS— LINE


SHAFT AND SUBMERSIBLE TYPES

Part A— Line-Shaft Vertical Turbine Pumps

SECTION A-1: SCOPE AND PURPOSE


Part A of this standard provides minimum requirements for line-shaft vertical
turbine pumps utilizing discharge column pipe up to and including 16 in. (400 mm)
in size. The standard deals with a pump configuration up to and including the
driver. Only electric motors are referred to as prime movers.
Purchasers who intend to use the pumps for pumping liquids other than clear,
cold water should modify the requirements to fit conditions of intended use, prefer-
ably after consultation with pump manufacturers.

SECTION A-2: DEFINITIONS


A-2.1 Line-shaft vertical turbine pump: A vertical-shaft centrifugal or mixed-
flow pump with rotating impeller or impellers, and with discharge from the pump-
ing element coaxial with the shaft. The pumping element is suspended by the con-
ductor system, which encloses a system of vertical shafting used to transmit power
to the impellers, the prime mover being external to the flow stream.
A-2.2 Pump: For purposes of this standard, a pump may be defined as a de-
vice used to provide energy for initiating or maintaining the movement of liquid. A
pump consists of three elements, defined as follows:

1
Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
2 AWWA E101-88

A-2.2.1 The pump bowl assembly is either a single or multistage, centrifugal or


mixed-flow vertical pump with discharge coaxial with the shaft. It has open,
semiopen, or enclosed impellers. Assemblies are constructed for use with either open
or enclosed line shafts.
A-2.2.2 The column-and-shaft assembly consists of the column pipe that sus-
pends the pump bowl assembly from the head assembly and serves as a conductor
for the fluid from the pump bowl assembly to the discharge head. Contained within
the column pipe is the line shaft, which transmits the power from the driver to the
pump shaft. The line shaft is maintained in alignment throughout its length by
means of bearings and may be enclosed in a shaft-enclosing tube and generally lu-
bricated with oil, or it may be open and lubricated with the fluid that is being
pumped.
A-2.2.3 The head assembly consists of the driver, the base from which the col-
umn-and-shaft assembly and the bowl assembly are suspended, and may include the
discharge head, which directs the fluid into the desired piping system.
A-2.2.3.1 The driver is the mechanism mounted on the head assembly that
transmits or furnishes the power to the top shaft. It may contain the means for
impeller adjustment, and it provides a bearing to carry the thrust load. It may or
may not be a prime mover.
A-2.2.3.2 The discharge tee, in a discharge-below-base installation, is separated
from the head assembly and installed in a column pipe at a desired distance below
the head assembly.
A-2.3 Driver: For purposes of this standard, a driver may be defined as a de-
vice used to provide mechanical energy for the operation of a pump. Types of drivers
are defined as follows:
A-2.3.1 The vertical hollow-shaft motor drive is an electric motor having a mo-
tor shaft that has been bored on the center of its axis to receive the top shaft of the
pump. Impeller adjustment is made at the upper end of the motor, and a means to
carry the thrust on a bearing within the motor is provided.
A-2.3.2 The vertical solid-shaft motor drive is an electric motor having a con-
ventional solid shaft coupled to the top shaft of the pump. The coupling should
provide a means for impeller adjustment. The mechanical and hydraulic thrust of
the pump is carried by a thrust bearing in the motor.
A-2.3.3 The vertical hollow-shaft right-angle gear drive is a gear mechanism
having a shaft that has been bored on the center of its axis to receive the top shaft
of the pump. The horizontal shaft of the gear drive receives its power from the
prime mover and, through a pair of bevel gears, transmits it to the top shaft. Impel-
ler adjustment is made at the upper end of the gear drive, and a means to carry the
thrust on a bearing within the gear drive is provided.
A-2.3.4 The vertical hollow-shaft belted drive is a flat- or V-belt-driven mecha-
nism having a shaft that has been bored on the center of its axis to receive the top
shaft of the pump. Impeller adjustment is made at the upper end of the belted drive,
and a means to carry the thrust on a bearing within the belted drive is provided.
A-2.3.5 The combination drive includes a means for operating the pump with
two or more prime movers.
A-2.4 Datum: The elevation of that surface from which the weight of the
pump is supported. This is normally the elevation of the underside of the discharge
head or head base plate.

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
VERTICAL TURBINE PUMPS 3

A-2.5 Setting: The nominal vertical distance, in feet (metres), from the datum
to the column pipe connection at the bowl assembly.
A-2.6 Static water level: The vertical distance, in feet (metres), from the da-
tum to the level of the atmospheric surface while no water is being drawn from the
pool.
A-2.7 Pumping water level: The vertical distance, in feet (metres), from the
datum to the level of the atmospheric surface while the specified fluid flow is being
drawn from the pool.
A-2.8 Drawdown: The difference, in feet (metres), between the pumping water
level and the static water level.
A-2.9 Specific yield: The rate of flow being pumped for a well divided by the
total drawdown as measured during the metered flow rate. It is expressed in US
gallons per minute per foot of drawdown (litres per second per metre of drawdown).
A-2.10 Pump capacity (Q): The volume rate of flow, expressed in gallons per
minute (cubic metres per hour), produced by the pump, calculated for specified con-
ditions.
A-2.11 Pump speed of rotation (n): The rate of rotation of the pump shaft,
expressed in revolutions per minute or revolutions per second.
A-2.12 Head: A quantity used to express the energy content of the liquid per
unit weight of the liquid, referred to any arbitrary datum. In terms of foot-pounds
(metre-kilograms) of energy per pound (kilogram) being pumped, all head quantities
have the dimension of feet (metres) of liquid.
A-2.12.1 Head below datum hb is the vertical distance, in feet (metres), be-
tween the datum and the pumping water level.
A-2.12.2 Head above datum ha is the head measured above the datum, ex-
pressed in feet (metres) of liquid, plus the velocity head (Sec. A-2.12.3) at the point
of measurement.
A-2.12.3 Velocity head hv is the kinetic energy per unit weight of the liquid at
a given section, expressed in feet (metres) of liquid. Velocity head is specifically
defined by the expression

v2
hv = ———— (Eq 1)
2g

Where:
v = velocity, in feet per second (metres per second)
g = 32.17 ft /s2 (9.81 m/s2)

A-2.12.4 Suction head hs (closed system) is the algebraic sum of the pressure
in feet (metres) of liquid (measured at the pump suction connection) and the velocity
head at that point. Pump suction connection is the point at which the suction piping
is attached to the pump bowl assembly or its enclosing vessel. Note that a negative
suction head will add to the vertical distance from the datum, due to the algebraic
subtraction of a negative quantity.

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
4 AWWA E101-88

A-2.12.5 Pump total head H is the bowl assembly head (Sec. A-2.12.6) minus
the column loss (Sec. A-2.12.7) and discharge head loss (Sec. A-2.12.8). This is the
head generally called for in pump specifications.
A-2.12.5.1 On open-suction installations, pump total head is the sum of the
head below datum and the head above datum.
A-2.12.5.2 On closed-suction installations, pump total head is the head above
datum plus the vertical distance, in feet (metres), from the datum to the pump
suction connection minus the suction head.
A-2.12.6 Bowl assembly head h1 is the energy imparted to the liquid by the
pump bowl assembly, expressed in feet (metres) of liquid. It is the head developed at
the discharge connection of the bowl assembly and is an integral multiple of the
head per stage as shown on the catalog rating chart, depending on the number of
stages in the bowl assembly.
A-2.12.7 The column loss hc is the value of the head loss, expressed in feet
(metres), caused by the flow friction in the column pipe.
A-2.12.8 Discharge head loss he is the value of the head loss, expressed in feet
(metres), caused by the flow friction in the discharge head assembly.
A-2.13 Line-shaft loss: The power, expressed in horsepower (kilowatts), re-
quired to overcome the rotation friction of the line shaft. This value is added to the
bowl assembly input (Sec. A-2.14.3) to predict the pump input (Sec. A-2.14.1).
A-2.14 Power is expressed in units of horsepower (kilowatts). One horsepower
is equivalent to 550 ft-lb/s, 33,000 ft-lb/min, 2545 Btu/h, or 0.746 kW.
A-2.14.1 Pump power input is the power delivered to the top shaft by the
driver, expressed in horsepower (kilowatts).
A-2.14.2 Driver power input is the power input to the driver, expressed in
horsepower (kilowatts).
A-2.14.3 Bowl assembly power input is the power delivered to the bowl assem-
bly shaft, expressed in horsepower (kilowatts).
A-2.15 Pump power output: For water having a specific weight of 62.4 lb/ft3,
(relative density of 1.0), pump power output is defined as QH/3960. Pump power
output is expressed in horsepower (hp × 0.746 = kW) when Q is in gallons per
minute and H is in feet of water.
A-2.16 Bowl output: For water having a specific weight of 62.4 lb/ft3 (relative
density of 1.0), bowl output is defined as Qh1/3960. Bowl output is expressed in
horsepower (hp × 0.746 = kW) when Q is in gallons per minute and h1 is in feet of
water.
A-2.17 Pump efficiency (Ep): The ratio of pump power output to pump input,
expressed in percent.
A-2.18 Overall efficiency (E): The ratio of pump power output to prime mover
power input, expressed in percent.
A-2.19 Driver efficiency (Eg): The ratio of the driver power output to the driver
power input, expressed in percent.
A-2.20 Bowl assembly efficiency E1: The ratio of the bowl output to the bowl
assembly input, expressed in percent. This is the efficiency that is usually shown on
catalog rating charts.

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
VERTICAL TURBINE PUMPS 5

SECTION A.3: GENERAL


Sec. A-3.1 Standard Nomenclature
Table 1 (page 8) lists the names of parts in vertical turbine pumps, the func-
tion of each part, the material or materials from which the part is typically made,
and the ASTM* material designation. In the table, parts are listed by number; the
part number refers to the numbers in Figures 1 and 2 (pages 6 and 7).
Sec. A-3.2 Order Form
A specification form recommended for use in purchasing vertical turbine pumps
is given in Appendix B.

Sec. A-3.3 Inspection and Certification by Manufacturer


A-3.3.1 The manufacturer shall establish the necessary quality-control and in-
spection practices to ensure compliance with this standard.
A-3.3.2 The manufacturer shall, if required by the purchaser’s supplemental
specifications, furnish a sworn statement that the equipment furnished under the
purchaser’s order complies with all applicable requirements of this standard.
Sec. A-3.4 Information to Be Supplied by Bidder
The bidder shall submit, with its proposal, sufficient descriptive material or
outline drawings to demonstrate compliance with this standard and the purchaser’s
supplemental specifications, and a performance curve showing pump total head,
pump input power, and pump efficiency over the specified head range for the in-
stalled pump.

Sec. A-3.5 Sanitary Codes


The pump shall conform to the sanitary codes governing the installation. The
purchaser shall furnish, as part of these specifications, all information necessary for
the construction of the pump to meet these requirements.

SECTION A-4: SPECIFICATIONS


Sec. A-4.1 Pump Components
A-4.1.1 Pump base. A suitable base of cast iron or fabricated steel shall be
provided for mounting the driver and supporting the pump column.
A-4.1.2 Driver. With electric power, the motor, unless specified otherwise by
the purchaser, shall be of the full-voltage starting, vertical hollow-shaft squirrel-cage
induction type, and shall comply with ANSI C50.10.† The connection to the top shaft
shall be through a coupling or clutch in the motor head. The motor shall be of the

*American Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race St., Philadelphia, PA 19103.
†ANSI C50.10—General Requirements for Synchronous Machines. Available from
American National Standards Institute, 1430 Broadway, New York, NY 10018.

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
6 AWWA E101-88

Figure 1 Open line-shaft pump (surface discharge, threaded column and bowls).

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
VERTICAL TURBINE PUMPS 7

Figure 2 Enclosed line-shaft pump (discharge below base, threaded column and bowls).

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
Table 1 Standard Nomenclature—Line-Shaft Vertical Turbine Pumps

Part &pical ASTM


NO.*
Name of Part Ma~erial Designation Function of Part
1 Top shatt adjusting nut Bronze B505 or B584, ALY 836 Means of adjusting impellers vertically by raising or
Steel A108 Gr B1113 lowering shaft
Ductile iron A536 Gr 65-45-12

2 Adjusting nut lock screw Steel A108 Gr 1018 Locks adjusting nut in place so that adjustment
or lock washer GrBll13 cannot change while pump is in operation
Gr1213

3 Top drive coupling Part of motor — Couples top shatl with motor rotor
4 Key for top drive coupling . Steel A108 Keys top shaft to tQp drive coupling
5 Motor — — Drives pump

6 Water slinger Steel A108Gr Bll13 Keeps packing box leakage from shooting directly
Rubber into hollow shaft of motor or driver unit

7 Surface discharge head Cast iron A48 Class 30 Supports driver and pump colum~ discharges
Steel water from pump column

8 Stufling-box studs and Steel A307 Gr A or B Fastened in stuffing box to adjust


hexagonal nuts (cap screws) Brass B16 stutling-box gland
Stainless steel A193

9 Stuffing-box gland Bronze B584 ALY 836 Compresses and holds packing in place
Cast iron A48 Class 30

10 Stuffing-box lubrication fittings Steel — Conduct grease to packing and journal bearing
Copper —

Rubber — Placed under seat of packing containers to prevent


11 Stuffig-box gasket
Vellumoid — leakage

Commercial item — Conduct water to keep water-lubricated bearings


12 Prelubncation fittings
wet during starting cycle

Top-shaft sleeve Stainless steel A276 Type 304 Sleeve operating within packed area in top shaft
13
Type 410 on open line-shaft pumps
Type 416

Head base plate Cast iron A48 Class 30 Plate or casting that supports discharge head and
14
Steel A36 may become permanent part of foundation after
initial installation

4$- ___
-——.
—.—
. —-— @
Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
VERTICAL TURBINE PUMPS 9
m’
I I
Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
:
Table 1—continued
b
Part Typical ASTM 2
>
No.* Name of Part Material Designation Function of Part
m
+
28 Column pipe Steel A53 Gr A Column pipe between top column and bottom column S
pipe; usually made of standard steel pipe b
A120 co

29 Open line-shaft sleeves Stainless steel A276 Type 302 Sleeve operating as journal for bearings
Type 304
Type 410
Type 416

30 Bottom column pipe P Steel A53 Gr A First section of column immediately above
A120 discharge case or discharge bowl

31 Bowl-assembly shaft coupling Steel A108 Gr 1144 Connects bottom shaft to bowl-assembly shaft; may
Gr 1213 be tapped with two different thread diameters

32 Bowl-assembly shaft Stainless steel A276 Type 410 Supports impellers; coupled to line shaft
Type 416

33 Discharge bowl Cast iron A48 Class 30 Receives flow from top impeller and guides it to
pump column

34 Top bowl bearing Rubber — Supports portion of bowl-assembly shaft


Bronze B505 or B584
ALY 836
ALY 838
ALY 844
ALY 848
ALY 932
ALY 935
ALY 937
ALY 938
ALY 943

35 Intermediate bowl bearing Rubber — Supports portion of bowl-assembly shaft


Bronze B505 or B584
ALY 836
ALY 838
ALY 844
ALY 848
ALY 932
ALY 935

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.

.,. ,- 4!
ALY 937
ALY 938
ALY 943

36 Intermediate bowl Cast iron A48 Class 30 Guides flow received from impeller to next impeller
above

37 Impeller collet lock nut$ Steel A108Gr Bll13 Used to pull impeller on collet; locks collet in place

38 Impeller Cast iron A48 Class 30 Pumping element; receives water and impels it
Bronze B584 ALY 836 centrifugally to bowl passage
ALY838
ALY844
ALY848
ALY875

39 Impeller lock collet ‘ Stainless steel A276 Type 416 Locks impeller to shaft
Steel A108 Gr B1113
Gr 1020
Gr 1213

40 Suction case Cast iron A48 Class 30 Receives water from well; guides to first impeller

41 Suction-case bearing Rubber — Supports bottom portion of pump shaft


Bronze B505 or B584
ALY 836
ALY 838
ALY 844
ALY 848
ALY 932
ALY 935
ALY 937
ALY 938
ALY 943

*See Figures 1 and 2.


~0.L.-oil lubricated.
$W.L.—water lubricated.
$Optional—these items are not furnished by all manufacturers.

Table continues on next page

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
w
Table 1—continued N

>
Part Typical ASTM
3
NO.* Name of Part Material Designation Function of Part *
..
M
— +
42 Strainer Steel Keeps large foreign material out of pumps o
+
Stainless steel — 60
co
43 Discharge companion flange Commercial item — Seals joints between surface discharge head or
gasket underground elbow and companion flange

44 Discharge companion flange Commercial item — Connects discharge pipe to integrally cast flanges on
discharge head or underground discharge elbow

45 Discharge pipe Commercial item — Conducts water away from pump

46 Solenoid oil valve Commercial item — Starts oil flow to line-shaft bearings when motor is
started

47 Sight-feed oil valve Commercial item — Means of adjusting oil flow to line-shaft bearings

48 Tubing tension nut cap$ Bronze B145 Covers top of oil tube to prevent entrance of dust
Cast iron A48 Class 30

49 Water-level indicator assembly Commercial item — Determines water level in well

50 Enclosed line-shaft bearing Bronze B505, B584 Guides and supports shaft section; may couple
connecting sections of enclosing tube

51 Shaft-enclosing tube Steel A53 Gr A Encloses line shaft


A120

52 Below-base discharge tee Cast iron A48 Class 30 Changes flow from vertical to horizontal when dis-
Steel A120 charge is below surface; also forms part of column

53 Tubing adapter Bronze B505 or B584 Encloses shaft; adapts standard tube size to off-
ALY 836 standard tube size
ALY 838
ALY 844
ALY 848
Steel A120, A53
Cast iron A48 Class 30

54 Discharge case Cast iron A48 Class 30 Guides flow to pump column

4!? ...
.=:,.- —.— e’
Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.

,., B
..
55 Top bowl Cast iron A48 Class 30 Receives flow from tQp impeller and guides it to
discharge case

56 Bypass seal$ Commercial item — Restricts leakage from bowls to oil tube; seals off
passages from enclosing tube

57 Impeller seal ring$ Cast iron A48 Class 30 Provides water seal at impeller
Bronze B505 or B584
ALY 836
ALY 838
ALY 844
ALY 848
ALY 932
ALY 935
ALY 937
ALY 938
ALY 943
B148

58 Suction-case sand collar$ Bronze B505 or B584 Prevents sand from entering suction-case bearing
ALY 836

59 Suction-case plug Malleable iron A47 Plugs suction-case grease container

60 Oil-gauge assembly for Part of motor . Shows level of oil in motor-oil reservoir
motor bearings

61 Packing follower$ Cast iron A48 Class 30 Tightens packing around enclosing tube

62 Below-base discharge head Cast iron A48 Class 30 Supports motor above foundation when discharge is
below base

63 Tubing tension nut Cast iron A48 Class 30 Maintains tension on shaft-enclosing tube
Bronze B584 ALY 836
ALY838
ALY844
ALY848

64 Leek nut for tubing tension nut Cast iron A48 Class 30 Locks tubing tension nut

65 Enclosing tube stabilizer Rubber — Stabilizes shaft-enclosing tube

*See Figures 1 and 2.


tO.L.-oil lubricated.
$W.L.—water lubricated.
$Optional—these items are not furnished by all manufacturers.

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
14 AWWA E101-88

proper size to drive the pump continuously over the specified operating range with-
out the load exceeding the nameplate rating of the motor. The motor shall be rated
as drip proof with class B insulation and with a 1.15 service factor.
With an engine drive, the power shall be applied to the pump shaft through a
right-angle gear drive. The connection to the vertical shaft shall be through a cou-
pling or clutch in the gear head. The horizontal shaft shall rotate in the same direc-
tion as the engine drive, and shall be connected to the engine by a flexible shaft
coupling.
An optional method of driving, for an engine or horizontal electric motor, shall
be a belted drive—either a flat belt on a modified cylindrical pulley or a V-belt on a
V-groove pulley.
Rotation of the vertical shaft shall be counterclockwise when viewed from
above.
A thrust bearing of ample capacity to carry the weight of all rotating parts plus
the hydraulic thrust at maximum operating conditions shall be incorporated into the
driver. For antifriction bearings, the bearings shall be of such capacity that the
AFBMA* calculated rating life (L10) shall be no less than 8800 h. If the design and
operating conditions are such that upthrust can occur, then proper provisions shall
be made to accommodate the upthrust. This shall be done by the supplier.
A-4.1.3 Suction pipe and strainer. A strainer, if required, shall have a net in-
let area equal to at least three times the suction pipe area. The maximum opening
shall not be more than 75 percent of the minimum opening of the water passage
through the bowl or impeller.
A-4.1.4 Shaft couplings. Line shafts shall be coupled with steel couplings that
shall have a left-hand thread to tighten during pump operation. The maximum com-
bined shear stress, determined by the following formula, shall not exceed 20 percent
of the elastic limit in tension nor be more than 12 percent of the ultimate tensile
strength of the shafting steel used.

————————————————————————————
S = √ [ 2F
—————————
π (D – d )
2 2
2
+
321,000P
—————————
3
n (D – d )3
2
] [ ] (Eq 2)

Where:
S = combined shear stress, in pounds per square inch
F = total axial thrust of the shaft, including hydraulic thrust plus the
weight of the shaft and all rotating parts supported by it, in pounds
D = outside diameter of the coupling, in inches
d = inside diameter of the coupling at the root of the threads, in inches
P = power transmitted by the shaft, in horsepower
n = rotational speed of the shaft, in revolutions per minute

*Anti-Friction Bearing Manufacturers Association, 1101 Connecticut Ave. N.W., Suite 700,
Washington, DC 20036.

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
‘1
VERTICAL TURBINE PUMPS 15

NOTE: in. x 25.40 = mm; lb x 0.454 = kg; psi x 6.895 = kPa; hp x 0.746 = kW;
rpm x 0.0167 = rps.

A-4.1.5 Bowl assembly shaft. The bowl assembly shaft shall have a surface
finish not to exceed RMS-40 (ANSI B46.1 *), and it shall be supported by bearings
above and below each impeller. The minimum size of the shaft shall be determined
by the following formula for steady loads of diffuser-type pumps with shaft in ten-
sion due to hydraulic thrust:

~3 16 FD 2+ 369,000P 2
= (Eq 3)
7S J( 8 )( 27t n )

or

s = N( 2F2
n D2 )( +
321 ,000P

nD3 )
2
(Eq 4)

or

P = ‘D3 d
321,000
S2-( ; )2 (Eq 5)

Where:
D= shaft diameter at the root of the threads or the minimum diameter of
any undercut, in inches
s= combined shear stress, in pounds per square inch
F= total axial thrust of the shaft, including hydraulic thrust plus the
weight of the shaft and all rotating parts supported by it, in pounds
P= power transmitted by the shaft, in horsepower
n= Notational speed of the shaft, in revolutions per minute

NOTE: in. x 25.40 = mm; lb x 0.454 = kg; psi x 6.895 = kPa; hp x 0.746 = kW;
rpm x 0.0167 = rps.

The maximum combined shear stress S shall not exceed 30 percent of the elas-
tic limit in tension or be more than 18 percent of the ultimate tensile strength of the
shafling steel used.
The straightness and machining tolerances shall be the same as those given in
Sec. A-4.2.3 or Sec. A-4.3.3.

*ANSI B46.1-Surface Texture (Surface Roughness, Waviness, and Lay). Available from
American National Standards Institute, 1430 Broadway, New York, NY 10018.

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
16 AWWA E101-88

Sec. A-4.2 Oil-Lubricated Pump Column


A-4.2.1 Pump bowls. The castings shall be free of blowholes, sand holes, and
other detrimental defects. The bowls shall be capable of withstanding a hydrostatic
pressure equal to twice the pressure at rated capacity or 11/2 times shut-off head,
whichever is greater. Bowls may be equipped with replaceable seal rings on the
suction side of enclosed impellers. The discharge case shall be provided with a
means of reducing to a minimum the leakage of water into the shaft-enclosing tube,
and must have bypass ports of sufficient area to permit the escape of water through
the seal or bushing.
A-4.2.2 Impellers. The impellers shall be of the enclosed, semiopen, or open
type, statically balanced. They shall be fastened securely to the impeller shaft with
keys, taper bushings, lock nuts, or split thrust rings. They shall be adjustable verti-
cally by means of a nut in the driver or an adjustable coupling between the pump
and the driver.
A-4.2.3 Line shafts. The line shafts shall be of a material listed in Table 1 and
have a surface finish not to exceed RMS 40 (ANSI B46.1), and of a size that con-
forms to Sec. A-4.1.5. For convenience, Table 3 (on page 22) may be used. The shaft
shall be furnished in interchangeable sections having a nominal length not to exceed
20 ft (6 m). To ensure accurate alignment of the shafts, they shall be straight within
0.005 in. (0.13 mm) total indicator reading for a 10-ft (3-m) section; the butting faces
shall be machined with center relief and square to the axis of the shaft; the maxi-
mum permissible error in the axial alignment of the thread axis with the axis of the
shaft shall be 0.002 in. in 6 in. (0.05 mm in 150 mm). The line shaft shall be coupled
with steel couplings that comply with the requirements of Sec. A-4.1.4.
A-4.2.4 Line-shaft bearings. The line-shaft bearings, which are also integral
tube couplings, shall be spaced not more than 5 ft (1.5 m) apart. The maximum
angle error of the thread axis to the bore axis shall be within 0.001 in. per in. (0.001
mm per mm) of thread length. The concentricity of the bore to the threads shall be
within 0.005 in. (0.13 mm) total indicator reading. The bearings must contain one or
more oil grooves or a separate bypass hole that will readily allow the oil to flow
through and lubricate the bearings below.
A-4.2.5 Shaft-enclosing tube. The shaft-enclosing tube shall be made of sched-
ule 80 steel pipe in interchangeable sections not more than 5 ft (1.5 m) in length.
The ends of the enclosing tube shall be square with the axis and shall butt to ensure
accurate alignment. The maximum angle error of the thread axis relative to the bore
axis shall be 0.001 in. per in. (0.001 mm per mm) of thread length. The enclosing
tube shall be stabilized in the column pipe by stabilizers.
A-4.2.6 Discharge column pipe. The pipe size shall be such that the friction
loss will not exceed 5 ft per 100 ft (5 cm per m), based on the rated capacity of the
pump. The pipe shall be furnished in interchangeable sections having a nominal
length of 10 ft (3 m); shall conform to the provisions in Table 2; and shall be con-
nected by threaded-sleeve couplings or flanges. The ends of each section of the pipe
may be faced parallel and machined with threads to permit ends to butt, or they
may be fixed with ANSI B1.20.1 standard tapered pipe threads.
A-4.2.7 Discharge-head assembly. At the surface or below-base discharge head,
a proper lubrication system must be installed. It shall consist of a manually oper-
ated sight-feed drip lubricator and an oil reservoir, constructed as an integral part
of the head or as a separate auxiliary unit. A tubing tension nut shall be installed in

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
VERTICAL TURBINE PUMPS 17

Table 2 Diameters and Weights of Standard Discharge Column Pipe Sizes

Nominal Size (ID) OD Weight (Plain Ends)


in. (mm) in. (mm) lb/ft (kg/m)
2 1/2 (65) 2.875 (73.0) 5.79 (8.62)
3 (75) 3.500 (88.9) 7.58 (11.28)
4 (100) 4.500 (114.3) 10.79 (16.06)
5 (125) 5.563 (141.3) 14.62 (21.76)
6 (150) 6.625 (168.3) 18.97 (28.23)
8 (200) 8.625 (219.1) 24.70 (36.76)
10 (255) 10.750 (273.0) 31.20 (46.43)
12 (305) 12.750 (323.8) 43.77 (65.14)
14* (355) 14.000 (355.6) 54.57 (81.21)
16* (405) 16.000 (406.4) 62.58 (93.13)
*OD

the head to allow tension to be placed on the shaft-enclosing tube. Provision must be
made for sealing off the thread at the tension nut.
Sec. A-4.3 Water-Lubricated Pump Column
A-4.3.1 Pump bowls. The castings shall be free of blowholes, sand holes, and
other detrimental defects. The bowls shall be capable of withstanding a hydrostatic
pressure equal to twice the pressure at rated capacity or 11/2 times shut-off head,
whichever is greater. Bowls may be equipped with replaceable seal rings on the
suction side of enclosed impellers.
A-4.3.2 Impellers. The impellers shall be of the enclosed, semiopen, or open
type, statically balanced. They shall be fastened securely to the impeller shaft with
keys, taper bushings, or lock nuts. They shall be adjustable vertically by means of a
nut in the driver or an adjustable coupling between the pump and the driver.
A-4.3.3 Line shafts. The line shafts shall be of a material listed in Table 1 and
have a surface finish not to exceed RMS 40 (ANSI B46.1), and of a size that con-
forms to Sec. A-4.1.5 of this standard. For convenience, Table 3 (on page 22) may be
used. The shaft shall be furnished in interchangeable sections having a nominal
length of 10 ft (3 m). To ensure accurate alignment of the shafts, they shall be
straight within 0.005 in. (0.13 mm) total indicator reading for a 10-ft (3-m) section;
the butting faces shall be machined square to the axis of the shaft; the maximum
permissible error in the axial alignment of the thread axis with the axis of the shaft
shall be 0.002 in. in 6 in. (0.05 mm in 150 mm). The line shaft shall be coupled with
steel couplings complying with the requirements of Sec. A-4.1.4. The shaft shall be
provided with a noncorrosive wearing surface at the location of each guide bearing.
A-4.3.4 Line-shaft bearings. The shaft bearings shall be designed for vertical
turbine pump service, to be lubricated by the liquid pumped. They shall be mounted
in bearing retainers that shall be held in position in the column couplings by means
of the butted ends of the column pipes. The bearings shall be spaced at intervals of
not more than 10 ft (3 m).
A-4.3.5 Discharge column pipe. The pipe size shall be such that the friction
loss will not exceed 5 ft per 100 ft (5 cm per metre), based on the rated capacity of
the pump. The pipe shall be furnished in interchangeable sections having a nominal
length of not more than 10 ft (3 m); shall conform to the specifications in Table 2;

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
18 AWWA E101-88

and shall be connected with threaded sleeve-type couplings or flanges. The ends of
each section of column pipe shall be faced parallel and the threads machined to such
a degree that the ends will butt against the bearing retainer shoulder to ensure
proper alignment and to secure the bearing retainers when assembled.
A-4.3.6 Discharge-head assembly. The pump shall be provided with a dis-
charge head of the surface or underground type, as required, and shall be provided
with a shaft packing box and a renewable bronze bushing. The head shall also in-
clude a prelubrication connection to wet down the line-shaft bearings adequately
before starting the pump.
A-4.3.7 Prelubrication. On installations with a setting of more than 50 ft (15
m), provisions shall be made by the manufacturer to prelubricate line-shaft bearings
adequately before the pump is started.
If manual control is used and a source of fresh water under pressure is not
available, a prelubricating tank, with the necessary valves and fittings to connect it
to the pump, shall be provided. The size of the tank shall be adequate to permit a
thorough wetdown of all the line-shaft bearings before the power is applied, with an
adequate reserve for repeating the process in the event that the pump does not start
the first time.
If an automatic system is used, bypass fittings or other suitable means shall be
provided to bring the prelubricating water from ahead of the check valve into the
prelubricating opening of the discharge head. Normally this implies the use of a
time-delay relay in the starting system and a solenoid valve in the prelubricating
line.
A-4.3.8 Ratchets. Water-lubricated vertical turbine pumps having a setting of
50 ft (15 m) or more shall be provided with a nonreverse mechanism in the motor to
protect the line shaft and the motor from reverse rotation when the power is inter-
rupted and the water empties from the discharge column.

SECTION A-5: ENGINEERING DATA


Sec. A-5.1 Discharge Column Pipe
Diameters and weights of standard discharge column pipe sizes are given in
Table 2.
Sec. A-5.2 Column-Friction Loss
The column-friction chart (Figure 3) should be used as a design guide to deter-
mine the loss of head due to column friction. This chart was compiled from data on
head loss where the flow is between the inside diameter of the column pipe and the
outside diameter of the shaft-enclosing tube.
For open line shafting, assume the head losses to be equal to those indicated in
Figure 3 for a shaft-enclosing tube of a size that would normally enclose the open
line shaft in question.

Sec. A-5.3 Discharge Head Loss


The discharge head loss chart (Figure 4) should be used to determine the hy-
draulic losses in the discharge head. Losses in discharge heads vary with the size
of the head; the design of the head; and the size of tubing or shaft, column, and
discharge pipe used. Figure 4 represents estimated average losses based on

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
VERTICAL TURBINE PUMPS 19

NOTE: Friction loss determined by laboratory tests on new pipe (C = 140).


Diagonals are labeled to show nominal diameters (in inches) of outer pipe column and inner shaft-enclosing tube. For the outer
pipe columns, the calculations used in constructing the chart were based on inside diameters, which are close to the nominal
sizes for pipe up to and including 12 in. (for example, 10 in. = 10.2-in. ID). For pipe sizes 14 in. and larger, the diameters shown
are equivalent to the outside diameter of pipe with 3/8-in. wall thickness (for example, 16 in. = 15 1/4-in. ID). For the inner col-
umns (shaft-enclosing tubes), the calculations were based on the outside diameters of standard or extra-heavy pipe. Thus, “8 ×
2” on the chart is actually 8.071 × 2 3/8, and “16 × 3” is 15 1/4 × 3 1/2.
Conversion factor: in. × 25.40 = mm.

Figure 3 Friction-loss chart for standard pipe column.

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
20 AWWA E101-88

Conversion factor: in. × 25.40 = mm.

Figure 4 Head loss in discharge heads.

manufacturers’ information. When extreme accuracy is imperative, actual loss


measurements in the discharge head—with the correct tubing or shaft, column, and
discharge pipe—should be specified on the bid request by the purchaser.
Sec. A-5.4 Mechanical Friction
The mechanical-friction chart (Figure 5) should be used to determine the added
horsepower required to overcome the mechanical friction in rotating the line shaft.
The chart was compiled from test data submitted by representative turbine-pump
manufacturers. Variations in designs used by individual manufacturers may affect
the figures slightly.

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
VERTICAL TURBINE PUMPS 21

NOTE: The chart shows values for enclosed shaft with oil or water lubrication and drip feed, or for open shaft with water lubrica-
tion. For enclosed shaft with flooded tube, read two times the value of friction shown on the chart.

Figure 5 Mechanical friction in line shafts.

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
22 AWWA E101-88

Table 3 Line-Shaft Selection Chart for Type B Material*

Pump Thrust—1000 lb (kN)


Shaft 1 2 3 5 7.5 10 15 20 30
Diameter Speed (4.448) (8.896) (13.344) (22.24) (33.36) (44.48) (66.72) (88.96) (133.44)
in. (mm) rpm Power Rating—hp (hp × 0.746 = kW)

3/4 (19.05) 3500 39.7 38.8 37.4 32.4


2900 32.9 32.2 31.0 26.9
1760 20.0 19.5 18.8 16.3
1460 16.6 16.2 15.6 13.5

1 (25.40) 3500 94.5 93.8 93.0 89.5 82.5


2900 78.3 77.7 77.0 74.2 68.4
1760 47.5 47.2 46.7 45.0 41.5
1460 39.4 39.1 38.7 37.3 34.4

1 3/16 (30.16) 3500 167.0 167.0 166.0 163.0 157.0 149.0


2900 138.4 138.4 137.5 135.1 130.1 123.5
1760 84.0 84.0 83.5 82.0 79.0 75.0
1460 69.6 69.6 69.2 67.9 65.5 62.1

1 7/16 (36.51) 3500 296.0 294.0 289.0 283.0 264.0


2900 245.3 243.6 239.5 234.5 218.7
1760 149.0 146.0 145.0 142.0 133.0
1460 123.5 121.0 120.1 117.7 110.2
1160 98.3 97.6 96.0 94.0 87.6
960 81.4 80.8 79.5 77.8 72.5

1 1/2 (38.10) 3500 336.0 334.0 330.0 324.0 306.0


2900 278.4 276.7 273.4 268.5 253.5
1760 169.0 168.0 166.0 163.0 154.0
1460 140.0 139.2 137.5 135.1 127.6
1160 111.2 110.7 109.2 107.2 101.4
960 92.0 91.6 90.4 88.7 83.9

1 11/16 (42.86) 1760 252.0 251.0 248.0 246.0 239.0 227.0


1460 209.1 208.2 205.7 204.1 198.3 188.3
1160 166.0 165.0 164.0 162.0 157.0 150.0
960 137.4 136.6 135.7 134.1 129.9 124.1
860 123.0 122.0 121.0 120.0 117.0 111.0
710 101.6 100.7 99.9 99.1 96.6 91.6
*Steel with a minimum elastic limit of 40,000 psi (276,000 kPa) and a minimum ultimate tensile strength
of 67,000 psi (462,000 kPa).

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
VERTICAL TURBINE PUMPS 23

Table 3— continued

Pump Thrust—1000 lb (kN)


Shaft 1 2 3 5 7.5 10 15 20 30
Diameter Speed (4.448) (8.896) (13.344) (22.24) (33.36) (44.48) (66.72) (88.96) (133.44)
in. (mm) rpm Power Rating—hp (hp × 0.746 = kW)

1 15/16 (49.21) 1760 393.0 392.0 390.0 382.0 373.0 345.0


1460 326.0 325.2 323.5 316.9 309.4 286.2
1160 259.0 258.0 257.0 252.0 246.0 228.0
960 214.3 213.5 212.7 208.6 203.6 188.7
860 192.0 192.0 191.0 187.0 182.0 169.0
710 158.5 158.5 157.7 154.4 150.3 139.5
2 3/16 (55.56) 1760 578.0 577.0 576.0 570.0 562.0 538.0
1460 479.5 478.7 477.8 472.8 466.2 446.3
1160 382.0 381.0 380.0 376.0 371.0 355.0
960 316.1 315.3 314.5 311.2 307.0 293.8
860 283.0 282.0 281.0 279.0 275.0 263.0
710 233.6 232.8 232.0 230.3 227.0 217.1
2 7/16 (61.91) 1760 816.0 815.0 810.0 802.0 781.0
1460 676.9 676.1 671.9 665.3 647.9
1160 537.0 537.0 533.0 529.0 515.0
960 444.4 444.4 441.1 437.8 426.2
860 398.0 398.0 395.0 392.0 381.0
710 328.6 328.6 326.1 323.6 314.6
2 11/16 (68.26) 1760 1070.0 1062.0 1055.0 1035.0
1460 887.6 881.0 875.2 858.6
1160 703.0 700.0 696.0 682.0
960 581.8 579.3 576.0 564.4
860 520.0 518.0 515.0 505.0
710 429.3 427.7 425.2 416.9

Sec. A-5.5 Line-Shaft Selection


Line-shaft selection shall be made in accordance with the following procedure
using Table 3, or shall be calculated for the specific material used in accordance
with Sec. A-4.2.3 or Sec. A-4.3.3.
A-5.5.1 Table 3 does not limit the maximum rotative speed of shafts, the maxi-
mum setting of shafts, or the bearing spacing used with the shafting.
A-5.5.2 Table 3 defines the maximum recommended horsepower for a given
size of shaft, taking into account the effect of the hydraulic thrust of the pumping
equipment and the weight of the shaft and suspended rotating parts. The table is
applicable to any steel having a minimum elastic limit of 40,000 psi (276,000 kPa)
and a minimum ultimate tensile strength of 67,000 psi (462,000 kPa).
A-5.5.3 Horsepower ratings shown in Table 3 and calculated in accordance
with Sec. A-4.1.5 represent maximum loads and should not be increased by electric-
motor service factors.

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
24 AWWA E101-88

SECTION A-6: FACTORY INSPECTION AND TESTS


Sec. A-6.1 Tests
A-6.1.1 The procedure for determining the performance of a vertical turbine
pump by making a factory laboratory test of the bowl assembly and then calculating
the anticipated field performance is described below. Performance tests shall be
made only when specified in the purchaser’s inquiry and order. The inquiry and
order shall specify which of the following are required:
1. Running test.
2. Witnessed running test.
3. Sample calculation from test readings.
4. Shop inspection.
5. Hydrostatic test of discharge head.
6. Hydrostatic test of bowl assembly.
If other tests are required, the purchaser shall describe them in detail.
A-6.1.2 The manufacturer shall notify the purchaser not less than five days
prior to the date that the pump or pumps will be ready for inspection or witness
test.
Sec. A-6.2 Running Test
A-6.2.1 The pump bowl assembly will be operated from zero capacity to the
maximum capacity shown on the performance curve submitted with the manufac-
turer’s bid. Readings shall be taken at a minimum of five capacity points, including
one point within ± 2 percent of the design capacity specified on the request for bid.
The pump shall be operated at a speed within ± 5 percent of the design speed.
This does not apply to model or slow-speed tests described in Sec. A-6.9.
A-6.2.2 At the conclusion of the test, three copies of the anticipated fieldperfor-
mance curve shall be supplied to the purchaser, unless the purchaser requests test
curves based on the actual test data without corrections for anticipated field per-
formance.

Sec. A-6.3 Typical Laboratory Test Arrangement


Figure 6 shows a typical laboratory arrangement for the testing of a line-shaft
vertical turbine pump. A test laboratory will normally be constructed to provide
favorable suction conditions for pump performance. If the purchaser plans to use the
pump under questionable well or sump conditions and wants the pump to be tested
under these exact conditions, complete information should be included in the request
for bid. If there is nothing stated in the bid with relation to required well or sump
conditions, it shall be assumed that standard laboratory arrangements will be used.
Sec. A-6.4 Capacity Measurement
The capacity of the pump shall be measured by means of a standard venturi
tube, nozzle, orifice plate, pitot-tube traverse, or magnetic meter. The pump manu-
facturer shall supply evidence that the capacity-measuring device employed has
been properly calibrated, that it is in good condition, and that the pressure taps and
piping are proper for the instrument being used and are essentially the same as

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
VERTICAL TURBINE PUMPS 25

Figure 6 Typical laboratory test arrangement— line-shaft vertical turbine pumps.

during the calibration. Instruments that have not been calibrated should be geomet-
rically similar to properly calibrated models.
A description of the application of fluid meters is contained in the ASME publi-
cation Fluid Meters—Their Theory and Application.* A detailed description of the
various meters and their application is given in Chapter B-2 of that publication, the
physical constants and meter coefficients are indicated in Section C, and the dis-
charge coefficient tolerances of the various meters are indicated in Chapter C-7.
The surface conditions, size, and length of the pipe preceding the fluid-measur-
ing device are as important as the calibration of the device itself. Thus, piping
should be in close conformity with that used when the instrument was calibrated or
in accordance with the recommendations by the manufacturer of the fluid-measuring
device.
Fluid manometers or other instruments of equal accuracy should be used for
measuring the pressure differential across the meter.

Sec. A-6.5 Head Measurement


All pump bowl assembly tests shall be made in open sumps, unless otherwise
stated in the request for bid.

*Fluid-Meters—Their Theory and Application. Rept. ASME Res. Comm. on Fluid Meters.
Amer. Soc. Mech. Engr., New York (5th ed., 1959.) Available from American Society of
Mechanical Engineers, 345 East 47th St., New York, NY 10017.

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
26 AWWA E101-88

The pressure tap for head measurement shall be located in the discharge col-
umn not less than 2 ft (0.6 m) above the pump bowl assembly. The pressure tap
opening shall be at right angles to the pipe, free from burrs, flush with the surface
of the column pipe, and with a diameter of 1/8– 1/4 in. (3.18–6.35 mm).
As an alternate method, the pressure tap for head measurement can also be
located not less than 10 diameters downstream from the discharge elbow of the test
pump. (The elbow to be furnished with the pump shall be used.) When the pump
head is measured at this point, no deduction for elbow loss need be made in antici-
pating field performance.
For head measurements of 36 ft (11 m) or less, only fluid manometers shall be
used. For head measurements in excess of 36 ft (11 m), calibrated bourdon or other
gauges with equivalent accuracy and reliability can be used. All gauges shall be
calibrated before and after each series of tests.

Sec. A-6.6 Velocity Head


The average velocity in the pump column used to determine the velocity head
shall be calculated from dimensions obtained by actual internal measurement of the
pipe and external measurement of the shaft or enclosing tube at the point of pres-
sure measurement.
If the pressure measurement is made downstream from the discharge elbow,
the velocity head shall be obtained from actual measurement of the inside diameters
of the discharge pipe at the point where the pressure tap is located.
Sec. A-6.7 Horsepower Input
The power input to the pump shall be determined with a vertical dynamometer
or a calibrated electric motor.
The torque of the dynamometer shall be measured by means of a calibrated
scale, calibrated strain gauge, or other device of equivalent accuracy.
Squirrel-cage induction motors (when operated at greater than half the name-
plate rating), direct-current motors, synchronous motors, or wound-rotor induction
motors with short-circuited secondary resistance may be employed for the determi-
nation of shaft input, provided the efficiencies or losses have been ascertained by an
IEEE* test or its equivalent.
When the specifications call for an overall efficiency guarantee, the actual job
motor can be used without calibration and the overall efficiency calculated directly.
Calibrated laboratory-type electric meters and transformers shall be used to
measure power input to all motors.

Sec. A-6.8 Measurement of Speed


The rotating speed of the pump shall be obtained by a hand counter, electronic
computer, or a stroboscope counting slip. It should be noted that an accurate speed
reading is important in determining power input when a dynamometer is used. Ac-
curacy is less important when a calibrated motor is used.

*Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 345 East 47th St., New York, NY 10017.

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
VERTICAL TURBINE PUMPS 27

Sec. A-6.9 Large-Pump Tests


A-6.9.1 On all pump bowl assemblies where the horsepower is not in excess of
200 hp (150 kW) and the bowl diameter is not in excess of 20 in. (500 mm), the
actual pump shall be tested in the manufacturer’s laboratory.
A-6.9.2 If the horsepower exceeds 200 hp (150 kW), it shall be permissible for
the manufacturer to test only the number of stages of the unit that come within this
power requirement. If a test is made on a limited number of stages, no increase in
efficiency shall be permitted for an increased number of stages when predicting the
final performance of the complete bowl assembly. The head and horsepower shall be
increased in direct proportion to the number of stages in the final assembly, com-
pared with the number of stages used in the laboratory test.
A-6.9.3 When the size of the bowls exceeds 20-in. (500-mm) OD, a laboratory
test on a model pump, homologous with the actual unit, may be used as a basis for
the determination of the performance of the actual unit.
NOTE: In general, when contract guarantees are to be based on model tests,
the contract should specify model performance rather than inferred actual-unit per-
formance. In the absence of this provision, allowance for the scale effect, if any, shall
be agreed on in writing by the representatives of both parties prior to the tests.
The model pump shall be run at a speed sufficient to develop a head per stage
at least equal to that of the actual unit, so that the velocities will equal or exceed
those of the actual unit; or the manufacturer must submit evidence that a single-
stage model does not cavitate under specified field suction conditions when operated
at a speed such that the velocities will equal or exceed those of the actual unit.
A-6.9.4 On bowl assemblies that have an OD exceeding 20 in. (500 mm) or
require more than 200 hp (150 kW), it shall be permissible to test the actual bowl
assembly at a speed slower than that at which the pump will run in the field, rather
than make a model test. No efficiency increase will be allowed when the perform-
ance in the slow-speed test is translated into that at full speed. The manufacturer
must submit evidence that a single-stage bowl assembly or a single-stage model does
not cavitate under specified field suction conditions when operated at a speed such
that the velocities will equal or exceed those of the actual unit.
A-6.9.5 All large bowl assembly full speed tests or model tests should be con-
ducted with identical submergence that will exist in the field, as shown on the re-
quest for bids, except as otherwise agreed on between the manufacturer and the
purchaser.
Sec. A-6.10 Hydrostatic Tests
A-6.10.1 A hydrostatic test on the pump bowl castings shall be made at 11/2
times the shut-off head developed by the pump bowl assembly or at twice the rated
head, whichever is greater.
A-6.10.2 A hydrostatic test on the discharge head shall be made at the pres-
sure defined in Sec. A-6.10.1, less the pump setting specified on the order.

Sec. A-6.11 Recording and Computation of Test Results


A-6.11.1 All instrument test readings, as well as corrected readings, shall be
recorded on the test sheet. Complete data concerning the pump, driver, and instru-
ment identification shall also be recorded.

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
28 AWWA E101-88

A-6.11.2 All test results shall be translated into performance at the anticipated
speed of the driver at the design point by the following formulas:
hd
Q=Qt( n ) (Eq 6)
nt

H=Ht~ n )2 (Eq 7)
nt

P=Pt( n )3 (IM 8)
nt

Where:

Q = pump capacity, in gallons per minute (cubic metres per hour)


t = indicated test values
n = anticipated operating speed, in revolutions per minute
(revolutions per second)
H= head, in feet (metres)
P= power, in horsepower (kilowatts)

NOTE: gpm x 0.2271 = m3/h; rpm x 0.0167 = rps; ft x 0.3048 = m; hp x 0.746 =


kW.

A-6.11.3 The bowl assembly input power PI, in horsepower, when measured by “w4
a vertical dynamometer, is found using the expression

PI . KFnt (Eq 9)

Where:
K= dynamometer constant, 2nL/33,000
Where:
L = length of the lever arm, in feet (metres)
F= net force at the end of the lever arm, in pounds (Newtons)
nt = speed of the driver when the test reading is taken, in revolutions
per minute (revolutions per second)

NOTE: ft x 0.3048 = m; lb x 4.448 = N; rpm x 0.0167 = rps.

A-6.11.4 The electric-motor power input, in horsepower, is the corrected


kilowatt input to motor divided by 0.746.

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
VERTICAL TURBINE PUMPS 29

A-6.11.5 The bowl assembly input power Pl, in horsepower, to a pump driven
by an electric motor is

kW
P1 = Eg (Eq 10)
0.746

Where:

kW = corrected kilowatt input to motor


Eg = motor efllciency from the calibration curve

A-6.11.6 The pump-bowl assembly efficiency El is

Qhl
El = (Eq 11)
3960 X (PI)

Where:

Q = measured capacity, in gallons per minute


hl = bowl assembly head, including velocity head, in feet
P1 = brake horsepower to the pump bowl assembly, measured by
dynamometer or calibrated motor

NOTE: gpm x 0.2271 = m3/h; ft x 0.3048 = m; hp x 0.746 = kW.

A-6.11.7 The pump total head H, in feet, is found by

H=hl–hc–he (Eq 12)

Where:

hl = bowl assembly head from test, in feet


h. = column loss, in feet, obtained from Figure 3 and based on
complete pump setting
he = discharge head loss, in feet, from Figure 4 or actual test
.
NOTE: ft x 0.3048 = m.

A-6.11.8 The pump input power, in horsepower, is found by

P= Pl+P. +Pt. (Eq 13)

Where:
P1 = bowl assembly input power, in horsepower, calculated from test,
as in Sec. A-6.11.3 or Sec. A-6.11.5

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
30 AWWA E101-88

Pc = line-shaft loss in power, in horsepower, obtained from Figure 5 and


based on complete pump setting
Pt = thrust-bearing loss, in horsepower
NOTE: hp × 0.746 = kW.

A-6.11.9 The pump efficiency Ep is found using the equation

QH
Ep = ——————— (Eq 14)
3960 × P

in which the pump total head H, in feet (ft × 0.3048 = m), is obtained from Sec.
A-6.11.7 and the power input P, in horsepower (hp × 0.746 = kW), is obtained from
Sec. A-6.11.8.
A-6.11.10 The overall efficiency E is the pump efficiency Ep multiplied by the
driver efficiency Eg.
A-6.11.11 The complete pump total head, efficiency, and pump input power
should be plotted as ordinates on the same sheet against the capacity as abscissa to
show the anticipated field performance of the complete pumps.

Sec. A-6.12 Other Tests


For more complete tests or for tests involving fluids other than water refer to
Hydraulic Institute* test standards, as applicable.

*Hydraulic Institute, 712 Lakewood Center North, 14600 Detroit Ave., Cleveland, OH
44107.

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
Part B— SUBMERSIBLE VERTICAL TURBINE PUMPS

SECTION B-1: SCOPE AND PURPOSE


Part B of this standard provides minimum requirements for submersible verti-
cal turbine pumps utilizing a 71/2-hp motor or larger.
Purchasers who intend to use the pumps for pumping liquids other than clear,
cold water should modify the requirements, preferably after consultation with pump
manufacturers, to fit conditions of intended use.

SECTION B-2: DEFINITIONS


In addition to the definitions in this section, Sec. A-2.4 through Sec. A-2.12 and
Sec. A-2.14 through Sec. A-2.20 (line-shaft pumps) also apply to submersible pumps.
B-2.1 Submersible pump: An integral combination of a vertical turbine pump
close coupled to an electric motor designed for sustained and continuous operation
under water. The unit is suspended from a surface plate by the vertical discharge
pipe and receives electrical energy through a submersible power cable. This type of
pump has no line shaft or shaft-enclosing tube.
B-2.2 Pump: For purposes of this standard, a pump may be defined as a de-
vice used to provide energy for initiating or maintaining the movement of liquid. A
pump consists of seven elements, defined as follows:
B-2.2.1 The pump bowl assembly is a single or multistage, centrifugal or
mixed-flow vertical pump with discharge coaxial with the shaft. It can have open,
semiopen, or enclosed impellers.
B-2.2.2 The vertical discharge pipe conducts water from the pump bowl assem-
bly to the surface-plate connection. It supports the pump and driver in the well and
also supports an electric cable that carries current from the surface to the motor
lead connection.

31
Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
32 AWWA E101-88

B-2.2.3 The head assembly consists of a surface plate from which the vertical
discharge pipe is suspended. It contains provisions for the cable to pass through and
may include an elbow that directs the water into a piping system as required.
B-2.2.4 The driver is a squirrel-cage induction electric motor suspended below
the interconnector at the bottom of the bowl assembly. It contains a bearing capable
of carrying the pump hydraulic-thrust load and the weight of all rotating parts.
B-2.2.5 The cable is the conductor that conducts power from the surface to the
motor terminal leads.
B-2.2.6 The splice is the waterproof device connecting the cable and the elec-
tric-motor leads or joining the cable below the surface.
B-2.2.7 The motor leads conduct electricity between the cable and the motor
windings.

SECTION B-3: GENERAL


Sec. B-3.1 Standard Nomenclature
Table 4 (page 36) lists the names of parts in submersible vertical turbine
pumps, the function of each part, the material or materials from which the part is
typically made, and the ASTM* material designation. In the table, parts are listed
by number; the part number refers to the numbers in Figures 7 and 8 (pages 34 and
35).
Sec. B-3.2 Order Form
A specification form recommended for use in purchasing vertical turbine pumps
is given in Appendix B.

Sec. B-3.3 Inspection and Certification by Manufacturer


B-3.3.1 The manufacturer shall establish the necessary quality-control and in-
spection practices to ensure compliance with this standard.
B-3.3.2 The manufacturer shall, if required by the purchaser’s supplemental
specifications, furnish a sworn statement that the equipment furnished under the
purchaser’s order complies with all applicable requirements of this standard.
Sec. B-3.4 Information to Be Supplied by Bidder
The bidder shall submit, with its proposal, sufficient descriptive material or
outline drawings to demonstrate compliance with this standard and the purchaser’s
supplemental specifications, and a performance curve showing pump total head,
pump input power, and pump efficiency over the specified head range for the in-
stalled pump.

Sec. B-3.5 Sanitary Codes


The pump shall conform to the sanitary codes governing the installation. The
purchaser shall furnish, as a part of these specifications, all information necessary
for the construction of the pump to meet these requirements.

*American Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race St., Philadelphia, PA 19103.

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
VERTICAL TURBINE PUMPS 33

SECTION B-4: SPECIFICATIONS


Sec. B-4.1 Submersible Motor
B-4.1.1 Materials. Construction materials shall be suitable for their applica-
tion from the standpoints of corrosion resistance and mechanical performance.
B-4.1.2 Design. The motor shall be of the squirrel-cage induction type, suit-
able for across-the-line starting and shall be capable of reduced-voltage starting. It
shall be capable of continuous operation under water at the conditions specified.
B-4.1.3 Temperature. The motor temperature shall be rated no higher than
the allowable operating temperature of the motor thrust and radial bearings and in
no case shall it exceed the temperature rating of the insulation class used to wind
the motor.
B-4.1.4 Thrust bearing. A thrust bearing of ample capacity to carry the weight
of all rotating parts plus the hydraulic thrust at maximum operating head shall be
an integral part of the driver. For antifriction bearings, the bearing shall be of such
capacity that the AFBMA* calculated rating life (L10) shall be no less than 8800 h.
If the design and operating conditions are such that upthrust can occur, then proper
provision shall be made to accommodate the upthrust. This shall be done by the
supplier. It shall also have ample capacity to permit the pump to operate for short
periods with the discharge valve closed. Any operation of a submersible pump
against a closed valve is not advised due to possible damage to the motor.
B-4.1.5 Foreign matter. Suitable precautions shall be taken to restrict sand,
silt, or foreign material from entering the motor.
B-4.1.6 Pump size. The maximum motor diameter and the minimum inside
diameter of the well shall be in such relationship that under any operating condition
the water velocity past the motor shall not exceed 12 ft/s (3.7 m/s) nor be less than
0.5 ft/s (0.1 m/s). For this purpose a minor irregularity in the motor shape, such as
that caused by the cable connection, shall not be included in the motor-diameter
measurement.
Sec. B-4.2 Submersible Cable
B-4.2.1 Conductors. The cable shall consist of three or more separate conduc-
tors, including a ground cable or a single-cable assembly with three or more conduc-
tors, including one for a ground. Stranding shall meet ASTM class designation
standards†—class B on No. 10 and smaller cable and No. 1 through 4/0 cable; class
C on No. 9 through No. 2 cable. Each conductor shall be insulated by synthetic
rubber or plastic insulation suitable for continuous immersion in water. When three
or more single conductors are used, each must be jacketed. When a cable with three
or more conductors is used, it must be jacketed. The jacket material must be oil- and
water-resistant synthetic rubber, metal, or other suitable mechanically protective

*Anti-Friction Bearing Manufacturers Association, 1101 Connecticut Ave. N.W., Suite 700,
Washington, DC 20036.
†Class B on No. 10 and smaller cable provides for at least 7 strands minimum; class C on
No. 9 through No. 2 cable provides for at least 19 strands minimum; and class B on No. 1
through 4/0 cable provides for at least 19 strands minimum.

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
34 AWWA E101-88

Figure 7 Typical submersible-pump assembly (bowl assemblies).

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
VERTICAL TURBINE PUMPS 35

*Well seal surface plates are for use where well sealing is required; a flange must be welded to the casing by a continuous wa-
tertight weld or the plate must be grouted in place. Ordinary surface plates may be used where sanitary well seals are not
required.

Figure 8 Submersible-pump discharge styles and surface-plate assemblies.

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
‘w
Table 4 Standard Nomenclature—Submersible Vertical Turbine Pumps a

*
Part Typical ASTM
3
No.* Name of Part Material Designation Function of Part *
m
#
32 Pump shaft Stainless steel A276 Type 410 Transmits power to impellers o
w
Type416 &
w
34 Top bowl bearing Bronze B505 or B584 Guides top end of pump shaft
ALY 836
ALY 838
ALY 844
ALY 848
. ALY 932
ALY 935
ALY 937
ALY 938
ALY 943
Rubber —

35 Intermediate bowl bearing Bronze B505 or B584 Guides shaft at impellers


ALY 836
ALY 838
ALY 844
ALY 848
ALY 932
ALY 935
ALY 937
ALY 938
ALY 943
Rubber —

36 Intermediate bowl Cast iron A48 Class 30 Directs flow from impeller to next impeller above

38 Impeller Bronze B584 ALY 836 Imparts energy to water


ALY 838
ALY 844
ALY 848
ALY 875
Cast iron A48 Class 30

39 Impeller lock collet Steel Al 08 Locks impeller to shaft

43 Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.

L
40 Suction case Cast iron A48 Class 30 Directs water to first-stage impeller

42 Strainer Stainless steel Prevents large objects from entering pump


Galvanized steel
Bronze

101 Top bowl flange Cast iron A48 Class 30 Connects pump to discharge pipe

102 Top or discharge bowl Cast iron A48 Class 30 Guides flow to discharge pipe

110 Sand collar Bronze B505 or B584 Restricts sand from entering bearing
ALY836
ALY838
ALY844
ALY848
ALY932
ALY935
ALY937
ALY938
ALY943

111 Upper strainer Bronze B505 or B584 Guides lower end of pump shaft
interconnector bearing ALY836
ALY838
ALY844
ALY848
ALY932
ALY935
ALY937
I
ALY938
ALY943
i
112 Strainer interconnector ~Cast iron A48 Class 30 Connects suction bowl to interconnector and #
supports strainer ~
I
E
*See Figures 7 and 8.
g I

Table continues on next page ~


s

2 I
g

w
-1

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
Table 4—continued

Part Typical ASTM


No.* Name of Part Material Designation Function of Part

113 Lower strainer Bronze B505 or B584 Guides lower end of pump shaft
interconnector bearing ALY 836
ALY 838
ALY 844
ALY 848
ALY 932
ALY 935
ALY 937
ALY 938
ALY 943

114 Interconnector Cast iron A48 Class 30 Connects strainer interconnector to motoq
has splits or pocket tm allow coupling connection

115 Pump motor coupling Stainless steel A276 Type 416 Connects pump shaft to motor shaft

116 Welding discharge elbow Steel A234 Connects vertical discharge pipe to discharge
A7, A283 pipeline

117 Flanged discharge elbow Cast iron A48 Class 30 Connects vertical discharge pipe to discharge
pipeline

118 Cable Copper with — Conducts electricity to motor


synthetic rubber
or plastic insulation
and protective jacket

119 Cable clamp Stainless steel — Fastens cable to column pipe


Rubber —

120 Motor cable splice Metal — Joins motor leads with power cable
(mechanical) Plastic —

121 Discharge pipe coupling Steel A53, AIOl, A120 Connects discharge pipe sections

122 Discharge pipe Steel A53, A120 Conducts water out of well

45 Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.

k.
VERTICAL TURBINE PUMPS 39
IL
“’*
Lb
*
C6
m
N
!-(
7-I 1+
Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
Table 4—continued A
o

Part Typical ASTM


No.* Name of Part Material Designation Function of Part

131 Cable seal gland Bronze B505 or B584 Supports cable and seals between cable and
ALY 836 surface plate
ALY 838
ALY 844
ALY 848
ALY 932
ALY 935
ALY 93’7
ALY 938
ALY 943

132 Terminal box Cast iron A48 Class 30 Provides enclosure means of connecting cable and
Steel — surface wiring

133 Access hole plug Steel — Provides access to well

134 Well vent connection Steel — Makes provision for air vent for well

135 Suction interconnector Cast iron A48 Class 30 Connects motor h bottom intermediate bowl,
acts as suction bowl, and supports strainer

*See Figures 7 and 8.

e Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.

k
VERTICAL TURBINE PUMPS 41

material. The cable shall have a sufficient conductor area to meet the minimum
requirement of the ICEA* code for operation in air. (The connecting electrical cable
from the starting equipment to the surface plate shall meet the National Electrical
Code or local codes, whichever govern.)
B-4.2.2 Supports. The cable shall be suitably supported from the column at
several points adequate for the type of cable used with corrosion-resistant clamps.
B-4.2.3 Fittings. All cable fittings and terminals shall be watertight at the
pressure encountered in use.
B-4.2.4 Lengths. For each 50 ft (15 m) of setting, 1 ft (0.3 m) of extra cable
shall be allowed to compensate for possible twist or sag of the cable during installa-
tion; 10 ft (3 m) shall be provided beyond the surface plate, unless otherwise speci-
fied.
B-4.2.5 Mechanical shielding. The electrical conductors shall be protected by a
corrosion-resistant mechanical-type shield where they pass the pump bowls.

Sec. B-4.3 Surface Plate


The surface plate (pump base) shall be rigid enough to support the entire
weight of the suspended parts when filled with water. The plate shall provide suit-
able openings for the power cable, well vent, and water-level indicator as required.
The plate shall provide a support for the power cable as required by the electrical
code. The plate shall also support the discharge connection furnished in a size ade-
quate for the required flow rate and in a pressure series consistent with the surface
pressure to be delivered by the pump.
Sec. B-4.4 Strainer
A strainer, if furnished, shall have a net inlet area equal to at least three times
the impeller inlet area. The maximum unit opening shall not be more than 75 per-
cent of the minimum opening of the water passage through the bowl or impeller.

Sec. B-4.5 Discharge Pipe


The discharge pipe may be furnished in random lengths connected by threaded
sleeve couplings. For settings up to 500 ft (150 m), the minimum weight shall con-
form to the values shown in Table 2 (on page 17) and shall have ANSI B1.20.1
standard tapered pipe threads. For pumps with a total head in excess of 500 ft (150
m), each application shall be checked to determine that the strengths of the pipe
and threaded joints are adequate. The discharge pipe will be secured so that it will
not unscrew. The reaction to the starting torque of the motor gives a force equal in
magnitude but opposite in direction to the turning force that the motor delivers to
the pump. A joint-tightening torque of 10 ft-lb/hp (18.2 N•m/kW) occurs in submers-
ible pumps. The size shall be such that velocities are not less than 4–5 ft/s (1.2–1.5
m/s) nor more than 12 ft/s (3.7 m/s).

*Insulated Cable Engineers Association, P.O. Box P, South Yarmouth, MA 02664.


(Formerly the Insulated Power Cable Engineers Association.)

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
42 AWWA E101-88

Sec. B-4.6 Pump Bowls


Pump bowl castings shall be free of blowholes, sand holes, and other detrimen-
tal defects. The finished bowls shall be capable of withstanding a hydrostatic pres-
sure equal to twice the head at rated capacity or 11/2 times the shut-off head, which-
ever is greater. The bowls may be equipped with replaceable seal rings on the suc-
tion side of enclosed impellers.
Sec. B-4.7 Impellers
The impellers shall be of the open, semiopen, or enclosed type, statically bal-
anced. They shall be fastened securely to the impeller shaft with keys, taper bush-
ings, lock nuts, or set screws.
Sec. B-4.8 Pump Motor Coupling
The pump motor coupling shall be of a noncorrosive material and shall be ca-
pable of transmitting the total torque and total thrust of the unit in either direction.

SECTION B-5: ENGINEERING DATA


Sec. B-5.1 Discharge Pipe
Diameters and weights of standard discharge pipe sizes are given in Table 2
(page 17).

Sec. B-5.2 Discharge Friction Loss


The discharge pipe friction loss chart (Figure 9) may be used to determine the
loss in head due to friction.
Sec. B-5.3 Discharge-Elbow Head Loss
The discharge-elbow head-loss chart (Figure 10) may be used to determine the
hydraulic losses in the discharge elbow.
When extreme accuracy is imperative, actual loss measurements in the dis-
charge elbow to be used—with the correct discharge pipe—should be specified on bid
requested by purchaser.

SECTION B-6: FACTORY INSPECTION AND TESTS


Sec. B-6.1 Tests
B-6.1.1 The procedure for determining the performance of a vertical turbine
pump by making a factory laboratory test of the bowl assembly and then calculating
the anticipated field performance is described below. Performance tests will be made
only when specified in the purchaser’s inquiry and order. The inquiry and order
shall specify which of the following are required:
1. Running test.
2. Witnessed running test.
3. Sample calculation from test readings.

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
VERTICAL TURBINE PUMPS 43

NOTE: Diagonals are labeled to show nominal diameters of discharge column pipe (in inches). The calculations used in construct-
ing the chart were based on inside diameters, which are close to the nominal sizes (for example, 10 in. = 10.12 in. ID).
Conversion factor: in. × 25.4 = mm.

Figure 9 Head-loss chart for standard pipe.

4. Shop inspection.
5. Hydrostatic test of bowl assembly.
If other tests are required, the purchaser shall describe them in detail.
B-6.1.2 The manufacturer shall notify the purchaser not less than five days
prior to the date that the pump or pumps will be ready for inspection or witness
test.
Sec. B-6.2 Running Test
B-6.2.1 The pump bowl assembly shall be operated from zero capacity to the
maximum capacity shown on the performance curve submitted with the manufac-
turer’s bid. Readings shall be taken at a minimum of five capacity points, including
the shut-off head and one point within ± 2 percent of the design capacity specified on
the request for bid.
B-6.2.2 At the conclusion of the test, three copies of the anticipated field per-
formance curve shall be supplied to the purchaser, unless the purchaser requests
test curves based on the actual test data without corrections for anticipated field
performance.

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
44 AWWA E101-88

NOTE: Diagonals are labeled to show nominal diameters of discharge elbow pipe (in inches). The calculations used in construct-
ing the chart were based on inside diameters, which are close to the nominal sizes (for example, 10 in. = 10.12 in. ID).
Conversion factor: in. × 25.4 = mm.

Figure 10 Head-loss chart for 90o elbow.

Sec. B-6.3 Typical Laboratory Test Arrangement


Figure 11 shows a typical laboratory arrangement for the testing of a submers-
ible vertical turbine pump. A test laboratory will normally be constructed to provide
favorable suction conditions for pump performance. If the purchaser plans to use the
pump under questionable well or sump conditions and wants the pump to be tested
under these exact conditions, complete information should be included in the request
for bid. If there is nothing stated in the bid with relation to required well or sump
conditions, it shall be assumed that standard laboratory arrangements will be used.
Sec. B-6.4 Capacity Measurement
The capacity of the pump shall be measured by means of a standard venturi
tube, nozzle, orifice plate, pitot-tube traverse, or magnetic meter. The pump manu-
facturer shall supply evidence that the capacity-measuring device employed has
been properly calibrated, that it is in good condition, and that the pressure taps and
piping are proper for the instrument being used and are essentially the same as
during the calibration. Instruments that have not been calibrated should be geomet-
rically similar to properly calibrated models.

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
VERTICAL TURBINE PUMPS 45

Figure 11 Typical laboratory-test arrangement— submersible vertical turbine pumps.

A description of the application of fluid meters is contained in the ASME publi-


cation Fluid Meters—Their Theory and Application.* A detailed description of the
various meters and their application is given in Chapter B-2 of that publication, the
physical constants and meter coefficients are indicated in Section C, and the dis-
charge coefficient tolerances of the various meters are indicated in Chapter C-7.
The surface conditions, size, and length of the pipe preceding the fluid-measur-
ing device are as important as the calibration of the device itself. Thus, piping
should be in close conformity with that used when the instrument was calibrated or
in accordance with the recommendations by the manufacturer of the fluid-measuring
device.
Fluid manometers or other instruments of equal accuracy should be used for
measuring the pressure differential across the meter.

*Fluid Meters—Their Theory and Application. Rept. ASME Res. Comm. on Fluid Meters.
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York (5th ed., 1959).

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
46 AWWA E101-88

Sec. B-6.5 Head Measurement


All pump bowl assembly tests shall be made in open sumps, unless otherwise
stated in the request for bid.
The pressure tap for head measurement shall be located in the discharge pipe
not less than 2 ft (0.6 m) above the pump bowl assembly. The pressure tap opening
shall be at right angles to the pipe, free from burrs, flush with the surface of the
discharge pipe, and with the diameter of 1/8–1/4 in. (3.18–6.35 mm).
As an alternate method, the pressure tap for head measurement can also be
located not less than 10 diameters downstream from the discharge elbow of the test
pump. (The elbow to be furnished with the pump shall be used.) When the pump
head is measured at this point, no deduction for elbow loss need be made in antici-
pating field performance.
For head measurements of 36 ft (11 m) or less, only fluid manometers shall be
used. For head measurements in excess of 36 ft (11 m), calibrated bourdon or other
gauges with equivalent accuracy and reliability can be used. All gauges shall be
calibrated before and after each series of tests.
Sec. B-6.6 Velocity Head
The average velocity in the pump column used to determine the velocity head
shall be calculated from dimensions obtained by actual internal measurement of the
pipe diameter at the point of pressure measurement.
If the pressure measurement is made downstream from the discharge elbow,
the velocity head shall be obtained from actual measurement of the inside diameters
of the discharge pipe at the point where the pressure tap is located.

Sec. B-6.7 Power Input to Pump Motor


The actual job motor shall be used, and the overall submersible-pump effi-
ciency shall be calculated from the measured power input.
Calibrated laboratory-type electric meters and transformers shall be used to
measure the power input to all motors.
Sec. B-6.8 Large-Pump Tests
Sec. A-6.9 of this standard shall also apply to submersible pumps.

Sec. B-6.9 Hydrostatic Tests


A hydrostatic test on the pump bowl castings shall be made at 11/2 times the
shut-off head developed by the pump bowl assembly or at twice the rated head,
whichever is greater.
Sec. B-6.10 Recording and Computation of Test Results
B-6.10.1 All instrument test readings, as well as corrected readings, shall be
recorded on the test sheet. Complete data concerning the pump, driver, and instru-
ment identification shall also be recorded.

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
VERTICAL TURBINE PUMPS 47

B-6.1O.2 AU test results shall be translated into performance at the anticipated


speed of the driver at the design point, by the following formulas:

Q=Qt( : ) (Eq 15)

n 2
H=Ht ( ) (Eq 16)
nt

P=Pt( n )3 (Eq 17)


nt

Where:

Q= pump capacity, in gallons per minute (cubic metres per hour)


t = indicated test values
n= anticipated operating speed, in revolutions per minute (revolutions
per second)
H= head, in feet (metres)
P= power, in horsepower (kilowatts)
NOTE: gpm x 0.2271 = m3/h; rpm x 0.0167 = rps; ft x 0.3048 = m; hp x 0.746 =
kW.

B-6.1O.3 The motor power input, in horsepower, is the corrected kilowatt input
to motor divided by 0.746.
B-6.1 0.4 The bowl assembly input horsepower PI to a pump driven by an
electric motor is

kW
PI . Eg (Eq 18)
0.746

Where:
kW = corrected kilowatt input to motor
Eg = “motor efficiency from the calibration curve

B-6.1O.5 The pump bowl assembly efficiency El is

Q?u
EI = (Eq 19)
3960 X P1

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.

,#..-
48 AWWA E101-88

NOTE: Diagonals are labeled to show sizes (American Wire Gage of cable conductor wire, and are based on a copper tempera-
ture of 60oC and an ambient air temperature of 30oC. Current should not exceed the plotted maximum on any given line. Maxi-
mum values must be reduced by a factor of 0.82 for an air temperature of 40oC.

Figure 12 Power-loss chart for three-conductor copper cable.

Where
Q = measured capacity, in gallons per minute
h1 = bowl assembly head, including velocity head, in feet
P1 = brake horsepower to the pump bowl assembly

NOTE: gpm × 0.2271 = m3/h; ft × 0.3048 = m; hp × 0.746 = kW.

B-6.10.6 The pump total head H, in feet, is found using the equation

H = h1 – hc – he (Eq 20)

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
VERTICAL TURBINE PUMPS 49

Where:

h1 = bowl assembly head from test, in feet


hc = column loss, in feet, obtained from Figure 9 and based on
complete pump setting
he = discharge-elbow loss, in feet, from Figure 10 or actual test

NOTE: ft × 0.3048 = m.

B-6.10.7 The pump input power P equals the bowl assembly input power P1
Pw (obtained from Figure 12), from the surface plate to the motor.
plus the cable loss

P = P1 + Pw (Eq 21)

B-6.10.8 The overall efficiency E is found using the equation

QH
E = ——————— (Eq 22)
3960 × P

in which the pump total head H, in feet (ft × 0.3048 = m), is obtained from Sec.
B-6.10.6 and the power input P, in horsepower (hp × 0.746 = kW), is obtained from
Sec. B-6.10.7.
B-6.10.9 The complete pump total head, overall pump efficiency, and pump
input power should be plotted as ordinates on the same sheet against the capacity
as abscissa to show the anticipated field performance of the complete pumps.
Sec. B-6.11 Other Tests
For more complete tests or for tests involving fluids other than water refer to
Power Test Code for Centrifugal and Rotary Pumps* as applicable.

*Available from American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 345 E. 47th St., New York, NY
10017.

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
APPENDIX A
Field Testing of Vertical Turbine Pumps

This appendix is for information only and is not a part of AWWA E101.

Purpose of Field Tests


A field test gives an indication of the performance of a pump when it is operat-
ing under actual field conditions. Such a test indicates the operation of the pump
bowl assembly, the friction loss in the column pipe and discharge elbow, the bearing
losses in the line-shaft assembly or the cable loss on a submersible pump, the well
or system characteristics, the air content or sand content of the water, the vibration
and noise levels, and the operation of the driver and control equipment. Although all
of these items are important, they are normally judged on a qualitative basis as
compared to what is considered to be good engineering practice, unless specific re-
quirements are indicated in the individual specifications. The purpose of this appen-
dix is to establish a guide for the quantitative evaluation of the hydraulic perform-
ance of the complete pumping unit as installed in the field.
It is desirable to make field tests on new or reconditioned pumps to serve as a
standard of comparison for future tests. Thus, pump wear and changing operating
conditions may be indicated. Periodic tests should be made by the same procedure,
and an accurate record kept to give a complete and comparable history.
Field tests are sometimes used as acceptance tests. When this is done, the
accuracy of the test obtainable under field conditions with the specific test equip-
ment employed should be taken into account. Data to help determine the best possi-
ble accuracy obtainable with various instruments are included in AWWA E101,
Standard for Vertical Turbine Pumps—Line Shaft and Submersible Types. Under
most conditions, it is recommended that acceptance of the pump should be based on
tests made in a laboratory where accurate instruments used under controlled condi-
tions permit precise measurements. It is also recommended that field tests be used
as an overall indication of pump performance and as a guide to show when the
pump or well requires service.

Accuracy of Field Testing


The accuracy with which a field test can be made depends on the instruments
used in the test, the proper installation of the instruments, and the skill of the test
engineers. If accurate field tests are required, it is necessary to design the complete
pump installation with this in mind and to provide for the use of the most accurate
calibrated instruments.
It should be recognized that environmental conditions in a well or the design of
a sump can significantly affect field performance and also affect the apparent results
of field tests.
Table A.1 gives an indication of the best possible accuracy that can be expected
with the various instruments that may be used for a field test. The values given
assume that each instrument is properly installed, that it is the correct size for the
values to be measured, and that it is used by experienced engineers. A method of

50
Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
VERTICAL TURBINE PUMPS 51

Table A.1 Limits of Accuracy of Pump-Test Measuring Devices in Field Use

Calibrated Limit of Accuracy


Quantity to be Measured Type of Measuring Device percent
Capacity Venturi meter ± 3/4
Nozzle ±1
Pitot tube ± 1 1/2
Orifice ± 1 1/4
Disc ±2
Piston ± 1/4
Volume or weight—tank ±1
Propeller meter ±4
Magnetic meter ±2
Head Electric sounding line ± 1/4
Air line ± 1/2
Liquid manometer
(3–5-in. deflections) ± 3/4
Liquid manometer
(over 5-in. deflections) ± 1/2
Bourdon gauge—5-in. min. dial,
1/4–1/2 full scale ±1
1/2–3/4 full scale ± 3/4
over 3/4 scale ± 1/2
Power Input Watt-hour meter and stopwatch ± 1 1/2
Portable recording watt meter ± 1 1/2
Test type precision watt meter
1/4–1/2 scale ± 3/4
1/2–3/4 scale ± 1/2
over 3/4 scale ± 1/4
Clamp-on ammeter ±4
Speed Revolution counter and stopwatch ± 1 1/4
Hand-held tachometer ± 1 1/4
Stroboscope ± 1 1/2
Auto. counter and stopwatch ± 1/2
Voltage Test meter—1/4–1/2 scale ±1
Test meter—1/2–3/4 scale ± 3/4
Test meter—3/4–full scale ± 1/2
Rectifier voltmeter ±5

estimating the probable combined accuracy that will be obtained with the instru-
ments selected is illustrated in the following examples:
Example 1.
Pump conditions: head, 500 ft (150 m); setting, 450 ft (135 m). Instrumentation
is shown in the chart on page 52.
First, the head accuracy is weighted. Weighted accuracy of the electric sound-
ing line is 450/500 × 1/4 = 0.225 percent; weighted accuracy of the bourdon gauge is
50/500 × 1/2 = 0.050 percent; and the sum, or weighted-average head accuracy, is
0.275 percent. The combined accuracy of the efficiency Ac is the square root of the
quantity of the square of the weighted-average head accuracy plus the square of the

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
52 AWWA E101-88

venturi-meter accuracy plus the square of the watt-meter accuracy. Pump speed and
voltage are not necessary in determining efficiency, so the values for the tachometer
and the voltage meter are not included under the radical.

Field-Test Report Form Accuracy†


Line Number* Instrument percent
3 Electric sounding line ± 1/4
4 Bourdon gauge, 5-in. (127-mm) dial, 3/4 scale ± 3/4
9 Venturi meter ± 3/4
14 Watt meter, over 3/4 scale ± 1/4
19 Hand-held tachometer ± 1 1/4
11 Voltage meter, 3/4 full scale ± 1/2
*From Figure A.5.
†From Table A.1.

—————————————
Ac = √ 0.2752 + 0.752 + 0.252

—————
Ac = √ 0.700

Ac = ± 0.837 percent (Eq A.1)

Example 2.
Pump conditions: head, 500 ft (150 m); setting, 450 ft (135 m). Instrumentation
Field-Test Report Form Accuracy†
Line Number* Instrument percent
3 Air line ± 1/2
4 Bourdon gauge, 5-in. (127-mm) dial, 1/2 scale ±1
9 Pitot tube ± 1 1/2
14 Watt-hour meter and stopwatch ± 1 1/2
19 Stroboscope ± 1 1/2
11 Rectifier voltmeter ±5
*From Figure A.5.
†From Table A.1.

is shown in the chart below.


The head accuracy is weighted in the same way as in Example 1.

450 ft (135 m)
Air line .......................................———————————
500 ft (150 m)

× 1/2 percent = 0.45 percent

50 ft (15 m)
Bourdon gauge ..........................———————————
500 ft (150 m)

× 1 percent = 0.10 percent

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
VERTICAL TURBINE PUMPS 53

Weighted-average head accuracy ...................................0.55 percent

The combined accuracy of the efficiency Ac is the square root of the quantity of
the square of the weighted-average head accuracy plus the square of the pitot-tube
accuracy plus the square of the watt-hour meter accuracy.

————————————
Ac = √ 0.552 + 1.52 + 1.52

————
Ac = √ 4.8

Ac== ± 2.2 percent (Eq A.2)

Example 3.
Pump conditions: head, 500 ft (150 m); setting, 20 ft (6 m). Instrumentation is

Field-Test Report Form Accuracy†


Line Number* Instrument percent
3 Air line ± 1/2
4 Bourdon gauge, 5-in. (127-mm) dial, full scale ± 3/4
9 Venturi meter ± 3/4
14 Watt meter over, 3/4 scale ± 1/4
19 Automatic counter and stopwatch ± 1/2
11 Voltage test meter, full scale ± 1/2
*From Figure A.5.
†From Table A.1.

shown in the chart below.

Weighted head accuracy is

20 ft (6 m)
Air line .......................................———————————
500 ft (150 m)

× 1/2 percent = 0.02 percent

480 ft (144 m)
Bourdon gauge ..........................———————————
500 ft (150 m)

× 1/2 percent = 0.48 percent

Weighted-average head accuracy ...................................0.50 percent

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
54 AWWA E101-88

The combined accuracy of the efficiency is

————————————
Ac = √ 0.52 + 0.752 + 0.252

————
Ac = √ 0.87

Ac = ± 0.93 percent (Eq A.3)

The approved and recommended procedure for conducting pump acceptance


tests is outlined in Sec. A-6 and Sec. B-6 of this standard.
It will be apparent that if the accuracy of all instrumentation is not taken into
account, the final result will possibly appear more accurate than it actually is. Indi-
vidual errors in reading the instruments are not accounted for, so the final combined
accuracy may be considered an optimistic figure at best.

Definitions and Symbols


Rate of flow (Q): Flow expressed in gallons per minute (cubic metres per hour).
Datum: The elevation of that surface from which the weight of the pump is
supported. This is normally the elevation of the underside of the discharge head or
head base plate.
Head above datum (ha): The head measured above the datum, expressed in
feet (metres) of liquid, plus the velocity head at the point of measurement.
Velocity head (hv): The kinetic energy per unit weight of the liquid at the point
of measurement, expressed in feet (metres) of liquid. Using the average velocity in
feet per second (metres per second) at the point of measurement, it is calculated
from the following expression:

v2
hv = ————— (Eq A.4)
2g

Where:
v = velocity, in feet per second (metres per second)
g = 32.17 ft/s2 (9.81 m/s2)

Head below datum (hb): The vertical distance, in feet (metres), from the datum
to the pumping level.
Pump total head (H): The sum of the heads above and below datum (ha + hb).
Pump speed of rotation (n): This is expressed in revolutions per minute (rpm)
or revolutions per second (rps). The speed of submersible motors cannot be meas-
ured conveniently in field testing.
Pump output, in horsepower (hp): Calculated from the following expression:

QH × specific gravity of liquid pumped


hp = ————————————————————— (Eq A.5)
3960

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
VERTICAL TURBINE PUMPS 55

Where:
Q = rate of flow, in gallons per minute
H = pump total head, in feet

Driver power input: The power input to the driver, expressed in horsepower.
In a line-shaft vertical turbine pump powered by an electric motor, driver power
input is equivalent to kilowatt input measured at the motor conduit box divided by
0.746. In a submersible vertical turbine pump, it is equivalent to kilowatt input
measured at the conduit box on the discharge head divided by 0.746. No satisfactory
evaluation of this term for engine-driven pumps is available.
Driver efficiency (Ed): The ratio of the driver output to the driver input, ex-
pressed in percent.
Overall efficiency (E): The ratio of pump output, in horsepower, to motor power
input.

Approved Instrumentation
Figures A.1, A.2, and A.3 show the placement of instruments and the dimen-
sions for three types of pump installation. Figure A.4 shows piping requirements for
orifices, flow nozzles, and venturi tubes.
Pitot-static tube. These instruments, available in several forms, correlate veloc-

NOTE: Numbers in parentheses refer to item numbers in report form (Figure A.5). Minimum dimensions are the lengths of straight
pipe required in Figure A.4 for the particular type of capacity-measuring device used.

Figure A.1 Field-test diagram for line-shaft vertical turbine deep-well pump.

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
56 AWWA E101-88

NOTE: Numbers in parentheses refer to item numbers in report form (Figure A.5). Minimum dimensions are the lengths of straight
pipe required in Figure A.4 for the particular type of capacity-measuring device used.

Figure A.2 Field-test diagram for submersible pump.

NOTE: Numbers in parentheses refer to item numbers in report form (Figure A.5). Minimum dimensions are the lengths of straight
pipe required in Figure A.4 for the particular type of capacity-measuring device used.

Figure A.3 Field-test diagram for vertical turbine pump for booster service.

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
VERTICAL TURBINE PUMPS 57

NOTE: All control valves must be installed on outlet side of primary element.

Figure A.4 Piping requirements for orifices, flow nozzles, and venturi tubes.

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
58 AWWA E101-88

NOTE: All control valves must be installed on outlet side of primary element. In diagram H, the distances shown are double those
at which there seemed to be no effect.
All diagrams in Figure A.4, except diagram H, abstracted from Supplement on Instruments and Apparatus, Part 5, Chap. 4, Flow
Measurement (PTC 19:5; 4-1959), Power Test Codes Comm., ASME, New York, N.Y.

Figure A.4 Piping requirements for orifices, flow nozzles, and venturi tubes (continued).

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
VERTICAL TURBINE PUMPS 59

ity head with rate of flow. Velocity-head distribution in pipe flow is nonuniform, and
for acceptable accuracy, a multiple-point traverse of the pipe cross section is manda-
tory. Pitot-static tube designs using a series of impact holes, each transmitting dif-
ferent velocity pressures to a common cavity within the tube, produce internal circu-
lation and cannot be presumed to measure average velocity head, unless the velocity
profile in the pipe flow under test agrees exactly with that prevailing in the pipe in
which the instrument was calibrated—an unusual circumstance. Consequently,
these devices are not deemed acceptable. Complete details on construction, formulas,
and use of acceptable types have been published.*
Thin-plate square-edged orifice. The orifice plate correlates static head differ-
ence, measured upstream and downstream, with rate of flow. Data on dimensions,
limitations, installation effects, and formulas have been published.*
Venturis and flow nozzles. These devices are based on the same principle as
the orifice plate, but introduce somewhat less head loss in a flow system.*
Flow measurement by volume or weight. The accuracy of volumetric measure-
ment depends on the accuracy of tank dimensional measurements and differences in
liquid level. The derivation of rate of flow, in turn, depends on the accuracy of time
measurement of the period of flow.
It is recommended that the minimum change in liquid level during any test
run not be less than 2 ft (0.6 m). The duration of any test run shall not be less than
1 min, when the tank is filled from an open discharge pipe. A submerged entrance
into the tank will cause an increase in the system head as the tank fills and will
result in a nonlinear change in rate of flow. Correlation of rate of flow with weight
is seldom feasible, except for extremely small flow.
Evaluation of various methods of flow measurement. It is impossible to extend
flow measurement beyond that corresponding to the system head which, of course,
equals the pump total head, unless the head above datum can be lowered for the
test. More often than not, this is not feasible, so the only portion of the pump char-
acteristic that can be measured in a field test is the region of rates of flow lower
than the design rate. It is also possible that the design rate cannot be reached if the
method of flow measurement introduces friction head loss, thereby raising the sys-
tem head. Substantial head losses are, indeed, incurred by introducing orifice plates
and flow nozzles into the system. In some cases this may reduce their usefulness.
The friction head loss introduced by insertion of a pitot-static tube, on the other
hand, can generally be neglected. Venturis also introduce very low losses, but be-
cause of their weight and length they are somewhat more expensive to employ in
field tests (unless they are a permanent part of the installation).
Head below datum hb. This distance can be measured by steel tape, electric
sounder, or the air-line gauge method. The elevation of the pumping water level is
determined electrically by measuring the length below datum of waterproof insu-
lated wire terminating in a shielded electrode that completes the circuit through a
magneto or dry cell to an indicating lamp, bell, or meter on touching the water’s
surface. The elevation of the pumping water level can be determined with the air-
line gauge method by subtracting the calibrated bourdon-tube gauge reading (con-
verted to feet of liquid) from the known length of airtight tubing (open at the bottom)

*Fluid Meters—Their Theory and Application. Rept. ASME Res. Comm. on Fluid Meters.
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York (5th ed., 1959).

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
60 AWWA E101-88

that has been pumped full of air to the maximum gauge reading that can be at-
tained. The air-line gauge length, of course, must exceed the head below datum. In
the air-line gauge method, the gauge accuracy tolerance must be included (depend-
ent on gauge quality and the portion of the gauge range in use), unless the gauge is
calibrated before and after the test.
Head above datum ha. This quantity can be measured by means of a calibrated
bourdon-tube gauge (reading converted to feet of liquid) plus the distance from the
datum to the centerline of the gauge plus velocity head. When the head above da-
tum is quite low, it may be measured with manometers, using mercury or the liquid
being pumped as a manometer fluid. The choice of manometer fluid should produce
manometer deflections of at least 6 in. (150 mm).
Power measurement. Although not impossible, it is generally considered im-
practical to attempt to measure pump power input by means of a transmission dy-
namometer in field tests. The most frequently encountered alternative is that of
measuring driver power input, which is then multiplied by the driver efficiency.
The derived pump power input obtained by this method is subject to the accu-
racy tolerance on the driver efficiency. Since the only pump driver on which power
input measurements of the requisite degree of accuracy can be made is the direct-
drive electric motor, this standard deals with the measurement of electric power
only.
Watt-hour meters. These devices measure total energy, but may be used for
measuring power by introducing the time factor in the following formula:

4.826 KMR
driver power input = ———————— (Eq A.5)
t

Where:
K = disc constant, representing watt-hours per revolution
M = product of current and potential transformer ratios (if not used,
omit from formula)
R = total revolutions of watt-hour meter disc
t = time for total revolutions of disc, in seconds

The duration of this measurement shall not be less than 1 min. Commercial
watt-hour meter power measurements are expected to be within ±11/2 percent, un-
less specifically calibrated and used with a calibration chart. In this case the stated
accuracy of the calibration shall prevail.
Portable watt meters. Used with or without portable current and potential
transformer, portable watt meters are available in varying degrees of precision.
They may be used with the manufacturer’s statement of accuracy tolerance if they
are in good condition.
Clamp-on electrical measuring devices. Except for rough checks on motor load-
ing, these devices are deemed not acceptable for pump field tests.
Pump-speed measurement. The revolution counter and stopwatch provide a
simple and direct method of pump-speed measurement. They are to be preferred for
field tests over more elaborate devices that read directly in revolutions per minute
or revolutions per second. The expected accuracy tolerance for measurements based
on a duration may be improved by extending the duration of the reading.

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
VERTICAL TURBINE PUMPS 61

Test Procedure
Preliminary agreement. The contractual obligations of the several parties in-
volved should be clarified to the point of mutual agreement before the start of test-
ing. The following salient points in hydraulic performance are among those that may
be considered desirable:
1. Rate of flow with specified tolerance.
2. Pump total head with specified tolerance.
3. Driver power input with specified tolerance.
4. Pump speed with specified tolerance.
5. Overall efficiency with specified tolerance.
6. Stipulation of hydraulic performance tolerance on field tests must take
strict account of the accuracy limitations inherent in field testing. Choice of instru-
mentation and installation effects shall be considered to avoid specification of unre-
alistic tolerances.
The following points in mechanical performance are also desirable:
1. Acceptable vibration limits specifying point of measurement and maximum
total indicator reading in mils (µm).
2. Noise-level limits above specified ambient noise level, also specifying loca-
tion at which noise level is to be measured.
Instrumentation. Choice, installation location, accuracy tolerances, and re-
quirements for calibration curves shall be mutually decided on.
Time limits. The effect of wear caused by abrasive material in the liquid being
pumped makes it mandatory that field tests, if conducted for the purpose of accep-
tance, be concluded as soon as possible after installation. This effect varies within
wide limits, so as much preliminary information as it is possible to obtain shall be
made available to all contracting parties for the purpose of agreement on the time of
test, or any allowances that shall be made for undue wear before the test is run.
Inspection and preliminary operation. All contracting parties shall make as
complete an inspection as possible of the installation to determine compliance with
installation requirements and correct connection of all instrumentation. On satisfac-
tory completion of this requirement, the pump shall be started. The pump, as well
as the instrumentation, should be checked immediately for any evidence of malfunc-
tion. An immediate check of pumping water level shall be made, followed peri-
odically by additional checks until the level has stabilized to the satisfaction of all
parties. Any evidence of cascading within the well or the presence of gas or abrasive
material shall also be collected at this time. A preliminary check of all test values
can then be made for stability of reading, and a final check can be made on any
possible malfunction.
Recording. The recording of test data may take any convenient form and shall
include make, type, size, and serial number of pump and driver; date of test; dura-
tion of run; description of instrumentation used; instrument constants or multipli-
ers; other basic physical constants or formulas used that are not specifically listed in
this code; and liquid temperature at pump discharge and pump submergence, as
well as the instrument readings. Additional data or remarks may also be included
by mutual agreement. Copies of test data and accompanying instrument calibration
curves shall be made available to all contracting parties. If several test runs are
made at different rates of flow, a performance curve can be drawn and it shall
become a part of the recorded data. An example of a satisfactory field test report
form is shown in Figure A.5.

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
62 AWWA E101-88

Pump Field-Test Report


Test No. ________________________ Date _________________________
Owner: Name _____________________________________________
Address ___________________________________________
Pump: Location ___________________ Type ____________ Size _____________ Stages____________
Make ____________________________________ Serial No. ________________________________
Motor: Make ____________________________________ Serial No. ________________________________
Rated hp: _________ rpm ___________ vss __________ vhs __________ subm ___________
Power Supply: Nominal Voltage _________________________ Frequency ___________________________
Column: Pipe Size _______________ Shaft Size ________________ Discharge Pipe Size ______________
or Length _______________________________ Cable Size _______________________________
Test Conducted by: _______________________________ Witnessed by: _____________________________
Pump Serial No. __________________________________ Test Date ________________________________
Test Instruments
Head Below Datum Measured With_______________________________________________________________
Length Air Line (if used) ___________________________________________________________________
Discharge Pressure:
Make Gauge ________________ Size Face __________________ Serial No.__________________
Gauge Calibration: Date _______________ by _________________ Chart No. ________________
Manometer Fluid __________________________ Specific Gravity ___________________________
Measured Pipe Inside Diameter at Pressure Tap ___________________________________________________
Type Capacity-Measuring Device Used ___________________________________________________________
Size ____________________________________ Make ___________________________________
Serial No. ___________________________________________________________________________
Calibration: ____________ Date _____________ by ______________ Chart No. _____________
__________________ ft Downstream From _____________________ (Valve, Elbow, or Other Fixture)
__________________ ft Upstream From _______________________ (Valve, Elbow, or Other Fixture)
Measured Diameter of Pipe at Instrument __________________________________________________
Condition of Pipe Upstream: Excellent ____________ Good _____________ Poor _____________
Type and Make of Power-Measuring Device Used __________________________________________________
Watt-Hour Meter Disc Constant ________________ No. _____________________________________
Watt Meter Multiplier _________________________ No. _____________________________________
Current Transformers Ratio ___________________ No. _____________________________________
Potential Transformers Ratio __________________ No. _____________________________________
Calibration of Meter _________________________ Chart No. ________________________________
Date ____________________ by ______________________________
Voltmeter: Type __________________________________ Serial No. ________________________________
Ammeter: Type __________________________________ Serial No. ________________________________
Speed-Measuring Device ______________________________________________________________________

Figure A.5 Field-test report form.

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
VERTICAL TURBINE PUMPS 63

Expected Accuracy of Field Test


Measurement Instrument Accuracy Accuracy Squared
Head above datum —
Head below datum —
Weighted-average head accuracy*
Capacity
Power

Sum of accuracy squared ———————



Combined accuracy
*Average is weighted according to the proportion of head above datum and head below datum to total head:
(accuracy hb) × hb /H + (accuracy ha) × ha /H = weighted-average head accuracy.

Test Readings and Calculations


All readings except No. 1 are taken when pumping
No. Symbol Units 1 2 3
1 Head below datum when not pumping ft (m)
2 Drawdown ft (m)
3 hb Head below datum ft (m)
4 Datum to centerline discharge gauge ft (m)
5 Pressure head reading ft or psi
(m or kg/cm2)
6 Pressure head above datum ft (m)
7 hv Velocity head in discharge pipe* ft (m)
8 ha Head above datum* = (6) + (7) ft (m)
9 H Total head* = (3) + (8) ft (m)
10 Q Capacity readings gpm
(m3/h)
Current Line A amp
11 Current Line B amp
Current Line C amp
Voltage Phase AB V
12 Voltage Phase BC V
Voltage Phase AC V
13 Revolutions of watt-hour meter disc
(constant)
14 Time sec
15 Watt meter reading
16 Electrical input* from (13 & 14)
or (15) kW
17 Horsepower input* = (16)/0.746 hp
18 Revolutions of counter
19 Time sec
20 Pump speed = (18) × 60/(19) rpm
21 Pump output = (9) × (10) ×
sp gr/3960 hp†
22 Overall efficiency* = (21) × (17) percent
23 Motor efficiency* (source) percent
24 Pump field efficiency* = (22)/(23) percent
*Calculated.
†Results will be in horsepower only if head measurements are in feet of liquid (hp × 0.746 = kW).

Figure A.5 (continued)

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
64 AWWA E101-88

Test observations. Since at least two persons will generally be present during a
field acceptance test, the duties of making test observations may be distributed
among those present. It may be preferable, however, if the instrument locations
permit, to record each reading as a matter of mutual agreement. The practice of
making simultaneous and instantaneous readings of all instruments must be
avoided. For example, the transient response of a bourdon-tube gauge is much faster
than that of a mercury manometer. The recommended procedure is to make a con-
tinuous observation of at least 1 min of all instrumentation showing rate (or instan-
taneous values). During the prescribed observation period, if possible, all totaling
instruments are read against time to determine rate. With some experience, it is
possible to observe rate (instantaneous reading) instruments, mentally rejecting ran-
dom fluctuations, and selecting the value that represents that prevailing most of the
time during the observation period.
It should be mentioned that the use of linear scales for nonlinear values (inch
scales on differential manometers recording velocity head pressure from a pitot-
static tube, for example) may cause error in the process of obtaining a time-weighted
average, if the fluctuation is appreciable. Not withstanding any skill that may be
obtained with experience, it must be recognized that a considerable observational
error can still exist. If possible, readings should be repeated and different observers
should be employed to ensure complete agreement among all parties.
It is difficult to evaluate the effect of fluctuating readings because of the highly
variable damping that may be present with some types of instrumentation. It is not
recommended that any devices be used to increase damping of instrument readings,
as it is occasionally possible for some of these methods to superimpose a rectifying
effect or asymmetrical response on the instrument reading when subjected to dy-
namic fluctuations. It is desirable that the contracting parties agree in advance of
the test on minimum (or maximum) scale readings of instruments and on the mag-
nitude of fluctuation that may be acceptable, although fluctuations in readings occa-
sionally reflect system response and cannot be readily controlled.
Adjustment of field-test results. Occasionally the pump-driver speeds will devi-
ate slightly from the nominal value on which the pump performance guarantee is
based. In such cases, the application of the following hydraulic affinity relationships
should be made to adjust the test values to the design operating speed:

n
Q = Qt (————
n ) t
(Eq A.6)

n
H = Ht (————
n )t
2
(Eq A.7)

n
P = Pt (————
n )t
3
(Eq A.8)

Where:
Q = pump capacity, in gallons per minute (cubic metres per hour)
t = indicated test values

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
VERTICAL TURBINE PUMPS 65

n = anticipated operating speed, in revolutions per minute (revolutions


per second)
H = head, in feet (metres)
P = power, in horsepower (kilowatts)

Evaluation of accuracy tolerances. Observation errors do not necessarily follow


the law of probability. If agreement on instrument readings cannot be reached be-
fore recording, the arithmetic average shall be used.
Instrumentation accuracy tolerances for individual measurements are given in
Table A.1. The value of the overall efficiency, however, is calculated from the head,
capacity, and driver power input measurements. It must be recognized that, in the
extreme case, the accuracy tolerance on overall efficiency could be as large as the
sum of the accuracy tolerances of these three measurements. It will, however, be
assumed that the most probable value of the overall efficiency accuracy tolerance is
the square root of the sum of the squares of the individual tolerances.
In the computation of test data, the final values obtained for head, capacity,
driver power input, overall efficiency, and pump speed shall be shown with the ap-
propriate tolerance following each value.

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
APPENDIX B
This appendix is for information only and is not a part of AWWA E101.

Suggested Specification Form for the Purchase of Vertical Turbine


Pumps

Vertical Turbine Pump Specifications

1. Purchaser ___________________________________________________________________________
2. Address _____________________________________________________________________________
3. Installation site _______________________________________________________________________
4. Job reference no. ____________________________ Item no. _________________________________
5. No. required ________________________________ Date required _____________________________
6. Prime mover: Electric motor _________________________ Engine __________________________
Other ________________________________
7. Prime mover data:
Electrical: Voltage _________ Frequency ___________ Phase __________ rpm ___________
Mechanical: Engine (type desired): Gas _____ Gasoline _____ Diesel _____ Other _____
Maximum operating rpm ____________________
8. Driver: Vertical hollow-shaft motor drive (Sec. A-2.3.1) _______________________________________
8. Driver: Vertical solid-shaft motor drive (Sec. A-2.3.2) ________________________________________
8. Driver :Vertical hollow-shaft right-angle gear drive (Sec. A-2.3.3) _______________________________
8. Driver: Vertical hollow-shaft belted drive (Sec. A-2.3.4) _______________________________________
8. Driver: Combination drive (Sec. A-2.3.5) __________________________________________________
8. Driver: Submersible motor (Sec. B-2.1) ___________________________________________________
8. Driver: Other ________________________________________________________________________
9. Line-shaft lubrication required: Oil __________ Water _____________ Other ______________
10. Type of discharge: Surface ___________________________ Below base _____________________
10. Type of discharge: If below base: Distance from datum (see Sec. A-2.4) to centerline of
10. Type of discharge: If below base: discharge tee ____________________________________ ft (m)*
11. Other requirements ___________________________________________________________________

66

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
VERTICAL TURBINE PUMPS 67

Pump Operating Conditions

12. Design capacity _________________ gpm (m3/h)*


13. Datum elevation ________________ ft (m)*
14. Pumping level below datum at design capacity ________________ ft (m)*
15. Total head above datum (static plus system friction) at design capacity ______________ ft (m)*
16. Total pump head at design capacity (line 14 plus line 15) _______________________ ft (m)*
17. Operating range: Minimum total pump head ______________________________ ft (m)*
17. Operating range: Maximum total pump head ______________________________ ft (m)*
18. Other operating conditions ______________________________________________________________
19. Overall length (datum to inlet of pump suction case—Part 40, Table 1) _______________ ft (m)*
20. Length of suction pipe required _____________________________ ft (m)*

Description of Installation

21. Type of installation: Well _______ Can _______ Sump ________ Other _________
22. Minimum inside diameter of well or casing to pump setting ____________________ in. (mm)*
23. Maximum permissible outside diameter of pump ______________________________ in. (mm)*
24. Total depth of well __________________________ ft (m)*
NOTE: A well is considered straight if a 20-ft (6-m) long cylinder equal to the maximum permissible outside
diameter of the pump will not bind when lowered to a depth equal to the pump setting.
25. Static water level below datum _________________ ft (m)*
26. Sand in water: (After 15-min pumping interval) Concentration—ppm (mg/L)* _____________________
27. Gas in water: (Type, if known) Concentration—ppm (mg/L)* __________________________________
28. Other conditions: _____________________________________________________________________
29. Special materials required to resist corrosion and/or erosion: __________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________

Connections and Accessories

30. Discharge flange: ___________________________ in. (mm)*, 125-lb ANSI


31. Companion flange required: Yes ________ No ________ ___________in. (mm)*, 125-lb ANSI
32. Strainer required: Yes __________ No ___________
33. Lubricator required: Yes _________ No __________ Voltage _________ Frequency _________
34. Prelube water tank required: Yes _______ No ________ Capacity _________________ gal (L)*
35. Automatic lubrication controls required: Time delay relay __________ Float switch _________
36. Air line and gauge required: Yes ___________ No ___________
Pumps are to be furnished in accordance with AWWA E101-88, with the following
exceptions __________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________

NOTE: For submersible pumps, items 9, 20, 33, 34, and 35 do not apply.
*Indicate unit of measure.

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.
1P-14M-45101-6/88-MG Printedonrecycledpaper.

Copyright (C) 1998 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved.