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SoTa rusTavelis qarTuli literaturis

instituti

qarTuli literatura

istoria saerTaSoriso literaturuli


procesebis prizmaSi

(Suasaukuneebidan postsabWoTa epoqamde)

nawili I

Tbilisi
2016
1
UDC(uak)

aRniSnuli proeqti ganxorcielda SoTa rusTavelis


erovnul samecniero fondSi mopovebuli grantis
`qarTuli literatura da msoflio literaturuli
procesi~ (proeqti № 31/55) farglebSi.

redaqtori
irma ratiani

saredaqcio kolegia:
ivane amirxanaSvili
maka elbaqiZe
gaga lomiZe

operator-damkabadonebeli
TinaTin duglaZe

Yydis dizaineri
revaz mirianaSvili

gamomcemloba `saari~, 2016

ISBN 978-9941-461-25-5 (orive tomis)


978-9941-461-26-2 (I tomis)
2
Sinaarsi

redaqtorisgan.........................................................................................5

ivane amirxanaSvili
adreuli Sua saukuneebis
qristianuli mwerloba da
qarTuli agiografiuli literatura.........................................7

goCa kuWuxiZe
qarTuli himnografia......................................................................28

magda mWedliZe
qarTuli filosofiuri mwerloba.
ioane petriwi.......................................................................................61

maka elbaqiZe
sekularizaciis procesi
evropul mwerlobaSi da qarTuli saero
literaturis aRmoceneba...............................................................82

maka elbaqiZe
`vefxistyaosani~ – gza renesansisken.......................................110

irma ratiani
aRmosavleTsa da dasavleTs Soris.
eEvropuli klasicizmi, ganmanaTElebloba da
qarTuli mwerlobis ganaxlebuli statusi...........................122

rusudan canava
ganmanaTlebloba qarTul literaturaSi.
sulxan-saba orbeliani..................................................................140
3
Tamar barbaqaZe
QqarTvel mefeTa poezia da
versifikaciuli formebis
mrvalferovneba...............................................................................193

ivane amirxanaSvili
daviT guramiSvilis poeturi
kontrapunqti. Sua saukuneebidan
ganmanaTleblobis esTetikamde.................................................227

pirTa saZiebeli....................................................................................242

4
redaqtorisgan

winamdebare wigni avtorTa koleqtivis mieraa momzadebu-


li. statiebis avtorebi SoTa rusTAavelis qarTuli litera-
turis institutis mecnier-TanamSromlebi da saqarTvelos
sxvadasxva umaRlesi saswavleblebis profesor-maswavleb-
lebi arian.
wignis mizania qarTuli literaturis TeEqvsmetsauku-
novani istoriis axleburi gaazreba, misi warmoCena saerTa-
Soriso literaturuli procesebis fonze, komparativistu-
li meTodologiisa da hermenevtikuli meTodis gamoyenebis
gziT.
qarTuli literaturis istoria araerTxel yofila gamo-
cemuli winare perodebSi, Tumca, gamocemaTa umetesoba sab-
WoTa periodSia ganxocielebuli, rac, cxadia, garkveul
daRs asvams samecniero produqciis did nawils da bevr eWvsa
da kiTxvas badebs. winamdebare wigni sruliad TAavisufalia
nebismieri ideologiuri winaswarganpirobebulobisagan da
maqsimaluri mecnieruli sicxadiT aSuqebs dasmul prob-
lemebs. wignis ZiriTadi interesis arealSi Semodis qarTu-
li literaturuli procesis gaazreba zogadliteraturul
konteqstSi, ara – izolirebulad, aramed – saerTaSoriso
literaturul tendenciebTan mWidro kavSirSi. wignis avto-
rebs miaCniaT, rom qarTuli mwerloba odiTganve msoflio
literaturis mniSvnelovan landSafts warmoadgenda da misi
analizi viwro-nacionalur CaArCoebSi mxolod daaviwrovebs
da daakninebs mis Rirsebebs.
wignSi Semavali TiToeuli werili qarTuli mwerlo-
bis istoriis romelime erT mniSvnelovan safexurs eTMmoba
da faravs periods adreuli Sausaukuneebidan vidre post-
sabWoTa epoqamde. werilebis avtorebi, rogorc zemoT ukve
aRiniSna, iyeneben uaxles filologiur meTodologiebs,
eyrdnobian ara mxolod qarTuli kritikis aRiarebul avto-
ritetebs, aramed – Tanamedrove qarTvel da ucxoel avto-
rebs. eEs met dinamizmsa da akademiur damajereblobas sZens
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wigns. mMiuxedavad imisa, rom avtorebi didi pativiscemiT
arian gamsWvalulni qarTuli literaturaTmcodneobisa da
kritikis warsulSi aRiarebuli moRvaweebis mimarT, axali
koncefciebisa da mosazrebebis, axali sunTqvis Semotana –
wignis ZiriTad miznadaa dasaxuli.
imeds vitovebT, rom inovaciuri samecniero xedvebiTa
da koncefciebiT damuSAavebuli qarTuli literaturis
istoria TandaTaAnobiT daimkvidrebs adgils qarTuUl aka-
demiur sivrceSi da saintereso sakiTxavi iqneba rogorc
profesionalebisaTvis, ise – studentebisa da moswavle-
axalgazrdobisaTvis.
Pproeqtis mxardaWerisaTvis uRrmes madlobas movaxse-
nebT saqarTvelos erovnul samecniero sagranto fonds
– rusTaAvelis fonds, agreTve, avtorebs, recenzentebs da
teqnikur redaqtorTa jgufs.
warmatebas vusurveb wigns!

irma ratiani

6
ivane amirxanaSvili

adreuli Sua saukuneebis qristianuli mwerloba da


qarTuli agiografiuli literatura

qarTuli mwerlobis istoria adreuli Sua saukuneebis


periodidan iREebs saTaves da mWidrod ukavSirdeba qarTvel-
Ta mier qristianobis miREebas (IV saukune). Sesabamisad, fra-
za, rom adreuli Sua saukuneebis qarTuli literatura re-
ligiuri xasiaTisaa, aqsiomaturia. qarTuli agiografiuli,
himnografiuli Tu saRvTismetyvelo mwerloba ganuxrelad
gamoxatavs eklesiis interesebs, TumcaRa, sxva, uaRresad
sayuradReEbo funqciasac iTavsebs: igi socialuri dakveTa,
sazogadoebrivi interesebis gamoxatuleba, kulturuli
mdgomareobaa.
mwerloba, erTi mxriv, aris qristianul kulturasTan
adaptaciisaken mimavali pirdapiri gza, meore mxriv, erov-
nuli TviTigiveobis dadgenis saSualeba.
eklesia aris adgili, sadac xorcieldeba Tanmimdevruli
kulturuli politika, romelic gulisxmobs qveynis sulier
aRorZinebasa da qristianul samyarosTan integrirebas.
amitom samonastro sistema viTardeba ara marto qveynis
SigniT, aramed qveynis gareTac. Satberdis, xanZTis, oSkis,
gelaTis, iyalTos paralelurad inteleqtualuri proce-
sebi mimdinareobs sazRvargareTul centrebSic: ierusalim-
Si, sinis mTaze, aTonze, antioqiaSi, petriwonSi, kviprosze.
kulturtregerul saqmianobas ewevian cnobili qarTve-
li moRvaweebi: grigol xanZTeli, ioane, eqvTime da giorgi
aTonelebi, efrem mcire, ioane petriwi da sxvebi. didi avto-
ritetiT sargebloben saeklesio mamebi da RvTismetyvelni:
basili kesarieli, grigol noseli, efrem asuri, grigol na-
zianzeli, ioane oqropiri, kirile aleqsandrieli, fsevdo-
dionise areopageli, maqsime aRms arebeli, ioane damaskeli.
qarTul enaze iTargmneba TiTqmis yvela mniSvnelovani saek-
lesio Txzuleba.
qarTvelTa mizania msoflio kulturul farvaterSi
yofna da isini amas axerxeben.
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saeklesio literaturis intensiur dargad Camoyalib-
da himnografia – qarTuli poeturi energiis asparezi da
TavSesafari.
liturgiul-saRvTismetyvelo galoba kargad moergo
kulturuli sazogadoebis gemovnebasa da xasiaTs.
Tavidan qarTvelebi himnebs Targmnian, TiTqos eCvevian,
uaxlovdebian, iTaviseben Janrs.
qarTulma himnografiam ganviTarebis umaRles mwver-
vals X saukuneSi miaRwia. es aris himnografiis istoriis
klasikuri xana. swored am dros moRvaweobdnen cnobili him-
nografebi: ioane-zosime, ioane mtbevari, ioane minCxi, miqael
modrekili, giorgi merCule, ezra, ioane qonqozisZe, kurda-
nai, filipe, stefane sananoisZe-Wyondideli da sxvebi.
lela xaCiZis azriT, X saukunis qarTvel himnografTa
umetesoba `mexelTa~ anu profesional musikosTa Taobis
warmomadgenelia. isini erTdroulad poetebic arian da
kompozitorebic (xaCiZe 2000: 10).
himnografiuli literaturis ganviTareba epoqis niSa-
nia, saazrovno specifikaa. Sua saukuneebis msmenelisa da
mkiTxvelis aRqmis fsiqologia bunebrivad moiTxovs him-
nografiul saxismetyvelebas, rogorc gnoseologiur feno-
mens. sagaloblis teqstis nebismieri komponenti am ZiriTad
princips emsaxureba (nakudaSvili 1996: 114).
marTalia, galobis wesi berZnulidan Semovida, magram
berZnulisgan gansxvavebiT qarTuli himni mravalxmiania.
qarTulma himnografiam didi roli Seasrula qarTuli
mxatvruli literaturis poeturi enis Camoyalibebasa da
ganviTarebaSi. saero mxatvrulma literaturam aiTvisa
himnografiaSi gamoyenebuli saxismetyvelebiTi principebi
da sxva gamomsaxvelobiTi saSualebebi, romlebmac gaamdi-
dres qarTvel mweralTa TvalTaxedva da saazrovno sivrce
(sulava 2006: 105).
agiografia da himnografia – ori Janri mesame SenakadiT.
es ori Janri imiTac aris saintereso, rom maTSi gabneulia
filosofiuri azrovnebis elementebi.
agiografiul TxzulebebSi garkveuli Sreebis saxiT
gvxvdeba egzegetikuri, dogmatikuri da polemikuri moti-
vebi. aRniSnul dargebs aqvs rogorc praqtikuli, ise Teori-
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uli daniSnuleba. adreuli Sua saukuneebis sarwmunoebrivi
praqtika TavisTavad moiTxovs bibliuri teqstebis ganmar-
tebas (egzegetika), qristianul debulebaTa filosofiur
formulirebas (dogmatika), brZolas warmarTobasTan da
sxva aRmsareblobebTan (polemika).
ar darCenila met-naklebad mniSvnelovani Txzuleba,
qarTulad rom ar eTargmnoT. qarTul literaturaSi sa-
kulto wignebad iTvleba basili didis `equsTa dReTaTvis~,
grigol noselis `kacisa SesaqmisaTvis~, agreTve ipolite
romaelis, epifane kviprelis, aTanase aleqsandrielis, ioane
oqropiris, ioane damaskelis, maqsime aRmsareblis Sromebi.
aRniSnul dargebs amdidrebs eqvTime mTawmidelis,
giorgi mTawmidelis, Teofile xucesmonazonis, efrem mci-
res, arsen iyalToelisa da ioane petriwis Targmanebi da
originaluri Txzulebebi.
Targmanis wili gacilebiT didia da amas aqvs obieqturi
mizezebi da motivebi. upirveles yovlisa, unda aRiniSnos is,
rom inteleqtualuri elita Targmans iyenebs dasavlur da
aRmosavlur kulturebTan kavSiris gasamyareblad.
Targmans am dros `gadmoRebis~ mniSvneloba aqvs. gad-
moReba ki ar niSnavs ubralod gadmoTargmnas, aramed es aris
ganmarteba da komentari, romlebic teqstTan Tavisufal
mopyrobas gulisxmobs (nucubiZe 1983: 13).
Tavisufleba – es aris principi, romelic gviCvenebs,
erTi mxriv, swrafvas azrovnebis damoukideblobisaken, me-
ore mxriv, mzadyofnas saimisod, rom SeZlos ucxo kulturis
miReba-adaptireba.
aRmosavlur-dasavluri Sexvedrebi marto qarTul li-
teraturas ar axasiaTebs.
niSandoblivia, rom TviT bizantiuri literatura, an-
tikuri fesvebis garda, ukve aRmosavlur literaturaSi
eZebs ideebsa da motivebs. aRmosavleTiT daintereseba, anu
rogorc sergei averincevi uwodebs, `bizantiuri gemovne-
bis orientalizacia, sakmaod didxans grZeldeba (averincevi
1984: 356).
qarTul literaturaSi orientalizacia gacilebiT bu-
nebrivad xorcieldeba da mas sistemuri xasiaTi aqvs, iseve,
rogorc swrafvas qristianuli dasavleTisaken, sadac gaci-
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lebiT meti safuZveli arsebobs tipologiuri Sexvedrebi-
saTvis.
komparativistuli TvalsazrisiT, qarTul da dasav-
lur literaturebSi sakmao raodenobiT moipoveba `saerTo
adgilebi~.
adrian marinos azriT, komparativizmSi arsebobs `sin-
qronuli poetikis~ saxesxvaoba, romelic unda aigos ara
lingvistur bazaze, aramed sinqronul-struqturalis-
turi aRwerilobisa da invariantebis daxmarebiT, mudmivi
gameorebebiT.
aqedan gamomdinare, arsebobs ara marto dasavluri po-
etika, aramed aRmosavluric: Cinuri, arabuli, induri, saer-
Tod, `regionuli~ poetikebi, romelTa Soris Tavis adgils
ikavebs qarTuli poetika.
universalizmi – es aris erTaderTi gza swori daskvne-
bis gamosatanad. literaturis komparativistuli gansazR-
vreba ver daeyrdnoba mxolod `evropocentristuli~ an
`provinciuli~ literaturebis cnebebs.
adrian marinos xatovani TqmiT, literaturis Teoriam
unda Seicvalos profili da Ria zRvaSi gavides. misi azriT,
WeSmaritad `universaluri poetika~ SeiZleba Camoyalib-
des zustad sami kondiciiT: 1. dasTanxmdes universalizmis
hipoTezas da aiRos igi, rogorc aTvlis wertili; 2. moax-
dinos misi verifikacia anu axsnas misi WeSmariti arsi aR-
mosavleTisa da dasavleTis Teoriul-literaturuli in-
variantebis daxmarebiT; 3. Seamowmos is ormxrivi msgavsebis
TvalsazrisiT anu orive, aRmosavluri da dasavluri, po-
etikis saerTo elementebiT (marino 2010: 235).
aTonis unikalur istoriaSi aris erTi aseTi faqti. 1063
wlis ivnisSi giorgi mTawmindeli konstantine dukas xvdeba.
imperatori ekiTxeba wmida mamas – ra ganasxvavebs qarTul
marTlmadideblobas berZnulisagan? mama giorgi pasuxobs:
`ese ars sarwmunoebaÁ marTali naTesavisa CuenisaÁ da ra-
Jams erTgzis gvicnobies, arRara midrekil varT marcxl,
marjul da arca mivdrkebiT, Tu RmerTsa undes~ (Zeglebi
1967: 178).
arCeuli gzis erTguleba, tradiciis dacva, istoriu-
lad Camoyalibebuli realobis SenarCuneba – es marto sar-
10
wmunoebrivi pozicia ki ar aris, aramed xasiaTia, qarTuli
erovnuli xasiaTi. giorgi mTawmindelis sityvebSi ikiTxeba,
erTi mxriv, inteleqtualuri elitis azri, meore mxriv, is-
toriuli sinamdvile.
tradiciis erTgulebaze jer kidev ioane sabanisZe wer-
da: `mamulisa Cveulebisaebr slvaÁ~ (Zeglebi 1963: 50), misi
azriT, aris is fenomeni, romelic erovnul-sarwmunoebrivi
xasiaTis mdgradobas ganapirobebs.
msgavs sityvaTSeTanxmebas JamTaaRmwerelic iyenebs sxva-
dasxva konteqstSi: `mamur-papurTa kualad svla~ (qarTlis
cxovreba 1959: 275) da `simxne da mamacoba mamur-papeulad~
(qarTlis cxovreba 1959: 314).
sxvaTa Soris, giorgi mTawmindelis azrs imeorebs ma-
kari xucesi (XIII-XIV ss.) `petre qarTvelis cxovrebaSi~. makari
wers, rom wmida mociqulTa qadagebis Semdeg `arRara odes
midrekil ars queyanaÁ igi qarTlisa wmidisa da marTlisa
sarwmunoebisagan, arca mivdrkeT ukunisamde~ (Zeglebi 1967:
216).
Tuki kulturas gaviazrebT rogorc winaparTa kultis
Tayvaniscemas, maSin SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom tradiciuloba,
gadacemiToba, memkvidreobiToba qarTuli bunebis, qarTu-
li gonis, zogadad `qarTulis~ damaxasiaTebeli movlenaa.
ra aris es `qarTuli~? amis Sesaxeb saintereso dakvir-
veba aqvs Tamaz buaCiZes. misi azriT, `qarTuli~ is goniTi
fenomenia, romelic gamoiyo sxvadasxva goniTi fenomenisgan
da tradiciis saxiT gadadis Taobidan TaobaSi. `qarTuli~
gamZle movlenaa, radgan Sesisxlxorcebulia eris warmo-
madgenlebis mier da gamoxatavs maT gulisTqmas, miswrafe-
bas, xasiaTs. es aris qarTvelTa Sinagani arsis garegani
obieqturi gamoxatuleba.
obieqtur gamoxatulebaTa Soris erT-erTi mTavari mov-
lenaa ena. qarTuli enis meSveobiT SegiZlia gaigo is samya-
ro, romelSic cxovrobs, moqmedebs, azrovnebs, ganicdis da
sunTqavs qarTveli kaci. ena Taviseburi yofierebaa, onto-
logiaa, ufro sworad, pirvelyofierebaa, pirvelontolo-
giaa. ena Tavis yaidaze agebs samyaros. enis gageba-aTviseba
niSnavs Sexvide am eniT agebul samyaroSi.
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`eris erToba, pirvel yovlisa~, goniTi erTobaa. qar-
Tvelia is, vinc aiTvisa da gaiTavisa qarTuli obieqturi go-
nis fenomenebi, maT siRrmeSi `Camaluli~ `qarTuli~ (buaCiZe
1991: 30).
osvald Spengleris filosofiis analizisas Tamaz bu-
aCiZe wers, rom goniTi fenomeni, goniTi kultura Sedegia
erovnuli gonis Semoqmedebisa. misi azriT, erovnuli goni
igivea, rac msoflgageba, romelic iqmneba erovnuli feno-
menebis urTierTqmedebiTa da enis aqtiuri monawileobiT.
qarTuli kultura aris qarTuli goni, qarTuli msofl-
gageba – ganxorcielebuli enaSi, zne-CveulebebSi, xelovne-
baSi, miTosSi, sarwmunoebaSi, saxelmwifo wyobaSi da a.S. eri
organuli mTelia. misi nawilebi ekleqturad ki ar aris mi-
webebuli erTmaneTs, aramed erTi saerTo wyarodan – erov-
nuli gonidan – aris warmomdgari. swored es erTi goni,
erTi msoflgageba, aerTianebs ers, mis kulturas.
`yoveli eri aris Semoqmedisa da qmnilis, natura naturans-isa
da natura naturata-s cocxali erTianoba~ (buaCiZe 1991: 102).
maSasadame, qarTuli qristianuli kultura tradici-
onalisturia. marTalia, kultura rogorc `gacnobierebuli
mizani~ (t. eliotis terminia) qarTlis moqcevis Semdeg,
meoTxe saukunidan dgindeba, magram tradiciuloba Senar-
Cunebulia warmarTobidan qristianobaze gadasvlis etap-
zec. axal rwmenas gadaecema mzis, vazis, wmida giorgis Zveli
kultebi.
qristianobamdeli kulturuli tradiciis uwyvetobis
dadasturebaa is faqti, rom qarTvelTa wilxvedri xdeba
macxovris kvarTi, romelic ierusalimidan CamoaqvT elioz
mcxeTelsa da longinoz karsnels. es siwminde qarTvelTa
mfarvelic aris da saxelmwifoebrivi mTlianobis simbo-
loc. amitom saqarTvelos samefo gerbze gamosaxes uflis
ukerveli kvarTi da am relikvias samefo gerbis ZiriTadi,
mTavari nawili dauTmes~ (TamaraSvili 1995: 150).
qarTuli kulturuli modelis Seqmna iwyeba qristiano-
bis kosmopolituri mrwamsisa da adgilobrivi, avtoxTonu-
ri gonis urTierTqmedebis Sedegad.
kulturul cvalebadobaTa dinamikis gageba damokide-
bulia im procesis gaazrebaze, romelsac kulturologebi
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difuzias uwodeben.
difuzia – es aris erTi kulturis Semadgeneli element-
ebis an damaxasaTebeli niSnebis gadasvla meore kulturaSi.
elementebisa da niSnebis aTviseba xdeba gaxsnis, Serevis,
`gaTqvefis~ principiT, Tumca SeiZleba kulturis zogierTi
komponenti naklebad daeqvemdebaros am princips.
kulturul cvalebadobaTa procesSi dominirebs kiTxve-
bi: `es saidan Cndeba?~ da `es saiT midis~ (malinovski 2004: 27).
aRniSnuli kiTxvebi qarTuli kulturuli procesis Ses-
axeb, ra Tqma unda, maSinve gaCnda bizantiur-berZnul sam-
yaroSi, magram amas aRar hqonda gadamwyveti mniSvneloba,
radgan dawyebuli iyo kulturuli difuzia, romelic qar-
Tuli specifikiT mimdinareobda.
aranaklebi mniSvneloba hqonda individualur faqtors.
rogorc cnobilia, kulturis CamoyalibebaSi mniSvnelovani
roli akisria pirovnebas. filosofiuri anTropologiis
enaze rom vTqvaT, adamiani badebs kulturas da kultura
badebs adamians.
kulturuli procesi pirovnebis meSveobiT aixsneba, in-
dividi aris kulturis mamoZravebelic da pasuxismgebelic
im movlenebze, rac kulturaSi xdeba.
kacobriobis istoria Zalian hgavs individualur biog-
rafias. Tuki individualuri biografiis arsi, safuZveli,
sawyisi aris pirovneba, istoriis arsi da safuZveli aris
kultura.
adamianis pirovneba unda warmovidginoT rogorc indi-
vidualuri arsebobis WeSmariteba, kultura – rogorc isto-
riis WeSmariteba.
kultura, rogorc istoriuli faqti, pirovnebaSi iki-
Txeba. pirovnebebi qmnian tradicias, romelic sxva araferia,
Tu ara kulturis istoriuloba.
wmida nino, mirian mefe, vaxtang gorgasali, iakob
curtaveli, asureli mamebi, abo Tbileli, ioane sabanisZe,
grigol xanZTeli da sxvani. am pirovnebaTa individualu-
ri biografiebi safuZvlad daedo qarTul qristianul
kulturas.
amerikeli kulturulogis lesli uaitis azriT, yovel-
gvari kulturuli elementi individis cnobierebaSi ibade-
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ba, Tumca kulturuli procesis asaxsnelad individs SeiZ-
leba mniSvneloba ar hqondes (uaiti 2004: 182).
kulturis esa Tu is forma xorcieldeba biologiur,
fsiqologiur da socialur safuZvelze dayrdnobiT.
ideebis, faseulobebisa da Cvevebis memkvidreobiT miRe-
bul erTianobas emateba codna, rwmena, kanoni, morali, wes-
Cveeulebani. am mTlianobidan ibadeba wignierebis motiva-
ciebi, azrovnebis silamaze da harmonia – gemovnebis ZiriTadi
kanoni, romelic gansazRvravs azrovnebisa da Semoqmedebis
xaiaTs.
azrovneba da Semoqmedeba TavianTi mizezebiT, funqci-
ebiT, formebiT, socialuri movlenebia. am kanonzomierebis
ZaliT, qarTuli cnobierebis kulturul msazRvrelad qris-
tianoba iqca. saxelmwifoSi amuSavda urTierTzemoqmedebis
iseTi elementebi, romlebmac daaCqares sulieri cxovrebis
ganviTareba. gaixsna axali ideologiuri horizonti, daiwyo
axali ideebis aTviseba, gaCnda axali inteleqtualuri da
mxatvruli aqtivoba. axalgazrda qarTuli qristianuli
kultura agiografiis meSveobiT ivsebs energias.
SemTxveviTi ar aris, rom agiografia Tavidanve mWidrod
ukavSirdeba erovnul problematikas. wmindanTa cxovreba
sakulto tradiciis nawili xdeba.
ase rom, agiografiis dabadeba tradiciis dabadebas
niSnavda. kulturam miiRo bunebrivi statusi – gaxda
memkvidreobiTi.
kulturulma situaciam gaaaqtiura enis struqtura da
daiwyo literaturis Camoyalibeba.
adreqristianuli sazogadoebisTvis cnobierebas mniS-
vnelovanwilad gansazRvravs agiografia, romelic, amav-
droulad, gamoxatavs kulturis xarisxobriv mxares. sazo-
gadoeba literaturis meSveobiT Seimecnebs Tavs.
mowamis beletrizebuli ambavi amaRlebuli grZnobiT
aRavsebs adamianebs da xels uwyobs yuradRebis masobriv
mobilizebas, radgan agiografia pasuxia ara marto sarwmu-
noebriv, aramed socialur-politikur movlenebzec.
agiografiuli teqsti aris maradi awmyo, romelic mimdi-
nareobs maSin, roca vexebiT, vkiTxulobT an vismenT. gage-
14
bisa da warmosaxvis ZaliT xorcieldeba kvlavSeqmnis, kvlav-
gancdis procesi.
agiografiis stili sociokulturuli movlenaa, im dro-
is, im garemos xelweraa, saidanac amoizrdeba.
wmindanis cxovrebis aRwera, – es aris kulturuli mo-
deli Tavisi konceptualuri SinaarsiT. nawarmoebis Seqmnis
procesSi STagoneba da Janruli teqnika religiur ideas
eqvemdebareba; religia aris centri, saidanac imarTeba ag-
iografiuli ideologia, rogorc kulturuli periferia.
yovelgvari kultura religiazea aRmocenebuli da mis
gareSe ar arsebobs. Zneli ar aris imis SemCneva, rom kul-
turis krizisi, romelic istoriis Cveuli movlenaa, religi-
uri krizisis pirdapiri Sedegia yvela SemTxvevaSi.
religiis gareSe kultura ganviTarebas wyvets.
religiuri movlenaa kultura, magram mas anTropolo-
giuri sawyisic gansazRvravs, kerZod, iseTi momentebi, ro-
gorebicaa fsiqologia, cxovrebis pirobebi, erovnuli sa-
zRvrebi, ena, tradiciebi, istoria da sxv. aman ganapiroba
qarTuli agiografiis mkveTrad erovnuli xasiaTi.
yoveli kulturuli periodi qmnis Tavis teqsts, romel-
sac aqvs warmoSobis Sina da gare mizezebi. Sina mizezi
aris swrafva WeSmaritebis gamoxatvisaken, gare mizezi –
erovnul-sazogadoebrivi funqcia. agiografiam SeimuSava
erovnul-sazogadoebrivi gmiris ideali, romelic WeSmari-
tebas, sarwmunoebas icavs.
`sarwmunoebis mtkiced dacva niSnavda erovnuli meobis
SenarCunebas. amaze maRali esTetikuri ideali maSindel
mwerlobas ara hqonda~ (siraZe 2000: 224).
erovnuli ideiT gamagrebuli agiografia jer cecxl-
Tayvanismcemlobas upirispirdeba, Semdeg mahmadianobas da,
paralelurad, berZnuli eklesiis gavlenasac ebrZvis.
agiografiam erovnul-kulturuli misia amowura maSin,
roca daiwyo saqarTvelos erTiani saxelmwifos Camoyali-
beba. es moxda XI saukuneSi.
wmindanTa cxovrebis amsaxveli teqsti warmoadgens `ide-
ologemas~ (m. baxtinis terminia), romlis literaturul
`hipnozs~ nebayoflobiT emorCileba mkiTxveli (msmeneli).
es aris usityvo xelSekruleba avtorsa da mkiTxvels Soris.
15
magram dgeba momenti, roca es xelSekruleba irRveva da
`subieqtebi~ sxva xelSekrulebis momzadebaze iwyeben fiqrs.
kulturis sekularizacia aaSkaravebs axali `xelSek-
rulebis~ aucileblobas. XI-XII saukuneebSi momxdarma kul-
turul-politikurma Zvrebma `kulturuli afeTqebis~ for-
ma miiRo da Tavisi kvali literaturasac daamCnia. mkiTxvelma
`meti dinamika, meti avantiura, meti romantika moiTxova.
literaturam uaryo utyuarobis principi da wina planze
gamonagoni wamoswia~ (elbaqiZe 2007: 159).
agiografia aris Janri da misi ganviTarebis istoria
adasturebs literaturis arsebobas da sicocxlisunari-
anobas. literaturis arseboba ki mianiSnebs imas, rom praq-
tikaSi xorcieldeba adamianisa da kulturis erTianoba, rac,
saboloo jamSi, ganapirobebs individis cnobierebis mTava-
ri unarebis – grZnobis, gonebisa da fantaziis mTlianobas.
`grigol xanZTelis cxovrebaSi~ aris erTi, ase vTqvaT,
zeagiografiuli SeniSvna, romelic mowamisa da moRvawis
funqciur gamijvnas exeba: `martvilni erTsa xolo Sina Jamsa
iwamnes, xolo ese (ber-monazvnebi) yovelsa Jamsa iwamebodes
saxelisaTvis qristeisa~.
– martvilni mxolod erTxel ewamebian. ber-monazvnebi ki
ganuwyvetliv. ese igi, mowamis gza sasufevlisaken vertika-
lia, ber-monazvnisa – horizontali.
giorgi merCules mier SemoTavazebul antinomiaSi naT-
lad ikveTeba agiografiuli principi gmiris xat-werisa.
`martvilobis~ mTavari gmiri, viTarca mowame, Tavidan-
ve SaravandediTaa mosili, misi vertikali Txzulebis Sesa-
valSi iwyeba da finali mxolod afiqsirebs vertikalis ar-
sebobas; `cxovrebis~ gmiri, viTarca moqalaqe, moRvawe,
gaivlis qmedebisa da zeciuri madlis mopovebs gzas anu ho-
rizontals da gzis bolos iwyebs zeaRsvlas.
moRvawis muSakoba da moqalaqoba mtevaniviT mwifdeba
(basili zarzmeli), mowamis dideba ki cecxliviT avardeba
zecad (ioane sabanisZe).
`cxovrebis~ gmiri Tavis Tavs TviTon qmnis. `wamebis~
gmirs ki konfliqti badebs.
moRvawe upirispirdeba garemos da cvlis mas.
16
mowames, piriqiT, garemo upirispirdeba da qmnis misgan
msxverpls.
orive SemTxvevaSi Sedegi erTnairia – ibadeba wmindani.
agiografiaSi ar arsebobs gamosaxvis arcerTi saSu-
aleba, gmiris xatis warmodgenas rom ar emsaxurebodes.
yovelgvari sarwmunoebrivi, ideologiuri, istoriuli, sa-
zogadoebrivi, eTikuri Tu esTetikuri mocemuloba, rac
ki koncefciis formiT arsebobs TxzulebaSi, `sufTa~ sa-
xiT ileqeba gmiris xatze. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom gmiri aris
agiografiuli universumi, mTeli Janri Tavis istoriul
ganviTarebaSi. amitom agiografiuli gmiris mTlianobaSi
warmodgena iseve SeuZlebelia, rogorc mwvervalis ganW-
vreta naturaluri sididiT. mTeli nawilSi unda davina-
xoT. SeuZlebelia grigol xanZTelis an abo Tbilelis agi-
ografiul figuraTa warmodgena im sididiT, ra sididesac
aniWeben maT giorgi merCule da ioane sabanisZe – logikur
kvlevas ar ZaluZs moaxdinos sarwmunoebrivi, istoriuli,
erovnuli, eTikuri da esTetikuri idealebis imgvari mis-
tikuri Serwyma, rogorsac avtorebi gvTavazoben. sxva Tu
araferi, mistika logikis wesebs ar eqvemdebareba, amitom
mkvlevars ori gza darCenia: daweros axali Txzuleba,
gnebavT, traqtati, romelic iqneboda aRiareba imisa, rom
amao saqmea agiografiuli metafizikis realisturi anali-
zis cda, an dakmayofildes nawilis WvretiT.
alternativis pirveli varianti arc ise uperspeqtivoa,
rogorc erTi SexedviT moCans. am gzas gahyva anton kaTa-
likosi, roca sarwmunoebrivi gmiris idealiT STagonebulma
xelmeored aRwera wmindanTa cxovrebani .
meore gza SedarebiT Tavisufali da `demokratiulia~
im mxriv, rom simaRlis Wvreta nebismieri wertilidan aris
SesaZlebeli da Tanac arsebobs saSualeba, rom nawilis
meSveobiT movaxdinoT mTelis konstruireba pirobiTi mas-
StabiT. miT umetes, Tuki Cveni mizania agiografiuli gmiris
mxatvruli warmosaxvis beletristuli elementebis kvleva
da ara saRvTismetyvelo safuZvlis analizi. asea Tu ise,
agiografiuli nawarmoebis mTavari personaJis litera-
turuli figura ar aris is labirinTi, sadac SeuZlebelia
logikuri diskursebiT gzis gakvleva.
17
marTalia, gmiri formalurad aris ara gamomxatveli,
aramed gamoxatuli, magram vin hkarnaxobs avtors? vin war-
marTavs mis nebas? ra Tqma unda, gmiri. am TvalsazrisiT,
gmiri SeiZleba avtoradac miviCnioT, radgan igi TviTon
aris avtoriteti, Janrismieri avtoritari, mTxrobels Tvi-
Ton hkarnaxobs heroizaciis pirobebs. mis xelSia emociur-
eTikuri motivaciebis gasaRebi, maszea damokidebuli mxat-
vruli gaformebis variaciebi. is aris saxe, romelic mwerlis
warmosaxvaSi ki ara, paradigmebSi aRmocendeba, upirovno
WeSmaritebidan warmoiSoba da iqve rCeba. pirovnul WeS-
maritebamde ar midis, radgan mxolod saRvTo gangebulebis
masStabebSi inarCunebs sicocxlisunarianobas.
amave dros, gmiri ar aris Tavisufali, is sqemazea da-
mokidebuli. sqemis mizandasaxulobas asrulebs, raTa Camo-
yalibdes idead, romelic droisa da sivrcis gareT dadgeba.
ufro zustad rom vTqvaT, dro-sivrcis gareT anu marad aw-
myoSi gadadis suli, xolo sxeuli, romelic moqmedebs da
romelzedac moqmedeben, rCeba sivrceSi. es sivrce anu gmi-
ris yofiereba aris myari erTianoba, romelic ar iSleba nawi-
lebad, ar nawevrdeba elementebad, amitom gmiris mimarTeba
sinamdvilesTan aris mTliani da daunawevrebeli.
gmiris `sterilur~ xasiaSi Cadebuli kodi ayalibebs
sinamdviles, romelzec gadis gza metafizikisaken. gmiri
Tavisi individualobidan zogad-abstraqtulis sferoSi
gadaeSveba.
`cxovrebis~ gmirma, piriqiT, unda gaimarjvos empiriul
ZalebTan brZolaSi, raTa amgvarad aRsruldes misi gasagneba
saqmeSi. misi gamTlianeba RvawlSi, sadac aris zecisa da miwis
SeerTebis adgili.
gmiri, erTi mxriv, ki dgas yofiTi konkretikis gareT,
magram, meore mxriv, mas aqvs Tavisi konkretika, romelTan
SepirispirebiT igi yalibdeba rogorc agiografiuli xati.
magalTiad, mowamis `konkretikas~ antigmiri warmoadgens.
`wamebis~ mTavari gmiris saxe antigmirTan SepirispirebiT
yalibdeba.
rogorc sarkeSi swordeba Sebrunebuli formebi, an ro-
gorc fotopozitivi anaTebs negativis siSaveebs, ise gmiris
saxe warmoadgens antigmiris Sebrunebul formas, mis opti-
18
kur ganaTebas. sxvaTa Soris, Tanamedrove barokalur esTe-
tikaSi, romelsac postmodernizmi qadagebs, sarkis principi
daaxloebiT aseve xorcieldeba – mTavari gmiri Tavis Tavs
sxvaSi xedavs. sxva personaJSi gardaisaxeba da sulac gada-
dis masSi. umberto ekos roman `winadRis kunZulis~ gmiri
robert de la grivi mosisxle mterSi gadadis. oRond aq is
gansxvavebaa, rom postmodernistis xedva pirdapir perspeq-
tivas gulisxmobs, agiografosisa ki ukuperspeqtivas, sadac
kontrastis faqtori upirvelesi pirobaa.
iakob xucesis TxzulebaSi pirvelad varsqeni gamoCnde-
ba, antigmiri, gmiris opozicia, konfliqtis mamoZravebeli
Zala. rom ar arsebobdes varsqeni, ar iqneba SuSaniki, radgan
ar iqneba konfliqti, wameba, cadamaRleba.
`martvilobis~ gmirs konfliqti badebs.
rac ufro mZafrdeba dapirispireba, miT ufro gamoik-
veTeba gmiris saxe.
dramatul peripetiebSi varsqenis saxe ufro da ufro
mkveTri da individualizebuli xdeba, detals detali emate-
ba, Strixs – Strixi da es xdeba imgvarad, rom negativSi da-
grovili siSave sinaTlis efeqtad gardaiqmneba pozitivSi
– gmiris xatze. revaz siraZis sityvebi rom moviSvelioT,
sikeTis CamxSobi Zala sikeTis gamaRvivebel Zalad gadaiq-
ceva (siraZe 1987: 55).
raRa Tqma unda, es aris meTodi, literaturuli xerxi,
tradicia da, amave dros, avtoris individualuri stili,
xasiaTi, ganwyobileba, msoflmxedveloba, niWi.
iakob xucesis Txzulebis kompoziciis simtkices var-
sqenis saxec ganapirobebs, ufro sworad, simtkicis faq-
tori aris varsqenisa da SuSanikis, antigmirisa da gmiris
dapirispieba mis mudmivobaSi anu moqmedebis ganviTareba-
Si. SuSaniki yovelTvis garbis sasaxlidan. garbis saxlaki-
dan, garbis karis eklesiidan. zogadad rom warmovidginoT,
garbis xorcieli sicocxlidan sikvdilisaken anu maradiuli
sicocxlisaken. varsqeni ki yovelTvis modis da SuSaniki mi-
hyavs an cdilobs waiyvanos, cdilobs Seabrunobs maradiu-
li sicocxlidan sikvdilisaken anu iqiTken, sadac TviTon
imyofeba. isini erTmaneTis aCrdilebs eTamaSebian, radgan
fizikurad da sulierad erTmaneTisTvis aRar arseboben. maT
19
wminda SuSanikis xati

262
fragmenti `SuSanikis wamebis~ Semcveli
parxlis mravalTavis xelnaweridan
(A-95, X s.)
262
Soris aCrdiliviT moZraobs avtori – iakobi, romelmac kar-
gad icis Tavisi roli: gaCndes iq, sadac tkivilisagan war-
moqmnili sicarielea da mudariT amoTqvas ori sityva – `nu
jekma!~ – Zalian nu!
vin aris gmiri? – mwerlis TvalTaxedva Tu idea, romelic
aerTianebs gmirsac da mweralsac? ra Tqma unda, idea, radgan
gmiri istoriaa. metafizikuri istoria anu idea, romelsac
qmnis gmiri avtoris daxmarebiT. es aris mTliani adamianis
idea, romelic sqemis saxiT aris mocemuli, Tumca sqemis
elementebi dalagebulia logikur-qronologiuri rigis mi-
xedviT ise, rom Seiqmnas beletristuli efeqti da Txzule-
ba iqnes warmodgenili, rogorc gmiris cxovrebis mxatvruli
transkrifcia.
gmiris pirovneba samganzomilebiania – guli, suli da
sxeuli. antigmirs mxolod erTi sawyisi aqvs – sxeuli. ami-
tom warmoadgens ara pirovnebas, aramed Zalas, mZlavrs,
gaarsebiTebul adieqtivs. Tumca misi Zala iluziaa. anti-
gmirs suli rom hqonoda, is iqneboda tragikuli suli; gu-
lic rom hqonoda, iqneboda tragikuli pirovneba.
pirovneba (gmiri) sulis korelatia, RvTaebrivi sulis.
igi damoukideblad axorcielebs kavSirs samyarosTan da es
kavSiri vlindeba qmedebis saxiT, romelic aris saqcieli,
Sroma.
agiografiuli subieqti anu gmiri aris qristianuli
kulturis obieqti, romelsac ver gaigeb, Tu ar gaarkvie,
risTvis arsebobs, ras amtkicebs, ras uaryofs. amis gark-
vevaSi gvexmarebian gmiris irgvliv moqmedi personaJebi,
romlebsac mkacrad funqciuri mniSvneloba aqvT. isini
fons qmnian mTavari gmiris warmosaCenad (farulava 1982. 214).
antigmiris qceva, moqmedeba aris is, rasac funqcias
uwodeben. misi mTavari Tvisebaa ganmeoreba, ucvleloba,
mdgradoba (propi 1984: 33).
ganwyobis Teorias Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, es aris fiq-
sirebuli ganwyoba, romelic totalurad batonobs sxva
ganwyobebze da ar aZlevs maT Tavis warmoCenis saSualebas;
nebismier adekvatur ganwyobas axSobs da mis adgils TviTon
ikavebs da mudmivi aqtivaciis reJimSi rCeba (uznaZe 1977: 62).
20
antigmiri ar aris `TviTmoZravi Wuri~, es aris angaJire-
buli personaJi, praqtikuli daniSnulebis sagani, gamadide-
beli SuSa, romlis meSveobiT avtori konfliqtis arss aT-
valsaCinoebs. erTniSnaa da monosemantikuri xasiaTi aqvs.
savsebiT Caketili aqvs esTetikuri veli, ar gaaCnia meore,
Sinagani buneba, moklebulia plastikurobas.
misi pirovnuli adgili carielia. darCenilia forma.
amave dros, moklebulia ideur paToss, riTac savsea gmiri.
tipuri, ganmazogadebeli, saerTo masSi aris imdenad, ram-
denadac Tavis Tavs imeorebs. ararsebuli Sinagani forma
gamoixateba garegnuli formiT, romelic sxva araferia, Tu
ara stereotipi.
zedmetia saubari individualizaciaze. SeuZlebelia
moiTxovo misgan is, rac masSi ar aris. `msaxiobia~ da asru-
lebs rols dadgenili principis mixedviT. misi xasiaTis
`gamowvlilva~ xdeba im momentebSi, rodesac ar `TamaSobs~.
magaliTad, varsqenis xasiaTis `araagiografiul~ Strixebs
vamCnevT maSin, roca gamodis dapirispirebis reJimidan da
Tavis Tavs ubrundeba. erTi aseTi `gaTiSva~ emarTeba mecamete
TavSi: SuSanikis SemonaTvals moutans ZuZumte cixidan
– rogor davbrunde, roca Sen TviTon miTxari, mandedan
cocxali veRar gamoxvalo. `nandvilve eTqu ege!~ – ityvis
varsqeni. aRiarebs, rom Secda, ufro sworad, Tavisive naTqvami
rom daaviwyda.
aris Sinagani kavSiri individualizmis `gamonaTebasa~ da
savaldebulo qcevas Soris. SesaZloa es iyos ganuxorciele-
beli dialeqtika, uZraobaSi CarCenili meqanizmi xasiaTisa.
varsqeni individualistia. moqmedebs Tavisi sqemis Sesa-
bamisad. iRebs iniciativas, iwyebs rogorc gamarjvebuli,
amTavrebs rogorc damarcxebuli. cvlis saganTa arsebul
rigs, magram cvlilebani missave sawinaaRmdegod amoqmed-
deba. erTi mxriv, varsqeni aris gamanadgurebeli Zala, meore
mxriv, konstruqciulia im TvalsazrisiT, rom qmnis narativs.
mis gareSe ar iqneboda ambavi, fabula, siuJeti. erTi sity-
viT, ar iqneboda qmediTi antinomiurobis energia, romelic
iwvevs da muxtavs avtoris STagonebas.
antigmiris qceva determinirebulia, gansazRvrulia mov-
lenaTa ganviTarebiT. is eqstrims axorcielebs avtonomi-
21
urad, gansazRvruli mizniT. amitom moklebulia cocxal
mTlianobas. masSi aris angariSi da ar aris siyvaruli – co-
cxali energiis umaRlesi gamovlineba. msoflmxedvelobas
zRudavs praqtikuli mizani. TviTcnobierebas amwyvdevs
Tavis TavSi, sadac TviTonac iketeba, rogorc lokokina ni-
JaraSi. qmedeba pirovnulobis gareSe. boroteba borotebis
formaSi. es forma bolomde abstraqtuli ver iqneba imde-
nad, ramdenadac warmoadgens sinamdvilis niSans, yofiere-
bis nebas, daniSnulebis sagans.
dapirispireba viTardeba droSi, romelic amzadebs gmiris
amaRlebas da antigmiris dacemas, gaqrobas, uZaloqmnas.
antigmiri uceremoniod Semodis an Semohyavs movlenaTa
ganviTarebas. misi gamoCena disonansuria, arRvevs harmoni-
as, aris mkveTri, Semoaqvs intriga, aRvivebs dapirispirebis
muxts. dapirispirebuli mxareebi mkacrad icaven siuJetur
xazs, wuTiTac ar SeuZliaT gadauxvion, radgan TamaSoben
`kanons~, agiografiul scenars.
varsqensa da SuSaniks Soris `mosisxleoba iqmna~. daR-
vrili sisxli aris ganmwmendeli codvaTa misTa, xolo var-
sqenisTvis warmomaCinebeli codvaTa misTa. varsqens yoveli
nabiji RvTisgan aSorebs, SuSaniks aaxloebs.
dapirispirebis dasawyisSi zogierTi `mZlavri~ kompro-
miss sTavazobs mowames, magram faqtobrivad es gadabirebis
mcdelobaa, rasac mohyveba konfliqtis ukiduresobamde gam-
wvaveba. erTnairia maTi roli, dasawyisSi `mZlavri~, boloSi
– araraoba.
kinematografiaSi arsebobs cneba `wafena~, rodesac erTi
kadri TandaTan qreba da Cndeba meore. wafenis `wesiT~ qrebi-
an msajuli amira (`wameba haboisi~), marzpani (`evstaTi mcxe-
Telis wameba~), jafar Ze abrahamisi (`konstanti kaxis wameba~);
amira (`gobronis wameba~), murvan yru (`daviT da konstantines
wameba~) da sxvebi.
agiografiuli nawarmoebi mosasmenad aris dawerili,
mrevlisTvis, eklesiaSi mosasmenad.
aris am daniSnulebaSi raRac specifikuri, Taviseburi,
gansakuTrebuli, rasac angariSi unda gaewios Janris mxat-
vruli niSan-Tvisebebis gansazRvris dros, magram isic
22
faqtia, rom es mosasmeni teqsti iwereba, daweril sityvad
formdeba.
xmamaRla wasakiTxi teqstis stili, ra Tqma unda, Tavis-
Tavad moiTxovs iseT ritorikul saSualebaTa gamoyenebas,
romlebic STabeWdilebas axdens msmenelze.
amitomac agiografiisTvis aqtualuria antikuri rito-
rikis stilistikuri idealebi: lakoniuroba, zomiereba,
mTlianobis grZnoba, bunebrioba, winadadebis harmoniuli
wyoba, azrebisa da gamoTqmis SerCeva, enis esTetikuri, re-
ferenciuli, emociuri, imperatiuli da sxva lingvisturi
funqciebis gamoyeneba.
bunebrivia, yurisTvis dawerili sxva aris, TvalisTvis da-
werili – sxva, Tumca orive SemTxvevaSi organizaciul do-
minantad mainc ena rCeba.
enobriv dakveTas ki Janri iZleva, is gansazRvravs stils,
moiTxovs Sesabamis meTods, saSualebas, wessa da normas.
agiografia valdebuli iyo Seeqmna teqnikuri meTodebi,
romelTa saSualebiT teqtis aRqmis procesi ufro mimzid-
veli gaxdeboda.
man es enis Sinagani SesaZleblobebis gamoyenebiT moaxer-
xa. ra aris agiografia, Tu ara enis gansakuTrebuli forma.
agiografiis ena, rogorc esTetikuri movlena, warmoad-
gens sxvadasxva stimulis organizebas, romlis mdgradobas
uzrunvelyofs Janris kanoni.
Janris kanonebTan erTad enobrivi stili aris is gam-
Zle da dinamikuri sistema, romelic ar icvleba saukuneebis
ganmavlobaSi.
ratom ar icvleba stili? imitom, rom ar icvleba gamo-
xatvis sagani.
agiografosi TviTon irCevs im mxatvrul saSualebebs,
romlebsac nawarmoebis asagebad iyenebs, magram TandaTan
emorCileba Tavisive arCevans – sityvas, da mihyveba iqiT,
saiTac sityva waiyvans.
amdenad, ena aris gamoxatvis forma, magram, amave dros,
is aris iZulebis forma.
ena win uswrebs Semoqmedebas, rogorc kvamli kocons. si-
tyva ar scnobs mwerlis suverenitets, igi iyenebs mwerals
imisaTvis, rom gamoxatos Tavisi Tavi. boris pasternakis
23
gamonaTqvamis perifrazi rom gamoviyenoT, mwerali munjia,
ena laparakobs.
avtori ver akontrolebs enas, romelsac nawarmoebis
Seqmnis procesSi Tavisi miznebi da principebi aqvs.
es, rasakvirvelia, ar niSnavs mwerlis rolis ignorire-
bas. mas Tavisi funqcia akisria. mwerali arRvevs yoveldRi-
uri enis sazRvrebs da gadis mxatvruli enis sivrceSi, sadac
moipovebs gamoxatvis saWiro saSualebebs.
mxatvruli ena, rogorc aucilebloba, aris gasvla yo-
veldRiurobis velidan.
yoveldRiurobis sazRvrebidan gasuli ena Tavis mxriv
qmnis gravitaciul vels, sadac sityvebi urTierTmizidulo-
bisa da urTierTzegavlenis wesiT ukavSirdebian erTmaneTs.
es aris sintaqsuri kavSirebi, romelic saintereso stilis-
tur Taviseburebebs warmoaCens, magram mTavari mainc sity-
vaa, misi prosodia da azrobrivi refleqsebi. amitomaa, rom
sintaqsur kavSirebSi arsebiTi roli eniWeba ara dinamikas
da simZlavres, aramed simSvides, harmonias, simetrias, Tana-
barzomierebas. amis TvalsaCino magaliTia aTonis skola.
aTonelebTan sityva TiTqos tkbeba Tavisi SesaZleb-
lobebis gamovleniT, Tavisi lingvisturi struqturebis
amoqmedebiT. SemTxveviTi ar aris, rom swored aTonze Camo-
yalibebuli saliteraturo ena iqca qarTuli vulgatis, sa-
xareba-oTxTavis kanonizebul enad.
ratom aqvs calkeul sityvebs ufro meti mniSvneloba, vi-
dre kavSirs am sityvebs Soris? imitom, rom aq wamyvania qmna-
dobis wesi da ara SemoqmedebiTi sawyisi.
sityvebs aqvs TavianTi zemoqmedebis Zala, miuxedavad
imisa, winadadebaSi raimes gamoxataven Tu ar gamoxataven.
Tuki davakvirdebiT agiografiuli Txzulebis tra-
diciul Sesavals, romelSic uxvsityvaoba Cveulebrivi mov-
lenaa, aRmovaCenT, rom winadadebebi imdenad ar iqcevs yu-
radRebas, ramdenadac calkeuli sityvebi. Tumca isic Cans,
rom calkeuli sityva raRac mTelis nawilia da is mTeli
calkeulTa Sinaarsis jamiT aixsneba.
agiografiaSi enas aqvs hipnotizmis Tviseba, romelic sxva
tipis literaturaSi SeiZleba naklebad iyos sagrZnobi.
24
ena, rogorc sicocxlis erT-erTi forma, samyaros war-
modgenis pirveladi saSualeba, normebisa da wesebis kodi-
ficirebuli sistema, agiografiaSi gvevlineba sulisa da si-
tyvis erTianobis formiT.
suli da sityva.
ramdenadac naTelia TiToeuli cneba cal-calke, imdenad
bundovania maTi erTianoba.
ras niSnavs sityvisa da sulis erTianoba? es aris, upir-
veles yovlisa, konotaciebi, romelSic igulisxmeba az-
robrivi, mxatvruli, simboluri, mistikuri da emociuri
qveteqstebi.
agiografiaSi sityva aris ara imdenad gamomxatveli,
ramdenadac STamagonebeli.
sworia mosazreba, rom agiografiuli enis fenomenSi
igulisxmeba ara mxolod frazisa da sityvis silamaze,
aramed amaRlebuloba, romelic sulierobas, STagonebas
ukavSirdeba (metreveli 2000: 13).
sityvas qmnis konteqsti.
konteqstSi zustad Casmul sityvas aqvs nacnobi saxe,
romlis `danaxvisas~ grZnob, rom is Tavis mniSvnelobas is-
rutavs, rom Tavisi mniSvnelobis aslia (vitgenStaini 2003:
283).
magaliTad, avtors surs gamoiyenos sityva `munTquesve~
(maSinve, myis, anazdad). sityvam mniSvneloba rom SeiZinos,
amisTvis saWiroa konteqsti, romlis Sesaqmnelad avtori
iTvaliswinebs konkretul SemTxvevebs, anu imas, Tu ra sityve-
bi `mezobloben~ am sityvasTan yvelaze xSirad. sxvagvarad
rom vTqvaT, sityvis azrobriv SinaarsSi CarTulia situacia.
sityva `munTquesve~ Tavis uSualo mniSvnelobebTan erTad
aireklavs im tonalobebs, romlebsac iZleva sxvadasxva si-
tyvis mezobloba. sxvadasxva sityvis mezobloba sxvadasxva
Sinaarss aniWebs TiTqosda erTmniSvnelovani Sinaarsis mqo-
ne sityvas. iqmneba sxvadasxva emociuri obertonebi.
sityva aris azris samoseli, romlis stils gansazRvravs
moda anu Janri.
Tumca SeiZleba ase mxolod erTi SexedviT Candes, vina-
idan, Tuki agiografias mwerlobis Janrad vaRiarebT, maSin
unda iTqvas, rom mwerlobis ena, rogorc ena TavisTavad, war-
25
mogvidgens Tavis Tavs da ara Janrs da amitom misi WeSmariti
Sinaarsis gaxsna TviT masSi ufro SeiZleba, vidre Janrobriv
CarCoebSi.
agiografiis ena moTavsebulia vrcel SualedSi, romelic
ikavebs adgils dumilsa da dumils Soris.
dumilidan metyvelebaze gadasvla agiografiis amosava-
li principia (`brZnad metyvelebaÁ vercxli ars wmidaÁ, xol
dumili – oqro rCeuli~).
dumils, rogorc srulyofilebas, arRvevs metyveleba,
rogorc arasrulyofileba. giorgi merCule ambobs: `nak-
lulevanebaÁ Cemi ara miflobs dumilad da umjobesad Semi-
racxavs, raÁTa vityodi~.
avtoris mier aRiarebuli arasrulyofilebidan iwyeba
aRmavali xazi srulyofilebisaken. aq mTavar rols, ra Tqma
unda, TamaSobs ena.
enis meSveobiT avtori cdilobs daubrundes dumilis
mdgomareobas. ufro sworad, miaRwios dumilis `meore na-
pirs~ anu srulyofilebas.
erTi mxriv, mTeli ena Tavmoyrilia iq, sadac imyofeba
molaparake, ena aris mTqmelSi, molaparake subieqtSi;
sityvebs Sinaarss aZlevs is, vinc dumils arRvevs, vinc azrs
gamoTqvams, vinc flobs sityvas.
meore mxriv, saboloo instancia mainc sityvaa, sityva
gvamcnobs, sityva warmogvidgens, sityva gvawvdis azrs.
agiografiaSi, iseve, rogorc saerTod literaturaSi,
mniSvnelovania ara is, Tu vin qmnis, aramed – ra qmnis.
sityva, mxatvruli azrovnebis mTavari `organo~, mTava-
ri subieqti, qmnis mniSvnelobaTa siRrmiseul nakads, ro-
melic kulturul konvenciad, universalur struqturad
yalibdeba.
agiografiuli Janri ganviTarebis piks XI saukuneSi aR-
wevs. am dros iwyebs Camoyalibebas saero literatura, ro-
melic, kacma rom Tqvas, sasuliero mwerlobis wiaRSi Caisaxa.
bolodroindel agiografiul TxzulebebSi ukve SeimCneva
saero elementebi, romlebic formisqmnadobis Zalas iZens.
Cven winaSea dialeqtikuri procesi: saero literaturis
warmoSoba agiografiis sulidan.
26
damowmebani:

averincevi 1980: Аверинцев С. Византийская литература, История всемирной


литературы. Т. второй, Москва: «Наука», 1980.
buaCiZe 1991: buaCiZe T. sicocxlis filosofia. Tbilisi: `mecniereba~, 1991.
elbaqiZe 2007: elbabiZe m. vefxistyaosnis poetikis zogierTi sakiTxi
Suasaukuneebis frangul raindul romanTan tipologiur mimarTebaSi.
Tbilisi: 2007.
vitgenStaini 2003: vintgenStaini l. filosofiuri gamokvlevebi.
Targmani g. zedaniasi. Tbilisi: `logos presi~, 2003.
TamaraSvili 1995: TamaraSvili m. qarTuli eklesia dasabamidan
dRemde. Tbilisi: `kandeli~, 1995.
malinovski 2004: Малиновский Б. Избранное: Динамика культуры. Москва:
РОССПЭН, 2004.
metreveli 2000: metreveli f. agiografiuli sityva da logosi.
Tbilisi: `nekeri~, 2000.
marino 2010: marino a. komparativizmi da literaturis Teoria. fran-
gulidan Targmnes r. Turnavam da n. gagoSaSvilma. Tbilisi: litera-
turis institutis gamomcemloba, 2010.
nakudaSvili 1996: nakudaSvili n. himnografiuli teqstis struqtura.
Tbilisi: `mecniereba~, 1996.
nucubiZe 1983: nucubiZe S. qarTuli filosofiis istoria. wigni I.
Sromebi. t. VIII. Tbilisi: `mecniereba~, 1983.
siraZe 1987: siraZe r. literaturul-esTetikuri narkvevebi. Tbilisi:
`ganaTleba~, 1987.
siraZe 2000: siraZe r. qarTuli kulturis safuZvlebi. Tbilisi: Tsu
gamomcemloba, 2000.
sulava 2006: sulava n. qarTuli himnografia: tendencia da poetika.
Tbilisi: `zekari~, 2006.
uaiti 2004: Уайт Л. Избранное: Наука и культура. Москва: РОССПЭН, 2004.
uznaZe 1977: uznaZe d. Sromebi. t. VI. Tbilisi:`mecniereba~, 1977.
farulava 1982: farulava gr. mxatvruli saxis bunebisaTvis Zvel
qarTul prozaSi. Tbilisi: `ganaTleba~, 1982.
qarTlis cxovreba 1959: qarTlis cxovreba. teqsti dadgenili yvela
ZiriTadi xelnaweris mixedviT s. yauxCiSvilis mier. t. I. Tbilisi: `sab-
WoTa saqarTvelo~, 1959.
Zeglebi 1963: Zveli qarTuli agiografiuli literaturis Zeglebi.
ilia abulaZis xelmZRvanelobiTa da redeqciiT. t. I. Tbilisi: saqarT-
velos mecnierebaTa akademiis gamomcemloba, 1963.
Zeglebi 1967: Zveli qarTuli agiografiuli literaturis Zeglebi. ilia
abulaZis xelmZRvanelobiTa da redaqciiT. t. II. Tbilisi: `mecniereba~, 1967.
xaCiZe 2000: xaCiZe l. qarTuli qristianuli kulturis istoriidan.
Tbilisi: 2000.

27
goCa kuWuxiZe

qarTuli himnografia*

cnobilia, rom himnebs xSir SemTxvevaSi Cveulebriv po-


eziad ar ganixilaven xolme, – ara mxolod imitom, rom isini
eklesia-monastrebis wiaRSi iqmneba, umeteswilad, – saekle-
sio pirTa mier (an liturgiaze gamosayeneblad, an – arali-
turgikuli daniSnulebiT... ama Tu im dResaswaulisas da
nebismier dReebSi SeiZleboda ekiTxaT isini monazvnebs,
mRvdlebs, saero pirebs... aris iSviaTi SemTxveva, roca sa-
galobeli saero piris mier iqmneba da mas eklesia Rebu-
lobs...), – iseve, rogorc hagiografiis SemTxvevaSi, himnebi-
saTvisac weris Taviseburi specifika aris damaxasiaTebeli;
miCneulia, rom himni Tavad suliwmidis karnaxiT iwereba, mga-
lobeli weris momentSi mTlianad mowyvetilia yofiT prob-
lemebs, monaniebis ganwyoba aqvs dauflebuli, man, Tu SeiZ-
leba ase iTqvas, Tavisi suli, sxeuli, suliwmidas unda dauT-
mos, misi xeliT swored suliwmidam unda Seqmnas RvTismsax-
urebisas Sesasrulebeli sagalobeli da araliturgikuli
daniSnulebis himni... adamiani unda miemsgavsos angelozs,
romelic samoTxeSi, caTa wiaRebSi, sufevs da Semoqmeds
adidebs... Cveulebriv, sagalobelSi, himnSi, mxolod kerZo,
pirovnuli problemebi, konkretuli pirovneba ar ixateba,
rac saero poeziaSi sruliad Cveulebrivi movlenaa, – auci-
lebelia, moCandes suliwmidis mier gasxivosnebuli zogad-
adamianuri, angelozuri suli, Tavad suliwmida an angelozi,
romelic Semoqmeds, yovladwmida RvTismSobels, an romel-
same wmidans adidebs, siyvaruls gamoxatavs misdami... msme-
nelebma liturgiisas momnanie sulebad, an angelozTa dasis
wevrebad unda igrZnon Tavi, Tavad uflisa da RvTismSoblis,
wmidanTa madidebelni unda gaxdnen da netareba SeigrZnon
amiT... suliwmida qmnis sagalobels da adamiani, romelic him-
nis sityvebs warmoTqvams, angeloziviT Tavadac madidebeli
xdeba RvTisa, RvTismSobelisa, wmidanisa... zogadadamianuri
codvis gancda aqvs da Sewyalebas evedreba RmerTs...

* teqstSi damowmebulia fragmentebi qarTuli himnografiis nimuSebidan.


28
fsalmunebis kiTxvisas mravalgvari sulieri ganwyo-
ba SeiZleba daeuflos adamians, – zogjer iseTi SegrZneba
eZleva, rom Tavad RmerTi, Semoqmedi anugeSebs, amSvidebs
mas... zogjer imas ismens fsalmunTa kiTxvisas adamiani, Tu
rogor winaswarmetyvelebs mama RmerTi Ze RmerTis Sesaxeb,
vTqvaT, esmis aseTi sityvebi – `Ze Cemi xari Sen da dRes miSo-
bie Sen~ (fs. 2,7), an – macxovris sityvebi, winaswarmetyvelu-
rad adreve gacxadebuli, – `ganiyves samoseli Cemi Tavisa ma-
Tisa da kuarTsa Cemsa zeda ganigdes wili. erisaganTa maT ese
yves~ (fs. 19, 67)... Qmorwmune zogjer ismens sityvebs, romel-
Sic warmosaxulia Tavad macxovari, Ze RmerTi, romelic ma-
miseul wiaRebSi Sedis, raTa RmrTisgan mowyvetili adamiani
Seiyvanos masSi (`vin aRvides mTasa uflisasa~... – fs. 23, 3), igi,
umetes SemTxvevaSi, sakuTar Tavs aRiqvams ufalTan pirvel
pirSi mosaubris rolSi, TiTqos, ara mxolod daviTi, aramed,
TviTonac ambobs, – `rad ganmravldes maWirvebelni Cemni?~
(fs. 3, 1); Zalian xSir SemTxvevaSi, magaliTad, – maSin, roca
micvalebulisaTvis kiTxulobs fsalmunebs, sxvas, am qveyni-
dan wasul konkretul adamians, warmoidgens fsalmunis si-
tyvebSi, iseTi ganwyoba esaWiroeba am dros, TiTqos wuTi-
soflidan wasuli ganicdis fsalmunis sityvebs, mis magivrad,
misi sulis gasagonad, masTan erTad warmoTqvams salocav si-
tyvebs, – `cxondes suli Cemi da gaqebdes Sen, da samarTalni
Senni Semewinen~ (fs. 118,175); fsalmunTa kiTxvisas konkretu-
li pirovneba, daviT winaswarmetyveli, Cans fsalmunebSi, mag-
ram morwmunes SeuZlia, zogjer Tavad mama RmerTi, zogjer
macxovari, zogjer ki romelime pirovneba, Tu sakuTari Tavi,
moiazros fsalmunTa sityvebSi... fsalmuni mas mravalgvar
saSualebas aZlevs.
fsalmunebze `dasdebeli~ ufro konkretul Sinaarss
Seicavs, – macxovars, RvTismSobels, konkretul wmidans
eZRvneba, konkretul dResaswaulzea dawerili... igi nakleb
saSualebas qmnis imisaTvis, rom sxvadasxva Sinaarsi Cados
mkiTxvelma... magram aseTi saSualeba maTSic iqmneba, – mkiTx-
veli, morwmune, angelozs mimsgavsebuli, sakuTari mxrida-
nac adidebs mas, visac sagalobeli miemarTeba, sakuTari mxri-
danac SesTxovs ufals codvaTa Sendobas da, cxadia, icis,
rom es aris teqsti, romelic odesRac konkretulma pirovne-
29
bam dawera... magram sagaloblis daweris specifika imgvaria,
rom masSi konkretuli avtoris saTqmeli ganzogadebulia da
yvela morwmunes SeuZlia sakuTari Tavi warmoidginos mloc-
velis rolSi. es principi Tavad fsalmunebSia Cadebuli, –
daviT winaswarmetyveli sakuTar pirad gancdebs gadmoscems,
magram morwmunes SeuZlia, sakuTari Tavi warmoidginos im
sityvebis warmomTqmelad, romelTac daviTi ambobs...
rogorc vnaxeT, mravalgvari gancdis aRZvra SeuZlia
fsalmuns. saWiroa, rom sagaloblis teqstSi konkretuli
pirovnebac moiazros mkiTxvelma da msmenelma, – igi, vinc
sagalobeli dawera, da sakuTari Tavic, – teqstis sityvebiT
TviTon unda mimarTos ufals, TviTon unda adidos macxo-
vari, RvTismSobeli da angelozi, wmidani... sagalobeli im-
gvarad iwereba, rom ganzogaddes teqsti, – pirvel pirSi
yvelam SeZlos misi wakiTxva... fsalmunis weris principi aq
Zlierad aris daculi, OoRond, sagaloblis avtori, misi konk-
retuli pirovneba aRar, an, zogierT SemTxvevaSi, naklebad,
Cans (dimitri lixaCovs, revaz baramiZes aqvT aRniSnuli, rom
avtorobis problema Taviseburad dgas saeklesio mwerloba-
Si...). cxadia, es aris umTavresi, rac sagalobels Cveulebrivi
poeziisagan ganasxvavebs, ganarCevs iseTi leqsisagan, rome-
lic, aseve, SesaZloa, ganzogaddes, magram romelSic, Ziri-
Tadad, poetis piradi, zogjer sxvaTaTvis miuRebeli azrebi
SeiZleba moCandes... Cveulebriv poeziaSi samyarosTan da-
pirispirebuli pirovnebac warmodgeba, konkretuli pirovneba
SeiZleba Zalian mkveTrad daixatos leqsSi, sagalobelSi ki
im farglebSi unda warmoCndes es konkretuli pirovneba, rom
yvela adamians zogadad SeeZlos pirvel pirSi warmoTqmuli
winadadebebis gaTaviseba... fsalmunebSi da, saerTod, amgvar
religiur teqstebSi Tavad RmerTi, RvTaeba, an RmrTis mim-
marTveli adamianis zogadi saxe moCans... aRmosavleTisaTvis
ufro aris amgvari specifikuroba niSandoblivi... pirovneba
ki imgvari saxiT Cndeba teqstSi, rom mkiTxvelma TviTonac
SeZlos teqstis sityvebiT locva... hagiografia magaliTs
uCvenebs morwmunes imisa, Tu rogori unda iyos RvTis gzaze
mdgomi adamiani, igi qristianis nimuSs xatavs, mis xats qmnis
(vfiqrobT, rom, ara mxolod statikaSi, – aramed, aseve, – Sina-
gan dinamikaSi warmodgenils...), sagalobeli ki umeteswilad
30
imgvarad iwereba, rom zogadoba warmoCndes... konkretuli
adamianic SeiZleba moCandes himnSi, magram es konkretulo-
ba ise unda warmodges, rom zogadobas ar SeewinaaRmdegos...
mag. daviT aRmaSeneblis `galobani sinanulisani~-Si, rome-
lic, rogorc es dadgenilia, andria kritelis `didi kanonis~
mixedviT aris dawerili (k. kekeliZe, l. grigolaSvili, n. su-
lava...), rig SemTxvevebSi konkretul pirovnebas vxedavT
daviT aRmaSeneblisa, misi konkretuli saqmeni, daviT mefis
konkretuli codvebi moCans, magram es konkretuli codvebi
yvela adamianma SeiZleba sakuTar codvebad aRiqvas, amisaT-
vis zogierT SemTxvevaSi mkiTxvelma da msmenelma simbolu-
rad unda gaigon avtoris naTqvami, simbolurad unda gada-
iazron teqstis sityvebi; roca daviTi brZanebs, – `bunebiTsa
raÁ porfirsa TviTmflobelobasa Tana mefobisaca Saravand-
ni marwmunen, xolo me vnebaTa bilwTa mivyide Tavi~, aq mkiTx-
velma, romelic ise kiTxulobs sagalobels, TiTqos, TviTon
mimarTavs ufals, sityva `mefoba~ unda aRiqvas rogorc is
Tavdapirveli pativi, romelic adamians codvamde hqonda
miniWebuli da romelic codviT dacemis Semdeg dakarga...
mas, cxadia, SeuZlia, aseve, rom konkretuli avtoric, da-
viT aRmaSenebeli, dainaxos sagalobelSi, – iseve, rogorc
`fsalmunebSi~ xedavs daviT winaswarmetyvels (aseT kiTxvas
SegviZlia avtoriseuli aRqmac vuwodoT...), SesaZloa, daviT
aRmaSeneblis `galobani~ qarTvelTa mefis bibliur daviTTan
sulier kavSirzec mianiSnebdes... laura grigolaSvili savse-
biT marTebulad wers: `daviTis sulis istoria aris istoria
yoveli adamianisa da adamianis dacemis zogadi istoria aris
daviTis piradi istoriac~ (grigolaSvili 2005: 135). laura
grigolaSvili naTlad warmoaCens, Tu rogor ganazogadebs
daviTi pirad istorias, rom pirad istoriasTan erTad mis
`galobani~-Si zogadkacobrivi codvebi ixateba, avtori bib-
liasTan mimarTebaSi detalurad ganixilavs, Tu romel konk-
retul codvebs gulisxmobs daviT aRmaSenebeli*... erT-erTi
mTavari damaxasiaTebeli Tviseba himnisa is aris, rom war-

* laura grigolaSvilis Cinebul naSromSi daviT aRmaSeneblis `galobani


sinanulisanis~ fonze Zalian Rrmad aris ganxiluli mravali Teologiur-
filosofiuri, sagaloblis teqstTan, musikasTan, ritmTan, saxismetyvele-
basTan, saerTod, himnografiasTan dakavSirebuli uamravi sakiTxi.
31
momTqmels sxvadasxvagvarad SeuZlia, aRiqvas teqsti... zo-
gadisa da pirovnulis harmoniuli aRqma, sxvisi sityvebis
gaTaviseba, adamianisadmi Tavad suliwmidis, RmerTis mimar-
Tva... – es yovelive xSirad erT teqstSi unda iqnas aRqmuli...
xolo im SemTxvevaSi, Tu mkiTxveli ganzogadebas ver SeZ-
lebs, Tu teqsts mxolod ise aRiqvams, TiTqos, erTi avtori
mxolod pirad grZnobebs gamoxatavs, maSin mis cnobierebaSi
es iqneba Cveulebrivi leqsi da ara – saeklesio sagalobeli,
anu mkiTxvels araswori damokidebuleba eqneba teqstis
mimarT.
amrigad, himnografiul leqsi Tavisi specifikiT Zalian
gansxvavdeba arasaeklesio poeziisagan, himnSi Zalze Tavise-
burad ikveTeba poetis, avtoris saxe, – avtorma imgvarad un-
da warmoaCinos Tavisi pirovneba, pirovnuli saxe, rom yvela
mkiTxvelisa da msmenelis cnobierebaSi ganzogaddes es saxe,
mkiTxvelma da liturgiis damswre msmenelma sakuTari Tavi
unda warmoidginon mimmarTvelad, unda gaiTavison himni...
amavdroulad, araerT SemTxvevaSi himnis Semqnelis pirovne-
bac Rrmad unda moiazron... `veleSis aRniSvniT, IV saukunidan
himnisaTvis Tavisi kanonika yalibdeba da `mis wiaRSi daiS-
veba avtoris subieqtur ganwyobilebaTa gadmocema~ (sulava
2006: 133).
himnografebi ise weren, rom sakuTari Tavic warmoaCinon
da mkiTxvel-msmenels teqstis gaTavisebac ar gauZneldes...
amgvarad weris upirvelesi nimuSi fsalmunebia... cxadia,
himnSi gamoyenebul simbolos xSir SemTxvevaSi mravalgvari
datvirTva unda mieniWos da, misi erTmniSvnelovnad ganxil-
va yovelTvis ar SeiZleba...
rogorc iTqva, Tavisi specifikurobis gamo mkvlevarTa
nawili himnografias saerTod arc ganixilavs poeziad. Jan-
robrivi mikuTvnebulobis sakiTxze kamaTi, albaT, kidev
didxans gagrZeldeba. piradad Cven mxars vuWerT debulebas,
romlis Tanaxmad, es aris poezia, romelsac Tavisi specifi-
ka aqvs da mxolod am mxriv gansxvavdeba saero poeziisagan...
Ehimni is poeziaa, romelic eklesiis samsaxurSia... sagalobeli
mxatvruli teqstia, mas Tavisi specifika aqvs da, vfiqrobT,
mxardasaWeria debuleba, romlis Tanaxmad, himnebis mxat-
vruli literaturisagan gancalkevebiT ganxilva ar aris
gamarTlebuli...
32
sagaloblis weras Tavisi kanonebi aqvs da, cxadia, maTi
kiTxvis wesic garkveul kanonebs emorCileba. Zveli mono-
loguri stili jer Secvala kondakionma, romelic bibliur
pirTa, wmidanTa warmoCenas emsaxureba (es cvlilebebi roma-
noz melodosis saxelTan aris dakavSirebuli – VI s), Semdeg,
VIII saukuneSi, Camoyalibda himnografiuli kanoni. es saukune
himnografiaSi reformebis xanaa, – `VIII saukuneSi bizantiur
himnografiaSi Catarda udidesi reforma wmida ioane damas-
kelis, wmida kozma ierusalimelisa da wmida andria kritelis
mier. ioane damaskelis liturgikul-himnografiulma re-
formam, damyarebulma rvaxmiani galobis sistemis SemoRe-
baze, mTlianad Secvala bizantiuri galoba da srulyo igi.
ioane damaskelis saxels ukavSirdeba, agreTve, sagalobelTa
musikalurad gawyoba, ris Sesaxebac cnoba daculia qarTul
enaze Semonaxul `ioane damaskelis cxorebis~ teqstSi, rom-
lis berZnuli dedani jerjerobiT ar aris mikvleuli~ (su-
lava 2006: 43; 32-43...).
berZnul sagaloblebSi momxdar cvlilebebze Cven sa-
gangebo yuradRebas ar gavamaxvilebT, am sakiTxebze didZa-
li samecniero literatura arsebobs. amjerad SedarebiT
met adgils davuTmobT himnografiul kanons, – imdenad,
ramdenadac qarTul galobaTa saxelwodebebi, rogorc es
mecnierebaSi cnobilia, – `uZvelesia da, rogorc Cans, isini
daukargavs berZnulsa da albaT misive gavleniT slavursa da
sxva enaTa wris RvTismsaxurebas. maT sadResaswauloebSi es
saxelebi Secvlilia ricxviTi niSnebiT, e. i. galoba pirveli,
meore da a. S.~ (caiSvili 1979: 13).
liturgikuli sagaloblebi calke jgufebad, kanonebad
aris dalagebuli. yoveli kanoni Zveli aRTqmis erT-erT epi-
zods ukavSirdeba (tradicia ebrauli RvTismsaxurebidan
iRebs saTaves).
Ppirveli galoba (qarTuli saxelwodeba – `ugalobdiTsa~,
– `ugalobdiT ufalsa, rameTu didebiT didebul ars~...)
dakavSirebulia gamosvlaTa XV wignTan (1-19), romelSic
aRwerilia, Tu rogor gaipo mose winaswarmetyvelis mier
gamoyvanili erisaTvis mewamuli zRva da tyveobidan wamo-
sul ers aRTqmuli miwisaken gza gaexsna. qristianobaSi Zve-
li aRTqmis es epizodi ganixileba pirvelsaxed im movlenisa,
33
romelic amqveynad qristes mosvlis Semdeg moxda, – qristem
sikvdilisa da mokvdavebis tyveobas damorCilebuli adami-
anebi mamasTan dasabrunebel, samSoblosaken, ukvdavebisken
mimaval gzaze daadgina...
meore galoba (`moixilesa~, – `moixile cao, da vityodi,
da ismendin queyana sityuaTa pirisa CemisaTa, moelodnen,
viTarca wÂma Ãmasa Cemsa~) dakavSirebulia meore Sjulis wig-
nTan (XXXII, 1-4), romelSic mose levitelebs afrTxilebs,
rom ar daarRvion RvTisagan boZebuli mcnebebi...
mesame galoba (`ganZlierdasa~, – `ilocÂda anna da Tqua:
ganZlierda guli Cemi uflisa mier da amaRlda rqaÁ Cemi Ru-
Tisa mier Cemisa~...) Seesabameba mefeTa pirvel wigns (II, 1-10),
romelSic anna madlobas aRavlens uflis mimarT, romelmac
mas vaJi – samoeli uboZa...
meoTxe galoba (`mesmasa~, – `ufalo, mesma sasmeneli Seni
da SemeSina, ufalo, ganvicaden saqmeni Senni~...) emyareba am-
bakumis wigns (III, 1-19), romelSic warmarTTa dasjaa nawinas-
warmertyvelebi...
mexuTe galoba (`RamiTgansa~, – `RamiTgan aRimsTobs su-
li Cemi Sendami, RmerTo, miT rameTu naTel ars brZanebani
Senni queyanasa zeda~...) efuZneba esaias winaswarmetyvele-
bas (XXVI, 9-19), romelic mkvdarTa aRdgomis molodinis
suliskveTebiTaa ganmsWvaluli...
meeqvse galoba (`RaRadyavsa~, – `da Tqua: RaRadvyav Wirsa
Sina Cemsa uflisa mimarT RuTisa Cemisa da Seismina Cemi, mu-
clisagan jojoxeTisa RaRadebisa Cemisa gesma Ãmisa Cemisa~...)
ukavSirdeba iona winaswametyvels (winaswarmetyveleba iona-
Ási, II, 3-10). veSapis mucelSi danTqmuli iona loculobs
RvTis mimarT. qristianobaSi veSapi, am SemTxvevaSi, jojox-
eTis simboloa... adamians qriste aTavisuflebs jojoxeTis
tyveobidan... adamiani icnobierebs, rom, sadac ar unda wa-
vides, yvelgan RmerTia... jojoxeTi is wiaRia, romelic de-
monuri sulierebiT aris Seqmnili da RvTis maZiebeli ada-
miani ki icnobierebs, rom sinamdvileSi yvelgan RvTis naTeli
sufevs, xedavs am naTels da jojoxeTis meufeba scildeba...
meSvide galoba (`kurTxeularsa~, – `kurTxeul xar, Sen,
ufalo RmerTo mamaTa CuenTao da qebul da didebul ars
saxeli Seni saukuneTamdi~...) dakavSirebuilia danielis wi-
34
naswarmetyvelebasTan (III, 26-55), – im epizodTan, romelSic
RmerTma cecxlSi Cacvivnuli yrmebi gadaarCina. qriste icavs
adamians warmavali sameufos mier aRvlenili cecxlisagan...
merve galoba (`akurTxevdiTsa~, – `akurTxevdiT yovelni
saqmeni uflisani ufalsa, ugalobdiT da zeSTa amaRlebdiT
mas saukuneTa~...), aseve, danielis wignTan aris dakavSirebu-
li (III, 57-88) da masSi yrmebis gadarCenis gamo uflis mimarT
aRvlenili, misi sadidebeli sityvaa...
mecxre galoba (`adidebTiTsa~, – `da Tqua mariam: adi-
debs suli Cemi ufalsa da ganixara sulman Cemman RmrTisa mi-
marT macxovrisa Cemisa~...) ukve uSualod axal aRTqmas ukav-
Sirdeba (luka, 1, 46-55) da masSi gadmocemulia RvTismSobel
mariamis mier RvTisadmi aRvlenili dideba, radgan mariamma
messia unda Svas... gadarCenis gza gaixsna adamianiebisTvis.
liturgiisas Ze RvTisa unda SeigrZnos mlocvelma, – misi
sulis saxsnelad mosuli... unda miiRos igi, unda adidebdes
RmerTs... (sagalobelTa kanonebis Sesaxeb ix. – caiSvili 1979:
10-12...).
es kanonika, rogorc ukve gamoCnda, himnografiuli mwer-
lobis aRmocenebisTanave ar warmoSobila. Tavdapirvelad,
rogorc zemoTac iTqva, martivad xdeboda galobaTa Ses-
ruleba da igi, ZiriTadad, fsalmunebTan iyo dakavSirebuli.
himnografiuli mwerlobis aRmocenebis periodis Sesa-
xeb gansxvavebuli mosazrebebi arsebobs. zogi varaudiT, faq-
tebTan, dogmatebTan da garkveul WeSmaritebebTan `mWid-
rod dakavSirebuli qristianoba Tavisi arsebobis pirvel
wlebSi ver Seegueboda poezias, fantaziasa da `fiqcias~
(frederik ozanami)*. arqimandrit kernis aRniSvniT, `weri-
lobiTi wyaroebi sul sxva cnobebs gvawvdis [...]. wm. klimenti
romaelis pirvel epistoleSi moyvanilia RvTisadmi aRvle-
nili poeturi STagonebiT aRsavse sagalobeli. `diogneste-
sadmi epistoleSi~ aris poeturi pasaJebi. plinius umcro-
sis cnobiT, qristianebi TavianT Sekrebebze ugalobdnen
qristes rogorc RmerTs. [...] 787 wels gamarTul msoflio
saeklesio krebaze waikiTxes e. w. `iudevelisa da qristianis

* citirebisas vsargeblobT arqimandris kipriane kernis naSromidan –


`saeklesio poeziis istoria~, – qeTevan tatiSvilisa da ekaterine duRaSvi-
lis Targmani, – ix. kerni 2006.
35
sityva~. es apokrifuli himni pirvelqristianobis xanas unda
miekuTvnebodes, igi viTomc TviT qristem aRavlina vnebis
win. [...] 296 wels antioqiis krebam gakicxa pavle samosateli
im sagaloblebiT sargeblobisaTvis, romlebic fsalmuni-
dan ar momdinareobda. mkvlevar le klerkis azriT, kardi-
nal pitras mier damowmebuli aRdgomis sagaloblebi Zalian
AZvelia~ (kerni 2006). avtors mohyavs sxva araerTi cnoba, ro-
melic migvaniSnebs, rom I-IV ss-Si qristianebi ukve iyenebdnen
sagaloblebs (kerni 2006).
Znelia gadaWriT Tqma, Tu ramdenad farTod iyo gavr-
celebuliA Zvel qristianTa Soris sagaloblebi, magram faq-
tia, rom amgvari praqtika arsebobda. savsebiT marTalia
arqimandriti kerni, roca aRniSnavs, rom `qristianobisa da
iudevelobis sruli gamijvnis Semdegac Zveli aRTqmis mo-
gonebebi cocxlobdnen imaT sulebSi, romelTa winaprebic
iudevelebi iyvnen.~ pirveli qristianebisaTvis religiuri
cxovrebis centri kvlav iudauri taZari iyo, rogorc amas
`saqme mociqulTa~ da pavles epitoleni cxadyofs. `war-
moudgenelicaa, rom uflis aRdgomis da suliwmidis garda-
mosvlis Semdeg male momxdariyo ganxeTqileba mociqulTa
da iudevelTa Soris~ (kerni 2006). qG ristianoba iudaizmidanaa
amozrdili, misi gagrZelebaa, amitom sruliad gasaziarebe-
lia azri, rom iudauri praqtika qristes morwmuneebs Soris
gaagrZelebda arsebobas.
korneli kekeliZis azriT, qarTuli naTargmni himnogra-
fia daaxloebiT meSvide saukunidan aRmocenda (kekeliZe 1980:
589). misi debuleba Semdeg argumentebs emyareba: `qarTuli
himnografiuli terminologia, rasakvirvelia, Zveli, Se-
darebiT Raribia: erTi da igive termini ixmareba ramdenime
sxvadasxva juris liturgikuli cnebis gamosaxatavad, magal.,
«dasdebeli, ibakoÁ, wardgomaÁ» da sxv.~ `ar Cans gansxvaveba
«troparsa, stiqaronsa» da sxva sagalobelTa Soris. es imis
momaswavebelia, rom qarTuli himnografia dawyebulia maSin,
rodesac, sazogadod, saRvTismsxuro terminologia jer sak-
maod ganviTarebuli ar yofila, rodesac «stiqaroni» iwo-
deboda «troparad» da «tropari» «stiqaronad»; amas `ki
adgili ar hqonia meSvide saukunis Semdeg~ (kekeliZe 1980:
589); Semdeg korneli kekeliZe dasZens: `sagalobelTa sxva-
36
dasxva jgufi, romelsac axla specialuri saxelwodeba aqvs:
«kanoni», «dasdebelni ufali RaRatyavsa, stiqaronTa da
aqebdiTa zeda», Zvelad aRiniSnebodnen dasawyisi sityvebiT
sxvadasxva fsalmunisa, romelTac maTTan kavSiri aqvT. Ees
imis maCvenebelia, rom qarTuli himnografia maSin dawyebula,
rodesac saqristiano RvTismsaxurebaSi sWarbobda fsalmu-
nuri elementi, ese igi, rodesac RvTismsaxureba amoiwureba,
locvebisa da saRmrTo werilis garda, fsalmunebiT, romel-
Tac mere, himnografiis ganviTarebis Semdeg, dauwyes mima-
teba an mideba (aqedan dasdebelni) sxvadasxva sagaloblebi-
sa; es dro ki meSvide saukunes ver gadascdeba~ (kekeliZe 1980:
590, – mkvlevars miTiTebuli aqvs – Иерусалимский Канонарь VII
века... – kekeliZe 1912...).
rac Seexeba qarTul originalur himnografias, korneli
kekeliZe miiCnevda, rom igi VIII saukunidan iwyeba da `pirvel
aseT nawarmoebad unda CaiTvalos `qebaÁ wmidisa mowamisa
haboÁsi~ (kekeliZe 1980: 598-599). igi sagalobels xedavda
ioane sabanisZis `wmida habo tfilelis martvilobaSi~, ker-
Zod, – sakiTxavis IV TavSi, romelic aris `proziT, sazomis
daucvelad dawerili «qeba» an «xotba» da warmodgens nimuSs
egreT wodebuli «gixarodenisa» (muxli 2, 3, 7)~ (kekeliZe
1980: 599).
Aamave sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, nestan sulava ganixilavs
Sio mRvimelis (VI s) avtorobiT cnobil sagaloblebs, rom-
lebic A–160, A –130, A–425-Sia daculi. erTi sagalobeli
wmida samebas, meore ki – RvTismSobels eZRvneba. mkvleva-
ris aRniSvniT: `sagalobelTa Sios avtorobas xelnawerebs
darTuli minawerebi gvamcnoben, romelTa avTenturobis
garkveva da Sios qmnilebad aRiareba qarTuli himnografiis
istoriisaTvis udidesi mniSvnelobis mqone faqtia, radgan
jerjerobiT swored isini unda miviCnioT qarTuli origi-
naluri himnografiis uZveles nimuSebad~. igi yuradRebas
amaxilebs im sakiTxze, rom `k. kekeliZis dakvirvebiT, mas
`dahkravs ieri msoflio krebaTa triodologiuri tenden-
ciebisa~ (miTiTebulia – kekeliZe 1960: 124). NSemdeg ki aRniS-
navs: `qarTuli himnografiis saTaveebi, amJamad arsebuli
wyaroebis mixedviT, VI saukunidan iRebs dasabams~ (sulava
2006: 173-174).
37
ritmis gareSe dawerili teqsti, cxadia, klasikur himnad
ar unda ganvixiloT, magram `qebaÁ wmidisa mowamisa haboÁsi~
faqtiurad marTlac sagalobelia. `wmida habos martviloba~
eklesiaSi mis sakiTxavadac aris Seqmnili da meoTxe Tavi
ki sagaloblis daniSnulebas asrulebda. Cven gamoTqmuli
gvaqvs varaudi, rom `wmida habos martvilobaSi~ `gixaro-
denis~ tipis sityvebi, romlebic wamebul Wabuks – wmida ha-
bos miemarTeba, SesaZloa, kavSirdeba ara mxolod RvTismSo-
belis mimarT mTavarangeloz gabrielis mier warmoTqmul
sityvebTan – `gixaroden mimadlebulo, ufali SenTana. kur-
Txeul xar Sen dedaTa Soris~ l. 1, 28), aramed, aseve, – erT-
erT netarebasTan, romelic uflis gamo devnilebs miemar-
Teba, rom misi paradigma saxarebis am sityvebTanac aris
dakavSirebuli: – `netar iyuneT Tquen, raJams gdevniden da
gyuedriden, da Tquan yoveli sityua boroti Tquenda mo-
marT sicruviT CemTÂs; gixaroden da mxiarul iyueniT, ram-
eTu sasyideli Tqueni did-ars caTa Sina~ (m, 5, 11-12). Sesa-
Zloa, im periodSi `gixarodenis~ tipis iseTi sagaloblis
Camoyalibebas eyreboda safuZveli, romelic qristesaTvis
wamebulebisadmi iqneboda mimarTuli... Cans, am SemTxvevaSi
yovladwmida RvTismSobelsac miemarTeba es sityvebi da Ta-
vad qristian wamebulsac. qristiani daibada rogorc wmi-
dani. SesaZloa, apriorulad deda RvTisac unda moviazroT
mimarTvis obieqtad, magram, radgan sityvebi uSualod habo
tfilels miemarTeba, aq paradigmad, vfiqrobT, saxarebis
erT-erTi netarebac unda miviCnioT (kuWuxiZe 2006: 38). am ti-
pis sagalobeli, romelic saxarebis erT-erT netarebasTan
kavSirdeba, SesaZloa, qarTuli eklesiis wiaRSi aRmocene-
bulic aRmoCndes... saerTod, Zalian sayuradReboa, rom VIII s-is
qarTul ZeglSi `gixarodeni~ ara uSualod RvTismSObels,
aramed – wmidans eZRvneba...
roca paradigmebsa da ipodigmebze vsaubrobT, aucileb-
lad unda gaviTvaliswinoT erTi garemoeba, – miRebuli
TvalsazrisiT, eklesiaSi Tavdapirvelad fsalmunuri ele-
menti Warbobda, fsalmunebi sruldeboda da Semdeg daemata
maT `dasdebelni~ (k. kekeliZe), romlebic Semdgom da Sedgom
garTulda da gamravalferovanda. dargis specialistTa So-
ris kargad aris cnobili, rom sagalobelTa kiTxvisas, es gan-
38
sakuTrebiT adreuli periodis sagaloblebs exeba, Cven mxo-
lod damoukidebel Sinaarsze ar unda gvqondes yuradReba
gamaxvilebuli, – unda moviazrebdeT fsalmunebs, saxarebisa
da Zveli aRTqmiseul paradigmebsa da ipodigmebs... bibliaSi
gadmocemul RvTaebriv movlenebTan mimarTebaSi unda aR-
viqvaT konkretuli movlena, romelsac sagalobeli mieZR-
vna. specialistebisaTvis kargad aris cnobili isic, rom
paradigmebi da ipodigmebi, aluziebi, reminiscenciebi imi-
saTvis ixmareba, raTa pirvelwyarosaken gadavitanoT yurad-
Reba da masTan mimarTebaSi
vikiTxoT da visminioT teqsti, Tu pirobiTad vityviT, sa-
galoblis teqsti `erTxmovani~ ar aris, werilobiTi teqsti
`mravalxmovanebas~ gulisxmobs... qarTuli melosis samxo-
vanebasTan dakavSirebiT aq unda iTqvas, – ar aris SeuZle-
beli, rom swored am faqtmac ganapiroba qarTul sagalobel-
Si mravalxmovani melodiis warmoSoba... qarTuli melodiis
samxovaneba, SesaZloa, marTlac samebaze mianiSnebdes (arse-
bobs amgvari azri...) da am faqtis ganmapirobebeli, SesaZloa,
iyos Tavad teqsti sagaloblisa, romelic, SeiZleba, sameba-
sac gulisxmobdes, wmidansac, pirveldamwersac, mlocvel-
sac... werilobiTi teqsti Tu `mravalxmovanebas~ gulisxmobs,
Tu es kargad hqondaT gaazrebuli qarTuli eklesiis wiaRSi,
maSin gasakviri ar unda iyos, rom qarTuli sagaloblis me-
lodia mravalxmovania... Tu momavalma kvlevam warmoaCina,
rom sagaloblis werilobiTi teqstis mravalplanianobas
gansakuTrebul yuradRebas apyrobdnen saqarTveloSi, maSin
mecnierebaSi ukve arsebuli im varaudis mxardaWerac ufro
meti albaTobiT SeiZleba, rom mravalxmovan meloss, SesaZ-
loa, saqarTveloSi hqondes Zirebi da, ar aris SeuZlebeli,
qarTuli sagaloblis erT-erTi gamorCeuli niSani swored
es aRmoCndes, SesaZloa, amiTac gaamdidra man msoflio kul-
turis istoria... am sakiTxebs qvemoTac davubrundebiT.
sagaloblis musikalur mxaresTan dakavSirebiT davZenT:
dargis mkvlevarTa mravlawliani Sroma iZleva safuZvels,
miCneul iqnas, rom qarTul himnebSi calkeuli weriTi niS-
nebi gviCvenebs, Tu kiTxvisas rodis unda gaakeTos sagalob-
lis Semsrulebelma pauza, rodis unda aamaRlos xma, gveZ-
leva saSualeba, warmovidginoT, Tu rogori intonaciiT
39
kiTxulobda mas mgalobeli sxvadasxva periodSi. sxvadasxva
qveynis himnebis im mimarTebiT Seswavlam da urTierTSedare-
bam, Tu sad iwyeba ritmis mowesrigeba, anu sad xdeba ritmul
harmoniaze melodiis daqvemdebareba, SesaZloa, momavalSi
specialistebs imis saSualebac misces, rom dazustebiT ga-
nisazRvros, Tu romeli eklesiis wiaRSi Caisaxa harmoniulad
mowesrigebuli melodiis safuZvlebi, sad aRmocenda musika
am sityvis Tanamedrove mniSvnelobiT (aqve ar unda dagvavi-
wydes, rom, rogorc amas araerTi mkvlevari aRniSnavs, gag-
rZelebebiT kiTxvac Taviseburi `musikaa~... es aris Tavise-
buri melosi...). weriTi niSnebis Sesaxeb qvemoTac gveqneba
saubari.
ivane javaxiSvils miaCnda, rom qarTuli galobis mraval-
xmianoba X saukuneSi an ufro adre Caisaxa (javaxiSvili 1998).
`qarTuli galobis mravalxmianobasTan dakavSirebuli ter-
minologia yalibdeba X-XII saukuneebSi, rodesac saRvTis-
metyvelo-filosofiuri TvalsazrisiT igi ganazogada
ioane petriwma XII saukuneSi~... `am mosazrebis damadastu-
rebelia wmida giorgi mTawmidelis anderZ-minawerebi `TTu-
enze~, `paraklitonze~, `marxvanze~ da giorgi mcires hagi-
ografiul TxzulebaSi daculi cnobebi, romelTa mixedviT,
qarTuli galobis mravalxmianoba udavoa da misi sawyisebi
saukuneTa miRmaa saZiebeli~ (sulava 2006: 94).
sityvier teqstze melosis dadebis sakiTxTan dakavSire-
biT prof. nestan sulava wers: `rogorc cnobilia, qarTuli
galoba, berZnulisagan gansxvavebiT, mravalxmiania~. Oigi mx-
ars uWers mosazrebas, rom `qarTul saeklesio galobaSi
iseve Sevida winareqristianuli mravalxmianoba, rogorc
himnografiul poeziaSi – winareqristianuli qarTuli leq-
sis uZvelesi saleqso sazomebi, Teqvsmetmarcvliani Sairi,
fistikauri; rogorc qristianul xuroTmoZRvrebaSi – anti-
kuri, ZvelberZnul-romauli arqiteqturis formebi da mo-
tivebi~. Semdeg: `rogorc Cans, qarTveli kacis musikalurma
bunebam da smenam ver igua erTxmiani galoba, ucxo da miuRe-
beli, Seusabamo qarTveli eris Tvisebebisa Tu cnobiere-
bisaTvis, da TandaTanobiT miiRo erovnuli musikaluri
sistema mravalxmianobisa~, Nmisi aRniSvniT, – `es moxda VII-VIII
saukuneebis mijnaze, rodesac bizantiur himnografiaSi gan-
40
xorcielda reformebi, Tumca kanonizebuli igi mogvianebiT
gaxda da es wmida grigol xanZTelis saxels ukavSirdeba~.
mkvlevari miiCnevs, rom giorgi merCulis sityvebSi, romlis
Tanaxmad, wmida grigol xancTels Seudgenia `saweliwdo iad-
gari~, romelic iyo `ÃeliTa misiTa dawerili, sulisa mier
wmidisa~ – himnografiisaTvis uaRresad mniSvnelovani in-
formacia ifareba~, misi azriT, – `wmida grigol xanZTelis
dawerili saweliwdo iadgari unda iyos pirveli mexuri iad-
gari, romelSic sagaloblebi nevmirebuli iyo. sxvagvarad
giorgi merCule ase xazgasmiT ar aRniSnavda Tavis Txzule-
baSi wmida grigolis mier saweliwdo iadgaris Sedgenis
faqts. nevmireba ganapiroba qarTuli saeklesio galobis
mravalxmianobam, nevmirebisas miTiTebuli iyo xmis regis-
tri, tonaloba~ (sulava 2006: 95-97).
mecnierebisaTvis Zalian mniSvnelovania is faqti, rom
ioane petriwTan (XI s.), rogorc araerT mecniers miaCnia, Se-
monaxulia qarTuli musikaluri terminebi: `mzaxr, Jir, bam~.
petriwiseul terminebze sergi gorgaZes aqvs yuradReba
gamaxvilebuli... ivane javaxiSvilis Tanaxmad, am dros qar-
Tul sagalobelTa polifonia ukve Camoyalibebulia (java-
xiSvili 1998: 662). es azri araerTma mklelvarma gaiziara.
ioane petriwis cnoba musikaTmcodneebs aqvT Seswavli-
li da Semonaxul terminebSi qarTuli samxmiani galobis ar-
sebobis damadasturebel cnobas xedaven (gr. CxikvaZe, m. iaS-
vili...). nino fircxalavas marTebuli aRniSvniT, is faqti,
rom ioane petriwi, romelic berZnul terminebs iyenebs, ma-
incadamainc musikalur terminebTan dakavSirebiT mimarTavs
qarTul terminologias, qarTuli sagaloblis samxmianoba-
ze metyvelebs, igi samebasTan, – mamasTan, ZesTan da suli-
wmidasTan Cans dakavSirebuli, misi `amreklavia~ (fircxalava
2002: 102). m. suxiaSvilis azriT, mravalxmianobis aRmniSvne-
li Zveli qarTuli musikaluri terminebia: `SewyobilebaÁ~,
`morTuleba~ (suxiaSvili 2003: 161). dali doliZis Tanaxmad,
`qarTul samxmian sagaloblebSi kanonikuri xma zeda xmaSia
moTavsebuli~ (doliZe 2001: 97).
xsenebul sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT nestan sulava marTe-
bulad wers: `yoveli Teoriuli debuleba praqtikuli saqmi-
anobis ganzogadebis Sedegia. amitom, `mzaxr, Jir, bamis~
41
erTeba, `Seyovleba~ (anu yovladoba, yovlismomcveloba)
rom qarTul musikalur yofaSi didi xnis, saukuneebis dam-
kvidrebuli ar iyos, mas ioane petriwi Teoriuli msjelobis
safuZvlad ar gaxdida, rac imas miuTiTebs, rom qarTuli ga-
lobis samxmianoba petriwamdel sagaloblebSia saZiebeli~
(sulava 2006 97-98).
mecnierebaSi gamoTqmulia mravali azri qarTuli saga-
loblis musikisa da teqstis mimarTebis, versifikaciis,
nevmirebis sakiTxebze... araerTi sakiTxis Sesaxeb mecniere-
baSi kamaTia (xsenebul sakiTxebs ikvlevdnen da ikvleven: a. ga-
werelia, g. imedaSvili, v. gvaxaria, s. caiSvili, z. WavWavaZe...
d. doliZe, m. suxiaSvili, n. nakudaSvili, m. erqvaniZe...).
qarTuli sagaloblebi SemdgomSi, cxadia, garTulda,
Camoyalibda axali sxvadasxva stili... dali doliZis aRniS-
vniT, – `mravaleTnosiani palestinuri samgaloblo skola
iyo akvani berZnul-bizantiuri, qarTuli, kopturi, siri-
uli, bulgaruli da sxva erovnuli samgaloblo tradici-
isa; am erovnul samgaloblo skolebs saerTo fesvi aqvT.
da, miuxedavad amisa, droTa ganmavlobaSi isini Tav-TavianT
ganviTarebis gzas daadgnen. palestinuri samgaloblo sko-
lis istoriaSi gansakuTrebuli Rvawli rva xmis sistemis Se-
momRebs – ioane damaskels miuZRvis. swored man Seqmna RerZi
sxvadasxva marTlmadidebeli eris saeklesio musikisaTvis,
romelsac berZnuli, qarTuli, slavuri Tu sxva saeklesio
kanonikuri galoba Tavis arsebobas umadlis~ (doliZe 2001:
109); Semdeg: `melizmaturi stilis damkvidrebam, misTvis
damaxasiaTebeli ornamentuli melodiebis TandaTanobiTma
garTulebam, sagaloblis masStabebis gazrdam, melodiis
diapazonis gafarToebam da garTulebulma ritmma gavlena
iqonia sagaloblis mdgrad nawilzec, anu rva xmis sistemaze.
es sistema xdeba ufro vrceli, mdidrdeba axali komponente-
biT, raTa daitios axali melizmaturi stilis sagalobelTa
melodiebi~ (doliZe 2001: 105).
`himnografiuli teqstis galobisas `xmis dadebis~ teq-
nikam ganapiroba poeturi teqstis sxvadasxvagvari ritmuli
dayofa. X-XI saukuneebis qarTul himnografiaSi sxvadasxva
melodiuri stilis – silaburis, mcired-gamSvenebulis, gam-
Svenebulisa da Wrelis – Tanaarseboba unda vivaraudoT,
42
ris safuZvelsac XIII saukunis 30-iani wlebis erT-erTi um-
niSvnelovanesi xelnaweris A-85-is monacemebi iZleva (A-85,
238v). kerZod, aq dadasturebulia gamSvenebuli stilis yve-
laze ganviTarebuli nairsaxeobis – Wrelis arseboba, rom-
lis arsi da raoba samecniero literaturaSi bolomde gax-
snili ar aris~ (sulava 2006: 101). axali melizmaturi stili,
bizantiaSi XIII-XIV ss-Si damkvidrda, rac, cxadia, qarTuli
sagaloblis stilzec aisaxa, Camoyalibda sxvadasxva stili...
nestan sulava miiCnevs, rom VI s-is dasawyisSi litur-
gikul-himnografiuli krebulebi ukve Targmnili iyo qar-
Tul enaze da berZnuli melodiebis qarTuli niadagisaTvis
morgebis procesi VI-VII ss-Si, an ufro adre, unda iyos dawye-
buli... mkvlevari qarTuli himnografiis ganviTarebaSi gan-
sakuTrebulad gamoyofs palestinur-sinur, tao-klarje-
Tis, aTonis, gelaTis, Sio mRvimis, daviT garejis skolebis
mier Setanil gansakuTrebul wvlils...*
aqve, qarTuli himnebis melosze saubrisas, gvinda, uci-
leblad vaxsenoT: Zmebi karbelaSvilebi, fil. qoriZe, raJ.
xundaZe, e. kereseliZe, romelTac Caiweres musika... am saqmis
moTave Ggabriel episkoposi iyo...
qarTuli hagiografiis erT-erTi umTavresi TavisTavadi
niSani, araerTi mecnieris azriT, aris is, rom xSirad Zalian
adamianurebi arian qarTuli hagiografiis gmirebi, TiTqos,
zogjer adamianur sisusteebsac ki avlenen (mag. ase ganixi-
lavda revaz baramiZe `wmida SuSanikis cxovrebis~ im pasaJs,
romelSic SuSaniki Tavisi qaluri mSvenierebis dakargvas
wuxs...), magram am adamianurobis miRma yovelTvis moiZebneba
Zalian zusti bibliuri paradgima da ipodigma, rac cxad-
yofs, rom bibliur arqetipebs ar scildeba hagiografiuli
Txroba, Tumc, hagiografi adamianur momentebs amZafrebs
xSir SemTxvevaSi, raTa Txrobam uSualoba ar dakargos (hagi-
ografiaSi gamovlenili am adamianurobis Sesaxeb vmsjelobT
calke werilSi – kuWuxiZe 2010: )... qarTuli himnografiis

* prof. nestan sulavas naSromSi xsenebuli sakiTxebi Sejamebuli saxiT


farTod aris warmodgenili, mkvlevars vrclad aqvs warmoCenili calkeul
himnografTa Semoqmedeba, qarTuli himnografiuli skolebis istoria... mis
naSromSi ganxilulia calkeuli krebulebi, himnografiasTan dakavSirebuli
uamravi sakiTxi da dainteresebul mkiTxvels SeuZlia maTi gacnoba... (ix. su-
lava 2003; 2006).
43
specifikuri niSani ki, ar aris gamoricxuli, is aRmoCndes,
rom werilobiTi teqstis mravalplanianobis gaazreba, Se-
saZloa, melosuri mravalxmovanebis erT-erT safuZvels
warmoadgendes...A
iseve, rogorc yvela xalxis SemTxvevaSi, qarTuli him-
nebic liturgikul da araliturgikul himnebad iyofa.
liturgikuls `galobani~, `sagalobelni~ ewodeba (kekeli-Ze
1980: 601),* araliturgikuls korneli kekeliZe `samoZRvro-
moTxrobiT poezias~ uwodebda (kekeliZe 1980: 607). mas,
mkvlevris aRniSvniT, `praqtikuli, saRvTismsaxuro miznebi
ara aqvs dasaxuli~, da `aris nayofi morwmune adamianis su-
lis zeaRmafrenisa, da Sinaarsis mxriv or umTavres Stos
gvaZlevs: agiografiul-eortalogiurs, romelic sxvada-
sxva wmindanisa da dResaswaulisadmia mimarTuli, da bibli-
ografiul-istoriuls, romelsac sagnad aqvs sxvadasxva
Txzuleba, ufro ki bibliuri wignebi da istoriuli faqte-
bi. Fformis mxriv, es poezia ornairia: tipiuri iambikoebi da
riTmovani leqsebi, qarTul poeziaSi cnobili stiqometri-
uli sazomiT dawerili~ (kekeliZe 1980: 607).
pavle ingoroyvas mosazrebiT, qarTuli himnebis sazomi
bizantiuri ritmuli poeziis mixedviT aris SemuSavebuli,
erT strofSi aris sxvadasxva raodenobis taepi da taepSi ki
sxvadasxva raodenobis marcvali, amdenad, strofSi wesrigi
daculi ar aris, magram erTi strofis momdevno strofSi
aris imdenive taepi, taepSi – imdenive marcvali, ramdenic wi-
na strofSi.... taepad pavle ingoroyva miiCnevda Sav an wiTel
wertilebs Soris moTavsebul sityvebs (ingoroyva 1955)...
korneli kekeliZe Tvlida, rom wertilebi saleqso taeps ar
aRniSnavs da rom es aris musikaluri niSani (kekeliZe 1980:
591...), mkvlevris Tanaxmad, amgvar himnebSi `yovelTvis ver
vxedavT marcvalTa erTsa da imave raodenobas~, misi aRniS-
vniT, `bizantiuri analogia ar gamodgeba~ (kekeliZe 1980:
590), leqsis ritmiuloba, rogorc cnobilia, enis bunebriv
Tvisebebs emyareba, bunebrivi Tviseba qarTuli da berZnuli
enisa erTi da igive araa. `mecxre-meaTe saukuneebSi, rodesac
qarTuli himnografia ganviTarebis umaRles wertilze avi-
* cxadia, saxeldeba pirobiTia, – is himnic, romelic eklesiaSi liturgiisas
wasakiTxavad ar aris dawerili, aseve sagalobelia...
44
da, qarTveli himnografebi berZnuli warmoSobis liturgi-
kul krebulebSi berZnul elements gverds uvlian da saku-
Tar, qarTul Sinaarss sdeben originaluri himnebis saxiT~
(kekeliZe 1980: 50-591); rogorc korneli kekeliZe SeniSnavda,
wertilebi Cveulebriv iambikoSic dasturdeba, isini, maga-
liTad, ioane minCxis iambikoebi, `rom wertilebis mixedviT
gavawyoT, miviRebT ara minCxis iambikos xuT taeps, TviTeul-
Si 12 marcvals, aramed sul sxva rames, ase rom is iambikos sa-
xesac dakargavs da sxva romelime leqsis saxesac ver moipo-
vebs~ (kekeliZe 1980: 591). rogorc iTqva, korneli kekeliZem
miiCnia, rom striqonebs Soris wertilebi musikalur niSans
gamoxatavs.
amrigad, Tu `sakiTxi qarTuli ritmiuli himnografiis
Sesaxeb gadasinjvas Txoulobs~, `samagierod kargadaa gar-
kveuli da cnobili meore saxe qarTuli himnografiuli po-
eziisa, egreTwodebuli – iambiko~ (kekeliZe 1980: 591).
iambiko `damyarebulia taepSi marcvalTa raodenobaze,
vinaidan maRali da dabali marcvali im saxiT, rogoric ber-
ZnulSia, qarTulSi ar moipoveba~ (kekeliZe 1980: 591). igi
Seicavs 12 marcvals, anu, Zveli qarTuli terminiT, – Setyu-
ebas, amdenad, strofSi aris 60 marcvali (kekeliZe 1980: 592)...
iambikoL riTmis elementebsac Seicavs (kekeliZe 1980: 592)... XI
saukunidan, rogorc korneli kekeliZe varaudobs, xalxu-
ri leqsidan iambikoSi Cndeba riTmac (lenjeris macxovris
eklesiis RvTismSoblis xatis warwerili iambiko, dimitri
mefis ori riTmovani iambiko... – kekeliZe 1980: 593), Tumc,
riTma kanonikuri sagaloblisTvis damaxasiaTebeli niSani
arasdros gamxdara... iambikos Sesaxeb korneli kekeliZe
wers: `am poeziis mamamTavrad efrem mcire unda CaiTvalos.
rogorc sxva yovel dargSi, efrems aqac sakmaod daurCenia
Tavisi kvali, Tumca, samwuxarod, Cvenamde ar Senaxula yvela
is, rac mas Seuqmnia am dargSi~ (kekeliZe 609).1
sagaloblebSi erT-erTs `Zlispiri~ ewodeba, sxvagvarad
– `TÂTavaji~, sxva sagaloblebi (`troparebi~, `muÃlni~, `das-
debelni~) pirvelis sazomiT unda daiweros, pirvelis kilo-
sa da xmaze (`avajze~) unda warmoiTqvas. cxadia, Targmnisas es
yovelive siZnelesTan iyo dakavSirebuli da yovelTvis ver
xerxdeboda ritmuli sizustis dacva, zogjer teqsti Tavi-
45
mTavarangeloz gabrielis gamosaxuleba
xarebis scenaSi.
atenis sionis moxatuloba

46
254
dan iTxovda gamarTvas. giorgi mTawmideli erT-erTi Targ-
manis Sesaxeb wers: `ese uZlispirod gviTargmniesA da ugemu-
rad movidoda, berZulad TviTavajnia da maT ician; da Cuen
Tumca avaji daguedva, vin daiswavlida? Aaw SewevniTa RmrTi-
saÁTa Zlispirsa zeda vTargmneT, raÁca Zlispiri mouvidoda,
romeli ZueliTgan viciT, igi egreTve iTqumodiso~ (kekeliZe
1980: 602).
rogorc iTqva, sagaloblebis kiTxvisas specialurad ar-
sebuli niSnebis mixedviT xmas umaRlebdnen, ase, – galobiT
kiTxulobdnen ara mxolod himnebs, aramed, – saRvTo werils.
Ees niSnebi X s-mde ukve arsebobda. isini gansxvavdeba aseTive
funqciis mqone berZnul-asuruli niSnebisagan (ix. kekeliZe
1980: 703). Kkorneli kekeliZem da araerTma mkvlevarma Seis-
wavles termin `mexuris~ mniSvneloba. korneli kekeliZis
azriT, `mexurad wodebuli himni unda galobiT iqnas Sesru-
lebuli da ara wakiTxviT.~ `mexurni sagalobelni arian iseT-
ni himnebi, romelnic galobiT unda iqnan Sesrulebuli da am
mizniT maT xSirad niSnebiE an notebic aqvT darTuli~ (keke-
liZe 1980: 606). terminis mniSvnelobis garkvevasa da masTan
dakavSirebuli sxva sakiTxebis SeswavlaSi didi wvlili Se-
itanes: m. janaSvilma, n. marma, p. karbelaSvilma, k. kekeliZe,
J. Tibom, l. jRamaiam, el. metrevelma... elene metrevelis Tanax-
mad, `mexuri~ is iadgarebia, romelTa teqstebSi nevmebia aR-
miSnuli (metreveli 1966)... elene metrevelis Sromam naTeli
mohfina terminTan dakavSirebul mraval sakiTxs... saerTod,
ganuzomelia akad. elene metrevelis wvlili qarTuli him-
nografiis SeswavlaSi...
ritms sagalobelSi gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba aqvs,
specialistebisaTvis cnobilia, rom meqanikurad ar Semo-
aqvT esa Tu is ritmi... berZnulidan sesxebis dros, cxadia,
gaTvaliswinebuli iyo, Tu rogor zemoqmedebda Semotanili
ritmi qarTuli eniT mlocvelze, rodesac SemohqondaT ber-
Znuli ritmi, cxadia, iTvaliswineben ritmis gansakuTrebu-
li zemoqmedebis Zalas da miaCniaT, rom es aris universalu-
ri ritmi, romelic qarTuli enis bunebisaTvis misaRebia da
xelovnuri ar aris. M
imisda mixedviT, Tu ra daniSnulebisaa sagaloblebi,
Camoyalibda sxvadasxva daniSnulebis krebulebi. A
46
liturgikuli himnebis krebulebia: oktoixosi, marxuani,
TTueni (kekeliZe 1980: 594-598)...
oktioxisis Camoyalibeba VIII s-Si, ioane damaskelis dros,
daiwyo da IX-X ss-Si dasrulda (kekeliZe 1980: 594). berZnu-
lad `oktoixos~ mxolod kvira dRes sakiTxavi sagaloblebis
krebuls ewodeba, orSabaTidan SabaTamde (`sada~ dReebis)
sakiTxav krebuls ki – paraklitoni. qarTul eklesiaSic or
wignad aris Svideulis ganmavlobaSi sakiTxavi sagalobleb-
is krebuli dayofili, oRond, berZnulisagan gansxvavebiT,
dayofilia igi ara ise, rogorc berZnulSi – kvira dRisa
calke da `sada~ dReebisa calke, `aramed pirvelSi moTavse-
buli yofila pirveli oTxi xmis himnebi (kvirisac da `sada~
dReebisac), xolo meoreSi – danarCeni oTxi xmisa~ (kekel-
iZe 1980: 594). orive wigns zogadi saxeli `paraklitoni~ aer-
Tianebs, Tumc, specifikuri saxelebic aqvs TiToeul wigns,
– pirvels ewodeba `Ãmani~, meores – `guerdni~ (kekeliZe 1980:
594). qarTul eklesiaSi, rogorc vxedavT, Taviseburi saxiT
yalibdeba terminebic da isic Taviseburad wydeba, Tu romel
dReebSi sakiTxavi sagaloblebi romel krebulebSi unda
Seitanon.2
`marxuani~ didmarxvaSi sakiTxavi sagaloblebis krebulia.
sagaloblebis im nawils, romlebic aRdgomis dRebSi ikiTxeba,
`zatiki~ ewodeba. korneli kekeliZis Tanaxmad, saxeli – `za-
tiki~ warmodgeba «azatis»-isagan, rac tipikalur-liturgi-
kul enaze niSnavs «Tavisufal» dRes, ese igi dResaswauls,
rogorc ganTavisuflebasa da dacadebas Sromisa da muSao-
bisagan. [...] rogorc teqnikuri termini, aRniSnavs iseT wigns,
romelSic moTavsebulia `dResaswaulTa~ sagaloblebi~. XI s-
mde `zatiks~ da `marxuans~ erTi saxeliT ixseniebdnen – `xue-
drni~ (kekeliZe 1980: 595). AsaxeliT – `zatiki~ ixsenieben sxva
krebulebsac, romlebSic calkeuli wmidanebisadmi miZRvni-
li sagaloblebia moTavsebuli da romelic ufro `TTuenis~
saxeliT aris cnobili (kekeliZe 1980: 596). AaseT krebulze
qvemoT gveqneba saubari.A
`pirvandeli forma `xuedrisa~ an marxvan-zatikisa Cven
gvaqvs [...] mecxre saukunis papirus-pergamentis krebulSi.

47
Aaqauri himnebi ufro Zvelia, vidre epoqa Teodore stodieli-
sa (gard. 826), romlis saxelTan aris dakavSirebuli `marxu-
anis~ istoria~...3
`TTueni~ iseTi krebulia, romelic romelime wmidanis
an wmidanTa xsenebis dRes, ama Tu im dResaswaulis dros Se-
sabamisi sagaloblebis kiTxvas gulisxmobs. rogorc iTqva,
am krebuls sxvagvarad `zatiks~ uwodeben. misi sxva saxelia
`iadgari~. termini `TTueni~ XII s-dan Semodis (kekeliZe 1980:
596-597).
aseTi sagaloblebi SemorCenilia IX s-is papirus-perga-
mentis krebulSi.
rogorc zemoTac iTqva, Tu giorgi merCules verwmune-
biT, me-10 s-Si grigol xancTels Seudgenia sakuTari `iad-
gari~: `aw ars xanZTas ÃeliTa misiTa dawerili sulisa mier
wmidisa saweliwdoÁ iadgari, romlisa sityuani friad keTil
arian~...
xancTaSi moRvaweobda basili xancTeli...
`meaTe saukuneSi Cndeba vrceli da sruli «iadgari»,
romelic gvaqvs miqel modrekilis krebulSi. am krebuli-
dan Cans, rom meaTe saukuneSi qarTuli himnografia metad
dawinaurebula~ (kekeliZe 1980: 597). G`TTuenis~ srulyofi-
lad TargmnaSi gansakuTrebuli Rvawli miuZRviT eqvTime
da giorgi aTonelebs. maT srulyves Targmani... am sisru-
lis Sesaxeb TviT giorgi aToneli auwyebs Tanamemamuleebs:
`gulsavsebiT uwyodeT, romel arRara romelsa saberZneTi-
-sa eklesiasa ara ipovos amisi ukeTesi «saTue»~ (kekeliZe
1980: 598).
1746 wels sionis dekanozis Svilma – nikolozma gadawe-
ra `TTueni~ (A 1454), Semdeg dekanozma aleqsi mesxiSvilma da
anton kaTalikosma slavur teqstebze dayrdnobiT dabeWdes
es sakiTxavebi. rogorc akad. korneli kekeliZe aRniSnavs,
– `Cvens winaprebs am dargSi uTargmniaT yvelaferi, rac ki
Rirsi iyo yuradRebisa, da darwmunebuli varT, rom Zveli
qarTul himnografiul krebulebSi mkvlevari aRmoaCens ise-
Ti avtorebis himnebs, romelnic dRes berZnulad dakargul-
ni arian~ (kekeliZe 1980: 598).

48
qarTul originalur himnografiaSi iwereba rogorc
msoflio eklesiis, aseve, qarTveli wmidanebisadmi miZRvnili
himnebi.*
qarTuli originaluri sagaloblebi miqel modrekilis
krebulSia Tavmoyrili. am himnebs specifikuri terminiTac
ixsenieben – `qarTuli~... K
`mecxre-meaTe saukuneTa qarTveli himnografebi imdenad
dawinaurebulan saeklesio mwerlobis am dargSi, rom isini
arafriT Camouvardebian imdroindel berZen himnografebs~
(kekeliZe 1980: 600), am da sxva msgavsi frazebis werisas kor-
neli kekeliZe mxolod faqtis warmoCenas cdilobs da subieq-
tivizmi da yalbi patriotizmi, rogorc yovelTvis, am SemTx-
vevaSic sruliad ucxoa misTvis. `am garemoebas da masTan
erTad CvenSi erovnuli TviTSegnebisa da kulturis mZlavr
gaRviZebas~ qarTveli himnografebi dauyenebia RvTismsa-
xurebisa da himnografiul krebulTa nacionalizaciis gza-
ze. maT ganuzraxavT am krebulebSi romelnic bizantiaSi
Camoyalibda, CaedvaT sakuTari originaluri Sinaarsi~. ro-
gorc iTqva, qarTveli himnografebi qarTveli wmidanebisa
da dResaswaulebis Sesaxebac werdnen da msoflio eklesiis
wmidanebsac uZRvnidnen sagaloblebs. es yovelive im Semoq-
medebiT Tavisuflebaze, saerTod, Tavisufal garemoze
metyvelebs, rac imdroindel qarTul eklesiaSi sufevda.
Kkorneli kekeliZe wers: – `erTi sityviT, maT moundonebiaT
saqarTvelos eklesia sruliad damoukidebel gzaze daeye-
nebiaT am mxriv da, vin icis, ra Sedegebs miaRwevdnen, momdev-
no periods aseTi kulturul-literaturuli separaciisaT-
vis gardauvali kedeli rom ar aRemarTa win~ (kekeliZe 1980:
600).
X-XI ss-Si moRvaweoben: ioane minCxi, miqel modrekili,
ezra mTawmideli, iovane qonqozisZe, kurdanaÁ, stafane sana-
noÁsZe, ioane-zosime, nikoloz gulaberisZe, ioane SavTeli,

* `tao-klarjeTis saliteraturo wreSi gamoCenila MmTeli rigi SesaniSnavi


himnografebisas, romelTac RrmaSinaarsiani, poeturi feradebiTa da moxde-
nili sityvebiT SeumkiaT aramcTu marto qarTveli wmidanebi da dResas-
waulebi, aramed msoflio eklesiisac~ (kekeliZe 1980: 599). zemoT araerT-
gzis iTqva xanZTaSi Seqmnili saweliwdo `iadgaris~ Sesaxeb, – ueWvelia, rom
am krebulma didi roli Seasrula qarTuli himnografiis ganviTarebaSi
(kekeliZe 1980: 599).
49
ioane anCeli... XII-XIII ss-Si: – iezekieli, arsen bulmaÁsimisZe,
petre gelaTeli, saba svingelozi, arsen iyalToeli... XIV s-Si
moRvaweobs nikoloz qarTvelTa mnaTobi... XVIII s-Si – grigol
dodorqeli, makrina monazoni, nikoloz rusTveli, sxvani da
sxvani... gansakuTrebuli nayofierebiT anton kaTalikosi
gamoirCeva (kekeliZe 1980: 601)... cxadia, uamravia sagalo-
beli, romelTa avtorebisa da mTargmnelTa vinaoba sruli-
ad ucnobia. qarTveli mwerlebi nayofierad moRvaweobdnen
rogorc liturgikuli, ise – araliturgikuli himnografiis
sferoSi...
araliturgikuli himnebis Sesaxeb zemoT ukve iTqva. ara-
liturgikuli himnografia qarTuli literaturis isto-
riis pirveli periodidan ukve gvaqvs. am JanrSi moRvaweoben:
filipe beTlemeli, efrem mcire, giorgi da, rogorc Cans,
aseve, eqvTime aTonelebi (kekeliZe 1980: 608), ioane-zosime,
filipe, ioane petriwi, arsen iyalToeli, iezekieli... ioane
SavTeli, arsen bulmaisimisZe, petre gelaTeli... sagalob-
lebs qmnian: dimitri mefe, daviT aRmaSenebeli, Tamar mefe...
mogvianebiT, – Teimuraz pirveli, Teimuraz meore, vaxtang
meeqvse, daviT imamyulixani, anton kaTalikosi, nikoloz
tfileli, onofre bodbeli, ioseb tfileli, dosiTeoz
nekreseli, ioseb gabaSvili, vaxtang yaflaniSvili, petre
sionis mgalobeli, dimitri orbeliani, maia gabaSvili, pa-
ata batoniSvili, petre laraZe, daviT ColoyaSvili, daviT
bagrationi, grigol dodorqeli, daviT guramiSvili, da-
Tuna qvariani... sxvani mravalni... (kekeliZe 1980: 608-616...)
besik gabaSvils aqvs sasuliero xasiaTis leqsebi... gamoiyen-
eba mravalgvari stiqometriuli sazomi, cnobilia 16-marc-
vliani silabur-tonuri sazomic (filipe), – riTmis dacviT
dawerili (kekeliZe 1980: 607)*...
qarTuli himnografiul krebulebs gamoqveynebuli saxiT
mkiTxveli SeiZleba gaecnobs Semdeg gamocemebSi: aTonis kre-
* korneli kekeliZe araliturgikul poeziaSi ganixilavs X s-is am leqss: `me
miqel mRdelman,| zekepe berman,| quabisa Svilman,| berTas aRzrdilman,| ese
wmidaÁ| pavle movige~ (kekeliZe 1980: 608); cxadia, es, rogorc savsebiT marTe-
bulad miaCnia laura grigolaSvils, Cveulebrivi himni ar aris, poezias ver
mivakuTvnebT (grigolaSvili 2005: 165), `pavlenis~ `momgebeli~ galeqsili
formiT gvauwyebs Tavis saxels, magram, ramdenadac saleqso formaa gamoy-
enebuli, mainc himnebs Soris ixsenieba.
50
buli (aTonis aRapebi 1901), ZvelqarTuli sasuliero poezia
(ingoroyva 1913), Zlispirni (Zlispirni 1971), Wil-etratis
iadgari (iadgari: 1977), Zveli qarTuli poeziis istoriidan
(XVII-XVIII ss) (qavTaria 1977), uZvelesi iadgari (iadgari 1980),
nevmirebuli Zlispirni (Zlispirni 1971), ioane minCxis poezia
(xaCiZe 1987), qebaÁ da didebaÁ qarTulisa enisaÁ (javaxiSvili
1947), XII-XIII saukuneebis qarTuli himnografia (sulava 2003),
giorgi mTawmidelis `Tveni~ (jRamaia 2007) (am sakiTxebze ix. –
sulava 2013: 304-341)...
rogorc vxedavT, qarTuli sasuliero mwerlobis am
dargs, himnografias, sakmaod TviTmyofadi niSnebi axasi-
aTebs. saeklesio poezias, iseve, rogorc hagiografias, uSu-
alo zegavlena aqvs moxdenili qarTul saero mwerlobaze
da qarTuli literaturis Semadgeneli organuli nawilia.
msoflio himnografiis istoriis srulyofilad Seswavla
qarTuli sasuliero poeziis gaTvaliswinebis gareSe sru-
liad SeuZlebelia.

SeniSvnebi:

1. sagaloblis ritmTan dakavSirebiT am sakiTxebiT dainterese-


buli farTo mkiTxvelis sayuradRebod damatebiT SeiZleba iTqvas,
– cxadia, ar unda warmovidginoT, TiTqos, himnografisaTvis mxo-
lod is aris mTavari, rom himns gansazRvruli saxiT mowesrigebuli
ritmuli saxe mieces, raTa keTilxmovani iyos es ritmi, – leqsis
ritmi gansazRvrul ganwyobilebas uqmnis msmenels da mkiTxvels,
erT SemTxvevaSi Tu gansakuTrebul wynar ganwyobas qmnis, meoreSi
Tavisi dinamikiT aqtiuri, ufro dinamiuri qmedebisaTvis ganawyobs
msenelsa da mkiTxvels... folkloristikaSi cnobilia, rom, vTqvaT,
xalxuri Selocvis teqsti Tavisi ritmiT, agreTve, bgeraTa gan-
meorebiT, sxvadasxva mxatvrul samyarosTan, esTetikasTan dakav-
Sirebuli saxeebiT, asociaciebiT axdens zemoqmedebas, xalxuri
Selocvis teqstSi zogjer Sinaaarsi saerTod ukan iwevs, yovel
SemTxvevaSi, msmenels misi Sinaarsi kargad, SesaZloa, ar esmodes...
avtors asociaciebis aRZvraze gadaaqvs aqcenti da es asociaciebi
sxvadasxva sneulebiT daavadebulze, mis fsiqikaze, miuxedavad imi-
sa, rom, Sinaarsi, xSir SemTxvevaSi, kargad arc esmis, dadebiT zemo-
qmedebas axdens da, aqedan gamomdinare, mTel mis arsebaze kargad
51
zemoqmedebs... farTo mkiTxvelisaTvis sayuradRebod magaliTad
SeiZleba moviyvanoT, vTqvaT, aseTi Selocva, – `eli elobda, zRva
fofinebda, wiTel xucessa xari gaeba, zRvas xvnida, qviSas Tesavda,
vin gaigona zRvis xnuli, qviSa Tesuli wams iqiT damwvari, gaZnele-
buli~... warmodgenili teqstiT im adamians mkurnalobdnen, visac
damwvroba hqonda miRebuli... teqstSi naxsenebiaa `eli~... naTqvamia –
`eli elobda~... `eli~-s, SesaZloa, sxvadasxva mniSvneloba hqondes...
avadmyofis cnobierebaSi sityva – `eli~ RmerTTan asocirdeba,
asocirdeba eliasTan, romelic xalxur warmodgenaSi wvimasTan, wy-
alTan aris dakavSirebuli, cnobierebaSi Semodis sityvebi: `zRva~,
`qviSa~... `eli elobda~ – ityvis Semlocveli da avadmyofs eqmne-
ba ganwyobileba, rom elia moqmedebs, mxurvalebas utevs... ritmi
isea agebuli, rom kargad warmoCndes es moqmedeba, jer SedarebiT
dawynarebulia ritmi, agebuli – aT marcvalze (`eli elobda, zRva
fofinebda~...), Semdeg Cqardeba, TiTqos, avadmyofobas utevs keTili
Zala (`zRvas xvnida, qviSas Tesavda~), Semdeg dasawyisze ufro wynari
xdeba ritmi, avadmyofs uqmnian ganwyobilebas, rom avadmyofoba ad-
vilad unda wavides, radgan es bunebrivia (`vin gaigona zRvis xnuli,
qviSa Tesuli, wams iqiT damwvari, gaZnelebuli~)... es yovelive zemo-
qmedebas axdens avadmyofze, qvecnobieradac zemoqmedebs masze, mis
arsebaze, rac fsiqikuri mdgomareobis SecvliT gamojanmrTele-
baSi exmareba... cnobilia, rom xalxuri Selocvis `fsiqoTerapia~
ritmze, asociaciebzea damyarebuli (sxva faqtorebic ganapirobebs
zemoqmedebas...), aq sityva uSualod avadmyofisaken aris mimarTuli
(sagalobelSi ufro metad RvTis, RvTismSoblis, wmidanis didebaze,
vedrebazea aqcenti gadatanili, sxvagvari qmedebac xdeba...), rit-
mi, asociaciebi, zogjer ZiriTadad, – bgerebi zemoqmedeben avad-
myofze, mTel mis arsebaze axdenen zemoqmedebas (mTavar sakiTxebs
odnav davcildebiT da davZenT, rom futuristul leqsebSia gamo-
yenebuli es principi... cnobilia futuristebis gansakuTrebuli si-
axlove xalxuri Selocvis teqstebTan, orive SemTxvevaSi ritmiTa
da bgerebiT xdeba mkiTxvelisaTvis ganwyobilebis Seqmna... qarTu-
li xalxuri Selocvis teqstsa da qarTul futuristul leqss bev-
ri saerTo eZebneba...).
2. IX s-is krebulSi (H 2123)H oktoixosis sagaloblebi ar Cans.
miqel modrekili (Xs) wers, rom mis mier Segrovili sagaloblebi
mTel saqarTveloSi iyo gabneuli. amdenad, rogorc miCneulia, ok-
toixosi qarTulad IX-X ss-Si unda iyos Targmnili (kekeliZe 1980:
52
595). `oktoixosis himnebi ioane damaskelisa poeturi sazomiTaa
dawerili. qarTulad, rasakvirvelia, es sazomi ar daucavT da isini
prozad uTargmniaT~ (kekeliZe 1980: 595). `mTliani, vrceli redaq-
cia parakliton-oktoixosisa, romelic miRebuli iyo Tanamedrove
berZnul liturgikul praqtikaSi, uTargmnia giorgi mTawmidels~.
Ees iyo qarTul eklesiaSi damkvidrebuli Targmani, romelic XVIII
s-Si anton kaTalikosma Seaswora (kekeliZe 1980: 595).
3. am dros sakiTxavi sagaloblebi mTlianad, an – misi nawili,
uTargmnia eqvTime aTonels, Semdeg – giorgi aTonels... giorgi
aTonelis Targmani (`didni marxuani da zatikni~) – es aris sruli
redaqcia im dros bizantiaSi miRebuli sagaloblebisa, romlebic
didmarxvis da aRdgomis dros igalobeboda. Semdeg arsen bers
uTargmnia `marxuanis~ sagaloblebi: xorcTa aRebis SabaTisa, yve-
lieris SabaTisa, andria kritelis `didi kanoni.. XV-XVI ss-Si Semo-
dis am wignebis ierusalimuri redaqcia. XVIII s-Si rusuli redaqci-
ebis mixedviT gamarTes didmarxvisa da aRdgomis dros sakiTxavi
sagaloblebi, 1738 wels moskovSi slavur redaqciebze dayrdnobiT
`zatiki~, 1741 wels ki – `marxuani~ dabeWdes (kekeliZe 1980: 596).

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58
caiSvili 1979: qarTuli poezia. I. s. caiSvilis winasityvaobiTa da
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mravalTavi, XIX. Tbilisi: 2001.
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si: 2007.

60
magda mWedliZe

qarTuli filosofiuri mwerloba.


ioane petriwi

filosofiuri azrovneba saqarTveloSi saRvTismetyve-


lo azrovnebasTan uSualo kavSirSi da mis wiaRSi ganviTar-
da. qristianobis gavrcelebis Semdeg qar­Tu­lad iTar­gmne­ba
kosmo­lo­giuri da anTropologiuri Sinaarsis heqsaemero­
nuli Txzulebebi, aseve dog­ma­tur-polemikuri Sinaar-
sis patristi­ku­li teqstebi, rom­lebic RvTis moniz­misa da
tri­adiz­mis sakiTxs Seexeba; gvaqvs qristianu­li eTikis di­
das­kaliebi. miuxeda­vad imisa, rom filosofiuri xasiaTis
pasaJebs adreuli periodidanve vxvdebiT sxvadasxva lite­
ra­turuli Janris Txzu­lebebSi, sakuTriv filosofiasa da
filoso­fi­uri azrovnebis raobaze ref­leqsias, logi­kur naS-
romebs, anti­kuri filosofosebis naazrevis qarTul enaze
popularizebas, filosofiur kompendiumebs, rogorc Cans,
sagangebo yuradReba mog­vianebiT eTmoba. XI sau­kunes gane­
kuT­vneba efrem mciris Targmani (Sesav­li­Ta da ko­menta­re­
biT) areopagituli korpusisa, aseve ioane damaskelis `wyaro
cod­nisas~ filo­so­fiuri Tavebisa (romlebic damaskelis am
naSromis ufro adreul qarTul TargmanSi gamotove­buli
iyo). sakuTari Tar­gmani­saT­vis darTul Sesa­valSi efrems
xa­tovnad aqvs gansazR­vru­li filo­sofiisa da Teologiis
urTierTmimarTeba: misi TqmiT, filosofia rogorc ekliani
zRude icavs venaxis nayofs – Teologias, ris gamoc isini
erTmane­Ti­saTvis sru­liad aucilebel­ni arian, rogorc
urTierTSemavsebelni (ioane damaskeli 1976: 67). filoso­
fiis mimarT yovel­mxri­vi interesi sabolood ioane pet­riw­is
mier warmarTi filosofosis, prokle diadoxosis, naSro-
mis – „Teologiis elementebi“ – saskolo saxelmZRvanelod
gamoyenebiT sruldeba.
ioane petriwis pirovnebis Sesaxeb cota ram viciT. saxeli
petriwi mowmobs, rom misi moRvaweoba garkveuli xniT mainc
petri­won­Tan unda iyos dakavSirebuli, qarTul monas­ter-
Tan, romelic bizantiis karze dawinaurebuli grigol bakuri-
61
anis Zis mier 1083 wels iqna daarsebuli (bulgareTis, dRe-
vandel qalaq plovdivis maxloblad). erT-erTi gviandeli
xel­naweris mina­­weris mixedviT, ioane petriwi saqarTvelo­
Si daviT aRmaSeneb­lis mier 1114 wels daarsebul gelaTis
monasterSi moRvaweobda, romelic cnobili gaxldaT Tavisi
saganmanaT­leblo-mwignob­ruli saqmianobiT. antikuri wya-
roebis mimarT petriwis interesis xasiaTidan gamomdinare,
is iTvleba mowafed XI s-is II naxevarSi miqael fselosis mier
daarsebuli filosofiuri skolisa, kerZod ioane italosis
hipa­tosobis periodSi. aqedan gamomdinare, igi sazogadod
XI s-is bolosa da XII saukunis dasawyisis moRvawed miiCneva,
Tumca zogierTi mas XII saukunis II naxevris da XIII s-is dasa-
wyisis moRvawed miiCnevs. unda aRiniSnos, rom misi naSro­me-
bis Semcveli uZvelesi xelnaweri XIII saukuniT TariRdeba.*
garda sxvadasxva Janris TxzulebaTa Targmanebisa (ro-
melTa Soris filosofiuri TvalsazrisiT gansakuTrebiT
sainteresoa nemesios emeselis `bunebisaTvis kacisa~), ioa­ne
petriwi avtoria misive Tar­gmnil prokle diadoxosis `Teo­
logi­is elemente­bisaTvis~ Sedgenili originaluri komenta­
ri­sa, romelic neoplatonizmis miseul xedvas warmog­vid­
gens. xelnawerebSi am Sromas erTvis traqtati fsalmunTa
Teologiis Sesaxeb, romelSic avtori bibli­ur-qris­tianuli
da elinuri azrovnebis Sedareba-SeTanxmebas eswrafvis.**
neoplatonikosi filosofosis, prokle di­a­do­xosis, wv-
lili Sua sau­ku­neebis fi­lo­sofiis gan­vi­TarebaSi mniSvnelo-
vania, Tumca, gacxa­debu­lad misi naazrevis dafaseba XI sau-
kunidan iwyeba, rodesac bizantiel inteleqtu­al­Ta wreSi
zogadad anti­kuri az­rov­nebisa da, kerZod, neopla­tonuri
filosofiis mimarT interesi da damokide­buleba Tvisobri-
vad axal xasiaTs iRebs. ioane petriwis sistemuri egzege­
tikuri komen­tari prokles `Teologiis elemen­tebze~ (iseve
ro­gorc zemoaRniSnuli traqtati), mas­Si ga­movlenili filo­
sofiuri azrovnebis xasiaTiT swo­red bizantiis novatoruli
* ioane petriwis Sesaxeb ix. mari 1909, kekeliZe 1980, TevzaZe 1996, meliqiSvili
1999, WeliZe 1994-1995, aleqsiZe 2008, gigineiSvili 2007, iremaZe 2005 da sxv.
** ix. komentarebisa da bolosityvaobis teqstis gamocema (ioane petriwi 1937)
da Targmanebi (fancxava-TevzaZe 1984, meliqiSvili 1999, aleqsiZe-bergemani
2009, gigineiSvili 2014).
62
toruli

ioane petriwi
66
67
ten­denciebiT cno­bil saaz­rov­no mimarTu­lebas ganekuTvne-
ba. qarTveli fi­lo­sofosis mier XII sau­kuneSi Sedgenili ko-
mentari-ganmarteba, SeiZleba iTqvas, gamorCeulic ki aris im
Tval­sazrisiT, rom msgavsi naS­ro­mi bizantiaSi jerjerobiT
mikvleuli ar aris. sru­liad SesaZlebelia, viva­raudoT, rom
igi warmoadgens nimuSs saleqcio kursisas, rom­lis mixed­vi­
Tac iswav­leboda prok­le bizantiur skolebSi, miT ufro, Tu
gaviTvalis­wi­nebT im faqts, rom aseve XII sau­kuneSi iqna Sed-
genili meToneli episkoposis, nikolo­zis, pole­mi­kuri xasi-
aTis ganmar­tebac `Teologiis elementebisa~, romlis mizani
prok­les moZRvrebis qristianobasTan SeuTavseblobis war­
moCena da RvTismgmobeli eresisagan imaTi dacvaa, romle-
­bic, petriwis msgavsad, warmar­Ti filosofosis am naSromis
gul­mod­gine Seswavlas miiCne-ven sasargeblod (meToneli
1984: 1, 1-2, 12).
ioane petriwis saskolo swavlebisaTvis gan­kuTvnili
naSromi, formaluri Tval­saz­risiT, ganekuTvneba egzege-
tikuri komentaris, saswavlo-samecniero-kvleviTi litera­
tu­ris Janrs, romelic bizan­tiam elinizmisagan imemkvidra da
ganaviTara. igi gulis­xmobs teq­stis Sinaarsis eqspozicias,
parafrazirebas, eqsplika­cias Tu in­ter­pretacias, teq­stTan
dakavSire­buli problematikis istoriis gadmo­cemas, gamo-
xatvis formisa Tu meTodo­lo­giis aqcentire­bas, terminTa
niuansur analizs da sxv. Janris moTxovnebisda Sesabamisad,
SesavalSi petriwi saubrobs naSromis mizanze, Temaze, av-
toris vinaobaze, neoplatonur ontologiasa da Semec­nebis
Teo­ri­aze, specialur terminebze. amave dros, petriwis ko-
mentari asaxavs konkretulad XI s-is II naxev­ris konstan-
tinopolis filo­sofiur skolaSi SemuSavebul avtorTa
kiTx­vis, komentirebisa da swavlebis sistemasac. am Tvalsaz-
risiT, upirveles yov­lisa unda davasaxe­loT ne­op­la­to­nu­ri
naazrevis uSua­lod miwodeba mowafeTaTvis, agreTve, neopla-
tonikosTa msgavsad, platonuri filo­so­fi­is Sesaswavlad ar-
istoteles logikur SromaTa mniSvnelobis aRiareba da sxva.
gansa­kuTrebuli aRniSvnis Rir­sia miqael fselosis im tipis
ganmartebebi, sadac igi Zvel moazrovneTa kon­cefciebis
gadmocemisas, im SemTxvevaSic ki, rodesac saqme qristiano­
bi­saTvis miuRebel ideeebs Seexeba, ar Sedis polemikaSi an-
63
tikuri xanis av­to­rebTan, ara­med maT xedvas gvacnobs da
gvagebinebs. anu fselosTan vlindeba mecnieruli interesi
filosofiuri koncefciebis mimarT, da ara mxolod mcde-
loba, elinur filosofiaSi qristianobisaTvis misaRebi
ideebis gamo­vlenisa. igive SeiZleba iTqvas italosis Sesa­
xe­bac. maTTvis platoni RvTaebrivia, aristotele – sak-
virveli, neoplatonikosebi – didni. am filosofosebis mi-
marT amave epiTetebs vxvdebiT petriwTanac.
Tumca, isev da isev egzegetikuri komentaris xasiaTis
Sesabamisad, umTavresi ni­mu­Si petri­wis ganmartebebisa,
rogorc formis, ise principebis TvalsazrisiT, prokles
Txzulebebia, kerZod ki misi komen­tarebi platonis dia-
logebze, aseve saskolo-sale­q­cio mizniT dawerili. upirve-
les yovlisa, unda aRiniSnos petriwis erTguleba prok­les
mier deklarirebuli principisadmi – platonis ganmarteba
platoniTve, ro­melic warmoadgens aristarqes sayovelTaod
cnobili principis `homero­sis ganmarteba home­rosiTve~
platonis filosofiisaTvis misadagebas (safri, vesterinki)
(prokle 1968: 132) Tumca princips – gansamartavi avtoris
gan­martebas Tavad am avtoris safuZvelze – vxvdebiT aseve
bibliur egzegeti­kaSi. ioane petriwisaTvis, rogorc misi
naSromis mixedviT SegviZlia davas­kvnaT, `prokles prokle-
Ti ganmarteba~ gulisxmobs: jer erTi, prokles koncefciis
gacnoba-ganmartebas misi sxva Txzulebebis mixedviT; da me-
orec, prokles Teologiis prokles meTodebiTve gadmoce-
mas: prokles TqmiT, platoni Tavis Teologias gadmoscems
an simbolurad, an xatebiT, an gamocxa­de­biT, anda dialeq­
ti­kurad (Plat. Theol. I, 4, 18-24). amis­da mixedviT gansazRvravs
igi pla­tonis ganmarte­bis saku­Tar meTodsac. kerZod, mas
naTqvami aqvs: „upiratesobas vani­WebT cxads, mkafiod gamoT­
qmuls da martivs; simboloebiT gamoTqmuls naTeli swavle­
biT gadmovcemT; sadac saxe­ebia gamoyenebuli (di jeijkovnwn),
maT nimuSebs vuTiTebT; rac gancxadebiT (ajpofantikwv­te­ron)
aris nau­wyebi, mis mizezs ganvixilavT; xolo dasabu­Te­bebs (dij
ajpo­deiv­xewn) ga­movik­vlevT, ganvmartavT maTSi arsebuli WeS-
maritebis ragva­robas (trovpo~) da gasagebs vxdiT msmenele-
bisaTvis. rac enig­maturia, garkvevas vcdi­lobT ara gareSe
hipoTezebidan, aramed platonis Txzulebebidanve, da rac
64
msmeneli­saTvis garkveulia, ganvixilavT mis Sesabamisobas
sagnebTan. aqedan cxadi xdeba erTi da srulyo­fili gvari
(ei\do~) plato­nuri Teologiisa da mis yvela RvTaebriv azrSi
gamovlenili WeSmariteba (Plat. Theol. I, 2: 9, 20-10, 10).
aqedan gamomdinare, raTa gasagebi gaxados `saRvTis­mety-
velo elementebis~ apodi­qtikuri formiT gamoTqmuli WeS-
maritebis gvari, ioane petriwi Tavisi komentaris SesavalSi
prokles mizansa da meTods gvacnobs da aRniSnavs, rom es
aris „erTis aRmo­Cena silogizmis kanonebiT“ (petriwi: 3, 5-7);
Sesabamisad, naSromis pirveli Tavis gan­mar­­tebasac silo-
gizmis kanonis raobis axsniT iwyebs (petriwi: 1: 10, 13-11, 10)
(Sem­dgom­Sic, konkretul SemTxvevebSic igi sistematu­rad
amaxvilebs yuradRebas prokles dasabuTebis xerxebze); amave
dros, Tavis ganmarte­bebSi petriwi RvTa­eb­rivze saubris
yvela formas gagvacnobs (saxeebismiers, simbolurs, RvTiv-
STagonebuls), raTa zogadad „saRvTismetyvelo xedvis gva-
ris“ (petriwi: 3, 3-5) Sesaxeb Segviqmnas warmod­gena. amgvarad igi
warmoadgens mTels im naazrevs, romelic safuZvlad udevs
prokles dialeqtikuri formiT gadmocemul msjelobas.
cnobilia, rom miTologiisagan gansxvavebiT, romelic
saxeobriv azrovnebas war­moadgens, filo­so­fia rogorc mec-
niereba cnebiTi azrovnebaa, Tumca arc saxeobrioba aris
misTvis ucxo, gansakuTrebiT, antikuri da Sua saukuneebis
Teologiuri filoso­fiisaTvis. pla­tonis dialogebi, aseve
patristikis brwinvale warmomadgenlebis Txzu­le­bebic, ara
mxolod azrov­nebis siRrmiT, aramed daxve­wili mxat­vruli
formiT gamo­ir­­Ceva da Tanabrad aris rogorc filoso­fia-
Teologiis, ise literaturis istoriis kuT­vnileba. pla-
tonizmi, erTi mxriv, miTologiis alegoriul interpre-
tacias eswraf­vis, mi­Tiuri saxeebis filosofiuri cnebebiT
gadmoTargmnas, Tumca, meore mxriv, miTo­poeziis msgavsad,
isic Segnebulad mimarTavs miTis Txzvas rogorc meTods Tav-
isi fi­lo­sofiuri xedvis gamo­saT­qmelad (aseTia, magaliTad,
demiurgis, gamoqvabulis da sxv. cnobili miTebi). tropebsac
platonizmi iyenebs ara mxolod ritorikuli mosazrebebiT
(ritorikas da saTqmelis literaturul gaformebas, ro-
gorc viciT, eqvemdebareboda Zveli mwerlobis yvela Janri),
aramed wminda didaqtikuri daniSnulebiT: Rrma azris ufro
65
gasagebad gadmo­sacemad. upir­ve­les yovlisa, es Seexeba Tva-
lisaTvis uxilavi miRma samyaros aRweras (mas neoplato-
nizmSi gansakuTrebuli RvTaebrivi statusi aqvs), rac oden
analogiebisa da meta­foruli enis gamoyenebiT aris SesaZ-
lebeli. RvTaebaze saub­ris, anu usasrulos gansazRvrisa
da sasruli eniT aRweris sirTule aranakleb, Tu metad ara,
aqcentirebulia qristiano­baSi. zebunebrivi realobisaTvis
saxelis darqmevis sirTules kidev ufro kargad warmovid-
genT, Tuki gaviazrebT, rom Tavad Cvens gonebasa da mis moq-
medebebTan dakavSirebuli terminologiac, arsebiTad, meta-
forebia: TvaliT aR­qmasTan, WvretasTan aris dakavSirebuli:
Teoria (xedva), idea, skefsisi, sme­niT aR­qmas­Tan – gageba,
Sesmena, xeliT SexebasTan – wvdoma, mixvdoma da a. S.
cxadia, gamoxatvis formebis kvleva mniSvnelovania moZR-
vrebis raobis Sesacnobad. neoplatonizmisaTvis rogorc
antikuri azrovnebisaTvis, kos­mosi maradiulia iseve, ro­
goradac misi formaluri da materialuri mizezebi. Sesaba-
misad, uzenaesi erTidan samya­ros mra­val­fe­rovnebis warmo-
Soba, materiis gaformeba, maradiuli buneb­rivi procesia.
bib­liur-qristianuli xedvisaTvis ki samyaro, misi materiac
da formac, Seqmnilia RvTis nebiT, garkveul momentSi da mi-
si Semdgomi arseboba mTlianad uzenaes nebazea da­moki­de­
buli. es sxvaoba ganapirobebs or msoflmxedvelobas Soris
Teologiur, kosmo­lo­giur da anTropologiur gansxvave-
bebs. sainteresoa, ramdenad gvexmareba ioane petri­wis filo­
so­fiuri enis analizi, ukeT SevicnoT misi xedva prokles
neoplatonizmisa, eqvemdebareba Tu ara misi interpretaci-
ebi qristianobis gar­kveul gavlenas.
`Teologiis elementebSi~ prokle msjelobas uzena­esi
erTidan iwyebs, Tumca praqti­kaSi adamia­nis mier samyaros
Semecneba, cxadia, piriqiT, xiluli kosmosiT, mis mravalfe-
rov­nebaze ref­leq­siiT iwyeba da mis mizezTa Ziebisas abstra-
hirebis meTodiT uzogades erT sa­wyi­samde adis. sainteresoa,
rom petriwi komentaris winasityvaobaSi Semecnebis safe-
xurebis mixedviT warmoadgens neoplatonur ontologias,
sadac yoveli zeda safexuri RvTaebriobiT aRemateba qve-
das: sulis zemoT aris goneba, gonebis zemoT – namdvilmyofi
(anu WeSmaritad arsebuli), namdvilmyofis zemoT – zearse-
66
biTi saR­mrTo ricxvebi, am erTebr ricxvebs zemoT – pirveli
sazRvari da pirveli usazRvroba, amaTze da yovelives zes-
Taa Seucnobeli erTi, sikeTe, romelsac mamadac vixseniebT
pa­ti­vis wadiliT (petriwi: 7, 27-8, 10).
kosmosi berZnulad wesrigs, mSvenier wyobas, struqtu-
ras, samkauls niSnavs. sam­ya­ros mimarT am sityvis gamoyene-
bas pirvelad piTagorasTan vxvdebiT. mogvianebiT igi qvey-
nierebas, anu adamianTa mTel samosaxlos aRniSnavs, sofels.
samyaro berZnuli azrovnebisaTvis amavdroulad aris yov-
loba (to pan, universumi), anu im yvelafris erToblioba,
romelsac moicavs cis sfero. amdenad, cas (uranos) berZne-
bi uwodebdnen ara mxolod uZrav varskvlavTa ukidures
sferos (an kosmosis zemo nawils, romelic mTvaris zemoT
uZrav varsvlavTa sferomdea), aramed maT­Tvis igi samyaros
aRmniSvnelic iyo kosmosisa da yovlobis darad. rac Seexeba
platonizms, xiluli da SegrZnebadi, materialuri samyaros
miRma, romelic mudmiv qmnadobaSia, igi moiazrebs marad uc-
vle­lad mgeb gonismier anu idealur samyaros. or samyaros
Soris nimuSisa da xatis mi­mar­Tebaa (swored gonismieri for-
mebis, anu ideebis, arsebobaa piroba xilul samyaroSi amave
formis materialuri sagnis arsebobisa). neoplatonizmi kos-
mosisaTvis sam RvTaeb­riv sawyiss aRiarebs: erTs, gons, suls
(Tavis mxriv, TiToeuli maTgani Semdgom dife­renciacias
eqvemdebareba). erTi – upirvelesi sawyisia yoveli arsebu-
lisaTvis, iqneba es miRmuri Tu materialuri realia, imde-
nad, ramdenadac nebismieri ram, rac arsebobs, auci­leblad
erTi ramaa; goni, romelic ide­ebis, goniTi formebis mom-
cvelia, sawyisia imdenad, ramdenadac, rac arsebobs, raRac
formiT arsebobs da raRac sazrisi aqvs; suli ki uSualod
arsebobaSi momyvani, sico­cxlis principia, romelic goniT
formebs materiaSi ganaxorcielebs da inarCunebs, is aris
uxilavi da xiluli samyaroebis damakavSirebeli principi.
prokles `Teologiis elementebSi~, romelic am RvTa-
ebriv sawyisebs eZRvneba, termini yov­­lo­ba kosmosis gage-
biT ar gamoiyeneba; saerTod ar gvxvdeba termini uranos.
petriwi ki, raTa zogadantikuri da, ker­Zod, neoplatonuri
kos­miuri in­tu­­­i­ciebi gag­vac­nos, komen­tarebSi yovlobasa
da cas xSirad axsenebs. materiasTan dakavSi­re­biT petriwi
67
gvacnobs moZR­vrebasac oTxi elementis Sesaxeb, romlebic
`Teologiis elemen­tebSi~ saerTod ar ixse­nebieba (aq sauba-
ria mxolod ararsze). ioane petriwi, garda imisa, rom pla-
tonur literaturaSi Seqmnil saxeebs da miTebs acnobs Tavis
msmenels, gar­da imisa, rom yu­rad­Rebas amaxvi­lebs konkretul
kosmiur realobebze, romlebze dak­vir­vebi­Tac warmo­adgens
prokle sawyisTa universalur wesrigsa da ierarqias (magali­
Tad, vrclad, traq­tatis formiT, aris CarTuli komentarSi
droisa da moZraobis Sesa­xeb msjeloba), igi cdilobs TiTo­
euli berZnuli termini­saTvis Sesabamisi qarTuli ekviva-
lentis moZiebas da ber­Znuli sityvis Sinaarsis maqsimalu-
rad adekvatur gad­­moce­mas. magaliTad, kosmoss igi Targmnis
ara rogorc sofels, rogoradac es iyo miRe­buli qarTul
mTargmnelobiT tradiciaSi, ara­med rogorc namks, aRmkuls
(Sesabami­sad, Sida­kos­miurs Seesabameba aRmku­lis­Sorisi, ze-
kosmiurs – zesTaRmkuli). garda imisa, rom am­gva­rad igi anti-
kuri kosmi­uri intuiciis aqcentirebas axdens, samyaros mSve­­­
nierebad moazre­bas (rac bibliur-qris­tianul intuiciadac
gvevlineba), mis mier axladSemoRebuli terminebi qarTul
teq­stSi, SeiZleba iTqvas, tropebad aRiqmeba.
samyaros rogorc wesrigisa da mSvenierebis aRqma gana-
pirobebs kosmogenezis ro­gorc xelovnebis moazrebas:
platonis `timeosSi~ RmerTi-demiurgi kosmoss qmnis im­gva­
rad, rom maradiuli goniTi nimuSis mixedviT awesrigebs,
aformebs materialur sub­stra­ts. neoplatonizmSi goniTi
samyaro, Tumca mara­diulia, misi arseboba pirvelmiz­ez­ze –
erTzea damokidebuli, raki Sedegia erTis ganvrcobisa ide-
ebis simravled. ramdena­dac neoplatonizmSi warmoarseba
imavdroulad formireba, formisqmnadobaa, arsTa simrav-
lis etapobrivi warmoSobisas rogorc mamoba, ise Semoqme-
deba mizezad yofnis aRmniSvnelia.
petriwi arsTa warmomSob mizezs uwodebs: mbads, keTil-
mexelovnes, rCeulmexe­lov­nes, SemoqmedebiT wess... Sesaba-
misad, rogorc xiluli, ise miRmuri samyaros (anu gonieri
cis, gonieri aRmkulis) mTli­anobasa Tu calkeul re­a­liebs
igi ixseniebs ro­gorc naqsovs (miRmuris SemTxvevaSi – aseve
gonier qsovils), narTs, naTxzs, romelic aRamko, moqsova,
daarTo, warmoTxza, ixuroa, aRamusikela misma Semqmnelma.
68
rogorc xelovnebis nawarmoebs kosmoss marTebs ems-
gavsos, hbaZos Tavis nimuSs, rom­lis gamosaxulebas, xatsac
warmoadgens. igive moeTxoveba erTidan etapobrivad gan­
fe­nili samyaros yovel calkeul safexurs uSualod misi
wina safexuris mimarT. maT So­ris mimarTebas petriwi pir-
dapir uwodebs igavisa da Zeglis (anu nimuSisa da misi gamo­
sa­xulebis, xatis) mimarTebas, aseve tvifrisa da anabeWdisas.
erTs, cxadia, ufro em­sgav­­seba masTan ufro axlos myofi,
yovel Semdeg safexurze ki msgavseba iklebs (magaliTad, nam-
dvilmyofi aris nimuSi SemdgomTaTvis da xati yovelive-
ze aRmatebuli erTisa, xolo misi xatni arian gonieri arsni
da a. S.) (petriwi: 70, 33-71, 1). anu arsis ierarqiaSi klebadi
RirsebiT warmodgenilni arian xatni, xatis xatni, aCrdilni
(eido­lonni, kerpni), aCrdilis aCrdilni.. xatis statusi um-
Tavresad aqvT maradiul arsT (cis sferosa da varskvlave-
bis CaTvliT), aCrdilisa ki warmavalT.
TvalisaTvis uxilav, mxolod gonebisaT­vis wvdomad sam-
yaroze, rogorc ukve iT­qva, platonizms SesaZleblad miaC-
nia, vi­sa­­ubroT isev da isev amqveyniuri, xiluli, Seg­rZnebadi
realiebisa da qmedebebis aRmniS­vnel saxelTa gamoyenebiT,
magram uzenaes erTze rogorc yovelivesagan abstrahire-
bulsa da sruliad Seucnobelze sakuTriv verafers vi­tyviT.
mis saxeldebasTan dakavSirebiT petriws naTqvami aqvs, rom
mas SemdgomTa mi­xed­viT hkadra survilma erToba, rogorc
erTmqmnels arsTa yoveli wyebisa, keTiloba – rogorc ma-
keTebels arsTa yvavilisa (anu yoveli arsisaTvis sakuTari
idea-formisa), xolo mamoba – rogorc mizezs myofTa arse-
bobisa (petriwi: 62, 6-9). amitom erTis baZva, upirveles yov-
lisa, gulisxmobs im Rirsebebs mimsgavsebas, rac erTobas, si­
ke­Tes, aseve dabadebis unars ukavSirdeba. Tumca, unda gvax-
sovdes, rom sakuTriv masze verc am saxelebs vi­tyviT, aseve
verc mizezobas, verc pirvelobas, verc sawyisobas. ase rom,
rodesac uzenaesi erTidan mravalferovani samyaros warmo-
Sobazea saubari, mamobac da Semoqmedebac neoplatonizmi-
saTvis Tanabari mniSvnelobis metaforebia.
warmoSobasTan dakavSirebuli erT-erTi arsebiTi meta-
fora neoplatonizmisaTvis aris dena, gamodineba (emanacia):
erTidan gamoedineba samyaro daRmavali safexurebis, sfe-
69
roebis gavliT. denas ukavSirdeba sxva metaforebi: wyaro,
wyarosTvali, warmo­wyaro­eba, nakadi. erTi ixsenieba `ar-
sTa pirvel wyarod~ (petriwi: 36, 10), romelic, sadac ki mi-
marTavs Tavis erTebriv nakadT, aerTebs da akeTebs maT mim-
RebT (petriwi: 35, 21); si­ke­Te rogorc pirveli wyaro, Ziria
da mizezi arsTa denisa, igi aris maTi mawyaroe­beli Tvali,
misgan rogorc mizezisgan warmoewyaroeba myofT (petriwi:
43, 32-44, 1). xato­bis Sesabamisad, mas hbaZaven sxva arsnic:
magaliTad, suli aris wyaro da Tvali cxov­re­bisa (petriwi
51, 14); siraTmTavarni (arsTa wyebis saTaveSi myofni: magali-
Tad, goneba, romelic gonebaTa saTaveSia..) wyaroni arian maT
daqvemdebarebul arsTa yoveli qsovi­lisa da akeTileben
maT, rogorc umaxlobelesni erTisa (petriwi: 95, 20-23).
erTis Sesaxeb msje­lo­bisas petriwi gansakuTrebiT xSi­
rad mimarTavs maTematikur saxe­ebs: igi mouxmobs magaliTebs
ariTmeti­kidan, geometriidan, astrono­mi­idan, musikidan.
uzenaesi erTi, im TvalazrisiT, rom igi yvelafers moicavs,
misi mocva ki erTbamad ara­fers ZaluZs, SeiZleba ricxv-
TaSoris erTs SevadaroT: erTs ricxvis gareSec SeuZlia
ar­seboba, ricxvi ki erTis gareSe ver iqneba (petriwi: 16, 22-
30). garda imisa, rom ne­bismieri ricxvi erTeulTagan Sedge-
ba, TiToeuli ricxvi – oroba, xuToba, aToba da a. S. – EerT
gvars qmnis (petriwi: 19, 16; 24, 14-4). qmnili erTi musikalur
kompozici­ebSic (rTvaTa Soris) cxadad ixileba, radgan
rogordac ar unda momarTo xma da sak­ra­vi, myisve raime gva-
ri daeufleba: an lmobierebis aRmZvreli, an sificxis da a. S.
(petriwi: 22, 16- 27 ).
erTTan daSorebis Sesabamisad arsTa Sedgenilobis gar-
Tulebis SecnobaSic ricx­vebis analogia gvexmareba: namdvi-
lyofi pirveli Sedgenili arsia, romelic martiv er­Teb­riv
ricxvTagan Sedgeba, ufro rTuli Sedgenilobisaa arseba
gonebisa, Semdeg – su­li­sa, Semdeg – kosmosis sxeulisa. nam-
dvilmyofis saxed unda miviCnioT ricxvebi aTamde, romel-
Tac erTis xatebad vixseniebT, xolo aTis Semdeg ricxvs xa-
tis xats da SedgenilTagan Sedgenils vuwodebT (petriwi:
29, 32-20).
erTs ukavSirdeba aseve Teslis metafora. magaliTad, de-
bu­lebis gansamartavad, rom `yoveli simravle imyofeba erT-
70
Si rogorc Tavis mizezSi~, pet­riwi amgvar Sedarebebs mimar-
Tavs: `..odes ixilo erTsaSoris ricxvi, nu Sereulad hgoneb
da TvisTa TviTebaTa Serwymulad, aramed ganuwvalebelad
ganiTviTvian da Seu­rev­nelad ipyroben TvisTa wesTa, garna
erTebrivad. vinaÁ, gnebavs Tu, saxeTaca mier cxad vhyoT: vi-
Tar-igi TeslTa Soris winaÁTve arian yovelnive – guli, RviZ-
li, tvini, sxeulni, Zualni, ZarRuni, frcxilni, Tmani – garna
Seurevnelad. da kualad, marcval­Taca zeda: viTar ifqlsa
Soris – wuelaÁ, fxaÁ, lerwami, muxli – ese yovelni erTeb­riv
da ara SeerTebulad, Seurevnelad da ara TanaSerwymulad~
(petriwi: 13, 30-14, 9).
zesTaTaA zesTas Tesli yvela arsSia, romelic misTvis mis
sakuTar erTsa da centrs warmoadgens, masSi myof RmerTs,
romelsac igi eswrafvis sakuTari arsebobisa da sikeTisaT-
vis, ramdenadac rogorc erTqmna, ise sikeTe gulisxmobs ar-
sebobis mopovebasac da arsebobis SenarCunebasac; xrwna
sakuTari siavis Sedegia (petriwi: 84, 15-17; 102, 28-33; 103,
32-104, 1). arseba swo­red sakuTar TavSi saukeTesosaken ukuq-
ceviT (ukus­ferebiT) sruliqmneba da ukvdavebas eziareba
(103, 26-31),
sferuloba, wriuloba srulyofilebaa antikuri esTe-
tikisa da azrovnebisaTvis. wre maradiulobis simboloa
(wriulia cis Tanabari moZraoba, romelic erTia­nobiT, uwy­
vetobiTa da maradiulobiT xasiaTdeba). sferulobas ukav-
Sir­deba neoplatonizmSi erTidan gamodinebuli samyaros
ukuswrafva Tavisi mizezisaken (ukuisferebs – ambobs
petriwi). swored es maradiuli da erTbami gamodineba-uku-
dineba (emanacia-ukuqceva) aris samyaros erTianobis da,
amavdrodroulad misi arsebobis SenarCunebis piroba: uze-
naesi mizezisaganaa `yovelni gamoni da keTilTa keTebani da
kualad misdadve, raÁTa dauwyue­del iyos da usazRvro wya-
roÁ arsTa denisaÁca da kualad ukunqcevisaÁ~ (petriwi: 91,
12-14).
yovelives arsebobis mizezis, erTisa da sikeTis cnebebs
ukavSiredeba sinaTlis metafora, romlis Tanmxlebia iseTi
metaforebi, rogoricaa: mze, nabrwyini (sxivi), dis­ko da Sara-
vandi, dRe. arseboba moiazreba rogorc gamonaTebis – gamo-
brwyinebis Sedegi, da­badeba – rogorc ga(mo)Cena (gavixsenoT,
71
rogor aCens sibneleSi gamobrwyinebuli mna­To­bis Suqi sag-
nebs). amitomac warmoCena, gadReeba, warmodReeba petriwTan
qmna­do­bis aRmniSvnel terminTa rigisania (rogoricaa: war-
moaarsa, hbada, warmoayena, iwar­moa): mizezobas anu mbadobis,
warmoyenebis, warmoCenis Zals zesTa mizezi aniWebs Semdgo-
mebs (122, 26-123, 2). igive azri ufro xatovnad gamoTqvmuli
amgvarad JRers: `keTilo­baÁ Zes dazesTaebulad naTelsa
Soris erTebrsa da Tvisgamo awyaroebs maT erTebrivTa ke-
TilobiTTa mzeTa~ (petriwi: 96, 25-26). sinaTle rogorc war-
momaar­sebe­li wyaro, formas miemarTeba. petriwis TqmiT,
platonikosebi `sxeulebs Soris gvarebis brwyinvas `apor-
rÂad (gamodinebad) da esviTa naSaravandedad naTlad ity-
vian~ (petriwi: 100, 10); `pirvelisa mizezisagan iwarmoebsca
sworad yovelTa arsTa anaqusi da akeTildebisca Sesabamad
TvisTa ganaTlebaTaÁsa~ (petriwi: 56, 28-29).
uzenaesi sikeTis raobis gamosaTqmelad platonizmi
analogiis meTods mimarTavs: rac aris mze am samyarosaTvis,
is aris sikeTis idea goniTsawvdomi sferosaTvis da, zo­ga­
dad, yovelive arsebulisaTvis (uzenaesis mzesTan Sedare-
ba miRebulia patristi­ka­Sic). petriwis ganmartebiT, arsTa
uzenaesi mizezis saxed miiCneva mze – apolloni, romlis
moZraobebis wyalobiTaa yoveli qmnadobaSi myofi. aseve
im erTTa mzis wyalo­biT aris yoveli dabadebuli da zesTa
ZalTa yoveli qsovili. rogoradac es mze aris qmnadebs da-
zesTaebuli da ar Seereva maT da ar icvleba maTTan erTad,
aseve arc erTi mravldeba myofebTan erTad da ar Seekvris
bunebas, aramed yvelaferze zesTa rCeba (petriwi: 39, 14-23).
WeSmariti arseboba, romlis sawyisi namdvilmyofia (pir-
veli arsi, ramdenadac erTi zearsia), gonebis sferos, anu
ideebis samyaros Tvisebaa. mSvenierebazec, romelic Sedge-
nil arss miemarTeba, sakuTari mniSvnelobiT swored am sfe-
roSi vlaparakobT. sokrateze miTiTebiT, petriwi amgvarad
msjelobs: `nu gikvirso namdvilmyofisa narTTa SuenebaÁ,
rameTu erTman mohrToo da imusikela `os aristotexnis
Teos~, viTar: `rCeulT moqmedman RmerTman~. vinaÁ yoveli we-
si Seirwyu­mis viTar sayovelTaosa Soris wessa da yoveli Su-
enierebaÁ oden umsgavsebs mas: romelime – viTar gaxatebuli,
72
xolo romelime – viTar gakerpovnebuli da recTu kualTa
oden gardamtvifrveli namdvil-myofobisa SuenierebaTa-
Ása; rameTu pirveli arsi ars ese, morTuli mis zesT arsisa-
gan (petriwi: 87, 5-23).
unda aRiniSnos, rom termini `aristotexnis Teos~ arc
platonTan da arc prok­les komentarebSi ar gvxvdeba (basi-
li didTan, ioane oqropirTa, kirile aleqsarndrielTan da
sxv.). igi CvenTvis patristikuli teqstebidan aris cnobili.
amgvarad petriwi uzenaesi mizezis SemoqmediTobis aqcen-
tirebas axdens, rac SeiZleba qristianuli msoflmxedvelo-
bis gavlenadac miviCnioT.
mSvenierebis Sesabamisad, gonebis sferoSi ideebis war-
moSobas metaforulad musi­keloba da warmobutkoeba aRniS-
navs, xolo idea rogorc sakuTari arsebis srulyo­fi­lad
warmomCeni yvavilTan aris Sedarebuli: `amas yovelsa aRnam-
ksa Soris gonebaTa da gonierTasa moqmedebaÁ miudrek da
igiveoba da uZrav da uberebel ars; niadag ymdebis, niadag
yuavildebis, niadag aasfodelovdebis, sada arca Jami sZRvis
da arca kuali mid­re­kisaÁ~ (petriwi: 71, 1-4). isev sokrateze
miTiTebiT, petriwi ideebis samyaros gansac­vifrebel mSve-
nierebaze gvelaparakeba: `...masve `fedrosa~ Soris ityodis,
moed da TviT attikurad davleqso: `ti ton onton ariston i
ton noumenon kalliston?~ esTa xed­vaÁ amisi rec Tu kiTxvis
saxed SemoiRebs: `raÁo myofTa urCeules, gasagonTa unana­
resi?” esTa ecvibrebis, rec Tu gankrTomiT maT zesT nadaSTa
SuenierebaTa pirvelisa morTulisaTa, sada iwyo pirvel-
man yvavilman Sewyobisaman da pirvelman narTman samus­Taman
mis rCeulmexelovnisa mier warmodReebad guarTa gonier-
Ta, romelsa ukun saqcod aqus da satrfod Tvisda zesTaÁ
zesTaTaÁ erTi da pirveli keTilobaÁ~ (petriwi: 34, 10-19).
gonebis sferoSi Cndebian petriwis komentarSi antikuri
miTologiidan cnobili RmerTebi, romlebic neoplatoni-
kosTaTvis ama Tu im ideis simboloebia. magaliTad, kronosi
simboloa gonebisa, romelic Tavis TavSi moicavs ideebs
(kronosis cnobili miTis interpretacia, romelic ylapavs
Tavis Svilebs), zevsi ki simboloa msoflio sulisa, romel-
sac gonebis ideebi gareT, anu SegrZnebad realobaSi gad-
moaqvs (miTis mixdviT, zevsi ganudgeba mamas da aiZulebs
73
mas, gadaylapulebi ukan amoiRos). miTebis interpretaciebi
xSirad RmerTebis saxelTa etimologizaciebs eyrdnoba:
`kronos, romel ars sisavse gonebisaÁ anu simaZRre, rameTu
yoveli maZRari – savse; da dia, romel ars zevs; `dia~ miersa
erqumis, rameTu mis mier yoveli. xolo zevs – duRilsa da
gardmosaqansa cxorebisasa* da kualad, rea – dedasa mded-
rTa Zalisasa. ese samni goniersa aRkmulsa Soris gamoCndes,
dasasrulsa yovelTa gonebaTa da gonierTasa (petriwi: 70,
28-33).
sainteresoa, rom petriwi ara mxolod gadmoscems pla-
tonizmisaTvis damaxasi­a­Te­bel refleqsias etimologiebze
(aseve orano – zeaRsaxedi da sxv.), aramed Tava­dac mi­marTavs
filosofosobis am formas qarTuli masalis mixedviT: ber-
Znuli sityva ajnateiv­nontai (`aRiwevian~) mas Targmnili aqvs
rogorc `aRiciskreben~ da Semdeg naTqvamis azrs qarTuli
sityvis eti­mo­logiis mixedviT ganaviTarebs: `mas dResa So-
ris ityvis aR­ciskrebasa, sada ar­ca grZnoTa ese memze mze ars
madReebel, da arca suliTi caÁ da mze da arca go­ne­bi­Ti, vi-
Tar namdvil namki da namdvil myofi, aramed erTi da pirveli
keTi­lobaÁ – mze mis erTTa da RmerTTa dRisa, sada hnatra
yovelman wadilman, sada Seir­wyua yoveli survili, sada aR-
marTda yoveli mun mxedi! mun vidreme, yovelTa ciskarTa
aRciskrebaÁ, mun vidreme, yovelTa dReTa adReebaÁ! ram-
eTu samarTlivca uwoda eniT­man, viTarmed ciskariao, cisa
kari. rameTu vinaÁTgan yoveli ganxumaÁ naTel­TaÁ cis gamo
ars; vinaÁ, sada naTeli dasabamobiTi, mun caÁ dasabamobiTi~
(petriwi: 63, 18-21).
garda imisa, rom neoplatonur simbolizms gagvacnobs,
antikuri RmerTebis saxe­e ­b i petriwTan metaforebadac
gamoiyeneba (analogiuri viTareba gvaqvs ioane italosTa­
nac). magaliTad, `Teo­logiis elementebis~ erT-erTi `Znelad
sawvdomi~ (rogorc petri­wi Tavadve aRniSnavs) Tavis gan-
martebisas, mas naTqvami aqvs: `Cven ki pirveli aTenas Ta­
nadgomiT aRvZraT CvenSorisi hermesi, raTa mo­vides Cven-
Tan qristesagan promiTia~ (pet­ri­wi: 51, 9-11). Tuki warmar­Ti
filosofosebis SemTxvevaSi RmerTebi adamianis unarebis sim-

* kovro~ berZnulad simaZRrea, zei`n duRili, diva – mier.


74
boloebadac gvevlinebian, aTena petriwTan gadataniTi mniS-
vnelobiT gonierebas aRniS­navs (pirveli aTena proklesTan
ideis siwmin­dis damcve­lia), hermesi – Sinagan logoss (Sdr.
italosi 68: 185), romelzec aris damokidebuli hermenev­
tikuli unari, xolo promiTia gamWriaxobad gaigeba. saer-
Tod, Tavis naSromis xasiaTidan gamomdinare, petriwi xSirad
axsenebs her­mess, rogorc unars zena samyaros ganWvretisa,
rac amavdroulad am samyaros Sesaxeb prokles teq­stis ga-
gebasac, anu hermenevtikul unars gulisxmobs (petriwi: 94,
8-11; 183, 22-24 da sxv.).
mesame (erTisa da gonis Semdeg) RvTaebrivi sawyisi, suli,
damakavSirebelia miR­muri kosmosisa am kosmosTan. Tavisi
ar­sebiT is maradiul samyaros ekuTvnis, misi moq­medebebi ki
am samyaroSi xorcieldeba. suls maradiuli ideebi, formebi
gonebis sfe­ro­dan materiaSi gadmoaqvs da swored am pro-
cesSi iqmneba es samyaro da dro: `...ganaSue­nebs da Seamkobs,
sadaca miTesul iyos Zali sityvisa da amkobs xelovnebaTa
mier umko­be­lobasa nivTisasa da viTar keTili RmerTi, saxo-
van hyofs zedmiwevnulebaTa mier na­zavsa da naTxzsa amaT
oTxTa asoTasa. romlisTvis Tqua vinme brZenTaman, rameTu
STa­moavlinao mbadman yovlisaman sityuaÁ arsebiTi, romel
ars suli, raÁTa hkazmoso da aRamkos piri queyanisa~ (pet-
riwi: 93, 25-32); `.. sadaca miefinos mwuervali sulisa nakad-
TaÁ, munca cxovel da mimdre­kel hyofs mas. xolo TviTmim-
drek amisTvis, romel ar visgan miiRebs cxorebasa da aqus
mas ar zedSemosrulad, aramed bunebaÁ missa ars igi: viTar
buneba naTlisa – sinaT­le, esTave buneba sulisa – cxovlo-
baÁ~ (petriwi: 17-22).
sulis gonebisaken miqcevis gamosaxatad petriwi frTe-
bis platonur metaforasac iyenebs, romelsac aseve yvela
neoplatonikosTan vxvdebiT: gonieri sulis xedva frTa­
Sesxmulia, xolo gonebas rom moswydeba da qmnadobaSi Camo-
va, igi aris rogorc frTeb­dacvenili.
gonisagan sulis gamoyofa neoplatonikosTa Sesabamisad
petriws warmodgenili aqvs, rogorc zevsis gandgoma mamisa-
gan, kronosisagan (petriwi: 70, 21-27). magram gan­sa­kuTrebiT
sainteresoa platonuri koncefciis ganmartebisas bibli-
uri saxeebis gamo­ye­ne­ba. magaliTad, suli ixsenieba adamad,
75
erT Sem­Txve­vaSi, rodesac saubaria mis gamosvlaze gonebis
sferodan, rac gasaxovnebulia adamis RmerTisagan daSore-
bad (pet­riwi: 205, 12-206, 15), meore SemTxvevaSi ki sulis mier
gonebis sferos ideebis gaxseneba (anamne­sisi) daxasiaTe-
bulia rogorc adamis samoTxeSi ukuqceva (petri­wi, 17: 52,
16-23). unda iTqvas, rom adami msgavs konteqstSi jer kidev
filonTan gvxvde­ba (kerZod, masTan adami adamianis gonebas
Seesabameba, eva ki – grZnobas), Sem­deg – origenesTan, aseve
mamebTanac, magram, maTgan gansxvavebiT, petriwi wmida we­
rils ki ar ganmartavs, ara­med bibliur sa­xes, garkveul­wi­
lad ukve inter­pretirebuls, iyenebs neoplatonuri ide­ebis
TvalsaCino­ebisaTvis (dava­zus­tebT, rom msgavsebaze saub-
risas mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs meTodisa da konkretuli saxis
gamoyeneba, da ara interpretaciaTa sruli igiveoba).
individualuri sulis sxeulSi yofnac petriws adamis
bibliuri saxiT aqvs gad­mocemuli: `esTa ityvis, vi­Tarmed,
ugonebo raÁ iqmna suli adam, dairTna da moib­lar­­­dnna
sxeulni ese da rec Tu Tan Seeyvnes oqimasa sulisasa da
gancxoveldes mis­ mier da iqmnnes, viTar TviTcxovelni
sablardnni ese tyavebrni qitonisknni. aha, aqa sityuaÁ mo­
sesi, rameTu `Seimosao tyavebri samosi~ (dab. 3,91). xolo
odes-raÁ iwyos ganwmendad, ese igi ars, TanSexebad gonebisa
da RmrTisada, kualad ganhyris Tvisgan nivTeebrivTa maT
qeto­nis­kTa, romelni STamosna mas ugunurebaman, da aRvals
mamisadmi Tvisisa~ (petriwi: 205, 12-19).
amrigad, sulis gamosvla maradisobidan warmoadgens moZ-
raobas, romelic qmnis am samyaros, magram, raki materiasTan
ziareba sulisTvis daqveiTebaa, igi kvlav gonebasTan mib­
runebas eswrafvis. sulis ukuqceva maradiuli nimuSisaken
aris swored samyaros moZra­o­bis sazrisi. amasTan, mizezidan
gamosvla-emanacia da ukuqceva erTbamad xdeba. ukuqceva
warmodgenilia rogorc qvenas zenasTan dabruneba erosis,
trfobis ZaliT. `mizezi ukuqcevisaÁ TvisTa dasabamTadve
ars trfialebaÁ, rameTu trfialebisa mier ukuetrfis ku-
alad arsi zesTarsTa Suenierebisa morTulebaTa~ (petriwi:
82, 36-83, 2).
erosi platonisaTvis aris sulis swrafva sikeTis mosa-
poveblad, rac, upirveles yovlisa, maradiuli arsebobis,
ukvdavebis gulisTqmas gulisxmobs. ukvdavebas mokvdavi
76
moipovebs Sobis gziT – tovebs STamomavlobas, an sulieri
fexmZimobis, Semoqmedebis na­yofs. rogorc erTi, ise meo-
re Sobisaken aRmZvreli mSvenierebaa, yvelaze TvalsaCino
gonieri samyaros ideaTagan, romelic suls maradisobi-
saken miizidavs. aristoteles, SeiZleba iTqvas, platonis
koncefcia kosmiur ganzomilebaSi gadaaqvs, rodesac sam-
yaros pir­velmamoZravebels, romelic Tavad uZravia, magram
romelsac yovelive eswrafvis, siy­varulis sagans adarebs
(metafizika: 12, 7, 1072 a 25). Tumca termini erosi msgavs kon­
teq­stSi aristotelesTan mxolod erTxel gvxdeba, siyvaru-
lis metaforas igi swrafvis aRmniSvneli terminebiT gad-
moscems (o[rexi~, e[fesi~). neoplatonizmSi yovelives trfoba
uzenaesi mizezisadmi aris piroba sakuTari erTianobis, anu
arsebobis, sakuTari raobis, sakuTari idea-formis Senar­
Cuneba-srulyo­fisa: `ukuqcevasa da ukutrfobaSi daicaven
TavianT wesebso~ – ganmartavs petriwi (petriwi: 89, 33).
unda aRiniSnos, rom `Teolo­giis elementebSi~ saerTod
ar gvxvdeba termini ero­si, magram prokles filosofiisaTvis
am cnebis mniSvnelobis gaTva­lis­winebiT, petri­wi did yu-
radRebas uTmobs erosis neopla­to­nur koncefcias. swraf-
visa da wadilis aRmniS­vneli teminebis (ojrevgesqai, ejfivesqai)
Sinaarsi masTan ne­oplatonuri erotikuli termi­nologi-
is Sesabamisad aris perifrazirebu­li. prokles debuleba,
rom yoveli arsi es­wrafvis sikeTes (anu samya­ros uzenaes
princips) petriws platonis erosis neopla­to­nuri gaaz-
rebis safuZvelze aqvs gaSlili: `...yovelni arsni, ranica
sTqune, iwadeben mas da igul­meTqueben. xolo yoveli sawadoÁ
da sagulisTqumoÁ sxua ars mwadisagan, rame­Tu emdevrebis
yoveli mwadi sawadsa da metrfe – satrfosa Tvissa, viTar-
ca, imrsa da mezesTaesa Tvissa... xolo sdevs mas ara Tu vi-
Tar savltosa, aramed raÁTa Tan miiRos da eziaros da ike-
Tos sikeTisagan misisa, rameTu yoveli metrfe sdevs Tvissa
satrfosa, raÁTa ikeTilos da gakeTdes misgan~ (petriwi: 33, 7-27).
petriwi, erTi mxriv, yuradRebas amaxvilebs arsebobis
wadilis gamo saku­Tari mizezi­sadmi arsis trfobaze, radgan,
Tu ar etrfis Tavisi arsebobis mizezs, ar ndomebia arseboba
(petriwi: 81, 32-33), Tu hgia Tavis mizezSi da iwarmoeba, ki-
devac ukueqceva Tavis warmomayenebels, radgan aravinaa,
77
rom Tavisi myofobis mizezs uku ar etrfos (petriwi: 88,
20-23); rogoradac moiqsova mbadisa mier, amagvaradve uku-
etrfis Tavis mqsovels (petriwi: 94, 2). magram, meore mxriv
satrfosadmi swrafvisas met­rfe petriwis mier xasiaTdeba
`rec Tu ganyenebuli da damgde Tvisisa arsebisa da yovli­
TurT mis­dad qmnili, da rec Tu uarmqne Tvisisa aobisaÁ~
(petriwi: 33, 7-27). saqme is aris, rom mizezisadmi trfobisas
arsi sakuTari Tavis uaryofiT isev da isev Tavis Tavs es­
wrafvis, oRond ukeTess, idealurs; sabolood ki mas uzenaes
sikeTesTan erToba swadia: platonur teqstebze miTiTebiT,
petriwi ganmartavs, rom, rodesac etrfis arsi zes­Tarss,
Tavdapirvelad Semoivlis yovelive imas, rac sakuTar Tav-
Sive aqvs, anu arse­bul­Ta ideebs, raTa ipovos TvisSorisi
arsebuli da mizezi erTi, anu suli jer daem­Txveva yvela ar-
sTa simravles, Semdeg ganagdebs maT da TviT Tavis arsebasac
gaixdis; moexveva jer TvisSoris RmerTsa da erTs, da Semdeg,
misi saSualebiT – erTTa gamouT­qmel mzes da rogorc enTu-
siaqmnili Sestrfis mas (petriwi: 49, 19-35).
rogorc vxedavT, erTis mimarT swrafva-trfoba aq
eqstazis saxiT aris warmod­ge­nili. ramdenadac RvTaebisaken
swrafvaze saubrisas platoni da platonikosebi xSirad mi-
marTaven misterialur saxeebsa da cnebebs (gansakuTrebiT,
prokle, romelic Tavad iyo Teurgi) petriwi gamoxatvis am
formebis Sesaxebac uqmnis warmodgenas msmenels aqac da sxva
SemTxvevebSic. amasTan, sainteresoa, rom Tuki apolonuro-
ba SemoqmedebasTan aris dakavSirebuli (apolonad, rogorc
aRiniSna, iwodeba mze rogorc bunebisSorisTa mexe­lovne,
Semoqmedi, ramdenadac yovelive iqmneba misi moZraobis dros,
riTac is gamo­saxavs uzenaes erTs), dionisurobas ukavSir-
deba RvTaebasTan erTianobisaken eqstazuri swrafva.
petriwis ganmartebiT, arsTa yoveli buneba hbaZavs Tavis
goniT nimuSs, da Tumca ver eufleba mas, swadia igi gancvif-
rebuls da TiTqosda misnobs mas, Semoi­Zarcvavs da gadaag-
debs Tavis TviTebebs, da mTlianad zemaradiuli sikeTisad-
mia mimar­Tu­li (petriwi: 84, 23-28). sikeTes etrfis yoveli
da sakuTari survilebisa da TviT ar­so­bis uaryo­fi­Tac ki ukue-
dineba mas, rogorc rom gadionisebuli da gaerTebuli er-
Tis mier da gake­Ti­lebuli sikeTis mier (petriwi: 44, 2-6); es
78
xiluli kosmosic, Tavis TavSi arse­buli erTisa da sikeTis
mier aRZruli, rogorc neqtarTagan gadionisebuli sdevs
mudmivi moZraobiT im erTsa da sikeTes (petriwi: 45, 17-21).
Tumca uzenaesi miuwvdomelia: mi­uxedavad imisa, rom, ro-
gorc platoni ambobs, gonieri nimuSis mixedviT qmnili cis
sxe­uli msoflio sulma daaTro da `aRaymo samaradisod dev-
nad mis uocnoÁsa da yovelTa SesakudoÁsa erTTa mzisad~
(petriwi: 47, 33-48, 3), cis mogzauroba da dena usazRvroa,
vinaidan usazRvroa misi satrfo (petriwi: 45, 23-24).
ioane petriwis komentaruli stilisaTvis damaxasiaTe-
bel saazrovno da enobriv TaviseburebaTa TvalsaCinoebi-
saTvis gadmovcemT SedarebiT vrcel pasaJs misi `ganmar­
te­bidan~, romelic uzenaesi trfobis sagnis, anu sam­ya­ros
uzena­esi mizezis Seucnoblobas Seexeba. sokrates damowme-
biT, petriwi ganmartavs, rom platonikosTa erTi itrfobs
da miscems Tavis TviTebebs Tavis yvela metrfe-mewadT,
miz­nad dau­saxavs erT­gvarad Tavis Sepyrobas da ziarebas,
daaTrobs arsebulebs neqta­riT, ga­namtkicebs maT akmeebs
ambro­siiT (Sdr. `fedrosi~, 247 c-e). igi arc sruliad uziare­
belia, raTa mewa­dem usasoobis gamo uari ar Tqvas Tavisi sa-
wadoze, magram arc Sesa­mecneb­lis – yovel­Tagan gamouT­qme-
li Tavisi zesTaarsebisa da zesTaobis Secnobas uSvebs, raTa
misawvdomi ar gaxados Tavisi uTviTo TviTeba, radgan sulisa
da gonis Tvisebaa, ro­desac Seicno­ben TavianT sawadTa devnis
sagans da Seipyroben mas gonebiT, TiTqosda ga­dalaxaven mas
da sxvis Secnobas Seecdebian (Sdr. `nadimi~, 210 b). amitomac
es zesTa sike­TeA aZlevs Tavis TviTebas da ganuaxlebs met-
rfes sawados wyurvils, magram gonebis mipyrobisas misTvis
kvlav Seucnobeli xdeba, rogorc ambobda erTi RvTismety­
veli: `meevesTe me o Teos anankasi tekean de apekolKsen~ (Sdr.
platonis `Teeteti~, 150c da prokles `pla­tonuri Teolo-
gia~: I, 23 ,105). es niSnavs `RmerTi maiZulebs meanobas, magram
Sobas ab­rkolebso~, anu yoveli meani imas, rac unda iSvas, So-
bisaTvis uxmobs da exmareba, mag­ram dasZens – Sobas momacile-
so. saqme is aris, rom yoveli Soba niSnavs naSvis warmoye­ne­bas,
rogorc goneba Sobs gonebaSi arsebuls da suli ki – sul­Si
arsebuls. magram im erTis – mzis xedva aseTi ar aris, radgan
surs Soba gonebad­qceuls da warmoyeneba ga­ar­sebuls, magram
ver axerxebs (Sdr. `platonuri Teologia~: I, 22, 103-104). sak-
79
virveli isaa, rom arc aZlevs saSualebas metrfes dacxres
Sobis iZulebaTagan, radgan mas mea­nobas uwevs dauokebeli
wadili. `da kualad, verca Sobs rasave gasagonTasa, da esreT,
zedadarTviT gamxedveldebis~ (Sdr. `eneadebi~, III, 5, 3) `da
swyuris wyurilsa zeda da elmis gemosa zeda~ (Sdr. `eneade-
bi~, V, 5, 12), `da suris survilsa zeda~ (petriwi: 34, 19-35, 14).
warmodgenili teqsti, ra Tqma unda, uzenaesi mizezis, er-
Tis, sikeTis absolu­turi transcendentobis ideas Seexeba,
romelic Seucnobelia Tavis TavSi da gamouT­qmeli, rasac
neoplatonikosebi gamudmebiT imeoreben. petriwi xatovnad
wrmogvidgens, Tu rogor eswrafvis suli goniTsawvdomi ga-
xados da Sesabamisad, Svas erTisa da si­keTis idea, magram am
mizans ver aRwevs. Tumca, SeiZleba am teqstma grigol nose-
lis epektasisis Teoriac gagvax­senos, rac adamianis mier
RvTis SemecnebaSi maradiul da usasrulo winsvlas gulis­
xmobs. amasTan, is, rom petriwi Tavis komentarebSi umTav-
res aqcents mainc uzenaesis miuwvdomlobaze akeTebs (Tumca
aRniSnavs neoplato­nizmSi sulis erTTan Sexebis SesaZle-
blobas erosuli eqstaziTac), SeiZleba qristianobis gavle-
niTac aixsnas.
amrigad, rogorc vxedavT, ioane petriws, romelic zed-
miwevniT kargad aris gar­kveuli antikur filosofiasa, da,
kerZod, prokles filosofiur sistemaSi, SeTvi­se­buli aqvs
ara mxo­lod msoflmxedvelobrivi sakiTxebi platonikosTa
moZRvrebisa, ara­med maTi kvlevis, saubrisa da swavlebis
meTodebsac aris dauflebuli. unda aRiniSnos, rom mis naS-
romSi sainteresod aris Serwy­muli elinuri filosofi-
uri komentarebisa da qristian egzegetTa hermenev­tikuli
gamocdileba.
dabolos, unda aRiniSnos, rom ioane petriwis azrovnebi-
sa da enis, prokles komentarebSi warmodgenili filosofi-
uri tropologiis gavlena misi da Semdgomi epoqis qarTul
saero literaturazec aisaxa.

damowmebani:

aleqsiZe 2008: aleqsiZe l. ioane petriwi da antikuri filosofia. 2008.


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Proklos. Übersetzung aus dem Altgeorgischen, Anmerkungen, Indices und Einleitung, Heraus-
gegeben von L. Alexidze und L. Bergemann. “B.R. Grüner”: Amsterdam/Philadelphia, 2009.

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gigineiSvili 2007: Gigineishvili, L. The Platonic Theology of Ioane Petritsi, In
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gigineiSvili 2014: Gigineishvili, L. Ioane Petritsi’s Preface to his Annotated Transla-
tion of the Book of Psalms, in T.Nutsubidze,C.B. Horn,B. Lourié with the Collaboration of
Alexey Ostrovsky (Eds), Georgian Christian Thought and Its Cultural Context: Memorial
Volume for the 125th Anniversary of Shalva Nutsubidze (1888-1969), Brill, 2014, 194-235.
TevzaZe 1996: TevzaZe g. Sua saukuneebis filosofiis istoria. Tbili-
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ioane damaskeli 1976: ioane damaskeli. dialeqtika. teqstis gamocema,
gamokvleva da leqsikoni m. rafavasi. Tbilisi: `mecniereba~, 1976.
iremaZe 2005: Iremadze, T. Konzeptionen des Denkens im Neuplatonismus. Zur
Rezeption der Prok­lischen Philosophie in deutschen und georgischen Mittenalter: Dietrich
von Freiberg, Berthold von Moosburg, Ioane Petrizi (Bochumer Studien zur Philosophie,
B. 40), Amsterdam/Philadelphia 2005.
kekekliZe 1980: kekeliZe k. Zveli qarTuli literaturis istoria. I.
Tbilisi: 1980.
mari 1909: Марр Н. Иоанн Петрицский, грузинский неоплатоник XI-II вв. (Зап.
Вост. Отд. Имп. Русск. Археол. Общества, т. XIX, 1909). 1909.
meliqiSvili 1975: ioane petriwis filosofiur SromaTa ena da stili.
Tbilisi: 1975.
meliqiSvili 1999: meliqiSvili g. ioane petriwis `ganmarteba prokle
diadoxosis `RmrTismetyvelebis safuZ­vle­bisa~. Targmani Tanamedrove
qarTul enaze da gamokvleva d. meliqiSvilisa. Tbilisi: 1999.
mWedliZe 2000: mWedliZe m. siyvarulis neoplatonuri Teoria da misi
gaazreba ioane petriwTan. Mnhvmh. aleqsandre aleqsiZis xsovnisadmi miZRv-
nili krebuli. Tbilisi: 2000. Neo-Platonic Theory of Love and Its Understanding by
Ioane Petritsi, Mnhvmh` Collected papers commemorating A. Alexidze, Tbilisi, 2000, 176-198.
nikoloz meToneli 1984: Nicholas of Methone, Refutation of Proclus’ Elements
of Theology, A critical edition with an Introduction on Nicholas’ Life and Works by A. D.
Angelou, Athènes/Leiden 1984.
petriwi 1937: ioane petriwi. Sromebi. gamosces S. nucubiZem da s. yaux-
CiSvilma, Tbilisi: 1937.
prokle 1968-1997: Proclus. Théologie platonicienne, Introduction, texte critique,
traduction et notes par H. D. Saffrey, L. G. Westerink, Vol. 1–6, Paris: 1968–1997.
fancxava 1984: Петрици И. Рассмотрение платоновской философии и Прокла
Диадоха. Вступительная статья и примечания Г.В. Тевзадзе, перевод с древнегрузинского
языка И. Д. Панцхавы. М.: Мысль, 1984.
WeliZe 1994-1995: WeliZe e. ioane petriwis cxovreba da moRvaweoba.
religia, № 3-4-5 (1994), 113–126; (1995), 76–89.

81
maka elbaqiZe

sekularizaciis procesi evropul mwerlobaSi da


qarTuli saero literaturis aRmoceneba

XI-XII saukuneebis mijnaze, miuxedavad musulmanuri eq-


spansiis winaaRmdeg xangrZlivi brZolebisa, mwvave klasob-
rivi dapirispirebebisa, romlebic araerTxel samoqalaqo
omebSi gadazrdila, qarTvelebma SeZles politikuri fizi-
onomiis SenarCuneba da aaSenes Zlieri saxelmwifo, romlis
sazRvrebic gadaiWima `nikofsidan darubandamde da ovseTi-
dan vidre aregawamde~. mefe bagrat mesamis (X s-is 60-iani ww.
dasawyisi – 1014) mier dawyebuli saqarTvelos gaerTianebis
procesi daagvirgvina daviT aRmaSenebelma (1073-1125), rom-
lis reformebmac politikis, ekonomikis, socialur urTi-
erTobaTa, religiisa Tu kulturis sferoSi dasabami misca
qarTuli saxelmwifos Semdgom ganviTarebasa da winsvlas.
qveynis politikurma siZlierem da ekonomikurma aRmav-
lobam ganapiroba seriozuli warmatebebi ganaTlebisa
da kulturis sferoSic. ganviTarebuli feodalizmis xanaSi
qveynis inteleqtualuri potencialis koncenterireba xde-
boda eklesia-monastrebSi, romlebic imxanad bizantiur sa-
ganmanaTleblo sistemas eyrdnoboda. aq iswavleboda Teo-
logia, himnografia, liturgika, istoria da literatura.
monastrebidanve vrceldeboda erSi wignieri kultura, ro-
melic, bunebrivia, sasuliero xasiaTisa iyo. rudunebiT
gadaweril xelnawerebs monastrebSi moRvawe berebi unika-
luri ornamentebiTa da miniaturebiT amkobdnen, ydebSi
svamdnen. am periodSi qarTveli mkiTxvelis literaturuli
moTxovnileba da sulier-inteleqtualuri done mowinave
kulturul faseulobaTa aTvisebisken iyo mimarTuli. XII
s-is II naxevrisTvis qarTuli sasuliero da saganmanaTleb-
lo-kulturuli centrebis arnaxul ayvavebasTan erTad
(iverTa monasteri aTonze, Savi mTa siriaSi, petriwonis mo-
nasteri bulgareTSi) qarTul literaturaSi dasrulda e.w.
TviTdamkvidrebis procesi (bizantiuri literaturis miR-
wevaTa aTviseba da am gziT did berZnul kulturasTan gato-
82
leba) – aTonis mTis qarTvelma moRvaweebma, kerZod, efTvime
da giorgi aTonelebma, qarTul enaze daasrules qristia-
nuli literaturis ZiriTadi nawilis gadmoReba. rogorc
eE. xinTibiZe SeniSnavs, aTonelma qarTvelebma itvirTes misia
qarTuli erovnuli kulturis msoflio asparezze gatanisa.
bBizantia da bizantiuri literatura maTTvis iyo mxolod gza
am diadi miznisken. Aamitomacaa, rom isini, erTi mxriv, cdi-
loben gaemijnon bizantiurs da icaven saqarTvelos eklesi-
is bizantiurisgan damoukideblobas, meore mxriv, icqirebi-
an evropuli sazogadoebriv-literaturuli azrovnebisken~
(xinTibiZe 2013: 210). Semdgomi epoqis qarTvelma moRvaweebma
gacilebiT ufro maRali miznebi daisaxes: berZnulTan zed-
miwevniT daaxloebuli literaturuli produqciis Seqmna da
rTuli saRvTismetyvelo-filolosofiuri literaturis
Targmna. am misiis Sesruleba Tavs idves daviT aRmaSeneblis
mier daarsebul gelaTis akademiaSi moRvawe didma qarTvel-
ma filosofosebma – arsen iyalToelma da ioane petriwma,
romelTac qarTuli filosofiuri azrovnebis ganviTareba
warmarTes konstantinepolis (manganis) akademiaSi SeTvise-
buli progresul-qristianuli msoflmxedvelobis safuZ-
velze. SemTxveviTi ar aris, rom gelaTs, qarTuli filoso-
fiuri azris umZlavres keras, daviT aRmaSeneblis mematiane
`meored ierusalimad~ da `sxuad aTinad~ saxeldebs. gelaTis
akademiis paralelurad aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi Camoya-
libda umaRlesi ganaTlebis kidev erTi mZlavri centri,
iyalTos akademia, romlis damaarsebladac arsen iyalTo-
elia miCneuli.
gansakuTrebiT didi warmatebebi iqna mopovebuli sity-
vier xelovnebaSi – mwignobrobasa da poeziaSi. am epoqaSi
mdidari xalxuri zepirsityvierebisa da sasuliero mwerlo-
bis tradiciebze aRmocenda da ganviTarda saero mwerloba,
rac literaturul-esTetikurTan erTad istoriul-poli-
tikuri winamZRvrebiTac iyo ganpirobebuli. XII saukuneSi
kidev ufro gaZlierda saqarTvelos urTierToba mezobel
qveynebTan. mWidro kulturuli urTierToba damyarda ara
marto konfesiurad axlo mdgom qristianul saxelmwifo-
ebTan, aramed musulmanur samyarosTanac. unda iTqvas, rom
saqarTvelos politikuri da sarwmunoebriv-ideologiuri
83
wm. efTvime, wm. ioane-Tornike, wm. gabrieli da
wm. giorgi aTonelebi
88
89
dapirispireba sxvadasxva mahmadianur qveyanasTan, konkre-
tulad ki sparseTTan, kulturul antagonizmSi arasodes
gadazrdila. arsad firdoussa da mis mimdevrebs iseT did
Tayvans ar scemdnen, rogorc saqarTveloSi; gviandel
SuasaukuneebSi da mis Semdgomac karga xnis ganmavlobaSi,
qarTvelebi sparselebs mxatvruli sityvis ostatebad miiC-
nevdnen. mas, vinc sargeblobda sparsuli terminebiT, alu-
ziebiTa Tu sparseli poetebis leqsebidan nasesxebi mxat-
vruli saxeebiT, warmateba garantirebuli hqonda. Tumca
am damokidebulebas, gansxvavebiT Turqebis, avRanelebisa
da indoelebisagan, isini arasodes miuyvania monur mibaZ-
vamde. memkvidreebs im uZvelesi civilizaciisa, romelmac
Seisisxlxorca marTlmadidebluri qristianobis kultura,
bevri ram gaaCndaT sakuTari TviTmyofadobis SesanarCune-
blad (stivensoni 1977: XIV). amavdroulad, ivane javaxiSvi-
lis marTebuli dakvirvebiT, saqarTvelos axlo urTier-
Tobam arabul-sparsul kulturul mimdinareobebTan da maT
literaturaSi ganswavlulobam saqarTvelo aqcia erTgvar
Suamavlad mahmadianur aRmosavleTsa da qristianul dasav-
leTs, am or sarwmunoebrivad gansxvavebul samyaros Soris
(javaxiSvili 1983: 306). SeiZleba iTqvas, rom XII-XIII saukuneebSi
qarTuli literaturuli kanoni dasavlur da aRmosavlur
civilizaciaTa kulturuli urTierTqmedebis fonze ganag-
rZobda ganviTArebas.* safiqrebelia, swored am faqtoriT
iyo ganapirobebuli tradiciuli mimarTulebebis gverdiT
(agiografia, himnografia, istoriografia), axali Janrebis
(saxotbo poezia, eposi, Suasaukuneebis romani) aRmoce-
neba da ganviTareba.
saero literaturis warmoSoba CvenSi, iseve rogorc ev-
ropaSi, pirvel yovlisa, ganapiroba imdroindeli sazoga-
doebrivi azrovnebis sekularizaciam. filosofia ukve

* igive mosazreba aqvs am sakiTxis Sesaxeb nomadi barTaias, Tumca gansa-


kuTrebul aqcents igi aRmosavlur literaturaze akeTebs: `qarTuli saero
mwerlobis aRmoceneba-ganviTarebas xeli Seuwyo rogorc Sida, ise gare faq-
torebma da, aqedan gamomdinare, igi, dasavlurTan erTad, ganviTarda aR-
mosavlur samyarosTan kulturul urTierTobaSi, xolo am ukanasknelTan,
kerZod, sparsul-musulmanur literaturasa da kulturasTan kavSirma,
vfiqrobT, mniSvnelovani wvlili Seitana misi aRmoceneba-ganviTarebis pro-
cesSi~ (barTaia 2014: 185).
84
aRar miiCneoda `religiis xelze mosamsaxured~*, piriqiT,
axali, progresuli azrovneba amtkicebda, rom filosofias
SeeZlo didi samsaxuri gaewia sarwmunoebisTvis; xelewife-
boda logikuri gziT naTeleyo is, rac religiaSi mxolod
rwmenaze iyo damyarebuli. gonebis, inteleqtis Setanam rwme-
naSi, garemomcveli realobis adamianuri logikis prizmidan
Wvretam, siaxlisaken swrafvam adamiani sabolood `axali sam-
yaros~ aRmoCenamde miiyvana. `siaxleSi~ moiazreboda ara mar-
to amqveyniuri, miwieri cxovrebis axleburi aRqma, aramed
misiT tkboba da aRtaceba. adamians, romelmac irwmuna saku-
Tari SesaZleblobebi da garemomcvel samyaros axleburad
Sexeda, saSualeba mieca ufro CaRrmaveboda Tavis pirovnul
`mes~ da masSi saocari siRrmeebi aRmoeCina. sulieri cxovre-
bis interiorizaciasTan erTad wamyvani roli mieniWa gone-
briv ganviTarebas da sqolastikis sakiTxebi TviTSemecnebis
dilemad iqca (le gofi 2005: 423). mogvianebiT Toma akvineli
ityvis, rom pirovneba xasiaTdeba ara marto ganuyoflo-
biT, aramed imiTac, rom igi flobs garkveuli saxis Rirse-
bas, kerZod, gonierebas, romelzec aris damyarebuli misi,
rogorc pirovnebis, Tavisufleba (gureviCi 1984: 316).
es tendenciebi, romlebic Suasaukuneebis evropaSi gan-
viTarebuli sqolastikisa da arabuli aristotelizmis gav-
leniT damkvidrda, Caisaxa bizantiaSi, manganis akademiaSi.
swored aqedan Semoitana isini XI-XII saukuneebis qarTul
saazrovno sivrceSi didma qarTvelma moazrovnem ioane
petriwma. petriwis sqolastikuri azrovneba eyrdnoboda
yvela im wyaros, romlebsac gviandeli Suasaukuneebis evro-
pis progresuli inteleqtualuri Zalebi – qristianul li-
teraturas (biblias da sasuliero mwerlobas), antikur-ber-
Znul (rogorc platonis, ise aristoteles) filosofiasa da
areopagitul neoplatonizms. `ioane petriwi srulmqmneli
da damamaTavrebeli iyo qarTuli kulturis im istoriuli
gzisa, romelic qristianobidan modioda~ (gogiberiZe 1961:
203). `man erTi da erT-naxevari saukuniT daaswro dasavleTs,
epoqis azrovneba im mimarTulebiT waeyvana, ra mimarTulebi-
Tac Semdeg dasavleTSi ganviTarda. man nebsiT Tu uneblieT

* (ancilla theologiae). ix. wmida petre damiane, Toma akvineli.


85
niadagi moamzada qarTuli kulturis im aRorZinebisaTvis,
romelic asi wlis Semdeg rusTavelma ganaxorciela (gogi-
beriZe 1961: 215).
cvlilebebma azrovnebis sferoSi ganapiroba sruliad
axleburi tipis literaturuli gemovnebis Camoyalibeba.
rogorc i. ratiani aRniSnavs: `am kardinaluri cvlilebis
erT-erT angariSgasawev mizezad (an iqneb Sedegad? – i.r.) ev-
ropuli literaturis sekularizaciis procesi unda miviC-
nioT: gviani Suasaukuneebis epoqa sekularizaciis epoqaa
da miuxedavad imisa, rom rigi sekularuli teqstebi jer
kidev eqceva alegoriuli interpretaciis arealSi (magali-
Tad, vergiliusisa), ZiriTadi literaturuli tendencia
cxadyofs, rom laTinuri ena adgils uTmobs adgilobriv
enebs, xolo literatura inacvlebs saero sibrtyeze da ax-
al Temebsa da miznebs eWideba~ (ratiani 2015: 68). adreuli
Suasaukuneebis xelovnebaSi, da maT Soris literaturaSic,
ar aris mkafiod gamokveTili individuumi Tavisi rTuli Si-
nagani samyaroTi, Tundac xasiaTis winaaRmdegobrivi Tvise-
bebiT. mM werali mkiTxvelis winaSe warmoaCens adamianis zogad
saxes, iseve rogorc istoriul TxzulebebSi konkretuli
pirovnebebis nacvlad figurireben personificirebuli mo-
raluri faseulobani. `pirovnebaSi pozitiurad iyo Sefase-
buli mxolod tipuri da ganmeorebadi, wina planze wamowe-
uli iyo ara nawili, aramed mTeli, ara individualuri, aramed
universaluri~ (gureviCi 1984: 281).M magram sazogadoebis gan-
viTarebis garkveul etapze am sakiTxisadmi damokidebuleba
Seicvala – Tu adreuli Suasaukuneebi gansakuTrebul yura-
dRebas uTmobda mxolod adamianis suls, XII-XIII saukuneebis
filosofiuri azri ganixilavda adamianis sulisa da xorcis
ganuyofel erTianobas, rac umTavresi piroba iyo pirovne-
bis, individuumis formirebisa. `axalma epoqam~ moitana sam-
yaros axleburi gageba, SeimuSava faseulobaTa axali sistema.
kacobriobis mzera SeCerda xilul, SegrZnebebiT aRsaqmel
samyaroze, nacvlad simboloTa saSualebiT gadmocemuli da-
faruli realobisa. swored es samyaro, viTarca TavisTavad
mniSvnelovani da Rirebuli, iqca gviandeli Suasaukuneebis
adamianis uSualo aRtacebis obieqtad (le gofi 2005: 428).
86
A acobriobis sulier cxovrebaSi momxdarma am mniSvne-
k
lovanma Zvrebma, e.w. `kulturulma afeTqebam~, romelmac
me-12 saukunis SuaxanebisTvis mTeli civilizebuli msoflio
moicva, Tavisi Rrma kvali literaturul processac daam-
Cnia. mkiTxvels ukve naklebad ainteresebda mravalgzis
gadamuSavebuli istoriuli Tematika, aRar akmayofilebda
saukuneTa siRrmidan momzirali winaparTa aCrdilebi, ro-
melTa sqematur saxeebs samaradisod Sehyinvoda samaris
mtveri. mas sWirdeboda meti dinamika, meti avantiura,
meti romantika. axalma msoflmxedvelobam mZlavri biZgi
misca mxatvruli sinamdvilis axali koncefciis Camoyali-
bebas, romlis ZiriTad principsac istorizmis uaryofa
da gamonagonis wina planze wamoweva warmoadgenda.1 Tanda-
TanobiT gamoikveTa pirveli cdebi adamianis Sinagani bu-
nebis gaxsnisa da misi erTgvari fsiqologiuri portretis
warmoCenisa, romelSic erTmaneTs Seerwya heroikuli,
inteleqtualuri da esTetikuri idealebi. mogzaurobis
romantikam erTgvari avantiuruli elferic SesZina per-
sonaJis mxatvrul saxes, fsiqologizmze aqcentirebam ki
wina planze wamoswia imgvari problematika, romelic aqamde
Cakarguli iyo batalur scenaTa simravleSi.
am TvalsazrisiT qarTuli literaturuli procesi ev-
ropulis analogiurad viTardeboda. CvenSic, iseve rogorc
evropaSi, am novaciaTa erT-erTi ganmapirobebeli faqtori
da xelSemwyobi niadagi iyo monarqiuli brwyinvale samefo
karis arseboba, sadac Tavs iyridnen `axali~ ideologiis ma-
tarebelni. imxanad `kulturul dominant tipad samxedro-
aznauruli jgufis warmomadgeneli iqca, magram is uwin-
deli meomari aRar iyo, mis binas marto cixe-simagre aRar
warmoadgenda. gazrdil moTxovnilebaTa kvaldakval igi ga-
malebiT daewafa kulturas, xelovnebas da mwerlobas, misi
geografiuli horizontic gafarTovda. mas ainteresebs sa-
kuTari warsuli, zogjer – mecnierebac da filosofiac. igi
morwmunea, kvlavindeburad qristiania, magram sxva sarwmu-
noebis warmomadgenlebTan xSiri urTierTobis gamo is nakle-
bad Seuwynarebelia da heterodoqsiasac TanaugrZnobs. mas
sWirdeba sakuTari literatura imgvari gmirebiT, romelTac
ara marto Ronieri mklavi aqvT, aramed mgrZnobiare, keTili
87
gulic, romelTac imdenive cremlis dafrqveva ZaluZT, ram-
denic sisxli iRvreboda, romelTac emarjvebaT wera, ufro
Tanamedrove eniT laparakoben da xucuri asoebis nacvlad
mxedruliT weren.2 es is socialuri tipia, romelic dasav-
leT evropaSi kurtuaziul mxedar-raindiTaa warmodgenili~
(SiSmariovi 1938: 234-235, 257).
qarTuli saero mwerlobis aRmocenebisa da misi Semdgo-
mi ganviTarebis Sesaxeb literaturaTmcodneobaSi sxvada-
sxva mosazreba arsebobs. jer kidev 1899 wels gamoqveynebul
narkvevSi `Zveli qarTuli saero literaturis aRmoceneba
da ganviTareba~ niko mari aviTarebda Tvalsazriss ucxo-
uri, kerZod, sparsuli mwerlobis gadamwyvet mniSvnelobaze
qarTuli saero mwerlobis aRmoceneba-ganviTarebis saqmeSi.
mogvianebiT, sparsul gavlenas marma Turqulic miumata,
qarTuli kulturis dawinaurebis xana ki mesxeTis musul-
manizacias daukavSira.*
Salva nucubiZe amtkicebda, rom Zveli qarTuli lite-
ratura, kerZod, poezia, viTardeboda folkloruli da sa-
eklesio-mwignobruli tradiciebis mwvave brZolis viTare-
baSi, romelic xalxurobis gamarjvebiT damTavrda.**
Ppavle ingoroyvas azriT, saero literaturis warmoSo-
bis mTavari mizezi iyo winaqristianuli, warmarTuli li-
teraturis tradiciebi.***
korneli kekeliZe qarTuli saero literaturis warmoSo-
bas garkveuli politikur-ekonomikuri Tu socialur-kul-
turuli faqtorebiT xsnida. esenia:
1. saqarTvelos aqamde erTmaneTisgan gaTiSuli sxva-
dasxva feodaluri nawilis mZlavri da damoukidebeli mo-
narqiis farglebSi gaerTianeba;
2. eklesiis mier saero saxelmwifo xelisuflebisTvis
xelmZRvneli rolis daTmoba; saxelmwifoSi saero feoda-

* ix. Марр, Н. Грузинская поэма «Витязь в барсовой коже и новая историко-культурная


проблема». ИАН, 1917. стр. 416-417; Марр, Н. Из грузино-персидских литературных
связей. Записки коллегии востоковедов, I, Ленинград: 1925, стр. 114
** ix. Нуцубидзе, Ш. Руставели и восточный Ренессанс. Тбилиси: 1947.
*** `qarTul enaze qristianobis saboloo gabatonebamde ukve arsebula Zveli
saero mwerloba, romelsac imdenad Zlieri tradiciebi da Rrma fesvebi hqo-
nia, rom misi aRmofxvra da ganviTarebis saboloo Seferxeba ver SeZlo ufro
gvian xanaSi gadmonergilma qristianulma mwerlobam~ (ingoroyva 1937: 12).
88
luri da samxedro elementebis dawinaureba, romelTa dak-
veTasac asrulebda literatura;
3. feodaluri monarqiis politikuri da ekonomikuri
Zliereba, ramac ganapiroba optimisturi ganwyobilebis war-
moSoba; cxovrebisadmi pesimistur-asketikuri damokide-
bulebis nacvlad amqveyniuri cxovrebis mSvenierebisa da
didebulebis aRqma da SegrZneba, axali humanuri idealebisa
da miswrafebebis SemuSaveba;
4. samefo karis gadaqceva saero mxatvruli literaturu-
li cxovrebis mTavar centrad;
5. centralizebuli monarqiis rainduli Sinaarsi; im
sadevgmiro da samijnuro-romantikuli idealebis damuSave-
ba, romlebic asazrdovebdnen axlad aRmocenebul saero
literaturas (kekeliZe 1981: 13-14).
qarTul saero literaturaSi imTaviTve gamoikveTa sami
Janri: eposi, Suasaukuneebis romani* (rainduli, samijnuro)
da lirika (saxotbo poeziiT warmodgenili). rac Seexeba li-
teraturul formas, rogorc korneli kekeliZe SeniSnavda,
saero mwerlobam isargebla agiografiuli beletristikisa
da saeklesio himnografiis literaturul-kompoziciur xe-
rxebiTa da elementebiT, romelTa garkveuli transformi-
rebis Sedegad agiografiuli Txrobis kompoziciuri Sablo-
ni iqca saero gmiris, raindis, mxatvruli saxis formirebis
erTgvar saSualebad.3
Zveli qarTuli saero mwerlobis Zeglebi Cvenamde arc-
Tu didi raodenobiT aris moRweuli, Tumca am Zeglebis Si-
naarsi, maTi ideuri siRrme da mxatvruli samyaro sakmaod
srul warmodgenas gviqmnis Zveli qarTuli saero mwerlo-
bis saerTo moculobaze, xasiaTsa da mniSvnelobaze. yoveli
maTgani cal-calke asaxavs erTiani da Zlieri saqarTvelos
politikur-saxelmwifoebriv idealebs Sesabamisi socialur-
kulturuli safuZvlebiTa da literaturuli gemovnebiT.
bunebrivia, rom am epoqaSi adamianis umTavresi Rirseba
gamoixateboda samxedro siqveleSi – gmirobasa da vaJkaco-
baSi, patronis erTgul samsaxursa da im zogadsakacobrio
faseulobebisadmi erTgulebaSi, romelTac yvela WeSmarit

* evropul literaturaSi mas Seesatyviseba Romance (da ara Novel).


89
qristians religia karnaxobs. Tumca umaRlesi adamianuri
idealis, adamianis srulyofis misaRwev gzebs saero mwer-
loba gansxvavebulad asaxavda, vidre sasuliero.
agiografiul mwerlobaSi adamianTa saxeebis ganzoga-
deba bibliur winaswarmetyvelebTan da pirvelwmindanebTan
msgavsebis safuZvelze xdeboda. pirvelwmindanTa ideali
agiografiaSi xSirad qristes magivrobasac ki asrulebda. Aam
motivis farTod gavrceleba konkretuli mizeziT iyo gan-
pirobebuli: yoveli mwerlisTvis savaldebulo iyo adami-
anis zogadi ideali, aseTi ideali ki figurirdeboda pirvel-
wmindanTa saxeSi (siraZe 1975: 168). Sesabamisad, sasuliero
mwerlobis Tematika principulad realuri pirovnebis su-
lieri cxovrebis faqtebs ganazogadebda.
saero mwerlobaSi gmiris xasiaTis Seqmnis umTavresi
faqtori misi fizikuri Tvisebebis demonstraciaa, romelic
brZolebisa da omebis mravali epizodiT mJRavndeba. suli-
eri Rirebulebebidan aq aqcenti fizikursa da moralur ka-
tegoriebzea gadatanili. Sesabamisad, zagadsakacobrio ide-
alebisadmi erTguleba (Rvwa sikeTisa da samarTlianobisaT-
vis, moyvasis siyvaruli da a.S) aq gagebulia rogorc Tav-
dauzogavi brZola (oRond ara sulieri, aramed fizikuri)
im Zalebis winaaRmdeg, romlebic am idealTa damkvidrebas
ewinaaRmdegebian. sxva, ufro Zlieri impulsis mqone motivi
am literaturam ar icis. omi, orTabrZola `axali gmiris~
Rirsebisa da siamayis saqmea, Sesabamisad, pirovnebis arse-
bobis azri da Rirebuleba heroikuli moraliTa da princi-
pebiTaa gapirobebuli. amavdroulad, saero mwerlobis aR-
mocenebasTan erTad literaturaSi mkvidrdeba mxatvruli
gamonagonis meTodi. gansakuTrebiT es iTqmis Suasaukune-
ebis romanze, romelic gancalkevebiT dgas eposisagan da
alegoriisgan, Tumca, imavdroulad, orives elementebs Se-
icavs (rogorc warmarTuls, aseve qristianuls). gamomdinare
iqedan, rom Janri iZleva istoriuli realobisa da saswaulis
bunebrivi urTierTqmedebis saSualebas, gmiris mxatvruli
saxis modelic swored `miTosurisa~ da `realuris~ harmo-
niuli Tanaarsebobis Sedegad iqmneba. es imas niSnavs, rom is-
toriulad ararsebuli, mwerlis fantaziis gavleniT gamo-
qandakebuli gmiri, romlis samoqmedo asparezic irealuri
90
garemoa, im interesebis damcvelad gvevlineba, romlebic
konkretuli istoriuli epoqisa (gviandeli Suasauku-
neebi) da konkretiuli sazogadoebrivi formaciisTvis (pat-
ronymuli feodalizmi) aris niSandoblivi. SeiZleba iTqvas,
rom `miTosuri elementi gaazrebulia realur planSi da
qmnis araCveulebriv garemos gmiris araCveulebrivobis war-
mosaCenad~ (grigolaSvili 1987: 539).
adamianis es axali modeli gvxvdeba pirvelive qarTul
raindul romanSi, mose xonelis `amirandarejanianSi~, rome-
lic XII saukunis meore naxevarSi unda iyos dawerili. romanis
centraluri figuraa fizikurad da zneobrivad srulqmni-
li pirovneba, romelic erTgvari gansaxierebaa patronymu-
li idealisa. maRali socialuri statusi avaldebulebs mas,
erTi mxriv, erTgulad emsaxuros uzenaes siuzerens, mefes,
da daicvas qveynis interesebi, meore mxriv ki, aRasrulos
Tavisi zogadadamianuri vali – Cadges samarTlianobisa da
sikeTis samsaxurSi. samecniero literaturaSi SeniSnulia,
rom `esaa adamianis renesansuli idealis pirvelsaxe~ (gri-
golaSvili 1987: 534), oRond is jer k idev ar aris mxatvru-
lad srulyofili. amis erT-erT mizezad miiCneven nawar-
moebis kompoziciur gaumarTaobas da konceptualuri
mTlianobis arqonas, rac gamowveuli unda iyos imgvari
gamaerTianebeli RerZis (Ziebis konkretuli mizani) ararse-
bobiT, romelic evropul raindul romanebSi an, Tundac,
`vefxistyaosanSi~ gvxvdeba. Sesabamisad, `nawarmoebi mokle-
bulia siuJeturi Txrobis aRmavlobas da dinamikas, rac erT-
gvarad afermkrTalebs gmiris mxatvrul saxes da abrkolebs
mxatvrul sinamdvileSi mis ganxorcielebas. albaT amiTacaa
gamowveuli is garemoeba, rom personaJis saxeSi fizikuri
Tvisebebi erTgvarad Crdilavs suliers~ (grigolaSvili
1987: 535).
evropuli rainduli romanebis msgavsad, `amirandare-
janianSic~ gamoiyofa mxatvruli sinamdvilis ori Sre – mi-
Tiur-fantastikuri da grZnobad-realuri. mxatvruli si-
namdvilis asaxvis es axali koncefcia, romelic gulisxmobs,
erTi mxriv, narativis maqsimalur daSorebas realobasTan
da amiT `axali (idealuri) realobis~ Seqmnas, meore mxriv
ki, konkretuli istoriul-politikuri mocemulobis fonze
91
aRmocenebuli axali klasis, raindobis, idealebis mxatvrul
xorcSesxmas, XII saukunis 70-90-ian ww-Si Camoyalibda. Sua-
saukuneebis evropuli rainduli romanebis moqmedebis
ucvlel anturaJad iqca legendaruli mefe arturis sam-
yaro, romelic mkafiod warmouCenda mkiTxvels misi ga-
remomcveli realobis maqsimalur polarulobas im maRali
idealebisa da zneobis sauflosTan, romelsac britebis
mefis kari warmoadgenda. im faqtma, rom Suasaukuneobrivma
tradiciam ori gansxvavebuli aspeqti aRmoaCina arturis
saxeSi – istoriuli da miTiuri (arturis legenda erTgvari
kombinaciaa istoriisa da miTisa) – metwilad gansazRvra
rainduli romanebis avtorTa mxatvruli orientiri. miTo-
logiisadmi midrekili sazogadoebis literaturuli ge-
movnebis dasakmayofileblad isini qmnidnen jadoqrebiT,
feriebiT, jujebiTa da gveleSapebiT dasaxlebul samyaros
(specifikuri dro-sivrculi ganzomilebebiT), romelSic
moqmedebda feodaluri sazogadoebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli
`wesrigi~ da kanoni. zRaprul-fantastikuri fonis miuxe-
davad, am romanebis Sinagan ideas, maT mTavar kvanZs da kom-
poziciur specifikas gansazRvravda rainduli instituti
da rainduli urTierTobani.
Aimave principebiTaa agebuli `amirandarejanianis~ mxat-
vruli qsovili. veSapebs, urCxulebs, calTvala da cxra-
Tavian devebs, martorqebsa da sxva grZneul Zalebs Ser-
kinebuli gmirebi umTavresad patronymuli institutis
damcvelebad gvevlinebian.* Tumca erTi ram faqtia: yoveli
calkeuli xalxis fsiqologiaSi Tu mxatvrul gemovnebaSi
es idealebi da motivebi Tavisebur gamoxatulebas hpovebs
da sabolood specifikuri erovnuli niSnis matarebeli xde-
ba. Aamitomacaa, rom `amirandarejanianis~ Tema da idealebi
uSualodaa dakavSirebuli qarTul yofasTan, zepirsityvier
Semoqmedebasa Tu mwerlobasTan. udavod gasaTvaliswine-
belia is garemoebac, rom `es pirveli qarTuli rainduli
romani Tavisi ZirebiT ebjineba xalxuri Semoqmedebis Rrma
* Bam TvalsazrisiT `amirandarejani~, cxadia, exmianeba Tanadrouli epoqis
sazogadoebrivi cxovrebisa da kulturisTvis niSandobliv principebs, Se-
sabamisad, aq gaZneldeba calkeuli motivisa Tu mxatvruli saxis genezisis
zustad gansazRvra.
92
98
99
wyaroebs~ (imedaSvili 1966: 41), rasac mowmobs, Tundac, mTava-
ri gmiris, amiran darejanis Zis, metad arqauli oreulis ar-
seboba QqarTul zepirsityvierebaSi (`amiraniani~).
xalxuri amiranis figuras amiran darejanisZe ramdenime
detaliTa da paraleluri gmiriT enaTesaveba, rac ar SeiZ-
leba SemTxveviTi iyos da ramac specialur literaturaSi
daayena sakiTxi maTi urTierTgavlenisa Tu saerTo wyaros
Sesaxeb. es faqti mxolod imas SeiZleba miuTiTebdes, rom am
Txzulebis mTavari gmiri da idea qarTuli kulturis saar-
sebo wyaro iyo saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi. `xalxurma fanta-
ziam amiranSi gaaerTiana ramdenime gmiris naRvawi, ramdenime
Taobis nafiqr-naocnebari. is qarTul SegnebaSi erovnuli
idealebis gansaxierebaa, qarTveli xalxis zogadi xatia, mi-
si arsebobis simbolo~ (imedaSvili 1966: 42).
xalxuri Semoqmedebis yvelaze xelSesaxeb elements na-
rativis zRaprul-fantastikuri foni warmoadgens (jado-
ebi, Tilismebi, grZneulebiT aRmarTuli cixesimagreebi,
iaraRi, cxovelebi da a.S), rac metad aaxlovebs am Txzule-
bas evropul raindul romanebTan. `amirandarejanianis~ per-
sonaJebi swored am jadosnur garemoSi moqmedeben da maTi
gmiruli Zalisxmeva, umTavresad, mimarTulia am jado-Ti-
lismebis gadalaxvisa da zebunebriv Zalebze upiratesobis
mopovebisaken.
cnobilia, rom `kacobrobis ganviTarebis adreul safe-
xurze adamianisTvis miTSi gadmocemuli ambavi utyuari re-
aloba iyo, miTiuri personaJebi misTvis realurad arsebul-
ni iyvnen. miTosisadmi axali damokidebulebis amsaxvelia
masSi simboluri da alegoriuli Sreebis Zieba. am etapze mi-
Ti sinamdvilis asaxsnelad, samyarosa da adamianis Sesamec-
neblad gamoiyeneba~ (grigolaSvili 1987: 535). Suasaukune-
ebis adamiani cxovrobda realobaSi, romelic aRsavse iyo
qaragmebiT, gadataniTi mniSvnelobebiT da uflis saswa-
ulebiT. garemomcveli samyaro `esaubreboda~ adamians he-
raldikis enaze, romlis mixedviTac, lomi ar iyo Cveuleb-
rivi lomi, arc kakali – Cveulebrivi kakali, frTosani raSi
ki aRiqmeboda iseTive realur arsebad, rogoradac lomi,
vinaidan, lomis msgavsad, is iyo umaRlesi realobis simbo-
lo, miuxedavad imisa, rom Cveulebriv yofaSi mas versad Sexv-
debodiT (eko 2004: 113).
93
Sesabamisad, xom ar SeiZleba `amirandarejanianis~ gmire-
bis mogzauroba ararsebul, fantastikur qveynebSi, maTi
faTerakiT aRsavse gza ganvixiloT alegoriulad, rogorc,
vTqvaT, adamianis Sinagani brZolis simbolo?*
samecniero literaturaSi sakiTxis ase dasma ukavSir-
deba romanis e.w. grZnobiT-emociur mxares. xalxuri eposis
gmirebis msgavsad, `amirandarejanianis~ personaJebi `arc
xorciel trfialebas eZeben da arc am grZnobisTvis dama-
xasiaTebel rTul fsiqologiur koliziebs icnoben~ (gri-
golaSvili 1987: 638). raindebis saarako brZolebs, ro-
gorc maT Rvwas mzeTunaxavi qalis mosapoveblad, ufro
Rrma simboluri axsna SeiZleba moeZebnos. esaa adamianis
gaTavisufleba sakuTari `mes~ tyveobisgan, cxovrebiseul
wvrilmanebze amaRleba da swrafva umaRlesi idealisaken,
rac simbolurad dabrkolebaTa gziT umSvenieresi qalis
mopovebaSi gamoixateba (grigolaSvili 1987: 638).
raindis mTeli moraluri da fizikuri Zal-Rone brZo-
las ewireba, is icavs uzenaesi siuzerenis, mefis, Zalaufle-
bas yovelgvari xelyofisgan, rac, amavdroulad, misi piradi
usafrTxoebisa da keTildReobis garantiaa. fizikuri Zalis
upiratesobiT is sazogadoebaSi amarTlebs Tavisi arsebobis
saWiroebas. aqedan warmodgeba patronisadmi samsaxurisa da
morCilebis kulti, rac eposis, Semdgom ki rainduli romanis
yvelaze gamokveTil idealad iqca. `amirandarejanianSi~ yve-
laze TvalsaCinodaa gamoxatuli swored legitimizmis ide-
ologia.** Tavisi miTologiuri prototipis msgavsad, lite-
* Aandrei mixailovi rainduli romanis mTavar personaJs moraluri harmoniis
maZiebel axalgazrda gmir-raindad moixseniebs (mixailovi, 1976: 117); laura
grigolaSvili `amirandrejanianis~ zRaprul-fantastikur samyaros alego-
riul planSi ganixilavs da paralels avlebs, erTi mxriv, odisevsis (cxovre-
bis zRvaSi gadmogdebuli adamianis), meore mxriv ki, herakles (romlis 12
gmiroba adamianis sulis ganviTarebis 12 safexurTanaa gaigivebuli) Tavga-
dasavalTa simbolur-alegoriul interpretaciasTan (grigolaSvili 1987:
536-537).
** Aaq araerTxelaa xazgasmuli samefo pirovnebis xelSeuxeblobis ideali,
misi uzenaesi avtoriteti (mefe mteric rom iyos, mas sasikvdilod ver
gaimeteben. Sdr. `vefxistyaosani~ – `xelmwifobiT Semebralnes, amad xeli
ar Sevaxe~). `amirandarejanianis~ idealia klasobrivi harmonia sazogadoe-
briv urTierTobaSi, patronsa da ymas Soris megobruli ganwyobileba, rac
`vefxistyaosanSi~ mijnurobis erT-erT gamovlinebad iqceva.
94
raturuli amiranic borotebasTan mebrZoli gmiria, rac im
rwmenis dadasturebaa, rom ori sawyisis WidilSi sabolood
keTili imarjvebs.
SeiZleba iTqvas, rom `amirandarejaniani~ pirveli saTav-
gadasavlo romania qarTul mwerlobaSi rainduli ideale-
bisa da yofis yvelaze saukeTeso tradiciebis gamoxatvis
TvalsazrisiT, ramdenadac TviTon raindoba da yovelive
rainduli iseT idealur garemoSia daxatuli, rom Txzuleba
mTlianad raindobis yofisa da moralis xotbas warmoadgens.
(imedaSvili 1966: 44).
saero literatura arsebiTad sakaroa, aqedan gamomdina-
re, misi eTikac feodaluri aristokratiis moralur-esTe-
tikur principebs emyareba. esaa samyaro, romelSic rainduli
orTabrZolebisa da turnirebis heroikul ideals erwymis
daxvewili romantikuli urTierTobebi, Sesabamisad, qalis,
rogorc personaJis, rolis gazrdisa da seqsualur siyva-
rulze aqcentirebis Sedegad heroika veRar asrulebs mwer-
lobis (konkretulad romanis) centraluri krizisis fun-
qcias; misi mTavari moralur-esTetikuri kodeqsi TandaTan
xdeba siyvarulis (evropaSi kurtuaziulis) eTika, romelic,
erTi mxriv, efuZneba samarTlidan da religiidan nasesxeb
terminebs (kerZod, sofizmsa da eqstazs), magram mniSvnelo-
vanwilad gadaajgufebs maTi mniSvnelobis polusebs. ar-
sebiTi urTierTobebi axla yalibdeba ara adamiansa da sa-
zogadoebas, ara adamiansa da RmerTs, aramed qalbatonsa da
masze Seyvarebul mamakacs Soris. mariam Sampanelis karis
mRvdelma andreas kapelanma SeimuSava im epoqisTvis revolu-
ciuri, 31 punqtisgan Semdgari `siyvarulis kodeqsi~, romel-
mac aqcenti gadaitana iseT trfobaze, romelic ar iyo dam-
yarebuli merkantilizmsa da utilitarizmze; qals mianiWa
dominanturi funqcia misi individualizmis win wamoweviT,
mamakacs ki daakisra `axali siuzerenis~ – qalis – Tayvanis-
cema da misi usityvo morCileba. ideur-Tematuri Tu mxat-
vrul-esTetikuri qsovilis cvlilebam TavisTavad moitana
cvlilebebi am epoqis wamyvani Janris – romanis – organize-
baSi. Camoyalibda romanis sruliad axleburi struqtura,
romlis magistraluri xazia Ziebis (dakargva-Zebna-povna),
xetialis motivi, rac protagonistis srulyofil pirovne-
95
bad formirebiT da borotze keTilis gamarjvebiT gvir-
gvindeba. medievistTa umravlesobas swored avanturis do-
minirebadi roli miaCnia rogorc romantikuli eposis, ise
rainduli romanis umTavres maxasiaTeblad. am TvalsazrisiT
analogiuri procesebs SesaZloa Tvali vadevnoT Suasauku-
neebis aRmosavlur mwerlobaSic, romelSic wminda sagmiro-
safalavno epizodebTan erTad didia rogorc avanturisa da
fantastikis, ise sasiyvarulo motivis xvedriTi wili. Tumca
es yovelive ar scildeba heroikuli an zRaprul-heroikuli
eposis farglebs, Sesabamisad, am tipis Txzulebebs romans
ver davarqmevT.*
cnobili medievisti, eleazar meletinski miiCnevs, rom
Suasaukuneebis bevri aRmosavleli mwerali, magaliTad,
gorgani da nizami ganjeli, farTod iyenebs sparsi mefeebis
Sesaxeb arsebul winaremusulmanur istoriul-sagmiro gad-
mocemebs, romlebic transformirebuli saxiT firdousisa
da misi winamorbedebis TxzulebebSia daculi (meletinski:
svr-lit.niv.ru/svr.lit/meletinskij-srednevekovyj roman). mecnieris mosaz-
rebiT, sparsulenovani romantikuli eposis mTavari wyaro-
ebia, erTi mxriv, istoriuli da kvaziistoriuli gadmoceme-
bi (am wyaroebs efuZneba, mag. `visi da ramini~, `xosrovi da
Sirini~), meore mxriv ki, arabuli romantikuli Tqmulebebi
poetebze (mag, `leili da majnuni~). aRmosavluri leqsiTi
romani mravali TvalsazrisiT agrZelebs iranuli eposis
fabulur-Tematur tradiciebs,** Tumca ar gamoricxavs Jan-
robriv transformaciebs, iseTive Rrmasa da mniSvnelovans,
rogorsac frangul raindul romanebSi vawydebiT.*** gorganis
* gansxvavebiT e. bertelsisgan, romelic am tipis Txzulebebs `romantikul
poemas~ uwodebs (bertelsi 1960:265).
** amiT gansxvavdeba Suasukuneebis sparsuli mwerloba evropuli, ker-
Zod, franguli rainduli romanisgan, romelic mkveTrad wyvets kavSirs
heroikul-epikuri eposis tradiciebTan da siuJetebs kelturi sadevgmiro
zRaprisgan iRebs.
*** rogorc Aadrian marino miuTiTebs, `arsebobs universaluri literatura
(da/an) literatura, rac gulisxmobs garkveul `saerTo Tvisebebs~, arsebiT-
sa da internacionalurs da es aris literaturebis saerTo xasiaTi. maTi sin-
Tezi axorcielebs literaturis `models~, universaluri struqturis gama-
rtivebul saxes. am perspeqtivaSi ganxiluli `literatura~ da gadmocemuli
`literaturuli procesi~, iseve rogorc oTxi etapis moqmedeba (samyaro-
nawarmoebi-mwerali-wakiTxva), yvelaze zogadi da stabiluri literaturis
modelebia, romelTa farglebSic Tavsdeba yvela sxva kategoriebi~ (marino
2010: 180).
96
romanSi `veis o ramin~ `vneba~ ukve mZlavrobs `Zalaufleba-
ze~. mTavari gmiris, raminis, heroikuli biografiidan (Tuki
aseTi marTlac arsebobda) mxolod mkrTali anarekliRaa
darCenili – araviTar gmirobas ramini aRar sCadis da misi
brZolac ZalauflebisaTvis ufro Tavdacvisa da satrfos
(visis) mopovebis mizniT warmoebs. romanSi aRwerilia vne-
ba, romelic ewinaaRmdegeba ojaxur urTierTobebTan Tu
saxelmwifo wesrigTan dakavSirebul yvela tradiciulad
dadgenil wessa Tu kanons. wesrigi aRdgeba mxolod mas Sem-
deg, rac es vneba kanonis farglebSi moeqceva, qorwinebiT
dagvirgvindeba. amgvarad, romanis specifika mJRavndeba kon-
fliqtSi sasiyvarulo grZnobasTan, rogorc saSiS stiqiasa
da tradiciebiT gamyarebul wesrigTan (meletinski: http://svr-
lit.niv.ru/svr-lit/meletinskij-srednevekovyj-roman/persoyazychnyj-roman-
icheskij-epos-irana.htm).
rogorc Cans, Suasaukuneebis dasavlur da aRmosavlur
literaturaSi wamoWrili da mxatvrulad damuSavebuli es
problematika ar iyo ucxo arc qarTuli sinamdvilisTvis,
oRond Tu pirvel SemTxvevaSi mxolod tipologiur kav-
Sirebze SeiZleba saubari, aRmosavlur, sakuTriv, sparsul
literaturasTan qarTul wignier sazogadoebas uSualod
hqonda Sexeba. gorganis `veis o ramins~ (iseve rogorc niza-
mis `leilsa da majnuns~ icnobda (da, amasTanave, asaxelebda
kidec) klasikuri periodis yvela cnobili qarTuli lite-
raturuli Zegli – `vefxistyaosani~, `abdulmesiani~, `Tama-
riani~. safiqrebelia, rom Txzuleba, romelsac gamoarCevs
pirovnuli Rirsebisa da Tavisuflebisadmi swrafvis ide-
alebi, imdenad Seesabameboda qarTul sazogadoebriv Semec-
nebasa da literaturul gemovnebas, rom Tamaris mefobaSi is
qarTuladac ki uTargmniaT.* nawarmoebis originaluri siu-
Jeti (faTeraki, rainduli suliskveTeba, samijnuro peripe-
tiebi), gmirTa cocxali, bunebrivi xasiaTebi, daxvewili
leqsika da momxiblavi mxatvruli saxeebi ise Seisisxlxorca
qarTulma mkiTxvelma sazogadoebam, rom qarTuli klasiku-
ri originaluri Zeglebis gverdiT miuCina adgili.
* `visramianis~ qarTveli mTargmnelis vinaoba dRemde ucnobia. batoniS-
vilma Teimurazma `vefxistyaosnis~ komentarebSi gamoTqva mosazreba, rom
Txzulebis mTargmneli aris sargis Tmogveli. es mosazreba gaiziares d. Cu-
binaSvilma, d. baqraZem, pl. ioselianma, i. meunargiam, i. abulaZem da sxv.
97
romanis, maT Soris qarTuli Targmanis, ideuri safuZ-
vlisa da mxatvruli konstruqciis gaxsnis, mis gmirTa xasi-
aTebis gagebisTvis uciloblad gasaTvaliswinebelia spar-
suli nacionaluri TaviseburebebiT aRbeWdili farsizmis
zneobrivi ideologia. marTlac, TxzulebaSi aSkarad ikve-
Teba zoroastrizmis dualisturi msoflmxedvelobis kvali,
romelic, mxatvrul prizmaSi gardatexili (wes-Cveulebebi,
gmirTa urTierToba, siuJetis gaSla, epizodebis ganviTare-
ba, naTesauri sistema, mravalcolianoba, da-Zmis qorwineba
da a.S), siuJetis konstruqciis mTavar RerZs Seadgens. yve-
laze mTavar farsul ideas TxzulebaSi warmoadgens brZola
sinaTlesa da sibneles Soris, gamoxatuli raminisa da mo-
abadis dapirispirebaSi. Aamavdroulad, `visramiani~ samxed-
ro aristokratiaze damyarebuli absoluturi monarqiis apo-
logia da amitomaa, rom moabadis damarcxebiT sruliadac ar
mcirdeba TviTon monarqiuli abstraqtuli ufleba. raminis
mier moabadis damarcxebis naskvSi adreuladaa SegrZnebuli
idealebi, romelTac gansazRvres manamade ucnobi xasiaTi
sazogadoebriv urTierTobaSi da axali adamianis problema
mwerlobis sagnad aqcies (imedaSvili 1966: 67-68).*
`visramianis~ mTavari motivi siyvarulia, romelic ga-
gebulia, rogorc sabediswero avadmyofoba, romelsac mo-
ucavs adamianis guli da goneba, mouSlia misi nebisyofa da
sulieri wonasworoba. mijnuroba gamoufxizlebeli Tro-
baa da erTaderTi wamali siyvarulis ukurnebeli senisgan
Tavis daRwevisa, avtoris SegonebiT, sxvisi Seyvareba an
sikvdilia. Tumca raminis SemTxvevaSi `siyvarulis uR-
lisgan~ Tavis daRwevis yoveli cda amao gamodgeba, rac
saSualebas aZlevs avtors, ara mxolod siuJetis centralur
motivad aqcios personaJTa sabediswero siyvaruli, aramed

* Tumca mkiTxvelTa garkveul wreebSi visisa da raminis zneobriv-moraluri


fizionomia, maTi saqcieli ukmayofilebas iwvevda da gasakicxad iyo gamx-
dari. magaliTad, me-14 saukunis sparsi mwerali zanqani xmamaRla acxadebda:
`nu moeli ubiwoebas im mandilosnisagan, vinc waikiTxa veis o ramini~. aqedan
gamomdinare, moulodneli ar unda iyos arc qarTuli visramianis sagmobi
Sairis warmoSoba gvianfeodalur epoqaSi: `sityvas vityvi metad mxrians,
Tu Seesmis kacsa RvTians,/ movaxseneb brZensa-Wkvians, ar gamxileb giJs-bne-
dians, /vis RmerTi swams adamians, nu Caxedavs visramians/ daubnelebs dResa
mzians, jojoxeTSi naxavs zians~.
98
Txzulebis moraluri koncefciis erTgvari legalizebac
moaxdinos. vinaidan am nawarmoebSi mijnuroba gagebulia
rogorc eqstazi, adamianis gansakuTrebuli sanetaro
mdgomareoba, romelsac wamali ara aqvs, Sesabamisad, is ar
emorCileba adamianuri gansjis civ kanonebs da raki gange-
biT aris movlenili, gamarTlebulia rogorc gardauvloba
da mijnurobis apologiaSi gadadis: `vinca mijnuri araa,
arc kacia~.
aRsaniSnavia, rom `visramianis~ siuJeturi qarga, perso-
naJTa wre (banaluri sasiyvarulo samkuTxedi – moxuci qma-
ri – axalgazrda sayvareli – lamazi coli) da moraluri
koncefcia (matrimonialuri kavSiris Selaxva) sakmao msgavse-
bas amJRavnebs Suasaukuneebis evropaSi metad popularul
`tristanisa da izoldas romanTan~.* aRniSnul sakiTxs
sayuradRebo gamokvleva miuZRvna gaioz imedaSvilma. orive
gansaxilveli Zeglidan mkvlevarma gamohyo oTxi mTavari
gmiri da damxmare, garkveuli funqciebis matarebeli per-
sonaJebi, romelTa urTierTobasac, misi TvalsazrisiT,
msWvalavs akrZaluli siyvarulis idea, rac ganpirobebulia
ucilobeli, gardauvali bedisweriT. visramianSi am ideis
ganxorcielebis safuZveli daubadebeli qalis gaTxovebaa,
tristanisa da izoldas romanSi ki siyvarulis samsalis
Sesma. mecnieri tristanis romanis Zirebs mazdeanur aRmo-
savleTSi eZebda da mis `dednad~ veis o ramins miiCnevda, ris
safuZvelzec askvnida, rom `raminis tristanad gadakeTe-
bis~ Sedegad romanma `ganicada qristianuli moralizacia,
Tumca SesamCnevad warmarTuli suli mainc SeinarCuna. bune-

* romani tristansa da izoldaze~ arasruli variantebis saxiT aris moR-


weuli da ekuTvnis normandieli truverebis, berulisa da Tomasis, kalams.
amaTgan berulis varianti ufro arqaulia, magram vinaidan masSi dasaxele-
buli zogierTi realia 1191 welze adre ar aris mosalodneli, mecnierebi
fiqroben, rom am versiis nawili mainc Tomasis naklebarqauli nusxis (me-
12 s-is 70-80-iani ww) Semdeg aris Seqmnili. romanis ufro Zveli, franguli
variantis aRdgena moxerxda eilxart fon oberges germanuli Targmanis sa-
fuZvelze, Tomasis arasruli teqstis rekonstruqcia ki SesaZlebeli gaxda
aseve germanuli, Tumca sakmaod SemoqmedebiTi versiis saSualebiT, romel-
ic me-13 s-is dasawyisSi gotfrid strasburgelma Seqmna. komparativistul-
tipologiuri miznebisaTvis tristanisa da izoldas romanis yvela versias
erT mTlianobaSi ganixilaven, vinaidan am variantTa Sejereba warmogvidgens
bretonuli da, sazogadod, kurtuaziuli romanis adreul etaps.
99
bis grZnobis uSualoba aq kurtuaziulobam Secvala~ (imedaS-
vili 1942: 149).
g. imedaSvilisgan gansxvavebiT, e. meletinski Tavis mo-
nografiaSi «Средневековый роман» damajereblad msjelobs
tristanis romanis siuJetis specifikur keltur Zirebze,
sadac sakmaod xSirad gvxvdeba e.w. sasiyvarulo samkuTxe-
di da sasiyvarulo magia, romelic fatalurad imorCilebs
gmirs, Tumca keltur prototipSi jer kidev ar iyo gamax-
vilebuli yuradReba adamianis grZnobebze da mis Sinagan
samyaroSi arsebul konfliqtze, rac ukavSirdeboda misi
cxovrebis socialur konteqsts (meletinski 1983: 93). mecni-
eris azriT, tristanisa da izoldas romans uamravi Sexebis
wertili aqvs provansul lirikasTanac, sadac maRali siy-
varuli, rogorc wesi, aRiZvreba sxvisi colisadmi, ufro
xSirad sazogadoebrivi kibis maRal safexurze mdgomi piris,
konkretulad ki, raindi-poetis siuzerenis meuRlisadmi.
kurtuazuli koncefciis mixedviT, romelic Teori-
ulad andreas kapelanis laTinurenovani naSromebiT iyo sa-
fuZvelgamyarebuli, qals marTebda erTguleba mxolod im
mamakacisa, romelic sinamdvileSi uyvarda, damoukideblad
saqorwino aRTqmisa. bunebrivia, imave motivaciiT iyo de-
terminirebuli tristanisa da izoldas romanis moralur-
eTikuri koncefcia – Tvalsazrisi xorcieli siyvarulis
Sesaxeb, romelic imxanad rainduli sazogadoebis wiaRSi
SeWril `siaxlis talRad~ aRiqmeboda da ganixileboda, ro-
gorc erTgvari protesti yovelgvari sazogadoebrivi,
oficialurad dakanonebuli zneobrivi dogmisadmi.4 Sesa-
bamisad, adiultersac hqonda Tavisi morali, romelmac
gviandel SuasaukuneebSi miiRo Tavisufali siyvarulis das-
rulebuli kodeqsis saxe da romlis mixedviTac, siyvaruli
miCneuli iyo ara zneobis Selaxvad, aramed Zlieri nebis
kultad. swored es garemoeba unda iqnas gaTvaliswinebuli
tristanisa da izoldas romanis moralur-eTikuri kon-
cefciis kvlevisas, romlis mixedviTac am personaJTa yov-
lismomcvel vnebas bediswera ganapirobebs da gansazRvravs.
es motivi Tanabrad Cans tristanisa da izoldas romanis yve-
la variantSi, iseve rogorc vis-o-raminis rogorc sparsul,
ise qarTul versiebSi. bunebrivia, vis-o-raminis akrZalu-
100
li siyvarulis reabilitireba imave, providencialuri, mo-
tivaciiT aris SesaZlebeli: visisa da raminis siyvarulic
brma bedisweris Sedegia, amitom gmirebi iZulebulni arian,
daemorCilon bedis mkacr ganaCens, vinaidan ar ZaluZT, ga-
arRvion uflis ganCinebis es mkacri rkali. aqedan gamom-
dinare, sruliad bunebrivad gveCveneba, rom jer kidev 1872
wels germaneli mecnieri Herman Ethe SeniSnavda, rom orive
poeturi nawarmoebi erTnairi siZlieriT da ostatobiT
gadmogvcems gmirTa sulier moZraobas, xolo Zlieri, yov-
lismomcveli siyvarulis motivi udidesi fsiqologiuri
WeSmaritebiT, siRrmiT da poeturi eniT aris Sesrulebuli.
amave dros, grZnobieri siyvarulis gamanadgurebeli cecx-
li, vnebaTa Zala laxavs kanonad qceuli zneobis yovelgvar
wesebs da misi daSreta sikvdilsac ki ar ZaluZs.
Txzulebis momxiblavi siuJeti – saTavgadasavalo da
samijnuro epizodebi, Serwymuli qarTveli mTargmnelis mi-
er Warbad, magram moxdenilad moxmobil tropis saxeebTan
teqsts aniWebs bunebriv simsubuqes, rac mas Seunelebeli
interesiT sakiTxav wignad xdis. safiqrebelia, rom swored
aman ganapiroba CvenSi Txzulebis saocari popularoba,
imdenad, rom is gaxda literaturuli Sedarebisa da mibaZvis
sagani*.5

gviandeli Suasaukuneebis saqarTveloSi, gamomdinare


qveynis, istoriuli da socialur-politikuri situaciidan,
eposisa da romanis gverdiT ganviTarda poeziis specifi-
kuri saxe, romelsac saxotbo poeziis saxeliT vicnobT. iseve
rogorc Suasaukuneebis romani, poeziis es saxeobac sakaroa
da mis Janrul specifikas uzenaesi siuzerenis qeba, xotba
warmoadgens.**
* SoTa rusTaveli TanagrZnobiTaa gamsWvaluli visisa da raminis mimarT da
maT `Tavsa zeda moweul~ aTasgvar gansacdels Tavisi idealuri gmirebis
sasiyvarulo gancdebs adarebs (`igi Wiri ar unaxavs ar ramins da arca vissa”;
“nu eWv mijnurad maTebrsa, nuca Tu raminsa da vissa~).
** saxotbo poeziis fesvebi antikur literaturaSia sagulvebeli. Zvel saber-
ZneTSi nebismier saleqso formas, romelic musikis TanxlebiT sruldeboda,
odas uwodebdnen. evropaSi odis, rogorc literaturuli Janris Camoyal-
ibebaze didi gavlena iqonies berZeni poetis pindares epinikiebma (sportul/
olimpiur Sejibrebebze gamarjvebulTa qeba) da romaeli poetis horaciu-
sis odebma. Suasaukuneebis evropuli literatura odas, rogorc Janrs,
101
Camoyalibebis procesSi qarTulma saxotbo poeziam bev-
ri ram SeiTvisa mdidari tradiciebis mqone sparsul-taji-
kuri sakaro poeziisgan (panegirikebi, romelTa yvelaze
gavrcelebuli forma yasidebi iyo, X saukunidan arsebobda
da saqarTvelos mezoblad, SirvanSahebis karze, ganviTare-
bis umaRles mwvervals iyo miRweuli), amave dros, is Tavisi
fesvebiT mWidrod ukavSirdeboda qarTul sasuliero po-
ezias. korneli kekeliZis mosazrebiT, saxotbo poeziam him-
nografiisgan sami kompoziciuri Sabloni imemkvidra (1. avto-
ris mier Tavisi uRirsobisa da araraobis aRiareba; 2. Sesxma
da qeba ama Tu im sulieri gmirisa, aseve himnografis aRsare-
ba, rom mas ar SeuZlia Tavisi qebis obieqtis saTanadod Sem-
koba; 3. Sesxma da qeba RvTisa, romelic aris brZeni, keTili,
uxvi, romelsac yvela, didi da patara, unda emorCilebodes
(kekeliZe 1981: 8) da garkveuli transformirebis Sedegad
Tavis ZiriTad motivebad aqcia. bunebrivia, rom arsebiTi
gansxvaveba saero da sasuliero Sesxmas Soris qebis obieqts
ukavSirdeba. himnografi xatavs wmindanis saxes, aRwers mis
sulier mxneobas, siwmindes, RvTismoSiSobas, mexotbe poetis
qebis obieqti ki saxelmwifo moRvawea, romelsac gonebriv da
sulier TvisebebTan erTad samxedro siqvele da politiko-
sis alRo gamoarCevs. rogorc wesi, mexotbeTa umetesoba, maT
Soris SavTelica da CaxruxaZec, karis poeti iyo, Sesabamisad,
poeziis es saxeoba uaRresad manerulia da, SeiZleba iTqvas,
ukiduresad xelovnuric. Janris mTavari stiluri Tavise-
bureba panegirikisTvis damaxasiaTebel hiperbolurobasTan
erTad aris erTiani siuJeturi xazis uqonloba da Tematuri
SezRuduloba, rac metwilad ganapirobebs qebis formis
Taviseburebas. Sinaarsobrivi mxaris SezRudvis xarjze ya-
libdeba specifikuri ritmul-melodiuri modeli, rasac
ganapirobebs, erTi mxriv, specifikuri saleqso sazomi (oc-
marcvliani, oTxtaepovani Caxruxauli leqsi),* meore mxriv,
ar icnobs. misi aRorZineba daiwyo renesansis dros, gagrZelda barokoSi,
klasicizmis epoqaSi ki `maRali poeziis~ kanonikur Janrad iqca. Oodis axali
klasicisturi poetika Seqmna f. malerbma, romelic Teoriuli traqtatebiT
`gaamyara~ bualom. Janris ZiriTadi maxasiaTebeli iyo paTetikuri, `maRali~
stili, orientirebuli, ZiriTadad, antikuri epoqis saxe-simboloebze.
* Caxruxauli metri gulisxmobs, erTi mxriv, marcvalTa Tanazomier ritmul
wyobas taepSi, meore mxriv, garkveul sariTmo sistemas, Sinagani da garegani
102
mdidari Sinagani da garegani riTmebi, aliteraciebi, aso-
nansebi da zmebi (kalamburebi), romlebic, ZiriTadad, omoni-
muri (majamuri) riTmiTaa warmodgenili. gasariTmi sityvebi
aRebulia rogorc qarTuli, ise ucxouri (arabul-sparsuli
leqsikidan), Sesabamisad, poeturi metyveleba gajerebulia
arqaizmebiT, neologizmebiT, dialeqtizmebiTa da provin-
cializmebiTac ki. qebis obieqtis didebuli da brwyinvale
saxis gamosakveTad avtorebi mimarTaven rTul, xelovnur mx-
atvrul saxeebs, motivTa variaciul damuSavebas sxvadasxva
mxatvruli aqsesuariT, romelTa Soris sWarbobs mxatvruli
Sedareba. mexotbeTa erudiciasa da farTo literaturul
ganaTlebaze metyvelebs analogiis mizniT gamoyenebuli
mxatvruli saxeebi antikuri mwerlobidan, bibliidan, spar-
suli poeziidan da a.S.
saxotbo poezia qarTul literaturaSi warmodgenilia
gviandeli Suasaukuneebis ori ZegliT. Eesenia: ioane SavTe-
lis `abdulmesiani~6 da CaxruxaZis `Tamariani~.
orive mexotbe poeti momswre da TviTmxilveli iyo sa-
qarTvelos samxedro-politikuri Zlierebisa, ekonomikuri
winsvlisa da kulturuli ayvavebisa. avtorTa gansakuTre-
bul siamayes iwvevda saqarTvelos ganviTarebis maRali done
ara mxolod politikur-saxelmwifoebrivi TvalsazrisiTa
da socialuri cxovrebis organizebiT, aramed misi, rogorc
Zlieri saxelmwifos, prestiJiTa da avtoritetiT sazRvar-
gareT. mas Semdeg, rac bizantiam dakarga uwindeli Zliereba
da gavlena, qristianobis damcvelis funqcia da roli saqar-
Tvelom itvirTa, swored is gamocxadda bizantiis imperiis
umTavres memkvidred, dawinaurebul qveynad, romelmac er-
Tiani monarqiis pirobebSi SeZlo ara marto musulmanuri
agresiis aRkveTa, aramed sakuTari saxelmwifoebrivi sazR-
vrebis gafarToeba. es faqti mexotbe poetTa (saxeldobr,
CaxruxaZis) TvalsazrisiT, ganpirobebuli iyo garkveuli
istoriuli kanonzomierebiT: saqarTvelo moiazreboda ro-
riTmebis ganlagebis zustad gansazRvrul wess. strofis TiToeuli taepi
oci marcvlisgan Sedgeba da didi cezuriT or naxevartaepad iyofa. Tavis
mxriv, es naxevartaepebic mcire cezuriT Tanabarwevrovan meoTxedebs Sead-
gens, eriTmeba erTmaneTs da Sinagan riTmas qmnis. Mmeore naxevartaepebi,
rogorc taepis damabolovebeli nawilebi, garegan riTmas qmnian.
103
gorc rCeuli qveyana, romelsac (iseve rogorc mTel saq-
ristianos) mxsnelad (mesiad) moevlina Tamari – absoluturi
sifaqize, absoluturi sikeTe da saTnoeba. igive Sinaarsia
Cadebuli `abdulmesianSi~, romlis avtoric qarTuli su-
lierebisa da mwignobrobis umTavres keras, gelaTs, axal ro-
mad warmoidgens. `im epoqaSi gelaTi marTlac iyo simbolo
saqarTvelos politikur-sarwmunoebrivi Tu kulturuli
didebisa. igi iTvleboda saqarTvelos religiur burjad,
(meore ierusalimad), ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis kerad
(sxuad aTinad) da politikur centrad (axal romad). gela-
Ti gamomxatveli iyo saqarTvelos sarwmunoebrivi, kultu-
rul-mecnieruli da politikuri Zlierebisa, Sesabamisad,
is, rac Tqmuli iyo gelaTze, SeiZleba gavrceldes mTel
saqarTveloze~ (siraZe 1978: 174).
aqedan gamomdinare, `Tamarians~ da `abdulmesians~ Cven
ver ganvixilavT, rogorc oden saxotbo-panegirikul po-
emebs, romelTa daniSnulebac mxolod sakaro-oficialuri
wreebis mxatvruli gemovnebis dakmayofilebaa. isini mZafri
politikuri ganwyobis amsaxveli Zeglebia da gamomxatvelia
garkveuli erovnul-saxelmwifoebrivi ideologiisa. orive
avtori gvevlineba damcvelad im saxelmwifoebriv-politi-
kuri kursisa, romelic daviT aRmaSeneblis droidan moyo-
lebuli ganuxrelad tardeboda Cvens qveyanaSi da romlis
Sedegadac saqarTvelo wina aziaSi erT-erT uZlevel saxel-
mwifod iyo miCneuli. Sesabamisad, panegirikuli toni, qebis
obieqtis Rvawlis gadaWarbeba da gazviadeba mosalodneli-
caa da bunebrivic, vinaidan is ganpirobebulia konkretuli
istoriuli sinamdviliT. swored daviT aRmaSeneblis, gior-
gi mesamisa da Tamaris epoqaSi momzadda fsiqologiuri ni-
adagi im mesianisturi TvalsazrisisTvis, romelic Camoya-
libebulia orive saxotbo ZeglSi, romelTac asazrdovebs
epoqis erovnul-politikuri ideologia da saxelmwifoeb-
rivi idealebi.

SeniSvnebi:

1. Tumca ver vityviT, rom gviandeli Suasaukuneebis mwerlobam


saerTod uari Tqva yovelive tradiciulze da srul izolaciaSi
moeqca ukve arsebulTan da saukuneebiT gamyarebulTan. man gul-
104
dasmiT da siRrmiseulad gadaamuSava warsulis literaturuli
memkvidreoba da Tavis CarCoebSi moaqcia igi, xolo rodesac mkiTx-
velma Tavisi literaturuli gemovnebis Sesaferisi gmiri moiTxo-
va, is ukve advilad `aRmocenda~ folklorisa Tu literaturuli
memkvidreobis nazavisgan, TandaTanobiT SeiZina xasiaTis aqamde uc-
nobi Strixebi da axali idealebiT gamdidrebulma daido bina axali
literaturuli Janrebis: eposis, romanisa da poemis furclebze.
2. igulisxmeba qarTuli damwerlobis ori sxvadasxva saxeoba –
nusxuri da mxedruli (m.e). sagulisxmoa, rom qarTuli anbani, rom-
lis epigrafikuli nimuSebi V saukunidan mogvepoveba (palestinis
da bolnisis sionis warwerebi), 1500 wlis ganmavlobaSi ucvleli
ar yofila. uZveles warwerebsa da xelnawerebSi daculi qarTuli
asoebi mrgvali moxazulobisaa, Sesabamisad, am anbans mrglovani
hqvia. IX saukunidan is Secvala kuTxovanma Sriftma, romelic ufro
tevadi da advilad saweri iyo. IX-X saukuneebSi mrglovani da kuTxo-
vani Sriftebi sxvadasxva xelnawerSi (zogjer erTi xelnaweris sx-
vadasxva monakveTSic) paralelurad ixmareboda, IX saukunidan ki
xelnawerTa ZiriTadi teqsti (nusxa) iwereboda kuTxovani asoebiT,
saTaurebis da abzacebis dasawyisSi ki CarTuli iyo mrglovani aso-
ebi. amis gamo kuTxovans meorenairad nusxaxucuri ewodeba, mrglo-
vans ki – mTavruli. qarTuli damwerlobis mesame saxe, mxedruli,
gvxvdeba X saukunidan, romelic sabolood Camoyalibda da dRevan-
deli saxe XVIII saukuneSi miiRo. Zvelad mas iyenebdnen umTavresad
saero pirebi – vaWrebi, mxedrebi. swored amitom ewoda mas mxedru-
li, xolo nusxurs, romelic kvlav ixmareboda sasuliero pirTa So-
ris, xucuri (WumburiZe 1983: 19-20).
3. agiografiuli Txrobis kompoziciuri Sabloni korneli
kekeliZes oTx punqtad aqvs Camoyalibebuli: 1. wmindani bavSvobi-
danve gamoirCeva Tanatolebisgan; 2. davaJkacebuli wmindani nam-
dvili sulieri gmiria da `zekaci~. is ibrZvis da sZlevs xorcsa da
sxvadasxva xasiaTis cdunebas am qveynad, aRasrulebs iseT saswau-
lebs, romlebic mas bunebis kanonebze maRla ayeneben; 3. wmindanis
amqveyniuri cxovreba warmoadgens ganuwyvetel samsaxurs RvTi-
sadmi. uflis samsaxurisTvis is iTmens da itans asketur Rvawlsa da
Sromas, is namdvili `mijnuria~ RvTisa; 4. marTalia, sulieri gmiri –
wmindani – an msxverplad ewireba Tavis mizans, mowamebriv sikvdils
iTmens an xangrZlivi SeWirvebuli asketuri cxovrebis Semdeg bu-
nebrivi sikvdiliT aResruleba, magram orive SemTxvevaSi is keTils
borotze amarjvebinebs (kekeliZe 1981: 7).

105
4. kretien de truas romanSi kliJesi, romelic daaxl. 1176 wels
aris Seqmnili, gvxvdeba igive siuJeturi xazi da igive sasiyvarulo
samkuTxedi, romelic `tristansa da izoldaSi~ (an, Tundac, `vis-
ramianSi~), magram tristanisa da izoldas trfoba romanis perso-
naJebis mier Sefasebulia ara rogorc amaRlebuli siyvaruli,
aramed – mdabali vneba. adiulterisadmi damokidebuleba imdenad
negatiuria, rom Tavdapirvelad gvendelin foesterma, Semdeg ki
mkvlevarTa didma nawilma, maT Soris gaston parismac, kretienis es
romani `anti-tristanad~ monaTla. miuxedavad amgvari Sefasebisa,
u. holmsi, cdilobs, daasabuTos, rom adiulteris motivs SeuZle-
belia, aReSfoTebina me-12 saukunis safrangeTSi mcxovrebi adami-
ani, miT ufro kretien de trua, romlis `lanselotic~ adiulteris
apologia gaxlavT. Tanac kurtuazuli koncefciis mixedviT, qals
marTebs erTguleba mxolod im mamakacisa, romelic sinamdvileSi
uyvars, damoukideblad saqorwino aRTqmisa. maS, ratomRa unda
miviCnioT amoralobad izoldas saqcieli, romelsac wrfeli siy-
varuli akavSirebda tristanTan da mas manamde danebda, vidre mefe
marks colad gahyveboda (holmsi 1970: 78)? holmsis azriT, kretien
de truas pozicias orgvari axsna SeiZleba moeZebnos: erTi mxriv,
SesaZloa, mas xelT hqonda berulis mier gamoyenebuli tristanis
moTxrobis adreuli versia da ara tomasis maRalzneobrivi, moral-
izebuli varianti, anda personaJis piriT man gamoTqva gulistkivi-
li imis gamo, rom tristansa da izoldas erTmaneTTan wuTieri siy-
varuli akavSirebdaT da ar ainteresebdaT monanieba da xsna (holmsi
1970: 79).
5. misi mZafrad daxatuli saxeebi SemoqmedebiTad aRiqva Zvelma
qarTulma mwerlobam. misi gmirebi iqcnen zogadi mniSvnelobis ti-
pebad ara mxolod mxatvrul TxzulebebSi. klasikuri epoqis Sesa-
niSnav istoriul naSromSi “istoriani da azmani SaravandedTani”
Tamar mefis gaTxovebaze msjelobisas visi da ramini dasaxelebuli
arian msoflio mwerlobaSi imxanad cnobil Tormet Seyvarebul
wyvils Soris. isic unda aRiniSnos, rom Zeglis mniSvneloba mxolod
istoriuli ar aris, ramdenadac am TxzulebaSi aRZruli marad
adamianuri yofisa da gancdis problemebi danaxulia humanurobis
poziciidan da gamoxatulia iseTi cxovelmyofeli saxeebiT, rom-
lebic kargad upasuxebda qarTuli sazogadoebis garkveuli wree-
bis socialur-eTikur miswrafebebs. albaT es iyo erTgvari safuZ-
veli imisa, rom es ucxouri Zegli qarTvelma mTargmnelma Seitkbo
rogorc erovnuli Semoqmedebis nayofi da gadmoaqarTula iseTi
106
moqnili literaturuli eniT, romelic Cveni mxatvruli metyvele-
bis erTgvar normadac iqca da misgan garkveulad aris davalebuli
Cveni saero mwerlobis literaturuli stili (imedaSvili 1966: 86-87).
6. `abdulmesianis~ Sesaxeb uZveles werilobiT cnobas vawydebiT
`vefxistyaosanSi~, kerZod, prologSi, sadac klasikuri xanis sxva
saero TxzulebebTan erTad dasaxelebulia `abdulmesia~ da misi
avtori SavTeli (`abdulmesia SavTelsa, leqsi mas uqes romelsa~).
Yyvelaze did azrTa sxvadasxvaobas iwvevs sakiTxi am Txzulebis qe-
bis obieqtis Taobaze. mecnierebi ver SeTanxmebulan, ras niSnavs
sityva `abdulmesia~ – qebis obieqtis zedwodebaa es (n. mari) Tu aR-
mosavlur eklesiaSi gavrcelebuli sakuTari saxeli (k. kekeliZe).
isic ar aris sabolood dadgenili, qebis obieqti erTi piria, Tu
ori. Sesabamisad, xotbebi SeiZleba eZRvnebodes: an daviT aRmaSeneb-
els (n. mari, i. javaxiSvili), an Tamar mefesa da daviT aRmaSenebels
(k. kekeliZe), Tamarsa da daviT soslans (a. baramiZe, e. metreveli),
an, ramdenad uCveulodac ar unda JRerdes, XVII saukunis moRvawes
mefe arCil meores (s. caiSvili, a. xinTibiZe, b. darCia). saqme isaa,
rom Txzuleba me-18-19 saukunis cametiode xelnaweriTaa moRweu-
li. aqedan 7 qebis obieqtad miiCnevs arCil meores, avtorad ki iakob
Semoqmedel dumbaZes, danarCeni xuTi ki – Tamars, xolo avtorobas
ioane SavTels miawers. tradiciuli SexedulebiT, iakob dumba-
Zem miiTvisa SavTelis Txzuleba da klasikuri epoqis mzamzareul
teqstSi Tavisi siuzerenis, arCilis saxeli Cawera (Txzulebis ram-
denime nusxam Cvenamde moaRwia saxelwodebiT “arCil mefis qeba”),
bolodroindeli gamokvlevebiT ki es marTlac XVII saukunis Zeglia,
arCil meoris saqebrad Seqmnili, misi avtori iakob Semoqmedeli-
dumbaZea, xolo vefxistyaosnis epilogSi dasaxelebul Txzulebas
`abdulmesias~ saxelwodebiT Cvenamde ar mouRwevia (ix. xinTibiZe,
a. iakob Semoqmedeli. Tbilisi: sabWoTa saqarTvelo, 1986; darCia, b.
iakob Semoqmedeli. Tbilisi: universali, 2009).
am Tvalsazriss ar iziarebs `abdulmesianis~ gamomcemeli, mkvle-
vari da komentatori ivane lolaSvili: `Tu dRes SavTelis saxeliT
cnobili saxotbo poema ar aris is `abdulmesia~, romelsac Zveli
qarTuli tradicia miawers SavTels, ukeT: Tu SavTelis abdulmesia
dakargulia, xolo moRweuli e.w. abdulmesiani sxva Zeglia, maSin
misi avtoric sxva piri yofila; magram raki sayovelTaod poemis av-
torad SavTelia aRiarebuli da amis erTaderT wyaros vefxistya-
osnis bolo strofi warmoadgens, maSin unda davijeroT, rom `ab-
dulmesia~ (an `abdulmesiani~) aris swored is Zegli, romelic iakob
107
Semoqmedelma `arCil mefis qebad~ gaavrcela. es aris erTaderTi
daskvna, romelic gamomdinareobs xelnawerebisa da teqstis Ses-
wavlis istoriidan. Aam daskvnis siswores adasturebs Txzulebis
istoriul-literaturuli analizic~ (mexotbeni 1964: 50).

Ddamowmebani:

amirandarejaniani 1967: amirandarejaniani. gamosacemad moamzada,


gamokvleva da leqsikoni daurTo l. aTaneliSvilma. Tbilisi: 1967.
barTaia 2014: barTaia, n. qarTul-iranuli literaturul-enobrivi
urTierTobani. Tbilisi: `universali~, 2014.
bertelsi 1960: Бертельс Е. Э. Избранные труды. История персидско-таджикской
литературы.. Москва: 1960.

gogiberiZe 1961: gogiberiZe, m. rusTaveli. Ppetriwi. pPreludiebi.


Tbilisi: sabWoTa mwerali, 1961.
grigolaSvili 1987: grigolaSvili, l. `amirandarejaniani~. qarTuli
mwerloba. t.II. Tbilisi, 1987. gv. 11-16.
gureviCi 1984: Гуревич А. Категории средневековой культуры. Москва:
Издательство “Искусство”,1984.
darCia 2009: darCia, b. iakob Semoqmedeli. Tbilisi: `universali~, 2009.
eko 2004: Эко, У. Эволюция средневековой эстетики. Санкт-Петербург: “Азбука-
классика”, 2004.
visramiani 1962: visramiani. teqsti gamosacemad moamzades, gamokvleva
da leqsikoni daurTes a. gvaxariam da m. Toduam. Tbilisi: 1962.
imedaSvili 1942: imedaSvili, g. `visramianisa~ da `tristanizoldas~
urTierTobisaTvis. mnaTobi, # N#1. 1942.
imedaSvili 1966: imedaSvili. g. `visramiani~. qarTuli literaturis
istoria 6 tomad. t. 2. Tbilisi: `sabWoTa saqarTvelo~, 1966, gv. 60-88.
ingoroyva 1937: ingoroyva, p. `rusTvelis epoqis saliteraturo mem-
kvidreoba~. rusTavelis krebuli. Tbilisi: 1937.
kekeliZe 1981: kekeliZe, k. Zveli qarTuli literaturis istoria. t.II.
Tbilisi: 1981.
Lle gofi 2005: Ле Гофф, Ж. Цивилизация средневекового запада. Екатеринбург:
У-Фактория, 2005.
Mmari 1917: Марр, Н. Грузинская поэма «Витязь в барсовой коже и новая историко-
культурная проблема». ИАН, 1917.
mMari 1925: Марр, Н. Из грузино-персидских литературных связей. Записки кол-
легии востоковедов, I. Ленинград: 1925.
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Mmarino 2010: marino, a. komparativizmi da literaturis Teoria.
Tbilisi: litinstitutis gamomcemloba, 2010.
meletinski 1983: Мелетинский Е. Средневековый роман. Москва, 1983 (Мелетинский: 
http://svr-lit.niv.ru/svr-lit/meletinskij-srednevekovyj-roman/literatura.htm).
mixailovi 1976: Михайлов А. Французский рыцарский роман и вопросы
типологии жанра в средневековой литературе. Москва: 1976.
mexotbeni 1957: Zveli qarTveli mexotbeni. t. I. CaxruxaZe. `qeba mefisa
Tamarisi~. teqsti gamosca, gamokvlkeva da leqsikoni daurTo i. lolaS-
vilma. Tbilisi: 1957.
mexotbeni 1964: Zveli qarTveli mexotbeni. t. II. SavTeli. `abdulme-
siani~. teqsti gamosca, gamokvleva da leqsikoni daurTo i. lolaSvilma.
Tbilisi: 1964.
nucubiZe1947: Нуцубидзе, Ш. Руставели и восточный Ренессанс. Тбилиси: 1947.
ratiani 2015: ratiani, i. qarTuli mwerloba da msoflio literatu-
ruli procesi. Tbilisi: SoTa rusTAvelis qarTUli literaturis insti-
tutis gamocema, 2015.
siraZe 1975: siraZe, r. Zveli qarTuli Teoriul-literaturuli az-
rovnebis sakiTxebi. Tbilisi: Tsu gamomcemloba, 1975.
siraZe 1978: siraZe, r. qarTuli esTetikuri azris istoriidan. Tbili-
si: `xelovneba~, 1978.
stivensoni 1977: Stevenson, R.H. Introduction, Shota Rustaveli, The Lord of The
Panter-Skin, A Georgian Romance of Chivalry. Translated by R.H. Stevenson. State Uni-
versity of New York Press. Abany: 1977.
SiSmariovi 1938: SiSmariovi, v. SoTa rusTaveli (ramdenime paraleli
da analogia). Eenimkis moambe, 1938, # N#3, gv.229
javaxiSvili 1983: javaxiSvili, i. qarTveli eris istoria. t. II. Txzule-
bani Tormet tomad. Tbilisi: `mecniereba~, 1983.
WumburiZe1983: WumburiZe, z. qarTuli xelnawerebis kvaldakval.
Tbilisi: `nakaduli~, 1983.
xinTibiZe 1986: xinTibiZe, a. iakob Semoqmedeli. Tbilisi: `sabWoTa
saqarTvelo~, 1986.
xinTibiZe 2013: xinTibiZe e. aTonis literaturuli skola da axali mx-
atvruli stili qarTul agiografiaSi. aTonis saRvTismetyvelo-lit-
eraturuli skola. Tbilisi: literaturis institutis gamomcemloba,
2015, Ggv.207-227.
holmsi 1970: Holmes, U.T. Chretien de Troyes. New York: 1970.

109
maka elbaqiZe

`vefxistyaosani~ – gza renesansisken

Tanamedrove mkiTxvels rva saukuneze meti aSorebs


rusTvelis moRvaweobis xanas, epoqas, rodesac qarTulma
feodalurma saxelmwifom arnaxul simaRleebs miaRwia poli-
tikis, ekonomikisa Tu kulturis sferoSi; rodesac ganxor-
cielda uprecedento faqti SuasaukuneTa sinamdvileSi:
samefo taxtze avida qali, rogorc qveynisa da saxelmwifos
sruluflebiani saWeTmpyrobeli da mefeT mefe. saxelmwi-
fos erTmmarTvelobis, rogorc erTaderTi misaRebi poli-
tikuri wyobilebis, marTebulobis dasasabuTeblad mefe-
patroni RvTis sworad, ucdomel, srulyofil adamianad iqna
gamocxadebuli. RvTaebrivad miiCnies mefe Tamaris* adami-
anuri sibrZne, sikeTe, sulieri simtkice da mSveniereba. qa-
lis kultis Zveli qarTuli tradiciis aRorZinebis kvalo-
baze qarTulma istoriulma mwerlobam da saxotbo poeziam
Tamars mianiWa iseTi Rirsebebi, aRWurva iseTi epiTetebiT,
rom istoriuli pirovnebidan igi zogad saxe-idead, idealad
iqca. `lekvi lomisa sworia, Zu iyos, Tunda xvadia~, – rus-
Tvelis am aforizmis Rrma socialuri Sinaarsi – `RvTis da-
nabad~ mefiswulTa Tanasworuflebianobis idea – exmianeba
da ganamtkicebs, erTi mxriv, Tamaris zeobis legitimiuro-
bas, meore mxriv ki, im qveynis saxelmwifo wesrigs, romelic
imxanad mTeli saqristianos burjad, yvela qristianis ime-
dad iyo aRiarebuli.
Tamaris zeobis xanaSi (1189-1210) saqarTvelos Zleva-
mosilebis winaSe qedi moixara ara erTma mahmadianurma sa-
xelmwifom da qarTuli mxedrobis uZleveloba aRiara. azi-
isa da evropis sazRvarze mdebare saqarTvelom aqtiuri
politikis warmoebas mihyo xeli da imdroindeli mcire aziis
cxovrebaSi erT-erTi wamyvani adgili daikava. Sesabamisad,
swored saqarTvelos daekisra imxanad dasustebuli bizan-
tiis imperiis nacvlad axlo aRmosavleTSi qristianobis
dacvis metad rTuli da sapasuxismgeblo misia.
* Tamar mefe - (1160-1207/1210), saqarTvelos monarqi 1184 wlidan. giorgi III-is
asuli, bagrationTa samefo dinastiis warmomadgeneli.
110
qveynis politikurma siZlierem da ekonomikurma aRmav-
lobam ganapiroba qarTuli saganmanaTleblo da kulturu-
li centrebis ayvaveba rogorc qveynis SigniT, iseve mis far-
glebs gareT (iverTa monasteri aTonze, Savi mTa siriaSi,
petriwonis monasteri bulgareTSi). maRal da nayofier in-
teleqtualur ganviTarebas, romelic `oqros xanad~ saxel-
debul Tamaris epoqaSi mecnierebis arnaxuli ayvavebiTa da
saero poeziis warmoSobiT dagvirgvinda, qarTuli xelov-
nebis (xuroTmoZRvrebis, qandakebis, oqromWedlobisa da
mxatvrobis) saucxoo qmnilebanic adasturebs. Tamaris dros
aSenda varZiis kldeSi gamokveTili kompleqsi, berTubnis,
beTaniis, qvaTaxevis, erTawmindis, timoTesubnis monastre-
bi. am epoqaSi moRvaweobdnen saxelovani qarTveli oqromWed-
lebi, beqa da beSqen opizrebi, tbeTisa da gelaTis saxarebaTa
ydebisa da anCis karedi xatis Semmosvelni. gviandeli Sua-
saukuneebis qarTul xatweraSi (magaliTad, xaxulis RvTis-
mSoblis triptiqSi) Serwymulia ferweris, oqromWedlobisa
da tixruli minanqris teqnikis saukeTeso tradiciebi, monu-
menturi mxatvrobis nimuSebi ki (varZiis, beTaniis, yinwvisis,
berTubnis, axtalis freskebi) acvifrebs mnaxvels mdidari
dekoratiuli elementebiTa da dinamikurobiT.
am kulturuli aRmavlobis gvirgvinad unda miviCnioT
rusTvelis vefxistyaosani, romelSic organulad aris Ser-
wymuli rogorc qristianuli dasavleTis, aseve islamuri
aRmosavleTis kulturuli tradiciebi. Tumca, Serwyma ar
niSnavs arc am gansxvavebul tradiciaTa xelovnur morige-
bas da arc uxeS epigonobas. am sityvis qveS igulisxmeba yvela
gansxvavebul dinebaTa da tendenciaTa erT mTlianobad ga-
erTianeba, Suasaukuneebis kulturuli garemodan aRebuli
gansxvavebuli elementebis organuli SeTavseba, ris Sede-
gadac vefxistyaosani iseT qarTul nawarmoebad aRiqmeba,
romelic `aRmosavleTsac da dasavleTsac erTnairad gasc-
qeris da mainc wminda erovnuli xasiaTisaa~ (baura 1976: 363).
vefxistyaosani saqarTveloSi arnaxuli popularo-
biT sargeblobda. poemis gmirebi da maTi qmedeba qarTveli
mkiTxvelisTvis cxovrebiseuli idealis yvelaze mkafio
gamoxatuleba iyo, Sesabamisad, swored es wigni awvdida mas
gmirobis, uangaro megobrobisa da amaRlebuli siyvarulis
111
STambeWdav magaliTebs. vefxistyaosnis eTikur koncefcias,
romelic moyvasis uangaro siyvarulTan erTad, `Wirsa Si-
gan gamagrebas~ da borotze sikeTis gamarjvebis rwmenas em-
yareba, ar SeiZleba TanagrZnoba ar epova qarTvelebSi, rom-
lebic istoriulma bedisweram araerTxel imave gansacdelis
winaSe daayena, rogorisac rusTvelis idealuri gmirebi.
vefxistyaosans dausruleblad kiTxulobdnen, samSoblodan
iZulebiT gadaxvewilT Tu gadasaxlebulT Tan mihqondaT da
ufrTxildebodnen, rogorc Zvirfas relikvias. xalxSi far-
Tod gavrcelebuli rusTvelis aforizmebi ise organulad
Seesisxlxorca yoveli qarTvelis cnobierebas, rom moarul
andazebad iqca. amgvari sayovelTao siyvaruli albaT Zalze
cota nawarmoebs Tu rgebia Tavis samSobloSi. Tumca lite-
raturuli Zeglis popularobas CamoTvlil faqtorebTan
erTad ganapirobebs siuJetis, rogorc mxatvruli teqstis
sabaziso komponentis, Sinaarsobriv-naratiuli Tu struq-
turul-kompoziciuri qarga. am TvalsazrisiT vefxistyaos-
nis siuJeti Tavisi mravalferovnebiT, avantiurulobiT da
intrigiT, uTuod ipyrobs mkiTxvelis yuradRebas.
vefxistyaosnis adaptirebuli siuJetis ganxilvisasac
ki cxadi xdeba, rom Txzulebis warmmarTveli motivia dakar-
gva/Zebna/povna (e.w. TavgadasavalTa Zieba, qarTulad `Rari-
boba~), rac gmiris srulyofil pirovnebad formirebiT da
borotze keTilis gamarjvebiT sruldeba. amavdroulad,
rogorc samarTlianad SeniSnavda jer kidev gasuli sauku-
nis 50-ian wlebSi cnobili ingliseli mecnieri moris baura,
`am teqsts bevri ram axasiaTebs iseTi, rac niSandoblivia Sua
saukuneebis franguli romantikuli poeziisTvis. miuxeda-
vad poemis saocari dinamikurobisa, miuxedavad masSi aRweril
amaRelvebel sabrZolo suraTTa simravlisa da Taviseburi
Semaqcevari iumorisa, vefxistyaosani mainc ar aris sagmi-
ro poeziis nimuSi, radgan masSi aRwerili sagmiro saqmeni is
xarkia, romelsac mijnuri raindi misTvis aRmafrenis mimce-
mi Zalis, siyvarulis winaSe ixdis da ara Tavis Seqceva saku-
Tari mamacobisa da rainduli qvelobis gamovleniT... aseTi
gadasvla sagmiro poeziidan romantikulze Zalze bunebrivi
movlenaa feodaluri sazogadoebis ganviTarebis im etapze,
roca Zveli, tradiciuli normebi iwyebs rRvevas da xdeba Se-
112
SoTa rusTavelis freska ierusalimis
jvris monasterSi

115
118
mobruneba raRac axlisken, rac ufro rTuli da ufro amaR-
lebulia~ (baura 1976: 350-351)*. am `siaxleSi~ pirvel yovli-
sa, unda vigulisxmoT istorizmis uaryofa da mis nacvlad
mxatvruli sinamdvilis asaxvis iseTi koncefciis SemuSave-
ba, romelic gulisxmobs narativis maqsimalur daSorebas
realobasTan da amiT `axali (idealuri) realobis~ Seqmnas. es
iyo patronymuli sazogadoebis wiaRSi Camoyalibebuli axali
fenis, aristokratiis dakveTiT Seqmnili samyaro, romelSic
Zalze organulad erwymoda erTmaneTs heroikuli da ro-
mantikuli idealebi.** ideur-Tematuri Tu mxatvrul-esTe-
tikuri qsovilis cvlilebis paralelurad moxda cvlileba
romanis organizebaSic; Camoyalibda sruliad axleburi,
wriuli struqtura, rac gulisxmobs moqmedebis sawyisi da
saboloo wertilebis Tanxvedras (vefxistyaosanSi esaa ara-
beTis samefo, evropul raindul romanebSi – mefe arturis
kari). oRond evropuli rainduli romanisgan gansxvavebiT
vefxistyaosani ar icnobs koliziur uTanxmoebas grZnobasa
da movaleobas, Seyvarebulsa da mebrZols Soris, Sesabami-
sad aq ar xdeba iseTi Rrma interiorizacia konfliqtisa, ro-
gorsac raindul romanSi vawydebiT; arada swored es Sinagani
konfliqti iwvevs rainduli romanis moqmedebis `gaorebas~,
orsafexurobani sintagmaturi struqturis Camoyalibebas,
rac, ori mTavari gmiris arsebobis miuxedavad, daZleulia
vefxistyaosanSi. rusTvelis Txzulebis struqtura erTiania
da ganuyofeli, Txrobis ritmi – dinamikuri da uwyveti, mini-
mumamdea dayvanili brZolaTa, turnirTa Tu mogzaurobaTa
deskrifciuli mxare, samagierod, gazrdilia amgvar pasaJTa
informaciuli funqcia; niSandoblivia isic, rom polifo-
niuri musikis msgavsad, narativSi CarTuli arian gansxvave-
* vefxistyaosans evropuli rainduli romanis konteqstSi ganixilavdnen
z. avaliSvili, h. huperti, r. stivensoni, e. meletinski, k. beineni.
** franguli rainduli romanis yvelaze TvalsaCino avtoris, kretien de
truas�����������������������������������������������������������������
warmosaxvaSi����������������������������������������������������
����������������������������������������������������������������
gacocxlebuli���������������������������������������
���������������������������������������������������
idealuri������������������������������
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samyaro����������������������
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im�������������������
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yofierebis��������
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anarek-
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li iyo, romelic mis winaSe iyo gadaSlili da TavisTavad mowodebuli iyo
kurtuazuli siyvarulis, cxovrebis kurtuazuli wesis idealizaciisaken.
aseT situaciaSi folkloruli (magiuri, jadosnuri) da istoriuli ele-
mentebi martivad gadaejaWva orTabrZolebis romantikas, Tumca qalis,
rogorc�������������������������������������������������������������
personaJis��������������������������������������������������
������������������������������������������������������������
rolis��������������������������������������������
�������������������������������������������������
gazrdisa�����������������������������������
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da��������������������������������
����������������������������������
seqsualur����������������������
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siyvarulze�����������
���������������������
aqcentire-
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bis Sedegad heroika ukve veRar asrulebda rainduli romanis centraluri
krizisis funqcias.
113
buli personaJebi da epizodebi (mag. avTandilis mier xataeli
Zmebis naxva; fridonis konfliqti biZaSvilebTan, avTandi-
lis Tavgadasavali zRvaTa samefoSi da sxv.), romlebic, mar-
Talia, TavisTavadobas inarCuneben, magram, amavdroulad,
erTmaneTSi arian gadaxlarTulni, raTa Seadginon kongru-
entuli mTlianoba.* specifikuria rainduli romanis qrono-
topic. dro-sivrculi ganzomilebani aq personaJis xasiaTsa
da misi cxovrebis weszea damokidebuli, Sesabamisad, prota-
gonisti eqceva `sakuTar~ sivrcul farglebSi, romlebic xan
Caketilia, xan – Ria, mis moqmedebas ki realurisagan gans-
xvavebiT `avantiuruli dro~ gansazRvravs**. `moxetiale~
personaJebis (rusTavelis avTandili an kretien de truas
ereki) sivrce SezRuduli da `Semofarglulia~, dro – dina-
mikuri, radgan maT mkafiod gansazRvruli mizani amoZravebT;
`statikuri~ tarielisa an ivenis sivrce ki, piriqiT, `gaSli-
lia~, drois mdinarebac, faqtiurad, SeCerebulia, vinaidan
gaSmagebis da `velad gaWris~ Semdeg isini kargaven cxovre-
bis azrsa da interess, Sesabamisad, maTi arseboba da qmedeba
aranairi konkretuli mizniT ar aris motivirebuli.
rusTvelis siyvarulis koncefciis calkeuli detalebi
sakmao msgavsebas amJRavnebs kurtuaziuli siyvarulis doq-
trinasTan***, romelic safuZvelia trubaduruli poeziisa
Tu rainduli romanis eTikuri sistemisa. upirveles yov-
lisa, esaa siyvarulis wodebrivi xasiaTi: vefxistyaosanSi
gaidealebuli siyvaruli mxolod raindTa wris kuTvnile-
baa da savaldebulo TvisebaTa mkafiod formulirebuli
kodeqsiTaa gansazRvruli; Tanac mijnuroba srulyofili,

* rainduli romanis axleburi struqturis definiciisTvis qlaiv sTeiflz


luisma Semoitana termini `polifoniuri narativi~.
** ix. (baxtini 2000:101).
*** termini cortesie – qarTulad Tavazianobas niSnavs. Aam terminis qveS erTian-
deba yvela muxli rainduli keTilSobilebis kodeqsisa, romlis Tanaxmad,
raindi unda iyos ara marto mamaci, erTguli da uxvi, aramed Tavaziani,
moxdenili, mgrZnobiare da daxvewili manerebis mqone. misi aRzrdis progra-
maSi Sedis ara marto sabrZolo xelovneba da nadiroba, aramed sxvadasxva
saxis garToba-TamaSobani, musikaluri instrumentebis flobis xelovneba,
simRera, qalTa Tayvaniscema (Sdr. vefxistyaosnis prologSi idealuri mij-
nurisTvis savaldebulo TvisebaTa nusxa: `Tvalad siturfe~, sibrZne, siuxve
simdidre/simdable, siyme, mocaleoba, ena, goneba, daTmoba, `mZleTa mebr-
ZolTa mZleoba~).
114
yovelmxriv Semkuli adamianebis xvedria. Seyvarebuli mama-
kacis qalisadmi damokidebulebis safuZvelia samsaxuri,
romelic TiTqmis vasalitetis institutiT gaTvaliswinebu-
li principebis analogiuria: mijnurs, iseve rogorc vasals,
marTebs Tavmdabloba, dumili da moTmineba, erTguleba, Tav-
dadeba. satrfosadmi gaweuli samsaxuri Zalze axlos dgas im
valdebulebasTan, romelsac iRebs vasali siuzerenis winaSe,
ase rom, satrfo aris ara marto qalbatoni Tavisi mijnurisa,
aramed misi seniori, batoni. samsaxuri gulisxmobs ara mar-
to samxedro siqvelisa da satrfosadmi morCilebis gamovle-
nas, aramed satrfos Seqebas, mis poetur gandidebas. am dros
xorcieldeba Seyvarebuli mamakacis, rogorc pirovnebis,
sulieri kaTarzisi, vinaidan Sesxmisas, Seqebisas wina planze
wamoiwevs yovelive saukeTeso, rac ki individisaTvis SeiZ-
leba iyos damaxasiaTebeli. Tuki qebis obieqti mowyaled Se-
xedavsTavis maqebels, am ukanasknelisTvis sicocxle dRe-
saswaulad iqceva, mis guls usazRvro bedniereba avsebs,
suli ki imdenad gardaiqmneba, rom zneobriv idealsac ki
uaxlovdeba. `SeuZlebelia iyo poeti da ar giyvardes, mag-
ram warmoudgenelia, wrfelad giyvardes da am grZnobam
Sens gulSi siyvarulis simRera ar dahbados~ (Sdr. “xams
meleqse naWirvebsa missa cudad ar abrkmobdes,/erTi uC-
ndes samijnuro, erTsa visme aSikobdes, /yovlsa misTvis xe-
lovnobdes, mas aqebdes, mas amkobdes, – / misgan kide nura unda,
misTvis ena musikobdes~), – adreul trubadurTa poeziaSi
formulirebuli es Tvalsazrisi – siyvarulisa da poeziis
sinTezi, maTi urTierTqmedeba da urTierTganpirobebuloba
– im sazogadoebis ucilobeli principi gaxda, romelSic
siyvarulis axleburi ideali iSva, sadac siyvarulma SeiZina
gamakeTilSobilebeli, adamianisTvis aRmafrenis mimniWebe-
li grZnobis funqcia, romelic mijnuris srulyofil
pirovnebad Camoyalibebis sawindaria.
vefxistyaosnis msoflmxedvelobrivi problematikis,
mxatvrul-esTetikuri Tu moralur-eTikuri samyaros msgav-
seba Suasaukuneebis evropis progresul filosofiur Tu
mxatvrul azrovnebasTan ori ZiriTadi mizeziT SeiZleba
aixsnas: pirvel yovlisa, esaa saerTo religia, qristianoba,
romelmac, udavod, gansazRvra rogorc qarTuli, ise evro-
115
puli kulturis ZiriTadi mimarTulebebi da tendenciebi da,
meore mxriv, sazogadoebriv-politikuri wyoba – feodaluri
samyaros wiaRSi Camoyalibebuli ideologiuri foni, rome-
lic Zalze msuye niadagi aRmoCnda axali sazogadoebrivi
urTierTobebis gasaSlelad. Ees urTierTobani, iseve ro-
gorc am sazogadoebisTvis niSandoblivi moralur-eTikuri
da mxatvrul-esTetikur Rirebulebebi, metwilad ganpiro-
bebuli iyo dawinaurebuli fenis – raindobis – interese-
bisa da moTxovnebis Sesabamisad. vefxistyaosanSi asaxuli
gviandeli Suasaukuneebis qarTuli socialuri cxovrebis
institutic, romelsac patronymoba ewodeba, analogiuria
Suasaukuneebis feodalur evropaSi arsebuli vasaluri in-
stitutisa. qveynis uzenaesi patroni, rusTvelis poemis
mixedviT, aris RvTis swor arsebad dasaxuli mefe, romli-
sadmi mowiweba, morCileba da erTguli samsaxuri marTebs
yovel qveSevrdoms: `vinca mokvdes mefeTaTvis, sulni maTni
zecas rbian~. mefes hyavs mravalricxovani ymebi, anu vasale-
bi _ didgvarovani feodalebi, romlebic vrcel mamulebsa
da mravalricxovan ymebs floben. Tumca vasaluri insti-
tutisagan gansxvavebiT, vefxistyaosanSi patronisa da ymis
(siuzerenisa da vasalis) urTierTdamokidebuleba scildeba
mxolod movaleobebiT gansazRvrul urTierTobebs da WeS-
marit adamianur siyvarulSia gadazrdili – `sjoban yovlTa
moyvarulTa patron-ymani moyvarulni~. amgvari tendencia
sruliad ucxoa Suasaukuneebis sinamdvilisTvis da Tavisi
arsiT im epoqas exmianeba, romelisTvisac umTavresi Rire-
buleba adamiania, individi, romelsac movaleobebis pir-
naTlad aRsrulebasTan erTad bevri ram sxvac xelewifeba,
pirvel yovlisa, uflis mier boZebuli niWis – siyvarulis –
sxvaTaTvis uxvad ganawileba – iqneba es moyvasi, satrfo, me-
gobari Tu, Tundac, patroni.
epoqa, romelic kacobriobis sulieri cxovrebis istori-
aSi renesansis saxeliT Sevida, evropaSi rusTvelis Txzule-
bis daweridan TiTqmis ori saukunis Semdeg dadga, Tumca misi
Teoriuli winamZRvrebis Camoyalibeba im procesebma gana-
piroba, romlebic maRalganviTarebuli qristianuli sam-
yaros wiaRSi aRmocenda da saqarTveloSic da evropaSic arse-
biTad erTnairad mimdinareobda. es iyo gonebis, inteleqtis
116
vefxistyaosnis 1646 w. xelnaweri
mamuka TavaqalaSvilis ilustracia

118
vefxistyaosnis wereTliseuli
xelnaweri XVII-XVIII ss.

119
Setana rwmenis sferoSi, garemomcveli realobis adami-
anuri logikis prizmidan Wvreta, siaxlisaken swrafva, ramac
sabolood adamiani `axali samyaros~ aRmoCenamde miiyvana.
vefxistyaosnis avtoris msoflmxedveloba swored klasi-
kuri xanis qarTuli filosofiur-Teologiuri azrovnebis
nayofia, Sesabamisad, is eyrdnoba yvela im wyaros, romelsac
gviandeli Suasaukuneebis evropis progresuli inteleqtu-
aluri Zalebi – qristianul literaturas, (biblias da sasu-
liero mwerlobas), antikur-berZnul (platoni, aristotele)
filosofiasa da areopagitul neoplatonizms. amdenad,
msoflmxedvelobrivi problematikiT rusTveli gviandel
Suasaukuneebs ukavSirdeba, xolo am problemaTa gadawyve-
tiT renesansul azrovnebamde maRldeba (xinTibiZe 2009:760).
reneansuli ideali, romlis formirebac, rogorc vTqviT,
gviandel SuasaukuneebSi daiwyo, gamovlinda, pirvel yov-
lisa, personaJTa xatvis rusTveliseul maneraSi, rac adami-
anis axlebur xedvas, misi Sinagani samyaros wvdomisa da Sec-
nobisken miswrafebas gulisxmobs (am yovelives renesansis
epoqa `adamianis aRmoCenas~ daarqmevs).
bunebrivia, rom XII-XIII saukuneebis mijnaze Seqmnil Txzu-
lebaSi gansaxierebuli adamianis ideali raindobis ide-
alia, Sesabamisad, personaJis pirovnuli srulyofis yve-
laze arsebiT elements moraluri srulyofa Seadgens.
Rirsebis grZnoba, romelic umTavresia raindul saTnoebaTa
Soris (feodalur sazogadoebaSi is ZiriTad socialur
saTnoebadaa miCneuli), vefxistyaosnis idealur gmirebs,
pirvel yovlisa, TavianTi socialuri mdgomareobidan
gamomdinare aqvT Sesisxorcebuli. aristokratizmi, privi-
legirebuli sazogadoebrivi mdgomareoba (avTandili spas-
petia, amir spasalaris Ze, tarieli ki – indoeTis meSvide
samefos ufliswuli da qveynis amirbari), am personaJebs
garkveul socialur pasuxismgeblobas akisrebs, rac maT
eTikur srulyofasa da ukompromiso moralSi hpovebs gamo-
xatulebas, es ki gulisxmobs, pirvel yovlisa, sakuTari
adamianuri valdebulebis Segnebas (`ver vecruebi, ver vu-
zam saqmesa saZabunosa~), moyvasis siyvarulsa da misTvis
Tavdadebas (`me viT gavwiro moyvare, Zma umtkicesi Zmo-
bisa~) da samarTlianobas. swored es moraluri faseuloba-
117
ni ganasxvavebs vefxistyaosnis idealur gmirebs meorexaris-
xovan personaJTagan. Rirsebis grZnoba, simamace, gulovneba,
gaWirvebaSi CavardnilTa daxmareba, qvelmoqmedeba – erT-
erTi safuZvelia dasavleT evropis saraindo kulturis
moralur-eTikuri warmodgenebisTvisac, romelTac ukav-
Sirdeba sxva saraindo zneni: Zleuli mtris armokvla, us-
woro iaraRiT brZolaze uaris Tqma da a.S, magram evropuli
rainduli eTikisgan gansxvavebiT gmirTa mier sakuTari
moraluri principebis (Sesabamisad, qcevis) demonstrireba
moklebulia yovelgvar ritualurobas, is gmirTa wrfeli
emociebiTaa nakarnaxevi.* vefxistyaosnis `moymeebs~ (es
sityva rainds aRniSnavs) erTmaneTTan rainduli kodeqsiT
gaTvaliswinebuli movaleobebis garda, WeSmariti, uangaro
siyvaruli akavSirebT da es grZnoba imdenad Zlieria, rom
satrfos siyvarulsac ki utoldeba. Tumca maT amgvar qce-
vas aqvs sruliad konkretuli filosofiur-Teologiuri
safuZveli – qristianuli eTika (`wagikiTxavs, siyvarulsa
mociqulni ragvar weren... siyvaruli agvamaRlebs, viT eJvani
amas JReren~), antikur-berZnuli filosofia (`me sityvasa
erTsa gkadreb platonisgan swavla-Tqmulsa: `sicrue da
orpiroba avnebs xorcsa merme sulsa~), aseve msoflmxed-
velobrivi dasabuTebac: adamianis morali misi inteleq-
tualuri SesaZleblobebidan gamomdinareobs. aseT qcevas
adamians ukarnaxebs sibrZne, romelic yovelgvar simdables
gamoricxavs (`ara viqm, codna ras margebs filosofosTa
brZnobisa~), Sesabamisad, amgvarad dasabuTebuli qceva da
morali, iseve rogorc TviT sibrZne, mxolod rCeulTa tvirTi
da valdebulebaa (naTaZe 1974: 208). Yyvelaze seriozuli
dabrkoleba, romelic ki adamians Tavisi moraluri valis
aRsrulebisas SeiZleba gadaeRobos, aris SiSi, romelic,

* es faqti, albaT, yvelaze TvalsaCino magaliTia Suasaukuneebis problema-


tikis rusTveliseuli recefciisa: mamakac-personaJebs Soris urTierTobas,
romelic Janris kanonebidan gamomdinare, rainduli keTilSobilebis kode-
qsiT unda iyos gansazRvruli, safuZvlad urTierTmowonebaze dafuZnebuli
adamianuri siyvaruli udevs. Sesabamisad, poemis gmirebis damegobrebaSi um-
Tavres rols esTetikuri (erTmaneTis silamaziT aRfrTovaneba) da emoci-
uri (raindis siyvaruli megobrisadmi iseTive Zlieri da wrfelia, rogoric
mijnurisadmi) faqtorebi asrulebs, romlebic renesansuli eTikisa da esTe-
tikisTvisaa niSandoblivi.
118
marTalia, mdabali, magram, amasTanave, sruliad bunebrivi
adamianuri grZnobaa. Tumca vefxistyaosanSi SiSis usargeb-
lobasac ki msoflmxedvelobrivi dasabuTeba aqvs: gangeba
adamianis beds Tavisi gardauvali nebiT warmarTavs, mokvda-
vi adamiani versad daemaleba sikvdils, romelic gaaTanas-
worebs `moymes~ da `mxcovans~, `sustsa da Zalgulovans~,
amitom adamianma unda dasZlios SiSi da ar unda gadauxvios
arCeul gzas, vinaidan nazrax sicocxles `saxelovani sik-
vdili sjobia~.
rusTvelis personaJebic, aRWurvilni idealuri adami-
anisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli yvela aucilebeli niSan-Tvise-
biT (uzado silamaziT, siuxviT, TavmdablobiT, samxedro
siqveliT da a.S), romelTa Soris sibrZnes, inteleqts erT-
erTi umTavresi adgili uWiravs, iRvwian gaWirvebaSi Cavar-
dnili moyvasis dasaxmareblad, usamarTlobis aRmosafx-
vrelad, `dafarulis~ Sesamecneblad, TavianTi umaRlesi
idealis – siyvarulis – amqveynadve misaRwevad, rac, sabo-
lood, borotebaze sikeTis ucilobeli gamarjvebis tolfa-
sia (`borotsa sZlia keTilman, arseba misi grZelia~). aRsaniS-
navia, rom evropuli rainduli romanebis personaJebisagan
gansxvavebiT, rusTvelis gmirebs saboloo gamarjvebis miR-
wevaSi jadosnuri Zalebi ar exmarebian (saerTod, vefxistya-
osanSi minimumamdea dayvanili zRaprul-fantastikuri ele-
mentebis xvedriTi wili). vefxistyaosnis adamiani dasaxul
mizans aRwevs sakuTar gonebriv da fizikur SesaZleblobe-
bze dayrdnobiT, gamarjvebisken dauokebeli swrafviT, rom-
lis mastimulirebeli Zala siyvarulia, warmmarTveli ki –
RmerTisa da gangebis rwmena (`bedi cdaa, gamarjveba RmerTsa
undes mo-ca gvxvdebis~). Aadamianuri SesaZleblobebis amgvari
kuTxiT warmoCena scildeba aRniSnuli problemis Suasa-
ukuneobriv gadawyvetas da renesansuli azrovnebis donemde
maRldeba.
rusTvelis mier adamianis Sinagani samyaros renesansuli
xedva yvelaze naTlad siyvarulis grZnobis asaxvaSi gamov-
linda. vefxistyaosnis prologsa da siuJetis ganviTarebaze
dakvirveba cxadyofs, rom rusTvelis mier Camoyalibebuli
siyvarulis koncefcia aris Zalze specifikuri da, imavdro-
ulad, sruliad axleburi gaazreba mijnurobisa, romelsac
119
ar icnobs winare periodis qarTuli mwerloba. rusTvelis
siyvarulis koncefciis calkeuli detalebi, erTi mxriv,
aRmosavluri kulturis aSkara kvals atarebs (Txzulebis
geografia, mxatvrul-gamomsaxvelobiTi saSualebebi, mTa-
var personaJTa mijnurad moxsenieba, rac arabuli sityvaa
da siyvarulisgan gaxelebuls niSnavs; sasiyvarulo tanjvis
motivi, gamoxatuli sisxlis cremlebis RvriT, gulis dalax-
vriT da dawylulebiT, sikvdilis natvriT, velad gaWriT da
a.S), meore mxriv ki, evropuli kurtuazuli siyvarulis mo-
tivebiTacaa nasazrdoebi (rogorebicaa: samsaxuri, dumili
da moTmineba, siyvarulis mastimulirebeli Zala sagmiro
saqmeebis Casadenad da a.S), Tumca konvencionaluri motive-
bi, romlebic tipuria rogorc erTi, iseve meore koncef-
ciisTvis, rusTvelTan mza formulebis saxiT gvxvdeba da
literaturuli gadamuSavebis Sedegad gansxvavebuli inter-
pretaciiT warmogvidgeba*. vefxistyaosanSi asaxuli siyva-
ruli bunebrivi, adamianuri grZnobaa, is RmerTis mier boZe-
buli niWia, romelsac sikvdil-sicocxlis mijnis gadalaxvac
ki ZaluZs, Sesabamisad, sasiyvarulo tanjva da mijnurobiT
mogvrili sixaruli mWidrodaa gadajaWvuli erTmaneTTan
da gancalkevebulad araa warmodgenili. aqcenti aq gadata-
nilia ara tanjvis siZlieresa da kvdomaze (Sdr. `tristani da
izolda~, `visramiani~, `leili da majnuni~ da a.S), aramed am
mtanjvel emociaTa daZlevasa da maTi flobis unarze, Wiris
damarcxebaze, mis lxinad Secvlaze, sicocxlis gamarjve-
baze. siyvarulis es saxeoba, romelsac rusTveli `xelobani
qvenanis~ uwodebs, aRmafreniT, grZnobis siwrfeliTa da
amaRlebulobiT zeciur siyvaruls `baZavs~, Sesabamisad, mi-
si definiciac RvTaebrivi siyvarulis kategoriebiT xdeba.
amiT kidev erTxel dasturdeba, rom yovelgvari siyvaruli
vefxistyaosanSi – satrfosi, moyvasisa Tu patronisa – RvTa-
ebrivi siyvarulis saxeobaa.
rusTvelis mixedviT, `saRmrToa~ poeziac (Sairoba), vi-
naidan is `zecidanaa~ STagonebuli, Sesabamisad, mxolod
is Sairia `kargi~, romelSic mWevrmetyvelebasa da poetur
xelovnebasTan erTad Semoqmedis emociuri da inteleqtu-

* ix. elbaqiZe 2007.


120
aluri sawyisebicaa Caqsovili (`aw ena minda gamoTqmad, guli
da xelovaneba~) da romlis SeTxzvaSic, rogorc TanaSemoq-
medi, ufalic monawileobs (`SengniT maqvs, mivsce goneba~).
swored aseT poezias ZaluZs msmenelze Zlieri emociuri
zegavlenis moxdena. Tumca, garda esTetikurisa, WeSmarit
poezias SemecnebiTi funqciac aqvs – is `saRmrTod gasagoni~
da `msmenelTaTvis didi margia~, amitom, rogorc yvelafers,
uflis mier xeldasxmuls, arc am genialur teqsts emuqreba
miviwyebis morevSi CaZirva, an gansxvavebul epoqaTa litera-
turuli gemovnebisa Tu tendenciebis gavlenis qveS moqceva.
WeSmariti poezia ukvdavebis atributiTaa aRbeWdili, is ar
emorCileba JamTa svlas da maradisobs eziareba.

Ddamowmebani:

Bbaura 1976: baura m. `STagoneba da poezia~. rusTaveli msoflio li-


teraturaSi. I. Tbilisi: Tbilisis universitetis gamomcemloba, 1976
Bbaxtini 2000: Бахтин М. Эпос и роман. Санкт-Петербург: изд. «Азбука», 2000.
elbaqiZe 2007: elbaqiZe m. vefxistyaosnis poetikis zogierTi sakiTxi
Suasaukuneebis frangul raindulromanTan tipologiur mimarTebaSi.
Tbilisi: 2007.
Lluisi1973: Lewis, C.S. The Allegory of Love, a Study in Medieval Tradition. Oxford
University Press, 1973.
naTaZe1974: naTaZe n. droTa mijnaze. Tbilisi: `sabWoTa saqarTvelo~,
1974.
xinTibiZe 2009: xinTibiZe e. vefxistyaosnis ideur-msoflmxedvelo-
biTi samyaro. Tbilisi: `qarTvelologi~, 2009.

121
irma ratiani

aRmosavleTsa da dasavleTs Soris. E


evropuli klasicizmi, ganmanaTElebloba da
qarTuli mwerlobis ganaxlebuli statusi

XIII saukunidan qarTuli literaturis ganviTarebis bune-


brivi (da sakmaod warmatebulic) gza, xelovnurad gadaiketa
avbediTi istoriuli movlenebis gamo: monRolTa da sparsTa
mravalsaukunovanma batonobam gamoiwvia bunebrivad ganvi-
Tarebadi kulturuli da literaturuli procesebis jer
Seferxeba, Semdeg ki xangrZlivi wyveta saqarTveloSi.
XIII saukunidan XVI saukunemde qarTuli mwerloba, iseve
rogorc zogadad kultura, kolonizaciis specifikuri for-
mis tyveobaSi aRmoCnda: xangrZlivi wyvetis Semdeg, myardeba
da erTmaneTs enacvleba sxvadasxva araqristiani dampyrob-
lis diqtaturebi, rac, maTi swrafmonacvleobidan da mtkiv-
neulobidan gamomdinare: a) ar aZlevs qarTul mwerlobas/
kulturas ganviTarebis individualuri gezis arCevis saSu-
alebas; b) arTulebs mis dacilebas dasavlur kanonTan da ram-
denime saukuniT axangrZlivebs mis adaptacias aRmosavlur
kanonTan. saxezea mZime da rTuli gardamavali xana, rodesac
qarTuli nacionaluri kanoni gadanacvlebulia liminalur
fazaSi da XV saukunis TiTqmis miwurulamde imyofeba e.w.
sasazRvro cnobierebis kondiciaSi. Ltermins `liminaluri~
vazustebT terminiT `sasazRvro cnobiereba~, romelsac vam-
kvidrebT Tanamedrove kulturologiisa da literaturaT-
mcodneobis kvaldakval: sasazRvro cnobiereba erT-erTi
samuSao terminia, romelic gulisxmobs ara marto imas, rom
saubaria sasazRvro qveyanaze, romelic Tavisi geografiuli
adgilmdebareobiT warmoadgens wyalgamyofs gansxvavebul
xalxebsa da kulturebs Soris, aramed imasac, rom saubaria
sasazRvro epoqebze, romlebic warmoadgens wyalgamyofs
gansxvavebul kulturul da literaturul principebs So-
ris: `rodesac mZafrdeba raRac erTis dasrulebisa da me-
oris dawyebis SegrZneba~ (bagno 2014: 214). swored amgvar
122
liminalur zonaSi imyofeba XIII-XV saukuneebis qarTuli
mwerloba, romelic, marTalia iZulebiT, magram sakmaod didi
xniT scildeba misTvis esoden organul dasavlur saazrovno
sivrces da uaxlovdeba aRmosavlurs, rogorc SemoTavaze-
bul alternativas. Sedegad, iwyeba qarTuli mwerlobis zan-
ti, aucilebeli garefaqtorebiT (geografiuli mdebareoba,
politikuri viTareba) inicirebuli Sebruneba aRmosavluri
kulturisaken, rac XVI saukunis Suaxanebamde gagrZeldeba.
qarTuli literaturis istoriis axali etapis aTvlis
wer­tilad unda miviCnioT XVI-XVIII saukuneebi, rogorc XV
saukunis meore naxevridan dawyebuli umniSvnelovanesi ide-
ologiuri da kul­­turuli Zvrebis uSualo Sedegi da nayofi:
mentalur-kul­turuli qronologia yovelTvis ar emTxveva
istoriul qrono­logias, aramed xSirad win uswrebs mas. 1453
wels konsta­ntino­polis dacemam da muslimuri samyaros gaZ-
lierebam kardinalu­rad Secvala axlo aRmosavleTis geo-
politikuri da geokultu­ruli panorama. Tu winare sauku-
neebSi qarTuli saxelmwifo­ebrioba da suliereba dasavluri
qristianuli samyaros orga­nul nawils warmoadgenda, XVI
saukunidan man sruliad gansxva­vebul istoriul sibrtyeze
gadainacvla, rac axali identobis Ziebis amocanis winaSe aye-
nebda qveyanas: XVI saukunidan saqar­Tvelo aRmosavleTisa
da dasavleTis Sexvedris geokulturul regionSi moeqca –
igulisxmeba swored is geokulturuli re­aloba, romelic
am saukuneebisaTvis Camoyalibda. Zireulad Secvlil isto-
riul konteqstSi Zveli identobis reanimirebis mcdeloba
imTaviTve iyo ganwiruli, axlis moZieba ki axali qar­Tuli
sulieri kosmosis Seqmnas niSnavda – `TviTobis~ moZieba­sa da
dadgenas gardamaval istoriul pirobebsa da aRmosavleT-
dasav­leTis gzaSesayarze mdebare urTules geokulturul
regionSi.*
swored am kardinaluri istoriuli da kulturuli tran­
s­for­ma­ciebis fonze iwyebs rekonstruqcias evropuli kon-
cepti qarTul literaturaSi. XVI saukunisTvis qarTuli
mwerloba or dinebas Sorisaa moqceuli: erTi mxriv, aRmo-
savleTi, `SeCveuli axali realoba~, misi esTetikuri princi-

* amis Sesaxeb ix. z. firaliSvili, `qarTuli kaleidoskopi~, 2015, gv. 11-57.


123
pebiTa da literaturuli kanonebiT, meore mxriv, dasavle-
Ti, erTxel ukve daZleuli gamocdileba, misi konceptebiT,
religiuri tra­diciebiTa da poetikuri novaciebiT. Sedegad,
saxezea gan­sxvavebul kulturul da literaturul dinebaTa
gzaSesayarze mdgomi qarTuli mwerlobis Tanabrad organu-
li da motivire­buli CarTva rogorc aRmosavlur, ise dasav-
lur kulturul tradiciaSi. am kulturuli fleqsiurobis
po­etikur Se­degs literaturuli tendenciebisa da gemovnebis
siW­rele, konceptebis, gavlenebisa da paralelebis siuxve,
Janre­bisa da poetikuri formebis mravalferovneba, sti­lis­
turi xerxebis funqciuri araerTgvarovneba warmoadgens.
aRniSnuli periodis qarTuli literatura TiTqos gaxs-
nili kulturuli konstruqciaa. erTi mxriv, gan­­sakuTrebu-
li adgili uWiravs aRmosavluri, kerZod, sparsuli eposis
sxvadasxva nimuSebis pirdapir qarTul Tar­gma­nebsa da, rig
SemTxvevebSi, maTi gavleniTa da mibaZviT Seqmnil origina­
lur versiebs. aRmosavluri kanonis, romelic TavisTavad
Zalze farTo da araTanabari cnebaa, proecireba XV-XVI sau-
kuneebis qarTul literaturaSi da cota mogvianebiTac, upi-
ratesad, swored sparsuli mwerlobis egidiT mimdinareobs.
mkvlevarebi am garemoebas ramdenime mizeziT xsnian: sparsu-
li teqstebis rainduli suliskveTebisa da paTosis gadamdebi
efeqtiT (iv. javaxiSvili), qarTveli inteligenciis `faruli
dapirispirebiT~ eklesiasTan (g. lobJaniZe), agreTve, gafar-
Toebuli literaturuli gemovnebis arealiT (g. lobJaniZe).
Tu aq CamoTvlil mizezebs davamatebT im aucilebel mizez-
sac, rom am periodis qarTuli realoba politikuri Tu eko-
nomikuri TvalsazrisiT Zalian aris damokidebuli swored
sparsul realobaze, sparsuli kulturis eqspansia saqar-
TveloSi logikur xasiaTs iZens. gasakviri araa, rom qarTu-
li mwerloba sparsuli literaturisaTvis niSandoblivi
araerTi markeris adaptirebas axdens, maT Soris, giorgi
lobJaniZis dakvirvebiT, gamoiyofa: siuJeturi analogiebi,
mxatvruli universaliebis ganmeorebiToba, midrekileba
`mravalplaniani metafora-SedarebebiT stilis moCuqurT-
mebisaken~ (lobJaniZe 2012). gansakuTrebul aRmavlobas gan-
icdis sparsuli teqstebis qarTulad `gadmoReba~, TumcaRa
savsebiT viziarebT sayovelTaod miRebul azrs, rom qarTu-
124
li mwerloba yovelTvis SemoqmedebiTad udgeboda `sxva kul-
turis~ adaptirebis sakiTxs: `gadmoReba ucxo Txzulebisa
ar iyo meqanikuri aRqmis pro­cesi, aramed procesi Semoqmede-
biTi gadamuSavebisa da Tavis sakuTar gemovneba-SegnebasTan
Seguebisa. qarTvelTa Semoqme­de­biTma geniam SeZlo naTargmni
literaturis asimili­reba, Ta­vis sakuTar ideur-esTetikur
SegnebaSi gadaxarSva da gadad­no­ba misi erovnuli saqmiano-
bis brZmedSi“ (kekeliZe 1951; lobJaniZe 2012: 63).
sparsuli eposis Zeglebi TandaTan ipyroben qarTul li-
teraturul sivrces, magram aq kidev erTxel iCens Tavs qar-
Tuli kulturuli da literaturuli paradigmis specifika:
miuxedavad aRmosavluri kanonis SesamCnevi prevalirebisa,
dasavluri kanoni, rogorc qarTuli mwerlobis pirvelwya-
ro, Zlieri genetikuri mexsierebis doneze ganagrZobs ar-
sebobas, raTa pirvelive SesaZleblobisas amotivtivdes
zedapirze. am TvalsazrisiT, gadamwyveti sityva qarTul
politikur da sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi momxdar cvlile-
bebs daekisreba, evropul esTeti­kaze ori­entirebul lite-
raturas ki, ganpirobebuls ganmanaTleb­lo­bisa da klasi-
cizmis kanonebiT, politikuri moRvaweebis kvaldakval,
aaRorZineben TvalsaCino qarTveli sazo­gado moR­va­weebi da
mwerlebi.
gansxvavebuli literaturuli principebis kveTisa da,
mog­vi­anebiT, Secvlis TvalsazrisiT, sayuradReboa qarTvel
mefe­Ta – Teimurazis, vaxtangisa da arCilis, agreTve, sul-
xan-saba orbelianis, daviT guramiSvilisa da besik gabaSvi-
lis (besikis) moRvaweoba. Tu Teimurazis, vaxtangisa da arCi-
lis poezia aSka­rad ganicdis aRmosavluri literaturuli
kanonis zegavlenas, sulxan-saba orbeliani, eZleva ra saSu-
aleba gaecnos Tanamed­rove evropul literaturul pro-
cesebs, mis kvalad qmnis ev­ro­puli Janruli standartebis
Sesabamis teqstebs*: igavebis krebuls – `sibrZne-sicruisa~
(romelic, garkveulwilad, ma­inc inarCunebs kavSirs aRmo-
savlur literaturul tradicias­Tan) da mogzaurobis Janris
teqsts – `mogzauroba evropaSi~. amave periodSi niWierebiT
gamorCeuli poetis, besik gabaSvilis poeziaSi, miuxeda-
* sulxan-saba orbelianma, vaxtang VI-is davalebiT, sagangebo misiiT imog-
zaura evropaSi.
125
vad poetis keTilganwyobisa aRmosavluri versifikaciuli
formebisadmi, cxadad SeigrZnoba swrafva da­savluri sti-
listuri eqsperimentebisken: vgulisxmobT aRmosavluri
poeziisaTvis niSandoblivi miTopoeturobis Canacvlebas
dasavluri poeziisaTvis niSandoblivi istoriul-yofiTi
narativiT. besikis Tanamedrovis, daviT guramiSvilis Semoq-
medebaSi ki evropuli koncepti aSkara dominantaa – guramiS-
vilis `daviTiani~ ganmsWvalulia dasavlu­ri literaturu-
li msoflmxedvelobiTa da Janrul-Tematuri ten­den­ciebiT:
religiuri, istoriuli, didaqtikuri da pastoralu­ri mo-
tivebiT `daviTiani~ sruliad bunebrivad uaxlovdeba da­sav­
luri leqsis standarts da enaTesaveba mas rogorc koncep­
tu­aluri, ise stiluri TavalsazrisiT. Tamamad SeiZleba
iT­qvas, rom sulxan-saba orbelianisa da daviT guramiSvilis
mwer­loba ara marto Semobrunebis niSnulad iqca qarTuli
litera­turis istoriaSi, aramed ganapiroba qarTuli lite-
raturis gan­viTa­re­bis Semdgomi gezi da mimarTuleba.
orbelianisa da guramiSvilis Semoqmedeba ar SeiZleba
ganisazRvros rogorc klasikuri neo-klasicizmis an gan-
manaTleblobis nimuSi, miuxedavad imisa, rom im drois evro-
puli literaturuli sivrce upiratesad swored am ori es-
Tetikis Widils efuZneboda. qarTvel mweralTa Semoqmedeba
ufro sinTezuri xasiaTisaa. midrekilebas sinTezurobi-
saken, Se­saZloa, kompromisis Ziebis mudmivi istoriuli Cveva
ganapi­ro­bebda, Tumca-Ra metadre savaraudod sxva motiva-
cia gveCve­ne­ba: XVI-XVII saukuneebis evropul literatura-
Si ukve moqme­deb­da neokla­si­cizmisa da ganmanaTleblobis
sinTezuri mode­li – `ganmanaT­leb­luri klasicizmi~, da-
fuZnebuli udidesi moazrovneebisa da mwerlebis – sidneis,
draidenis, jonsonis, burkes, vinkel­manis, lesingis, Sile-
ris – Teoriebze, rac gaci­lebiT ukeT ergeboda humanistu-
ri suliskveTebis matarebel qarTul kul­turul da lite-
raturul tradicias, vidre saf­r angeTSi Camo­y a­l ibebuli
normatiuli literaturuli mimdinareoba, imTa­viT­ve ganwi-
ruli winaaRmdegobrivi arsebobisaTvis.
evropuli (upiratesad, franguli) klasicizmis ZiriTa-
di ten­­denciebi bevrad gansazRvra nikola bualos traqtat-
ma `L‘art poetique~, sadac frangi klasicistis mier sruliad
126
cxadad da garkveviT iqna Camoyalibebuli literaturisaT-
vis mosargebi sqematuri Teoria. bualo daubrunda poetikis
klasikur kon­cefcias da principulad dasva JanrTa klasi-
kuri ierarqiis aRorZinebis sakiTxi. Tavad neoklasikuri
periodis litera­tu­ruli mimdinareobis dasaxelebac –
`klasicizmi~ – miuTiTeb­da neoklasikosTa gansakuTrebul
interesebze klasikuri (an­ti­kuri) periodis literaturu-
li da poetikuri tradiciebi­sad­mi. franguli klasicizmis
umTavres maxasiaTeblebs warmo­ad­genda: a) mibaZva klasi-
kuri periodis literaturuli kanone­bisadmi; b) ukiduresi
racionalizmi, keTilgonivrulisa da di­daq­tikuris pri-
mati; g) literaturis mibaZvis obieqtis, anu asax­vis arealis
maqsimaluri SezRuduloba; d) saliteraturo enis diferen-
ciacia; e) drois, sivrcisa da moqmedebis (samTa) er­Tianobis
principis dacva.
ukiduresi ra­cionalizmi klasicizmis poetikis umTavres
principad iqca. sag­rZnobi iyo rene dekartes filosofiis
didi zegavlena.
axali poetikuri kanonebis Sedegad literaturam miiRo
didaq­ti­kuri, mkveTrad logikuri, racionaluri xasiaTi,
xolo sali­teraturo Janrebi mkveTrad gaimijna erTmaneTis-
gan statusis, enobrivi modelisa (`maRali~ da `dabali~ ena)
da mkiTxvelis (sa­zo­gadoebis `maRali~ da `dabali~ fenebi)
niSniT. magram, klasicizmis pragmatuli da xisti litera-
turuli re­gulaciebis fonze, romlebic esadageboda abso-
lutizmis epo­­qis msoflmxedvelobasa da amarTlebda evro-
peli monarqe­bis molodins, doqtrinis gaformebisTanave
SeimCneoda konceptualuri da stilisturi gadaxvevebi,
ganpirobebuli calke­uli avtorebis siTamamiTa da Semoq-
medebiTi principulobiT. klasicizmi Tavis TavSive moicav-
da wina­aRmdegobriv procesebs: kerZod, neoklasicizmis,
rogorc xe­lov­nurad konstruirebuli poetikuri sistemis*,
kanonis moq­me­debis areali erTdroulad sayovelTaoc iyo
da individu­aluric – is erTdroulad aerTianebda sami
tipis realobas: a) mouwodebda avtorebs, eweraT garkveu-
li poetikuri kanonebis farglebSi; b) avtorebi, romlebic,

* renesansis konceptualuri da reprezentaciuli Tavisuflebis winaaRmdeg.


127
erTi mxriv, emxrobodnen am kanonebs, meore mxriv, sakuTari
SemoqmedebiTi individualobis wyalobiT, zegavlenas axden-
den maTze; g) neoklasikuri poetika, romelic Camoyalibda
safrangeTSi, inergeboda da viTardebo­da TiTqmis yvela li-
teraturulad dawinaurebul evropul qve­­yanaSi, TumcaRa,
mniSvnelovani koreqtivebiT.
Nnikola bualom XVII saukuneSi Seqmna axali lite­ra­tu-
ruli doqtrina da poetikuri normebi, daadgina weris teq­
nologiebi, magram misi samizne mxolod meqanizmis cvlileba
rodi iyo, aramed – axali esTetikuri da zneobrivi norme-
bis Se­muSaveba, rasac, garda axali literaturuli kanonis
Seqmnis pretenziisa, prevenciuli funqciac hqonda: bualo
safrange­Tis moqalaqeTa im ricxvs ekuTvnoda, romelsac
eamayeboda ab­so­lutizmis epo­qis sazogadoebis miRwevebi uni-
versaluri nor­mebis SemuSa­vebis TvalsazrisiT. mas miaCnda,
rom normebisa da kanonebis sistema qmnida Sesabamis emociur
konteqsts, sadac mki­Txvels kargi, Se­ureveli, `sufTa wylis~
poeziis aRmoCenis SesaZlebloba eZle­oda (pokoki 1980). Ta­
vad bualos Semoqmedebac (odebi, sati­rebi), romelic mkiTx-
vels recefciis garkveul CarCos sTava­zobs, iqve, doqtrinis
simkac­resTan Serwymul avtoris maRali ironiis wyalobiT,
am recef­ciis gadasinjvis gzasac tovebs: Tavad nikola bua-
lo ver Tavsdeba mis mierve Seqmnili kanonebis standar­tebSi,
rom aRaraferi vTqvaT pier kornelis, Jak rasinis, Jan batist
molierisa da sxva TvalsaCino mwerlebis Sesaxeb.
genialuri avtorebi arian da unda iyon meamboxeni – es
cno­bili Tezaa, romelsac dro da istoria adasturebs.
klasi­ciz­mis epoqis geniosebic, TumcaRa iziarebdnen maTi
sazogadoebis mier gamomuSavebul normaTa sistemas, ver
Tavsdebodnen dadge­nil sazRvrebSi: emociebisa da azrov-
nebis diapazoni, romelic `diadi teqstebis~ weras esaWiro-
eboda, saSualebas ar aZlevda kornelis, rasinis, moliers
an la fontens daufiqreblad mi­eRoT gabatonebuli wesebi
– SemoqmedebiTi procesi srulad av­sebda dadgenil poeti-
kur normebsa da warmosaxvis Tavisuf­lebas Soris darCenil
napralebs. SemoqmedebiTi procesis `TviT­neboba~ klasi-
cizmis Teoretikosebis mier daSvebuli im Sec­domebis Sede-
gi iyo, romlebzec samarTlianad miuTiTebs a. fouleri:
128
`pirvel yovlisa, maT mkacrad hqondaT gansazRvru­li Janris
wesebi. axali tipis teqstebi an iZulebiT emorCi­le­bodnen
Zvel wesebs, anac warmoadgendnen maT Rirseul damate­bebs,
mcire gadaxvevebs arsebul kriteriumebidan. meore didi
Sec­doma Janris neoklasikuri Teoriisa gaxldaT Janris vi-
wro da lokaluri gagebis generalizacia. antikur epoqaSi
Camoya­libebuli Janruli formebi xelovnurad asimilir-
deboda kla­si­cizmis epoqisaTvis niSandobliv JanrebTan. es
kargi iyo Jan­ris klasikuri formebis aRorZinebisaTvis,
magram damangre­veli axali Janruli formebis ganviTarebis-
Tvis~ (fouleri 1982: 27-28).
genialuri avtorebi, romlebic, erTi mxriv, emxrobodnen
axal kanonebs, meore mxriv, sakuTari SemoqmedebiTi indivi-
du­alo­bis wyalobiT, ukuzegavlenas axdendnen maTze. swored
es ga­re­moeba SeiZleba miviCnioT klasicizmis Zlier mxared:
ganma­naT­lebloba ver angrevs (TumcaRa aryevs) klasicizmis
Teori­ul stabilurobas, vinaidan is riSeliesa da refor-
matoruli eklesiis avtoritarizmis nawilia, magram verc
mis mxatvrul Rirebulebas angrevs, radgan es ukanaskneli
aRsavsea meamboxe geniosTa SemoqmedebiT. maTi kalmis wya-
lobiT antikuri epoqi­dan `gadmobargebuli~ literaturuli
Janrebi – tragedia, oda, igav-araki, komedia – axal sicocx-
les iZens. kornelisa da rasinis dramaturgia axali TemebiTa
da emociebiT aRavsebs tragediis Janrs: wina planze gamodis
pirovnuli da moqalaqeobrivi valdebulebebis Sejaxeba, ma-
kiaveluri suliskveTebis gamoxatva, adamianuri emociebisa
da ltolvebis demonstrireba (siyvaruli, eWvianoba, seq-
sualuri ltolva), anarqiis molodini gamyarebuli discip-
linis CarCoebSi;L la fontenis alegoriul da simbolikiT
datvirTul igav-arakebSi ukiduresi daZabulo­ba SeigrZnoba
socialur fasadsa da realur mdgomareobas So­ris, molieris
niRbebs miRma ki vnebebi boboqrobs: niRabs amo­farebuli mwe-
rali arnaxul Tavisuflebas grZnobs – vizualu­ri efeqtis
gamoyenebiT, morgebulad moZraobs realursa da gamonagons
Soris, amwvavebs maT mxatvrul dapirispirebas, Sre­ob­rivad
anawilebs da arTulebs xasiaTebs, aRwevs gonivrulisa da in-
stinqturis ukidures antagonizms, moulodnelad co­cxals,
129
energiuls, ordinarulsa da, xSirad, familaruls xdis mxat-
vrul metyvelebas.
zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, vfiqrobT, samarTliani
iqneba imis aRniSvna, rom evropuli klasicizmis wiaRSi
Seqmnil Rire­bul (e.w. `diad~) teqstebSi `goneba~ ufro in-
strumentia, vidre safuZveli, ufro racionalizaciaa,
vidre racionalizmi. rene breis azriT, Tundac calkeuli
mwerlebis SemoqmedebiTi inovaciebi adasturebs, rom kla-
sicizmi sulac ar iyo iseTi srulyofili, rogoradac mo-
Canda: Teoria xSirad furcelze rCeboda, praqtikuli
saqmianoba ki sxva geziT miemarTeboda – avtorebs meti
aqcentebis dasma SeeZloT calkeul proble­meb­ze, vidre
winaswar SemuSavebul moralur devizebsa da kanonebs. Aamis
erT-erTi mizezi unda yofiliyo safrangeTis socialuri
siWrele, vinaidan mwerloba yvela droSi valdebulia re-
agi­re­ba moaxdinos socialur gamowvevebze: `wesebi ufro
xSirad er­ge­bo­da Tanamedrove mayureblis (mkiTxvelis –
i.r.) gemovnebas, vidre winaswar SemuSavebul zneobriv da
racionalur normebs~ (brei 1974: 13).
Namdenad, neoklasicizms hqonda `sisusteebi~, romleb-
sac `Tavis sasargeblod~ iyenebdnen wamyvani frangi mwer-
lebi da qmnidnen Rirebul literaturas. swored es iZ-
leoda meTodo­logiur safuZvels, raTa neoklasicizmis
literaturuli mim­di­nareoba Tamamad, sxvadasxva koreqti-
vebiT ganviTarebuliyo evropis mTel rig mowinave qveyneb-
Si da ar damorCileboda doq­trinis standartebs. miT ufro,
rom klasicizmis doqtrinas saf­rangeTSive gamouCnda Rir-
seuli oponenti volteris saxiT. volteris filosofi-
is, esTetikisa da literaturis wiaRSi kla­sicizmis epoqis
`saxelmwifoebrivad orientirebuli da reg­­la­m­entirebu-
li adamiani, imperiis wevri, romelic eufleba xilul samya-
ros~, daemorCila Tvisebriv transformacias da gardaiqmna
`iniciativian, avanturul adamianad, romelic cxov­robs
mswraf­lcvalebad samyaroSi~ (borevi 2001: 206). volteris
esTetika ax­los idga neoklasicizmis esTetikasTan, Tumca-
Ra azrovnebisa da Semoqmedebis axal standartebs adgenda:
xelov­neba ganixi­leboda zneobrivi aRzrdis saSualebad,
tragedia ki – keTil­Sobilebis Semecnebis wyarod, sadac
130
keTilSobileba moqmedebiT Seimecneba da ara didaqtikiT.
`volteriseul tra­gediaSi klasicizmis moqalaqeobrivma
motivebma antiabso­lutisturi mimarTuleba SeiZina~ (borevi
2001a: 206), ramac Se­saZ­lebeli gaxada `wesebis~ morigeba
`maRal gemovnebasTan~ da, garkveul­wilad, gansazRvra gan-
manaTleblobis WeSmariti ide­ologis, de­ni didros esTe-
tikuri dakvirvebani*.
volteris ideebs germaniaSi gamoexmaura lesingi, rome-
lic vinkelmanTan erTad axali tipis esTetikuri forma-
lizmis fu­Zemdeblad aris miCneuli. maTi Teoriis Tanax-
mad, teqstSi didi mniSvneloba eniWeba vizualur niSnebsa
da moZraobas, rac, lo­gikuri msjelobebis garda, aRZravs
grZnobebsa da emociebs. lesingis esTetikuri Sexedulebani
Camoyalibebulia mis saeta­po naSromebSi `hamburgis dra-
maturgia~ da `laokooni~. am uka­nasknelSi, udarebs ra erT-
maneTs xelovnebis sxvadasxva dar­gebs, kerZod, vizualur xe-
lovnebasa da poezias, lesingi as­kvnis, rom vizualuri xe-
lovnebis umTavres misias `mSvenieri wamis~ SeCereba war-
moadgens, riTac is iziarebs antikuri epoqis xelovnebis
principebs, poezia ki sxva gziT midis: poeturi har­monia
aRsavsea mravalferovnebiT, moZraobiT, dinamikiT, rasac
ganapirobebs, erTi mxriv, sityvis Zala da, meore mxriv, ga-
m­om­saxvelobiTi SesaZleblobebis siuxve. saimon rixteris
marTe­bu­li SeniSvniT, `lesingi iyo pirveli, vinc SeZlo
aecremlebina germaneli mayurebeli aristoteleseul pro-
porciebze gawyo­bi­li burJuaziuli tragediebis meSveobiT~
(rixteri 2005: 441). man Seqmna germanuli nacionaluri Teat-
ri, daSorebuli fran­guli neoklasicizmis zegavlenisgan.
aristoteleanuri da neo­kla­sicisturi `SiSi~ da `sibralu-
li~ lesingma `TanagrZnobiT~ (Sympathy) Searbila da daam-

* didro Tvlida, rom xelovneba mowodebulia, aRzardos adamiani moqa­


laqeobrivi keTilSobilebis suliskveTebiT da gauRvivos siZulvili cod­
vi­sadmi. didros filosofiaSi mniSvnelovani adgili daikava adamianis mier
`maRali idealebis~ generirebis aucileblobam, rac, Tavis mxriv, unda aesa­
xa xelovnebas. TumcaRa, didrosave azriT, arcerT xelov­nebas ar ZaluZs
iyos ufro srulyofili, vidre aris buneba: buneba ufro maRalia vidre
xelovneba, is pirvelwyaroa da xelovani uZluria, Seqmnas originalze uke­
Tesi asli. xelovani unda akvirdebodes bunebas, rogorc Tavisi Semoqme­
debis wyaros (didro 1935-1947: 544).
131
kvidra `TanagrZnobis eTikis~ cneba, romelic aqtiurad iqna
gamoyenebuli ganmanaTleblobis (did­ro, svifti), sentimen-
talizmisa (ruso) da romantizmis (hiugo) epoqis esTetikaSi.
germaniaSive, neoklasicizmis recefciis individualu-
ri ver­­si­ebi daamkvidres goeTem da Silerma (`vaimaruli
klasicizmi~). isini CauRrmavdnen Janruli triadis (eposi,
lirika, drama) sakiTxs da SromaSi `Der epische und dramatische
Dichtung~ (`epikuri da dramatuli poezia~) sruliad naTlad
gamokveTes lite­raturuli Janrebisa da temporaluri mo-
delebis mWidro kav­Siris problema (am ideam mogvianebiT ga-
damwyveti roli Seasrula XX saukunis Janris Teoriis isto-
riaSi). germaneli met­rebis azriT, eposi ukve dasrulebul
qmedebas asaxavs, drama – mxolod awmyoSi mimdinares, Se-
sabamisad, dro Janris deter­minaciis erT-erT umniSvnelo-
vanes faqtors warmoadgens. paTo­si, romliTac dawerilia
goeTesa da Sileris Sroma, SeiZleba ganisazRvros rogorc
`maZiebeli paTosi~, anu dauokebeli sur­vili axali litera-
turuli formebis Ziebisa neoklasiciz­mis mier SemoTavaze-
bul CarCoebs miRma.
mimoixilavs ra am epoqis germanul esTetikasa da dramas,
wig­nSi `tragediis sikvdili~ georg Staineri aRniSnavs,
rom Si­le­ri swored is avtori iyo, romelic eZiebda
tragediis WeSma­rit formas, Sesaferiss racionaluri,
optimisturi da, amave dros, sentimentaluri post-paska-
lianeli adamianisaTvis*. eZi­eb­da da poulobda: Staine-
ris azriT, Silerma SeZlo krizisis gadalaxva ara marto
xasiaTebisa da idealebis, aramed – epo­qebisa da mij­nebis
avTentur konfliqtSi: `don karlosi, uolen­steins todi,
da, rasakvirvelia, maria stiuarti tragediis sam­yaros
ganekuTvnebian. vaRiareb, rom romantizmi antitragiku­
li movlena iyo, magram romantizmis epoqa jer kidev inar-
Cunebs beThovenis su­liskveTebas~ (Staineri 1961: 185). Si-
leri mar­Tlac idga klasi­cis­tur-ganmanaTlebluri da
romantikuli esTetikis gzaSesayar­ze: xelovneba misTvis
zneobrivi da goneb­ri­vi ganaTlebis sferoa, ara garegani,
aramed Sinagani tenden­cia, romelic war­moadgens umokles

* Stainers dabejiTebiT miaCnda, rom goeTes `fausti~ ufro `diadi~ melo­


drama iyo, vidre tragedia (Staineri 1961: 135).
132
gzas Tavisuflebisaken: bu­nebis mona, ada­mi­ani, bunebis ka-
nonmdebelad iqceva, vinaidan ZaluZs misi gaaz­reba. Tuki
aqamde buneba iyo mbrZanebeli, axla is adamianis Seswavlisa
da dakvirvebis obieqtad iqca.*
franguli neoklasicizmis doqtrina arc inglisur li-
tera­turul wreebs miuRiaT sufTa saxiT. jer kidev gviani
renesan­sis epoqaSi inglisis inteleqtualuri wreebis erT-
erTi lide­ri ser filip sidnei aqveynebs naSroms – `The
Defense of Poesie~, romelSic araerT pretenzias gamoTqvams
Tanamedrove poeturi ten­­­den­ciebis mimarT da ubrundeba
aristoteles koncefcias po­eziis (literaturis), rogorc
istoriul sinamdvilesa da fi­lo­sofiur abstraqcias Soris
arsebuli zonis Sesaxeb.** sidnei ganavrcobs berZeni filo-
sofosis Teorias da miiCnevs, rom ne­bismieri literatu-
ruli Janris umTavres funqcias warmoad­gens Rirebuli
Suamavloba istoriul sinamdvilesa da filoso­fiur WeS-
maritebas Soris: sidneis mosazrebis Tanaxmad, poezia unda
ax­dendes `istoriis dinamiurobis~ kombinirebas `filosofi-
is eTi­kurobasTan~ da aRZravdes mkiTxvelSi `saTnoebas~:
poeti er­T­gvari Suamavalia istoriul simarTlesa da filo-
sofiur ab­straqcias Soris, mediumi, romelic realobisa da
warmosaxvis `Ta­maSiT~ adgens simarTlisa da abstraqciis
sazRvrebs da Ta­nab­rad atarebs rogorc erTis, ise meori-
saTvis damaxasi­aTe­bel Tvisebebs. miuxedavad keTilganwyo-
bisa, sidneis damokide­bu­leba antikuri poetikis kanonebi-
sadmi SemoqmedebiTia: mis naSromSi aristoteles Teoria ar
rCeba Tavis pirvandel Car­CoSi, aramed – renesansuli epoqis
gemovnebasTanaa ganzavebu­li. aseTive SemoqmedebiTi aRmoC-
nda inglisuri inteleqtualu­ri wreebis mimarTeba frangul
klasicizmTan: XVI-XVII sa­uku­neebis inglisSi namdvili omi
gaCaRda poeziis im modelis wi­na­aRmdeg, romelic puritano-
bis wiaRidan momdinareobda da mxars uWerda frangul kla-
sicizms. ase magaliTad, mwvave kri­ti­ka xvda wilad alqsander
poups, romelic klasicizmis fran­guli modelis gulSemat-

* aq sagangebo aRniSvnis Rirsia ioane bagrationis Txzuleba `kalmasoba~,


romelic 1813-1828 wlwbSi daiwera da romlis avtoric aSkarad dgas gan-
manaTlebluri klasicizmisa da romantikuli esTetikis gzajvaredinze.
** ix. aqve, gv. 62-63.
133
kivrad miiCneoda. misi mTavari Sroma – `ese kritikis Sesaxeb~
– araerTgvarovnad iqna miRebuli misi­ve Ta­na­medrove ingli-
suri sazogadoebis mier. zogierTi Tvli­da, rom poupi Zali-
an `bevrs rasmes~ esesxeboda antikuri epoqis moazrovneebs,
zogsac miaCnda, rom is franguli klasicizmis mim­devari iyo
da cdilobda, Tavs moexvia es kanonebi ingliseli mwerle-
bisaTvis. TumcaRa XXI saukunis kritikis azriT, po­upis Sro-
ma zedmetad radikalurad iqna Sefasebuli misi Tana­med­ro-
ve kritikis mier: XVII saukunis inglisSi neoklasicizmi ar
yofila miRebuli misi pirvandeli formiT, aramed – mniS­vne­
lovani koreqtivebiTa da CasworebebiT; poupis Sromac `uki-
du­resobaTa~ da `gadaxvevaTa~ harmonizebis mcdelobas war-
mo­ad­genda, rac, erTi mxriv, warmoaCenda avtoris keTilgan-
wyobas klasicizmis wiaRSi SemuSavebuli poetikuri norme-
bisadmi, me­ore mxriv ki, asabuTebda normebidan gadaxvevis
esTetikur auci­­leblobasa da SesaZleblobebs. amave peri-
odSi inglisuri esTetikuri azris sxva warmomadgenlebmac
– draideni, jonso­ni, burke – mosinjes kalami.
gansakuTrebul yuradRebas imsaxurebs jon draidenis
naS­ro­mi `eseebi dramatuli poeziis Sesaxeb~, romelic, a. fo-
ule­ris azriT, `gamoirCa Segnebuli paTosiT, daecva lite-
ratura arsebuli wesebisagan~ (fouleri 1982: 27). draide-
ni, romlis av­to­ritetic Zalzed maRali iyo inglisur
literaturul wreeb­Si, ara marto aRwerda literaturul
formebs maTi dakanone­buli normebis farglebSi, aramed
eZiebda konkretuli tipis teqstisaTvis mizanSewonil indi-
vidualur wesebs, anu afasebda nawarmoebs arsebul normebs
miRma. draideni konceptualurad enaTesaveboda ben jon-
sons, romelic, Tavis mxriv, mouwodebda kritikosebs, meti
masStaburobiT gaeazrebinaT Janrebis speci­fi­ka: `arafe-
ria imaze ufro sasacilo, vidre avtoris gadaqceva diqta-
torad, rogorc es aristoteles SemTxvevaSi moxda, – werda
jonsoni, – xSirad adamiani valdebulia, garda imisa, rom
gamoxatos sakuTari rwmena da azri, Tavi daixsnas samudamo
tyveobisa da imedgacruebisagan. de, miezRoT aristotele-
sa da sxvebs sakadrisi pativi; magram, Tu Cven ZalgviZs na-
yofierad Sroma simarTlisa da srulyofilebis dasadgenad,
134
ratom ar unda moviqceT ase?~ (jonsoni 1947: 103). miuxedavad
imisa, rom draidenis Semoqmedeba misdevs neoklasicizmis
mier dawesebul literaturul kanons, is `moulodneli Se-
mobrunebebis didos­ta­tia~ (Sermani 2004: 16) – gaorebebi, sa-
tiruli wiaRsvlebi, mwva­ve dialogebi Tan gasdevs draidenis
mravalferovan da masStabur literaturul memkvidreobas,
Seqmnils aseTsave mra­valferovan da istoriulad aramd-
grad epoqaSi. draidenis teqstebis (upiratesad, dramebisa da
satirebis) paTosi mizanmi­marTuladaa ganzavebuli inglisis
politikur da socialur realobasTan – `ganaxlebis Semdgom
aravis Caudia amdeni ziz­Ri Tavis pamfletebSi, parodiebsa
Tu dramebSi, ramdenic man Cado~ (Sermani 2004: 18). draidenma
axali sunTqva SesZina neo­klasikur Janrebs, magram, rac ar-
sebiTia, gamoiyena literatu­ra erovnu­li saxelmwifoebri-
obis miseuli modelis Sesaqmen­lad: draide­ni inglisuri da
evropuli ganmanaTlebluri klasicizmis ide­ologia, rom-
lis Semoqmedebac adasturebs nor­matiul siste­ma­ze gawyo-
bil mxatvrul-literaturul teqsteb­Si axali naci­ona­lu-
ri identobis Semotanisa da damkvidrebis Se­saZleblobas.
amgvari moRvaweoba mas ara marto sakuTar li­te­raturul
kre­dod miaCnda, aramed – misi drois mkiTxvele­bisaTvis es-
Teti­kuri tkbobis miniWebis erTaderT swor gzad: `vaRia-
reb, – wers igi, – rom Cemi mTavari survilia, tkboba mi­va­niWo
epoqas, ro­mel­Sic vcxovrob~.
ganmanaTlebluri klasicizmi warmoadgenda Sualedur,
sin­Te­zur, erTgvar gardamaval literaturul formas
klasiciz­mi­sa da ganmanaT­leb­lobis esTetikur modelebs
Soris. is iyo memkvidre klasi­cizmisa da winamorbedi gan-
manaTleblobisa – mis wiaRSi abso­lutizmis paTosiT Se-
duRabebuli sazogadoeba axladfexad­gmu­li burJuaziisa
da konservatoruli aristokra­tiis dapirispi­rebis velad
gadaiqca. klasicizmis epoqis `reg­la­mentirebuli morCili~
gonivruli politikis farglebSi miR­weuli Tavisuf­lebis
momxre moqalaqem Caanacvla, xolo li­teraturuli Janrebis
gamyarebuli sistema – sazogadoebriv-socialuri modelis
cvalebadobisa da fleqsiurobis wiaRSi Se­muSavebulma li-
teraturuli Janrebis uCveulo moqnilobam.
135
swored aseT gardamaval, sinTezur xanaSi iwyebs Semob-
rune­bas qarTuli politikuri realoba evropisaken da qar-
Tuli li­teratura – dasavluri literaturul procese-
bisken, xolo da­sav­lur yaidaze gamarTuli Teoriuli daL
literaturuli nova­ci­ebis TvalsazrisiT, gadamwyvet rols
TamaSobs qarTveli mefe-poetebis, sulxan-saba orbelianis,
anton I kaTalikosis, mamuka baraTaSvilis, daviT guramiS-
vilis, besik gabaSvilis sazogado­eb­rivi da SemoqmedebiTi
moRvaweoba.
am adamianebma erT-erT yvelaze rTul da naklebad wa-
kiTxul epoqaSi icxovres. es iyo dro axali qarTuli iden-
tobis da kul­turuli strategiebis formirebisa, romlis
fonzec kardi­na­lur rekonstruqcias iwyebda qarTuli li-
teraturuli proce­si. miuxedavad imisa, rom XVIII saukuneSi
Seqmnili Teoriuli traqtatebi – anton kaTalikosis `wyo-
bilsityvaoba~ da mamuka baraTaSvilis `WaSniki~, – TavianTi
arsiTa da struqturiT sqolas­tikur-didaqtikur xasiaTs
atarebda da savsebiT esadageboda neoklasikur atmosferos,
am tipis naSromebis ukve Seqmna iyo da aris dasturi qarTu-
li saazrovno sivrcis Semobrunebisa da­savluri tenden-
ciebisaken. sulxan-saba orbelianisa da daviT guramiSvilis
Semoqmedeba ki TvalnaTliv warmoaCens qarTu­li mwerlobis
SemoqmedebiT swrafvas normatiul sistemaze gawyobil mxat-
vrul-literaturul teqstebSi axali nacionaluri iden-
tobis Semotanisa da damkvidrebisaken.
sulxan-saba orbelianma ara marto uerTgula saku-
Tar sazo­gadoebriv principebs, aramed xeli Seuwyo mTeli
saqarTvelos politikuri orientaciis Camoyalibebas sak-
maod winaaRmdegob­riv epoqaSi; man ara marto imogzaura
evropaSi, aramed moaxdina evropeistuli azrovnebis rea-
gregacia saqarTveloSi – aRmosavluri kulturuli mode-
lisadmi ganwyobil qarTul saazrov­no da literaturul
sivrces damajereblad SesTavaza evropu­li neoklasikuri
kulturis tendenciebi; metic, `sibrZne-sic­ruisa~, miuxe-
davad avtoris erTgulebisa rigi aRmosavluri sqemebisad-
mi, konceptualuri, Janruli da sti­listuri TvalsazrisiT,
gviani neoklasicizmisa da adriani gan­manaT­leb­lobis dax-
136
vewil nazavs warmoadgens; sabas teqsti `mog­zauroba evropa-
Si~ iqca ara marto kulturul-samecniero, geografiul, is-
toriografiul da literaturul-Janrul mov­lenad, aramed
– inteleqtualur orientirad sabas Tanamed­rove evropul
kulturaSi. metic, sabaseuli mogzaurobis teq­stma dasa-
bami misca interkulturuli komunikaciebis litera­turul
tradi­ci­as saqarTveloSi da safuZveli Cauyara uaRresad
saintereso da mravalferovan qarTul samogzauro nara­-
tivs, romelmac Sem­dgom epoqebSi gagrZeleba hpova grigol
orbe­lianis (`mogza­uroba Cemi tfilisidan peterburgam-
dis~), ilia WavWavaZis (`mgzav­ris werilebi~), aleqsandre yaz-
begis (`nam­wyemsaris mogo­ne­bani~) da sxvaTa SemoqmedebaSi.
sulxan-saba orbelianis mxat­vru­li teqstebis, leqsikonebis,
religiuri xasiaTis Sromebisa Tu qadagebanis literaturu-
li da sarwmunoebrivi, erovnuli da politikuri mniSvneloba
ar SemoisazRvra mxolod misi dro­iT, aramed SeinarCuna aq-
tualoba dResac. msgavsi sicocxlis­unarianoba ki sulxan-sabas
mier organizebuli literaturuli da saxelmwifoebrivi
paradigmis konceptualuri da strategi­uli inovaciurobis
maCvenebelia.
reformatoruli misiis TvalsazrisiT, Zalian cota
qarTve­li mwerali da moazrovne TuU Seedreba daviT gura-
miSvils. swo­red man, pirvelma, dasZlia qarTul poeziaSi
aRmosavluri epo­sis zegavlena da, evropuli leqsis re-
formatoruli tendenci­ebis fonze, Seqmna originaluri
qarTuli lirika; daviT gura­miS­vilma daabruna qarTul
literaturaSi qristianuli simbo­li­ka da saxismetyveleba,
moaxdina marginalur poziciaze myofi qristianuli dis-
kursis reanimacia; is gamoexmaura ganmanaT­leb­luri klasi-
cizmisaTvis niSandobliv iseT esTetikur princi­pebs, ro-
gorebicaa: literaturuli teqstis aqtiuri mimarTeba
erovnul politikur da socialur realobasTan, zomieri
raci­onalizmisa da didaqtikis damkvidreba, nacionaluri
folklo­ruli motivebis gaaqtiureba; daviT guramiSvilma
mSvenieris, amaRlebulis, diadis esTetikiT gaajera Tavisi
leqsi.

137
rasakvirvelia, Tamami Zvrebis miuxedavad, qarTuli li-
tera­turuli realobis srulad gamoyvana aRmosavluri
kanonis zegavlenisgan arc martivi procesi iyo da arc
erTjeradi. es araTanabari sinTezuroba gansakuTrebul
niSasac ki miuCens qarTul literaturas saerTaSoriso li-
teraturuli porcese­bis wiaRSi, magram tendencia, romelic
XVII-XVIII saukuneebisaT­vis gamoikveTa, eWvgareSea: qarTuli
mentaloba identobis aRmoCenis axal fazas uaxlovdeboda,
wamyvani qarTveli avtorebis Semoq­medebaSi ki meTodurad
xorcieldeboda evropuli konceptis rekonstruqcia, ga-
moxatuli ganmanaTlebluri klasicizmis modeliT*. miuxe-
davad imisa, rom XVII-XVIII saukuneebis saqar­Tvelo, Tavisi
istoriuli realobidan gamomdinare, aqtiurad ver erTve-
boda klasicizmisa da ganmanaTleblobis esTetikaTa Wi­dil­
Si, qarTulma literaturam (da kulturam), SezRuduli Se-
saZleblobis farglebSic ki, moaxdina am orive saazrovno
mo­delis refleqsireba. arsebiTi mizezi amisa iyo qarTuli
li­te­raturis tradiciuli an genetikurad organizebuli
kulturu­li CarTuloba evropul (dasavlur) saliteratu-
ro sivrceSi. Sesabamisad, imis mtkiceba, rom dasavluri
literaturuli kon­ceptis rekonstruqcia saqarTveloSi
ukavSirdeba XIX sauku­ni­dan formirebul rusul kulturul-
literaturul gavle­nebs, safuZvelmoklebulad gveCveneba:
rusuli romantizmis gamo­c­dilebam mxolod daaCqara (da,
amasTan, daazarala) roman­tizmis dasavluri literaturu-
li skolis damkvidreba saqar­Tve­loSi, vinaidan qarTuli
literatura ukve idga arCeul gza­ze – es iyo gza evropisaken,
im literaturuli da saazrovno modelis­ken, romelsac da-
sabamidan bunebrivad ekuTvnoda ar­sobrivad qristianuli
qarTuli mwerloba.

* rigi qarTveli mkvlevarebi am epoqis qarTul mwerlobaSi barokos kvalsac


xedaven. ix. gG. gaCeCilaZe, renesansi da baroko // sulxan-saba orbeliani 350.
saiubileo krebuli, 2009; i. kenWoSvili, `gardamavali megaperiodi qarTul
literaturaSi // literaturaTmcodneobis Tanamedrove problemebi, Tb.,
2007; m. naWyebia, qarTuli barokos sakiTxebi, 2009.
138
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139
rusudan canava

ganmanaTlebloba qarTul literaturaSi.


sulxan-saba orbeliani

aRiarebulia, rom ganmanaTleblobis arsebiT maxasiaTeb-


lebs Soris umTavresia: msjeloba qveynis politikuri mo-
wyobis formebsa da socialur urTierTobebze; moqalaqis
aRzrdisa da ganaTlebis mniSvneloba civilizebuli saxel-
mwifos SenebisaTvis; religiuri diskursi.
marTalia, termini ganmanaTlebloba da am cnebasTan aso-
cirebuli problematika XVIII saukunes ukavSirdeba, magram
amave tipisa da mniSvnelobis kulturul-saganmanaTleblo
moZraoba cnobilia antikur epoqaSic. ase rom, enciklope-
diuri ganaTlebiT gamorCeul evropel moazrovneebs kargi
safuZveli hqondaT TavianTi drois Sesaferisi saWiroebe-
bis kvalobaze CamoeyalibebinaT axali ideologia.

G`ganmanaTlebloba~ * antikur saberZneTSi

a) `ganmanaTlebloba~ da religiuri diskursi: antikuri


religiuri warmodgenebi yalibdeboda xangrZlivi drois
ganmavlobaSi sxvadasxva religiebisa da warmodgenebis ur-
TierTSejerebis safuZvelze. erTmaneTis gverdigverd ar-
sebobda tradiciuli `olimpiuri~ religia, `misterialuri
religiebi~ da aRmosavluri kultebi. mTeli antikuroba
`sunTqavda~ religiuri dResaswaulebiT; TiTqmis yoveli
dRe ama Tu im RvTaebasa Tu kultmsaxurebas eZRvneboda.
g. mareim antikurobis religiur Sexedulebebs `memkvidreo-
biTi konglomerati~ uwoda. geologiuri termini aglomera-
cia (anu gansxvavebuli elementebis Tavmoyra – gaerTianeba
da ara erTis Canacvleba meoriT) zustad asaxavs antikuri
religiuri warmodgenebis arss. e. dodsi ganixilavs nimuSebs
antikuri literaturidan, sadac kargad Cans Zveli da axali

* aq da Semdgom antikuri (ZvelberZnuli) `ganmanaTleblobis~ evropulisgan


gasamijnad gamoviyenebT brWyalebs.
140
religiuri warmodgenebis Tanaarseboba (dodsi 2000:183).
am sumburul religiur warmodgenebs xels uwyobda isic,
rom antikurobaSi ar arsebobda eklesiis msgavsi institu-
cia, romelic gaakontrolebda, moawesrigebda da daadgenda
`rwmenis koncefcias~. bunebrivia, dadgeboda dro, rodesac
mwvaved daismeboda e.w. rwmenis sakiTxi. swored es gaxldaT
erT-erTi im problemaTa Soris, rac wina planze wamoswia
berZnulma `ganmanaTleblobam~ (Aufkla>rung). zogi mecnieris
azriT, `ganmanaTlebloba~ antikur saberZneTSi sofistebis
moRvaweobis periodidan iwyeba; zogi mecnieri fiqrobs, rom
`ganmanaTlebloba~ ufro Zveli da Rrma procesia (dodsi
2000:184-185). ZvelberZnul religias akritikebdnen berZe-
ni filosofosebi hekateosi, qsenofane, heraklite; mogvi-
anebiT es procesi gaaRrmaves da ganaviTares anaqsagoram
da demokritem. am kritikul midgomas mohyva tradiciuli
warmodgenebis rRveva. sayuradReboa isic, rom tradiciuli
warmodgenebis ngrevis paralelurad igive moazrovneebi
eZiebdnen `sxva rwmenis~ safuZvlebs. isini mkafiod mijnavd-
nen rwmenasa da codnas. is, rom adamianebs raRacis Secnoba
SegviZlia, da raRacis – ara, klasikuri periodis mecnie-
ruli azris did miRwevad miiCneva (dodsi 2000:185). religi-
is sakiTxebze msjelobas ebmis fiqrebi adamianis moralze,
zneobasa da bedisweraze.
antikur saberZneTSi humanizmisken Semobruneba ukav-
Sirdeba axali sazogadoebrivi fenis – sofistebis1 gaCenas
(gaTri 1983:81). sofistebi (`sibrZnis maswavleblebi~)
praqtikul codnas avrcelebdnen saberZneTis sxvadasxva
mxareSi. bevri mecnieris azriT, swored sofistebi iyvnen
pirveli `ganmanaTleblebi~. sofistebma didi roli iTamaSes
ganmanaTlebluri (am sityvis pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT –
xalxSi codnis Setanis) TvalsazrisiT aTenis demokratiuli
sazogadoebis Camoyalibebis procesSi da Seuties religias.
Zv. w-is V-IVss-Si saberZneTSi daaxloebiT 36-mde sofisti
moRvaweobda, romelTa Soris iyvnen: protagora (pirveli,
visac sofisti uwodes), gorgia, hipiasi, Trasimaqosi, anti-
foni, kritiasi da sxv. sofistebi aqtiurad iyvnen CarTulni
politikur saqmianobaSi.
141
ZvelberZen `ganmanaTleblebsac~ daudgaT rTuli dro.
Zv. w-is Vs-Si (432w-dan) aTenSi daiwyo inteleqtualTa dev-
na. mkacrad isjebodnen isini, romlebic SemCneulni iyvnen
RmerTebis gmobasa da urwmunoebis ideebis gavrcelebaSi.
daiwyo uprecedento sasamarTlo procesebi `eretikosebis~
winaaRmdeg. devnilTa da dasjilTa Soris iyvnen: anaqsagora,
diagora, sokrate,2 protagora, SesaZloa, evripidec.
Tu antikuri periodis saistorio wyaroebs gadavxedavT,
vnaxavT, rom ZvelberZnuli `ganmanaTleblobis~ diadi epo-
qac, iseve rogorc qristeSobis Semdgomi droisa, iyo didi
represiebis, swavlulTa da moazrovneTa devnis, maTi wigne-
bis ganadgurebis xana (dodsi 2000: 194, 205). saboloo jamSi,
ZvelberZnulma `ganmanaTleblobam~ ver moaxdina gadamwy-
veti gavlena da ver daangria `memkvidreobiTi konglomera-
ti~. mciredTa Tavisufal azrovnebasa da mraval ugunurTa
religiur warmodgenebs Soris warmoqmnili ufskruli gada-
ulaxav barierad darCa. ukanaskneli berZeni inteleqtuali
– platoni da misi mimdevrebi (mcire gamonaklisis garda)
aRniSnavdnen, rom maTTvis umjobesia icxovron sazogado-
ebis `gareT~ da ara sazogadoebaSi (dodsi 2000:197).

b) ganaTlebisa da aRzrdis sakiTxi: aRzrdis sakiTxi


gansakuTrebuli simwvaviT dadga Zv. w-is V s-is demokratiul
aTenSi. saxelmwifos mowyobis demokratiulma formam gana-
piroba xalxis farTo CarTulobis uzrunvelyofa saxelmwi-
fos saqmeebSi. swored am dros gamodian asparezze sofiste-
bi, romelTa moRvaweobam waruSleli kvali datova Semdgom
saukuneebzec. aqedanve iRebs dasabams evropuli kulturac.
ZvelberZenTa ideali iyo aretes (siqvelis) miRweva.
`arete~ mravlismomcveli terminia da gulisxmobs rogorc
fizikuri ise gonebrivi da sulieri faseulobebis er-
Tobliobas. aretes miRwevis erTaderTi gza da saSualeba
iyo paideia (aRzrda). aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom Tavdapirve-
lad sofistebis umTavresi mizani iyo ara sazogadoebis
ganaTleba, aramed politikuri liderisa. Tavidan sofistebs
swored isini mimarTavdnen, visac politikosad surda Camo-
yalibeba. politikosi unda iyos qveli. siqvele, upirveles
yovlisa, aris samarTlianoba, oratoruli xelovnebis flo-
142
ba, goniereba (ganswavluloba) (iegeri 2001: 339. Jurakovski
1940:134).
sofistebis saqmianoba mniSvnelovani etapi iyo humaniz-
mis ganviTarebisTvis. Tumca zogi mecnieri fiqrobs, rom
humanizmma WeSmarit da umaRles etaps miaRwia sofistebTan
dapirispirebisas, maTi msoflmxedvelobis gadalaxvis Sem-
dgom. sofistebis mTavari oponenti iyo platoni. am diskurss
aq ver CavuRrmavdebiT; sailustraciod movixmobT erT-
erT fundamentur opozicias: sofisti protagoras maqsima
ase JRers – `adamiania yvelafris (yvela sagnis) sazomi~,
platonma amas daupirispira – `yvelafris (yvela sagnis)
sazomia RmerTi~ (Plat. Leg. 716C. iegeri 2001:351). sofistebisa
da platonis SexedulebaTa analizisas mecnierebi sxvadasxva
mosazrebebs gamoTqvamen, romelTagan gamovyofT ors: Se-
iZleba davuSvaT, rom platonma ganaviTara sofistebis e.w.
`pirveli humanizmi~; sxva TvalsazrisiT, platonma gadadga
nabiji ukan (iegeri 2001:353. iegeri 1943:571).
Cven Zalian cota viciT calkeuli sofistis individu-
alur meTodebze. maTi mizani iyo ara literaturuli saqmi-
anoba, aramed zemoqmedeba cocxal adamianze. sofistebis
aRzrdis sistema efuZneba bunebas (fuvsi~), Tavad aRzrda xor-
cieldeba, rogorc swavleba (mavqhsi~) da (didaskaliva). sofis-
tebi iZleodnen im droisaTvis enciklopediur codnas,
romelic efuZneboda trium-kvadriumis princips. maT daam-
kvidres gramatikis, ritorikis, dialeqtikis, ariTmetikis,
geometriis, astonomiis, musikis swavleba. isini iyvnen li-
teraturis pirveli Teoretikosebi – ganmartavdnen poetTa
Txzulebebs. sofistebis damsaxurebaa isic, rom maT gamijnes
religia da kultura. es iyo `revoluciuri~ nabiji, radgan
arsad yofila religiuri Tematika ise mWidrod gadajaW-
vuli literaturasa da xelovnebis sxva dargebTan, rogorc
antikurobaSi. `kultura~ sasoflo-sameurneo termin agri-
cultura-sgan iRebs dasabams. saqme isaa, rom antikuri paideia
efuZneba im azrs, rom adamianis aRzrdis procesi miwis da-
muSavebisa da mosavlis mowevis procesis analogiuria. es
gamoixateba gamoTqmiT cultura animi (sulis damuSaveba) (iegeri
2001:342; 351; 364-367).
143
sofistebis moRvaweobas sxvadasxva dros sxvadasxva-
gvarad afasebdnen: Tavdapirvelad maT gamoCenas aRfrTo-
vanebiT Sexvdnen. mogvianebiT sofisti salanZRav sityvad
iqca. XIX s-dan sofistebis Rvawli xelaxla gadaiazres
da daafases (hegeli). dRes bevri mecnieri aRiarebs, rom
sofistebma didi wvlili Seitanes gramatikis (lingvistikis
Teoriis), literaturis Teoriis (analizisa da kritikis)
ganviTarebaSi. isini ikvlevdnen moralisa da politikis
problemebs; safuZvlianad icodnen maTematika da fizika.

g) fiqrebi qveynis mowyobis formebze:


antikurobaSi (Zvel saberZneTsa da romSi) Teoriulad
da praqtikulad Seiqmna saxelmwifos mowyobis TiTqmis yve-
la modeli da koncefcia. Tamamad SeiZleba iTqvas, rom anti-
kurobis Semdeg kacobriobas (ramdenime gamonaklisis garda)
ar SemouTavazebia siaxle saxelmwifos mowyobis Tvalsaz-
risiT. ase rom, am konteqstSic antikuroba aris paradigma
dasavluri samyarosTvis.
pirveli cnobebi saxelmwifos mowyobis Sesaxeb ukav-
Sirdeba naxevrad legendarul pirovnebas – likurgoss,
romelmac, gadmocemiT, delfos samisnos rCeviT, Seqmna
kanonebi lakedemonelTaTvis. aristoteles daxasiaTebiT,
likurgosis modeli Sereuli mmarTvelobis (demokratiisa
da oligarqiis) formas warmoadgenda. Zv. w-is VIIs-Si aTenSi
iqmneba drakonis kanonmdebloba, romelsac mohyva klisTe-
nesa da solonis kanonebi. swored soloni (Zv.w-is VII-VIss.)
iTvleba demokratiis fuZemdeblad. demokratiuli sistemis
sabolood Camoyalibeba aTenSi Zv.w-is Vs-is Sua xanebSi iva-
raudeba. aTenSi demokratiuli mmarTvelobis gafurCqvnis
paralelurad saberZneTis sxvadasxva mxareebSi (sxva poli-
sebSi, kunZulebze, magna greciaSi, mcireaziul saberZneTSi)
saxelmwifos mowyobis sxvadasxva formebi Tanaarsebobda,
rac politikosebsa da filosofosebs fiqrisa da gansjisken
ubiZgebda.
zogadi warmodgenis Sesaqmnelad mokled mimovixilav
ramdenime gamorCeuli antikuri moazrovnis Sexedulebebs
saxelmwifos mowyobis formebze. platonis `saxelmwifos~
ZiriTadi postulatebia: saxelmwifo wyoba adamianTa su-
144
lieri mdgomareobidan gamomdinareobs da mas Seesabameba.
bunebaSi oTxi mankieri saxis saxelmwifo wyoba arsebobs:
timokratia, oligarqia, demokratia da tirania (saxelmwifo
VII-IXT.). demokratiuli wyobis mTavari maxasiaTebeli unda
iyos Tavisufleba da Tanasworoba. Tumca Tavisuflebis zed-
meti doza demokratias did safrTxes uqmnis; SeuzRudavi
Zalauflebisken swrafva demokratias anarqiad gadaaqcevs,
romlis wiaRSic ibadeba demokratiis sapirispiro movlena –
tirania. tirani sawyis etapze xalxis rCeulia, romelic bevr
dapirebas iZleva, magram Zalauflebis xelSi Cagdebis Semdeg
qmnis Zalovan struqturebs, romelsac SemdgomSi eyrdnoba
xalxisgan Tavis dasacavad. aseTi tiranebi cdiloben qveynis
CaTrevas omSi, raTa xalxi gamudmebiT grZnobdes beladis
aucileblobas (saxelmwifo I, 319). tirans aqvs ZalauflebaSi
yofnis dauokebeli wyurvili da nebismieri xerxiT cdilobs
mdgomareobis SenarCunebas. tirania yvelaze mankieri for-
maa. tiranul saxelmwifoSi mcxovrebi adamianebi kargaven
yvelaze Zvirfass – Tavisuflebas da iqcevian monebad... yve-
laze uaresi monaTa monobaa (saxelmwifo I,323).
saxelmwifos mowyobis formebis analizis Sedegad pla-
toni midis daskvnamde, rom arc erTi maTgani ar aris ide-
aluri da xangrZlivi. misTvis cnobil modelTagan saukeTe-
soa monarqia. saukeTeso monarqs `namdvilad mefuri suli
unda hqondes da mefuradve unda mbrZaneblobdes sakuTar
Tavze~ (saxelmwifo I,337). platonic azriT, saxelmwifoSi um-
Tavresia samarTlianobis damkvidreba. ganxeTqilebis gamom-
wvevi upirvelesi mizezi usamarTlobaa. kanonis winaSe yvela
Tanaswori da Tanabaruflebiani unda iyos (saxelmwifo, I,
259). Rirseuli saxelmwifos Seqmna mxolod ganaTlebul ada-
mianebs SeuZliaT, amitom aRzrda-ganaTleba saxelmwifos um-
Tavresi sazrunavi unda iyos.
aristoteles `politikis~ mTavari Temaa saxelmwifos po-
litikuri mowyoba. aristotele ganixilavs misTvis cnobil
realurad moqmed saxelmwifo sistemebs da maT ajgufebs sam
karg da sam mankier wyobad. kargia: monarqia, aristokratiis
mmarTveloba da zomieri demokratia (politei). cudia: ti-
rania, oligarqia da demokratia. monarqia, aristoteles az-
riT, aris erTis – saukeTeso kacis – mmarTveloba. arsebobs
145
monarqiis 3 tipi, romelTaganac saukeTesoa konstituciuri
monarqiis tipis mmarTveloba. mmarTvelobis formaTagan
yvelaze cudia tirania. rac Seexeba demokratias, aristo-
tele gamoyofs 5 qvetips, romelTagan upiratesobas aniWebs
e.w politias – rodesac saxelmwifos marTavs kanoni; saxel-
mwifos marTvaSi arsebobs cenzi da mosaxleobis absolu-
turi umravlesoba sxvadasxva formiTa da xarisxiT integ-
rirebulia qveynis marTvaSi.
aristotele mis mier skrupulozurad ganxilul yvela
formas arasrulyofilad miiCnevs; swored amitomac arc
erTs ar SeuZlia xangrZlivad arseboba. aristotelem Seq-
mna Tavisi idealuri saxelmwifos koncefcia, romelic e.w.
Sereul models efuZneba. aristotele iyo pirveli Teore-
tikosi, romelmac daamuSava `Sereuli modelis” Teoria.
ase rom, Tu platonis idealuri saxelmwifos mowyobis
modeli utopias uaxlovdeboda (rac misi droisaTvis didi
novatoroba iyo), aristotele Seecada warmoedgina poli-
suri sistemis reorganizaciis modeli.
aq Cven oriod sityviTac ver movixseniebT im berZen moaz-
rovneebs, romlebic ganixilavdnen saxelmwifos mowyobis
sakiTxebs (imitom, rom am Temas da socialuri urTierTo-
bebis problemas ganixilavda TiTqmis yvela filosofosi,
istorikosi, politikosi). aRvniSnav mxolod imas, rom eli-
nistur periodSi ufro gafarTovda saxelmwifoebrivi mo-
wyobis axali modelebis Zieba. amas xeli Seuwyo aleqsandre
makedonelis diadi imperiis Seqmnam. aristoteles mowafe
aleqsandre didi Seecada Seeqmna im droisaTvis uanalogo
axali msoflio saxelmwifos tipi. misi koncefcia iTva-
liswinebda dasavleTis (evropisa) da aRmosavleTis (aziis)
dapirispirebis aRmofxvras da maT sinTezs. aleqsandrem ver
moaxerxa sasurveli saxelmwifos Seqmna bevri mizezis gamo;
misi survili survilad darCa.
saxelmwifos mowyobis formebze msjelobs ciceroni
Tavis `respublikaSi~ (ufro zustad traqtatSi `respubli-
kis Sesaxeb~). am dialogis monawileni mimoixilaven TiTqmis
yvela manamade arsebul Tvalsazriss (berZenTa da romael-

146
Ta mosazrebebs) saxelmwifos formebis Sesaxeb. ciceronis
traqtatis arsebiTi maqsimaa Teza: `respublika aris xalxis
saqme~(ciceroni 4,39). xalxi aris saerTo kanonebiT, wes-
CveulebebiT, saerTo sacxovrebeli adgiliT da interesebiT
gaerTianebuli pirovnebebis erToblioba. adamianis siqve-
les gansazRvravs is, Tu ramdenad aris igi CarTuli saxelm-
wifos samsaxurSi. saxelmwifos warmatebulobis umTavresi
pirobaa qveynis mowyobis iseTi modelis SemuSaveba, rome-
lic SeZlebs sxvadasxva fenisa da miswrafebebis adamianebis
erTian sazogadoebad Sekvras. ciceroni msjelobs monarqiis,
oligarqiisa da demokratiis Sesaxeb; detalurad ganixi-
lavs TiToeuls. monarqiis SemTxvevaSi gadamwyveti mniS-
vneloba aqvs mefis pirovnul Tvisebebs. Tu mefe qveli, samar-
Tliani da gonieria, qveyana viTardeba da yvavis. usamarTlo
da ampartavani mefis mmarTvelobisas xalxi damonebulia da
saxelmwifoSi iwyeba rRveva. saxelmwifos arsebobis safuZ-
velia samarTlianoba. ciceronis idealia saxelmwifos mar-
Tvis Sereuli modeli, romelSic Sedis monarqiis elementi
(saxelmwifos marTavs rector rei publicae – konstituciis far-
glebSi moqceuli erTmmarTveli, romelic aris anarqiisgan
Sida da gare safrTxeebisgan da usamarTlobisgan dacvis
garanti). oligarqiuli fena ZiriTadad mobilizebulia sa-
kanonmdeblo organoSi. rac Seexeba demoss (xalxs), is xmis
micemiT, arCevanis TavisuflebiT da kanonis winaSe Tanas-
worobiT akontrolebs Concordia ordinum-s (mowesrigebul
Tanxmobas).
ZvelberZnuli `ganmanaTlebloba~ miinavla da Caqra, mag-
ram ar `momkvdara~. ganmanaTleblobis ideebi `elodnen~ sxva
drosa da viTarebas xelaxali da axleburi inkarnaciisTvis.
is, rasac Cven humanitarul ganaTlebas vuwodebT, warmoud-
genelia antikuri samyaros codnis gareSe. swored es gaisig-
rZegana renesansis epoqis humanizmma. renesansis mier `aRmo-
Cenili~ antikuroba yoveli Semdgomi epoqisa da saazrovno
modelis mTavar balavarad iqca, maT Soris ganmanaTleblo-
bisTvisac.

147
`evropuli ganmanaTlebloba~ *

XVII saukune evropaSi seriozuli ZvrebiT daiwyo: es iyo


ori socialuri sistemis (feodalizmisa da kapitalizmis) Se-
jaxebis xana. am fonze samma didma aRmoCenam – wignis beWdvis,
denTisa da kompasis gamogonebam – iseTi gavlena moaxdina
adamianTa urTierTobebze, rogoric arasdros mouxdenia
arc erT xelisuflebas, seqtas, varskvlavs, – werda fren-
sis bekoni. am saukuneSi gansakuTrebuli datvirTva SeiZina
amerikis aRmoCenasTan (XVs.) dakavSirebulma mecnierulma
kvlevebma da kopernikis heliocentrulma sistemam. aqve xaz-
gasmiT unda aRiniSnos antikuri kulturis aRorZineba, ras-
ac Zalian aqtiurad uwyobdnen xels swavluli humanistebi.
antikurobis aRorZinebam diametrulad Secvala warmodgen-
ebi kacobriobis istoriaze da Searyia Sua saukuneebis qris-
tianul sqolastizmze dafuZnebuli msoflmxedveloba.
XVII s-is evropul literaturaSi mkafiod ikveTeba:
renesansuli realizmi, klasicizmi da baroko. es litera-
turul-msoflmxedvelobrivi mimarTulebebi uswrebdnen
ganmanaTleblobas.
barokom gansakuTrebuli roli iTamaSa XVII s-is evro-
pul literaturaSi (XVIIIs-Si es mimarTuleba gadis scenidan).
barokos literaturas evropis sxvadasxva qveyanaSi sxvada-
sxva saxeldeba hqonda: inglisSi – evfuizmi (anu metafizi-
kuri poezia), safrangeTSi – preciozuli literatura,**
espaneTSi – kulteranizmi da gongorizmi, italiaSi – mari-
nizmi. barokoSi sazogadoebisa da bunebis harmoniuli gan-
viTarebis ideas cvlis arsebuli sinamdvilis disharmoniiT
gamowveuli pesimizmi (naWyebia2009:3-5). erTi mosazrebiT,
baroko aris maxinji mamisa da mzeTunaxavi dedis avadmyofi
Svili. maxinj mamaSi Sua saukuneebis bneleTi igulisxmeba,
dedaSi ki aRorZinebis periodSi mkvdreTiT aRmdgari huma-

* statiis redaqtirebisa da frangulenovani samecniero literaturis


sayuradRebo pasaJebis gadmoqarTulebisTvis madlobas vuxdi q-n rusudan
Turnavas.
** blanSaris azriT, baroko SeiWra preciozul literaturaSi, magram pre-
ciozuli literatura ar Seeria barokos, aramed ganaviTara barokos erTi
aspeqti (blanSari 1985:9).
148
nuri antikuroba. barokos yvelaze TvalsaCino warmomad-
genelia kalderoni. barokos kvali Cans kornelis, rasinis,
miltonis SemoqmedebaSi (ruse 1998:12).
barokosTvis damaxasiaTebeli iyo gaoreba, winaaRmde-
gobrioba, kontrasti, antiTeza. barokos adamiani ganicdida
Sinagani ganxeTqilebis grZnobas. Camoyalibda adamianis sami
tipi: mistikosi, moraluri gmiri da universaluri gmiri.
barokos literaturis centralur personaJad iqca wminda-
ni, mowame, mxedarTmTavari, Tavgadasavlebis moyvaruli,
dampyrobeli (naWyebia 2009:6).
renesansuli realizmi agrZelebs aRorZinebis epoqis
humanistebis tradiciebs. misi TvalsaCino warmomadgene-
lia lope de vega. igi barokosTvis damaxasiaTebel pesimizms
upirispirebs amouwurav optimistur energias.
klasicizmi, rogorc literaturuli mimarTuleba, da-
ibada sauniversiteto wreebSi da aSkarad atarebda wigni-
erebis kvals. aRorZinebis epoqis humanistebma zurgi aqcies
Suasaukuneebis xelovnebas da miubrundnen antikurobas;
swored amiT Cauyares safuZveli klasicizmis Teorias.
klasicizmi warmoiSva aRorZinebis epoqaSi, misi samSoblo
iyo italia. Tavdapirvelad termini klasicisturi moiaz-
reboda, rogorc `barbarosulis~ sapirispiro Sua sauku-
neebis dramaturgiaSi. amitom gansakuTrebiT TvalsaCinod
klasicizmi warmoCinda dramaturgiaSi. aRorZinebis epoqis
humanistebma uaryves Sua saukuneebis drama da gadawyvites
evripides, senekas tragediebis, plavtusisa da terenciusis
komediebis `gacocxleba~. isini antikur dramaSi xedavdnen
mxatvruli srulyofilebis nimuSebs; amitom ayalibebdnen
antikurze dafuZnebuli Teatris racionalur, myar kanonebs.
klasicizmma warmmarTveli pozicia moipova XVIIs-is fran-
gul literaturaSi. swored aq miaRwia klasicizmma ganvi-
Tarebis umaRles mwvervals.
frangma klasicistebma moaxerxes SeejerebinaT antikuri
literaturuli gamocdileba Tavisi xalxis nacionalur
tradiciebTan (rac ver moaxerxes sxva qveynebSi). renesan-
suli realizmis tradiciebi gagrZelda mxatvrul prozaSi,
ZiriTadad, romanSi. baroko ki gamovlinda aristokratiul
poeziaSi (e.w. preciozuli literatura) (artamonovi 1973:
4-10; 89).
149
rogorc aRvniSneT, Tavdapirvelad klasicizmi gulis-
xmobda antikuri xelovnebis mibaZvas rogorc Teoriulad
ise praqtikulad. amitom, bunebrivia, antikuri avtorebis
da antikurobis Seswavla aucilebeli da umniSvnelovanesi
iyo. magram ise moxda, rom zog qveyanaSi antikurobis mxolod
brma kanonizaciam (istoriuli konteqstisa da nacionaluri
tendenciebis gaTvaliswinebis gareSe) es mimarTuleba Cix-
Si Seiyvana. mxolod safrangeTSi moxerxda klasicisturi
mimarTulebis mniSvnelovani nawarmoebebis Seqmna.3 ismis
kiTxva: rogor SeinarCuna klasicizmma safrangeTSi myari
poziciebi ori saukunis ganmavlobaSi. amas ramdenime mize-
ziT xsnian: 1. XVIIs-is safrangeTis xelisuflebam klasiciz-
mi gamoacxada oficialur mxatvrul meTodad. absoluturi
monarqiis principebi (romlebsac ganuxrelad axorcieleb-
da da akontrolebda riSelie) xelovnebisgan moiTxovda
mkafio mkacrad kanonizebul formebs. swored am epoqaSi da-
nawevrebuli, provinciuli safrangeTi iwyebda naciad gaer-
Tianebas. amisTvis qveyanas sWirdeboda yvelasTvis gasage-
bi saerTo ena. iwyeba literaturuli da sametyvelo enis
unifikaciis procesi. 2. klasicizmma, rogorc mxatvrulma
meTodma, mxardaWera hpova dekartis filosofiur Sexedule-
bebSi. cnobilia, rom dekarti iyo racionaluri filosofiis
mesaZirkvle safrangeTSi; klasicisturi mimdinareobis mTa-
vari Tviseba swored racionalizmia. fraza – Cogito, ergo sum
(vazrovneb e.i. var – dekarti) zustad gamoxatavs raciona-
lizmis arss. sainteresoa erTi momentic: klasicizmis sa-
erToevropuli Teoretikosi bualo saliteraturo aspa-
rezze gamovida maSin, rodesac klasicisturi literatura
safrangeTSi ukve Camoyalibebuli iyo. man ganazogada kla-
sicistebis gamocdileba da literaturuli procesis anali-
zisTvis gamoiyena dekartis filosofiuri meTodi. bualos
azriT, antikuri epoqis mwerlebi TavianT Sedevrebs qmnidnen
winaswar SemuSavebuli wesebis safuZvelze. amitom, marTe-
buli iqneba, Tu Semdgomi epoqebis Semoqmedi adamianebic maT
gzas gayvebian. swored am niadagze `aRmocenda~ klasicizmis
wes-kanonebi (magaliTad, sami erTianobis – drois, adgilisa
da moqmedebis). klasicizmis esTetikis normatiuloba amo-
dioda, upirveles yovlisa, franguli absolutizmis poli-
150
tikuri miznebidan. absoluturi monarqiis umTavresi mizani
ki iyo xelovnebis Cayeneba saxelmwifos samsaxurSi (bruneli
1972. Jenetie 2005).
specialistTa saerTo SefasebiT klasicizmma progre-
suli roli iTamaSa franguli kulturis formirebasa da
ganviTarebaSi. igi mWidrod iyo gadajaWvuli nacionalur
tradiciebTan. klasicizmma didi gavlena iqonia naciona-
luri erTobis saqmeSi. am epoqis kultura asaxavda absolu-
tizmis progresul rols naciis formirebis saqmeSi. kla-
sicizmma Sva iseTi gigantebi, rogorebic iyvnen: korneli,
rasini, molieri. klasicizmis Teoriis qvakuTxedia swavleba
mSvenierebis ideis maradiulobasa da absoluturobaze. an-
tikurobaSi Seiqmna aseTi idealebi amitom unda mivbaZoT maT
(vilari 1957:102).
XVIII s-is evropaSi politikuri sistemebis TvalsazrisiT
sakmaod Wreli viTareba ikveTeba: inglisSi samefo Zalauf-
leba, faqtobrivad, nominalur funqcias iZens da gavlenas
ver axdens politikur procesebze. safrangeTSi jer kidev
absoluturi monarqiaa. Ggermania daiSala wvril sahercogo-
ebad. italia, germaniis msgavsad, danawevrda da dasustda.
mZime viTareba iyo centraluri evropis saxelmwifoebSic.
ase, rom, XVIIIs-is evropis umTavresi amocana iyo saxelmwi-
foebrivi mowyobis axali gzebis Zieba. es procesi aisaxa
mxatvrul literaturaSic. Sesabamisad, moazrovneTa winaSe
daisva ara mxolod Tematikis SerCevis sakiTxi TavianTi
TxzulebebisTvis, aramed axali mxatvruli esTetikis Semu-
Savebis aucileblobac.
swored am periodSi axal datvirTvas da mniSvnelobas
iZens termini ganmanaTlebloba. farTo gagebiT ganmanaTleb-
loba gulisxmobs xalxSi codnisa da ganaTlebis gavrcelebas,
kulturasTan, mecnierebasTan, xelovnebasTan daaxloebas;
religiuri crurwmenebisa da SeboWilobisgan ganTavisuf-
lebas. viwro gagebiT, am terminiT aRniSnaven mZlavr in-
teleqtualur process (moZraobas), romelic warmoiSva XVIII
s-Si. ganmanaTleblobis aRmocenebis mizezad analitikosebis
didi nawili miiCnevs ori politikur-socialuri sistemis
(feodalizmisa da kapitalizmis) samkvdro-sasicocxlo da-
pirispirebas. ganmanaTlebloba iSva filosofiis, esTetikis,
151
iurisprudenciis, moralis, eTikis erTiani msoflmxedve-
lobis bazaze. ganmanaTleblobis istoriuli misia iyo is,
rom man moamzada axali revoluciuri azri da moZraoba mTel
evropaSi. feodalur wyobaze sami gadamwyveti dartyma gan-
xorcielda evropis sxvadasxva qveyanaSi: pirveli iyo glexe-
bis omi germaniaSi 1524-1525ww. meore – burJuaziuli revo-
lucia inglisSi (XVII s.); mesame – safrangeTis revolucia
(Sesavali 1973:6). ganmanaTleblobaSi gamoyofen or etaps:
I. adreuli ganmanaTlebloba (XVIIIs-is 20-30-iani wlebi).
am periodSi evropis TiTqmis yvela qveyanaSi dominirebs
ganmanaTlebluri klasicizmi. maT XVII s-is klasicistebisgan
(korneli, rasini, molieri) imemkvidres (mxatvruli) saxis
Seqmnisa da cxovrebiseuli masalis mxatvrulad gadamuSa-
vebis umTavresi principebi. magram klasicistebisgan gans-
xvavebiT, klasicist-ganmanaTleblebs surdaT ara monarqiis
gaZliereba, aramed – piriqiT. am periodis umTavresi warmo-
madgenlebi arian volteri, a. poupi, m-J Senie. klasicizmis
elementebi ikveTeba didros, bernsis, lesingis, goeTes, Si-
leris SemoqmedebaSi. klasicizmTan ganmanaTleblebis mi-
marTebis erT-erTi damadasturebeli komponentia damokide-
buleba antikurobisadmi. Tumca ganmanaTleblebs antikuri
saberZneTi da romi sul sxva konteqstiT ainteresebT. gan-
manaTlebelTa SemoqmedebSi Cndeba meamboxe respublikele-
bis (brutus-ufrosi), reformatorebis (Zmebi grakxusebi),
meamboxe monis – spartakis da sxva Rirseuli moqalaqeebis
saxeebi. ganmanaTleblebis SemoqmedebaSi did adgils ikavebs
didaqtika.
klasicisturi ganmanaTleblobis periodis literatu-
raSi gansakuTrebuli adgili ukavia e.w. `vaimaris klasi-
cizms~ (goeTe, Sileri). isini antikur epoqaSi eZiebdnen
harmoniulad ganviTarebul adamians da upirispirebdnen
TavianT Tanadroul gaubedurebul realur saxeebs. swored
am magaliTebiT cdilobdnen germanuli sazogadoebis cxov-
rebis Secvlas (am mxriv sayuradReboa goeTes `ifigenia tav-
risSi~ da Sileris `saberZneTis RmerTebi~).
II. XVIIIs-is Suaxanebidan ganmanaTlebelTa SemoqmedebaSi
ikveTeba realisturi mimarTuleba. amas biZgi misca saojaxo-
sayofacxovrebo da socialuri romanis `dabadebam~ inglisSi
152
(defo, riCardsoni, fildingi, smoleti). am mimarTulebis
Teoretikosebi iyvnen frangi ganmanaTlebeli (enciklope-
disti) deni didro da germaneli ganmanaTlebeli lesingi.
realisti ganmanaTleblebi TavianT personaJebs qmnidnen
abstraqtuli mxatvruli ganzogadebis safuZvelze da sa-
gangebod gaurbodnen individualizacias. XVIIIs-is romani
iqca ganmanaTleblobis epoqis udides monapovrad. romani
warmodga, rogorc axali drois eposi. masSi sinTezirebuli
iyo naciis socialuri yofa da adamianis sulis Rrma wvdoma.
ganmanaTleblebi ZiriTadad enciklopediuri codnis
adamianebi iyvnen. isini aSkarad gamodiodnen feodaluri
saxelmwifos winaaRmdeg, ris gamoc idevnebodnen; zogi
maTgani bastiliaSi moxvda (volteri, didro), an qveynis
sxva mxares Seafara Tavi (volteri, Sileri, d’alamberi),
katorRaSi gaatara bevri weli (k.Subarti). ganmanaTlebeli
mwerlebis umetesobis gansakuTrebul siZulvils iwvevda
kaTolikuri eklesia, romelic feodalizmis ZiriTad say-
rdenad miaCndaT.
ganmanaTleblebs azriT, codna, ganaTleba da monoba Se-
uTavsebelia. aqedan gamodioda daskvna: aucilebelia ada-
mianTa farTo masebSi ganaTlebis `Setana~. es ukve iqneba
gonebis gamarjveba sibneleze. ganmanaTlebelTaTvis misa-
Rebi da ueWveli iyo is ideebi, romlebic Tavad Camoayali-
bes. uaryofdnen wina istorias, gansakuTrebiT daupiris-
pirdnen Sua saukuneebs. gvirgvinosan despotsa da feodals
ganmanaTleblebma daupirispires `Cveulebrivi adamiani~.
win wamoiwia pirovnuli Rirebulebebis ideam; adamiani ada-
mianisgan unda gamoirCes mxolod talantisa da siqvelis mi-
xedviT (Sesavali 1973:7-11).
ganmanaTleblobis centraluri moTxovnaa sazogadoebis
`mankieri~ mmarTveli fenis gadakeTeba (gadawyoba, gardaq-
mna) xelovnebisa da filosofiuri ideebis zemoqmedebiT.
aman bevri `zomieri~ ganmanaTlebeli miiyvana `ganaTlebuli
monarqiis~ ideamde. amisTvis aucilebelia ganaTlebuli
monarqebis aRzrda, maTSi Cveulebrivi adamianis gaRviZeba,
romelic darwmundeba ra monobisa da Cagvris absurduloba-
Si, qveynis saqmeebs gonebiTa da siqveliT warmarTavs. ro-
gorc cnobilia, XVIIIs-is bevrma gvirgvinosanma moxerxe-
153
bulad gamoiyena Tvalsazrisi `ganaTlebuli monarqiis~
Sesaxeb (ekaterine II, fridrix II).
ganmanaTlebelTa azriT, normalur pirovnebaSi im-
TaviTve Cadebulia sikeTe; boroteba SeZenili Tvisebaa,
romlisganac advilad SeiZleba gaTavisufleba, Tu goneba
(goniereba giwinamZRvrebs.). Tumca pirovnebis arsi gan-
manaTleblebs abstraqtulad esmodaT.
XVIII s-is II naxevarSi inglisSi daiwyo agrarul-samrewve-
lo gadatrialeba, ramac soflis gaCanageba gamoiwvia, Seiq-
mna didi industriuli centrebi, gaCnda uamravi dausaqme-
beli adamiani. amas mohyva Tavisi gamoxmaureba literaturaSi
– jer inglisSi, Semdeg ki safrangeTsa da germaniaSi warmo-
iSva sentimentalizmi.
ingliseli mwerlebi: sterni, goldsmiti, iungi, grei
mxatvrulad asaxvdnen adamianis grZnobebs. isini ver xedav-
dnen progresis gzas da pesimizmisturad iyvnen ganwyobilni.
aidealebdnen patriarqalur siZveleebs. xSirad gamodiod-
nen frangi ganmanaTleblebis ideebis winaaRmdeg. pesimizm-
ma, miusafrobis, uperspeqtivobis gancdam literaturaSi
warmoSva e.w. `goTikuri romani~, romelic gaJRenTilia koS-
marebiTa da saSinelebebiT.
am mimarTulebis mwerlebi TavianTi msoflmxedvelo-
biT unda miekuTvnos ganmanaTleblobas, Tumca ganmanaT-
lebluri gonebis Zalmosilebis rwmena TandaTan iryeoda.
sentimentalizmi ar iyo erTiani mimdinareoba mxatvrulsa
da esTetikur azrovnebaSi. sentimentalistebis TvalTaxed-
vis arealSi eqcevian gamorCeuli adamianebi, grandiozuli
movlenebi, diadi vnebebi. maT didi doziT Semoitanes lite-
raturaSi emocia, gancda, buneba. safrangeTsa da germaniaSi
sentimentalizmi TandaTan Seerwya ganmanaTleblobas da
Sesabamisad, inglisuri sentimentalizmisgan gansxvavebuli
geziT ganviTarda.
safrangeTis revoluciis periodis (1789-1794) ganmanaT-
lebluri literatura gamsWvalulia humanisturi ideale-
biTa da istoriuli optimizmiT.
rogor aRvniSneT, ganmanaTleblebis Semoqmedebis mTa-
vari amocanaa sazogadoebis gardaqmna. aqedan gamomdinare,
ganmanaTleblobis esTetikis mizania xelovnebis aRmzrde-
154
lobiTi funqciis damkvidreba. ganmanaTlebelTa esTeti-
kis SemuSavebaSi didi gavlena iqonia aristoteles swavle-
bam xelovnebis Sesaxeb. klasicistebisgan gansxvavebiT,
ganmanaTleblebi sxva siRrmeebs eZeben aristoteles swav-
lebaSi. ganmanaTlebelTa teqstebSi sWarbobs filosofi-
uri wiaRsvlebi. metic, xSir SemTxvevebSi es Txzulebebi be-
letrizirebuli filosofiuri traqtatebia. iqmneba axali
Janrebi: publicisturi filosofiur-politikuri romani,
moralistur-politikuri drama, groteskul-komediuri pam-
fleti. ganmanaTleblebma literaturaSi Semoiyvanes axali
tipis gmiri – adamiani dabali wridan. siaxle iyo kritikuli
suliskveTebis damkvidrebac (roSi 1993:16-17).4
inglisuri ganmanaTleblobis Taviseburebebi ganpiro-
bebulia qveynis istoriuli ganviTarebis specifikiT. in-
glisuri ganmanaTlebloba viTardeba ukve gamarjvebuli
burJuaziuli wyobis pirobebSi. inglisur ganmanaTleblobas
3 etapad yofen: 1688-1730ww. – rodesac ganmanaTleblobis
ideebi jer kidev Zalas ikrebs. 1730-1750 – ganmanaTlebluri
literaturis gafurCqvnis periodi. 1750-1780 – sentimen-
talizmis ganviTareba. am droidan daiwyo ganmanaTleblobis
ideologiis krizisi da daqveiTeba (Sesavali 1973:14).
inglisuri ganmanaTlebloba gamoirCeoda ufro zomie-
ri xasiaTiT (franguli da germanulisgan gansxvavebiT).
amisi mizezi, rogorc vTqviT, iyo is, rom misi ganviTareba
mimdinareobda burJuaziuli sistemis gamarjvebis fonze
(ganmanaTlebloba xom ideologiis doneze feodalur siste-
mas upirispirdeba). ingliseli ganmanaTleblebis kritiku-
li frTa upirispirdeba feodalur gadmonaSTebs, religiur
farisevlobas, puritanTa TvalTmaqcobas, socialur sidux-
Wires. am periodis TvalsaCino warmomadgenlebi arian poe-
ti. poupi da romanisti d. defo. meore etapze am frTas warmo-
adgenen svifti da fildingi; smoleti da hogarti. isini ukve
axalCamoyalibebuli wyobis da klasis (burJuaziis) winaaR-
mdeg imaRleben xmas. XVIIIs-is pirveli mesamedis yvelaze
didi poetia aleqsandr poupi. misi poeziis Targmanebi didi
tiraJebiT gamoicemoda safrangeTsa da germaniaSi. amav-
droulad viTardeboda inglisuri ganmanaTlebluri drama-
turgiac. d. lillo qmnis e.w. meSCanur dramas. gansakuTrebiT
155
mniSvnelovani mainc romania. defos avantiuruli da saTav-
gadasavlo romanebi `robinzon kruzo~, `mol flendersi~,
`polkovniki jeki~ asaxaven rTuli epoqis realur kolizi-
ebs. evropuli ganmanaTleblobis konteqstSi gansakuTrebu-
li mniSvneloba aqvs `robinzon kruzos~. aseve mniSvnelovania
didi satirikosisa da publicistis jonaTan sviftis Semoq-
medeba. misi `kasris zRapari~ da `guliveris mogzauroba~
inglisuri ganmanaTleblobis meore, simwifis periodis
margalitebia. XVIII s-is II naxevarSi d. defos avantiurul-saT-
avgadasavlo da sviftis satirul stils Caenacvla saojaxo-
sayofacxovrebo da socialuri romani. am mxriv, upirvele-
sad unda aRiniSnos s. riCardsoni, romelmac saTave Ddaudo
sentimentalur romans. inglisuri ganmanaTlebluri romani
ganviTarebis mwvervals aRwevs h. fildingis SemoqmedebaSi.
igi iyo novatori, romelmac, faqtobrivad, Seqmna axali dro-
is romani. igi akritikebs religiur ugunurebas da TvalT-
maqcobas. (gansakuTrebulia `tom jounzis, napovaras ambavi~)
popularuli iyo Sotlandieli ganmanaTleblis t. smoletis
romanebi. amgvarad, defos, sviftis, fildingis, smoletis
agreTve goldsmitisa da sternis (mogvianebiT gamoCndnen)
Semoqmedeba namdvilad didi mniSvnelobis movlena iyo, Se-
iZleba iTqvas, gadatrialeba, evropul literaturaSi.
inglisuri ganmanaTleblobis III etapze gabatonda sen-
timentalizmi. riCardsonis xazs agrZeleben sterni da
goldsmiti. lorens sternis romanma `sentimentaluri mog-
zauroba~ gansazRvra am literaturuli mimarTulebis saxel-
deba – sentimentalizmi. sternma da goldsmitma pirvelebma
asaxes qalaqeli da provincieli meSCanebis yofa-cxovreba.
sternisa da goldsmitis SemoqmedebiT sruldeba inglisuri
ganmanaTlebluri romanis (XVIII s.) ganviTareba. am saukunis
70-iani wlebidan iwyeba ganmanaTlebluri ideologiis saer-
To krizisi. axali tipis realistur romans sxva safuZveli
sWirdeboda (Sesavali 1973:15-32).
XVIII s-Si dasavleT evropaSi feodalurma wyobam mesame
da gamanadgurebeli dartyma ganicada. es iyo safrangeTis
burJuaziuli revolucia (1789-1794ww.). swored am periods
ukavSirdeba franguli ganmanaTleblobis aRmavloba. XVIII
s-Si safrangeTSi Zalian intensiurad da mTeli sisavsiT ga-
156
iSala ganmanaTlebluri moZraoba. swored safrangeTma
misca msoflios ganmanaTlebluri literaturis yvelaze
tipuri nimuSebi. XVIII s. arsebiTad, `franguli~ saukunea. XVIII
s-is frangi ganmanaTleblebi erTdroulad iyvnen filoso-
fosebic da politikurad moazrovne pirovnebebi.
XVIII s-is safrangeTSi eklesia mniSvnelovan rols as-
rulebda. eklesia iyo feodalizmis sayrdeni. swored am peri-
odSi gaSala frTebi iezuitTa ordenma (romelic aRmocenda
XVI s-Si espaneTSi). iezuitebma gaxsnes saswavleblebi frangi
aristokrati axalgazrdebisaTvis. franguli aristokrati-
is mTavari sayrdeni da principi iyo absolutizmi. swored
am princips upirispirdeboda ganmanaTlebloba, romelic
axali klasis (burJuaziis), progresis ideologad gamo-
dioda. frangul ganmanaTleblobaSi gamoyofen 2 periods:
ganmanaTleblobis pirveli simptomebi gamoCnda saukunis
dasawyisSive lesaJis SemoqmedebaSi, Semdgom mTeli 30 wlis
ganmavlobaSi ganmanaTleblobis mebairaRe iyo volteri. me-
ore periodi iwyeba XVIII s-is Sua wlebidan, rodesac asparez-
ze gamodian monteskie, mabli, didro, bufoni, ruso da sxv.
isini gamodian arsebuli sazogadoebrivi mowyobis winaaR-
mdeg da Tanmimdevrulad uteven im sayrdenebs, razec idga
saxelmwifo. es, upirveles yovlisa, iyo religia, saxelmwi-
fos marTvis (mowyobis) moZvelebuli principebi da sxv. (de-
loni 1996:14-15).
ganmanaTleblebi iyvnen mravalmxrivi da ganswavluli
adamianebi. magaliTad, volteri iyo poeti, istorikosi,
dramaturgi, filosofosi, swavluli maTematikosi. didro
– dramaturgi, novelisti, filosofosi, xelovnebis Teore-
tikosi, musikaluri kritikosi, zedmiwevniT erkveoda mxat-
vrobaSi. ruso iyo mxatvruli prozis ostati, politologi,
kompozitori. sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebebSi wvlili
Seitanes bufonma da lametrma, iuridiulSi – monteskiem.
ganmanaTleblebma didi wvlili Seitanes pedagogikis ganvi-
TarebaSi. am mxriv gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia rusos `emili~.
swored am universalurobis wyalobiT SesaZlebeli gaxda
grandiozuli masStabis Sromis – `enciklopediis~ gamocema,
romelic 30 wlis ganmavlobaSi gamoicemoda da ramdenime
aTeul toms moicavda. enciklopediis mTavari redaqtori
157
iyo didro; man moaxerxa safrangeTis inteleqtualuri eli-
tis mobilizeba. cxadia, am mravaltomeuls xarvezebic hqon-
da da naklulic iyo, magram am gamocemam didi saqme gaakeTa.
ganmanaTleblebi efuZnebodnen TavianTi winamorbedebis –
aRorZinebis epoqis humanistebis – kulturul faseulobebs.
humanistebis msgavsad ebrZodnen religiur fanatizms, Sua-
saukuneobriv sqolastizms. humanistebis kvaldakval, gan-
manaTleblebma win wamoswies adamiani misi sulieri samyaro.
ganmanaTleblebisTvis prioritetulia realoba nacvlad
mistikuri Wvretisa. humanistebis msgavsad (rable), gan-
manaTleblebma didi interesi gamoavlines pedagogikisadmi.
ganmanaTleblebi, humanistebis msgavsad, iyvnen Zalian wesi-
eri adamianebi da gulwrfelad sjerodaT TavianTi idealis
– harmoniuli sazogadoebrivi wyobis Seqmnis SesaZlebloba;
isini optimistebi iyvnen.
yvela ganmanaTlebeli Tanxmdeboda mTavarze – sazoga-
doebis mowyobis arsebuli wesi unda Seicvalos. am sakiTxze
aravin davobda, magram iyo mTeli rigi problemebisa, rom-
lebzec maT sxvadasxva Sexedulebebi hqondaT; es, ZiriTadad,
saxelmwifos axleburad mowyobis Temas da filosofiur
Sexedulebebs Seexeboda. frangi ganmanaTleblebis yurad-
Rebis centrSi iyo mecniereba. isini politikuri da socia-
luri problemebis gadawyvetasac mecnieruli Tvalsazri-
siT udgebodnen. metic, xelovnebis sferosac mecnierul
TvalTaxedvas uqvemdebarebdnen. gansakuTrebiT upirispir-
debodnen XVII s-is metafizikosebs. eyrdnobodnen bekonisa
da lokis filosofias da niutonis mecnierul aRmoCenebs.
ganmanaTleblebs mtkiced sjerodaT adamianis usazR-
vro SesaZleblobebis, misi gonebisa da nebis; adamiani miaC-
ndaT istoriis Semoqmedad. ganmanaTlebelTa didi nawili
mxars uWerda ganaTlebuli monarqiis ideas: Tu saxelmwifos
saTaveSi iqneba ganmanaTleblur ideebze aRzrdili filo-
sofosi monarqi, yvela socialuri konfliqti gadaiWreba.
ganmanaTleblebma ganaviTares Tavisuflebisa da Tanaswo-
robis idea.
gansakuTrebiT unda aRiniSnos, rom ganmanaTleblebma
ganaviTares esTetikuri azrovneba. ganmanaTlebluri esTe-
tikis mTavari moTxovna iyo xelovanis aqtiuri CarTuloba
158
sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi. faqtobrivad, es iyo axali esTe-
tika, romliTac safuZveli eyreba demokratiul xelovnebas;
xelovanma simarTliT unda asaxos realuri cxovreba. maT
Semoiyvanes axali gmiri – dadebiTi pirovneba, romelsac arc
simdidre aqvs, arc sagvareulo titulebi (mag.: Raribi mas-
wavlebeli sen-pre rusos romanidan `axali eloiza~; kandidi
volteris amave saxelwodebis novelidan; bomarSes Ffigaro
da sxv.). ganmanaTleblebma mniSvnelovani cvlilebebi gana-
xorcieles dramaturgiaSi. maT uaryves klasicizmis prin-
cipebi (samerTianoba, tragediisa da komediis klasicisturi
gageba) da Semoiyvanes axali gmiri – ubralo adamiani. gan-
manaTleblebma Seqmnes mxatvruli prozis gansakuTrebuli
Janri – filosofiuri romani (monteskie `sparsuli werile-
bi~, ruso `emili~, `axali eloiza~) da filosofiuri novela.
monteskie `sparsul werilebSi~ ganixilavs 2 tipis saxelm-
wifos – aRmosavlur despotias da evropul monarqias. akri-
tikebs orives da aris respublikis momxre. misi mTavari naS-
romia `kanonTa sulis Sesaxeb~, romelzec 20 weli muSaobda.
volteris naSromebi 70 tomSia Tavmoyrili. igi ganaTlebu-
li monarqiis momxrea.
Cveni azriT, ganmanaTleblobis epoqis mkvlevrebi dain-
teresdebian imiT, Tu ra doziTa da funqciiT iyenebdnen
evropeli moazrovneebi araksa da igavs. am etapze arakis
Janris yvelaze gamorCeuli warmomadgenelia lafonteni
(1621-1695). man rigiani ganaTleba miiRo; wakiTxuli hqonda
homerosi, vergiliusi, terenciusi; bokaCo, rable. lafon-
teni werda tragediebs, komediebs, odebs, epistoleebs,
romanebs, arakebs, epigramebs, simRerebs. gansakuTrebuli
popularoba moixveWa arakebiTa da mokle galeqsili no-
velebiT. lafontens gamoyenebuli aqvs rogorc cnobili
arakebis fabulebi, ise politikuri arakebi, romlebSic kar-
gad Cans avtoris demokratiuli simpaTiebi.

***
swored im periodSi, rodesac evropaSi jer ikvirteba
Semdgom ki dgeba axali politikuri realoba, rodesac jer
Tanaarseboben da Semdgom dominantur pozicias ikaveben
axali filosofiur-socialuri da literaturuli mimdina-
159
reoebebi, saqarTveloSi moRvaweobs sulxan-saba orbeliani
(1658-1725); Rrma da Tavisufali azrovnebiT gamorCeuli
kaci, romelic fiqrobs qveynis momavalze, eZiebs gzebs da
praqtikulad iRvwis miznis misaRwevad, Tamamad SeiZleba
moviazroT evropel ganmanaTlebelTa gverdiT. is iyo mwe-
rali, leqsikografi, enaTmecnieri, mTargmneli, RvTisme-
tyveli, bibliologi, filosofosi, diplomati, mogzauri,
kartografisti, enciklopedisti. sulxan-saba orbeliani
qarTul elitas miekuTvneboda warmomavlobiTac (samefo
dinastias enaTesaveboda) da ganswavlulobiTac. misi Tval-
sawieris diapazonze metyvelebs isic, rom icoda Turquli,
somxuri, berZnuli, laTinuri, italiuri da rusuli enebi.
sulxan-saba orbelianis Semoqmedebas TiTqmis ori sau-
kunis manZilze ikvleven qarTveli da ucxoeli mecnierebi.
eWvs ar iwvevs, rom sulxan-saba enciklopedizmisa da gan-
manaTleblobis ideebis erT-erTi pirveli qarTveli mkvle-
varia (amirxanaSvili 2012:344).* am statiaSi SevecdebiT war-
movadginoT sulxan-sabas mimarTeba ganmanaTleblobis
ZiriTadi postulatebisadmi `sibrZne sicriusaze~ dakvir-
vebis safuZvelze. `sibrZne sicruisa~ sulxan orbelianma
1680-ian wlebSi dawera; am dros igi 22 wlis iyo.

***
dasmuli sakiTxis analizisas viTvaliswinebT a. marinos
Teorias: esaa eqsplicidurad universaluri Tvalsazrisi,
romelic Riaa msoflios yvela literaturis mimarT (dasav-
leTisa da aRmosavleTisa), barierebis, akrZalvebis Tu ta-
bus gareSe... …is aris specifikuri meTodologia, romelsac
uflebrivadac da faqtobrivadac arsebul meTodologi-
ebTan Tanaarseboba SeuZlia; amasTan, ar qmnis maTTan ormagi
* g. gaCeCilaZem gamoTqva mosazreba, rom sulxan-saba orbelianis `sibrZne
sicruisaSi~ ikveTeba barokos niSnebi (gaCeCilaZe 2009:82-92). savsebiT SesaZ-
lebelia, rom ori literaturuli mimdinareobis mijnaze moRvawe mwerlis
SemoqmedebaSi asaxuliyo orive mindinareobis (barokosa da ganmanaTleb-
lobis) tendenciebi. amgvari suraTi Tavad evropeli mwerlebis Semoqmede-
baSic Cans. aq mTavaria sxva kiTxvas gaeces pasuxi: ra xiluli Tu uxilavi
ZarRvi akavSirebda qarTvel mwerlebs evropasTan? saidan modioda Tu mo-
dioda impulsebi, rogor axerxebda saqarTvelo fexi aewyo civiluri msof-
liosTvis?! swored am kiTxvebs unda gaeces kvalificiuri da dasabuTebuli
pasuxi.
160
gamoyenebis precedents, romlis wyaro erTdroulad isto-
riulicaa da hermenevtikulic. komparativistebis amocanaa
gamoikvlion is, rac saerToa dRevandel erovnul litera-
turebSi da is, rac damaxasiaTebelia mxolod TiToeuli maT-
ganisTvis... ra saWiroa `saerTosken~ mimarTuli es dakvirve-
ba?... ZiriTadi Tvisebebi, romlebic saerToa literaturaTa
erTobliobisaTvis mimarTulia universalurobisken, umaR-
lesi literaturuli erTobis, Weltliteratur-is SemuSavebisken.
msoflio literatura aucileblad unda `aRvweroT~ da `gan-
vsazRvroT~, rac jer ar gakeTebula (marino 2010:269;91).
a. marinom Camoayaliba axali midgoma literaturisa da
`literaturulobisadmi~. es Teoria warmoiSva komparati-
vistuli tradiciis wiaRSi da Tavad aris hermenevtikulad
gansazRvruli am tradiciis SigniT. mkvlevari e.w. `patara
literaturebs~ iwvevs literaturis Teoriis sagnisa da me-
Todis gansazRvrisadmi miZRvnil did paeqrobaSi monawile-
obis misaRebad. am `patara literaturebis~ inteleqtualu-
ri xvedri ar aris mudmivad da Zalauneburad imis gameoreba,
rac `didma literaturebma~ ukve `Tqves~, aramed zogjer maT
ekisrebaT iseTi iniciativis gamoCena, Tundac didi riskis
da safrTxis fasad, romelic CaerTveba WeSmaritad zogad
Teoriul proeqtSi. komparativizmi aris mebrZoli `ideo-
logia~ da ideebis `Teoria~, `sistema~ da aramarto `raRac
pedantoba~. literaturis (namdvili) komparativistuli
Teoria moiTxovs aTvlis axal wertils, kargad morgebul,
sruliad ganaxlebuli gansazRvrebis mqone axal safuZvels.
`universaluri literaturis~ idea Camoyalibda renesansisa
da humanistebis wiaRSi da aRiniSneboda terminiT respublica lit-
teraria. es tradicia gagrZelda Semdgom saukuneebSi. faqto-
brivad, aq saqme exeba gamokveTil evrocentrul tendencas
(novalisi, fr. Slegeli, goeTe). `universaluroba~ im epo-
qaSi gulisxmobda, upirveles yovlisa, evropul litera-
turas, romelic yvelaze metad cnobili da misawvdomi iyo.*
* a. marino calke Tavs uTmobs `aRmosavluri literaturis~ `aRmoCenasa~ da
mis CarTvas erTian literaturul procesSi. `universaluri literatura~
dinamikuri koncefciaa, romlis Sinaarsi da mniSvneloba ganuwyvetliv far-
Tovdeba. is gamomuSavda ramdenime `didi” dasavluri literaturis safuZ-
velze da Tavis erTian sxeulSi SemoierTa egzotikuri anu `aRmosavluri~
sfero... universaluri literatura aucileblad da ueWvelad eyrdnoba
161
amosavali principi iyo aseTi: TiToeuli erovnuli litera-
tura sazrdoobs saerTo principebis garkveuli raodenobiT
(ganaTleba, gemovneba, `poezia~ da a.S.). es principebi uzrun-
velyofs literaturaTa erTobliobis aramarto metnakle-
bad mWidro da `kosmopolitur~ mTlianobas, aramed amasTa-
nave, garkveul identurobas, esTetikur `erTgvarovnebasac~
ki. ganmanaTleblobis epoqis met-naklebad dawinaurebulma
kosmopolitizmma safuZveli Cauyara literaturuli esTe-
tikis sust erTianobas. amave tendenciebs aRrmavebdnen XIX
s-is literaturuli mimdinareobebi; es swrafva piks aRwevs
simbolizmSi, romlis zemoqmedeba aRiarebulia `planetis
yvela literaturaze~ (marino 2010:7-8;16;30-32).
marinos ganmartebiT, univerasluri literatura aris:
a) universaluri literatura, rogorc logikuri koncef-
cia, Sedgeba literaturebis erTobliobisgan anu `jamisgan~
gamonaklisis gareSe. amgvarad, universaluri literatura
Rebulobs namdvil msoflio moxazulobas da zomebs. uni-
versaluri literaturis eqstensiuri da raodenobrivi Si-
naarsi ormagdeba meore kriteriumiT, xarisxobrivi anu Se-
fasebis kriteriumiT: nawarmoebebis an, ufro sworad `Sedev-
rebis~ erToblioba, romelTac aqvT drois mier gamocdili
universaluri Rirebuleba, aRiareba da masStabi. b)univer-
saluri literatura, rogorc raodenobrivi da Tvisobrivi
jami, saerTo memkvidreobaa, kacobriobis warmomadgenlo-
biTi da sanimuSo memkvidreoba. es aris literaturis `panTe-
oni~ (an `pandemoni~), romelic mTlianad `adamianTa modgmis~,
msoflios ukvdavi `klasikosebis~ `idealur biblioTekeb-
Sia~ Caketili. universaluri literatura kacobriobisTvis
saerTo movlenaa; misi arsi (struqturuli, morfologiuri,
fenomenologiuri) moiTxovs da amarTlebs literaturis,
rogorc ganuyofeli mTelis Teoriul gansazRvrebas. uni-
versaluri literaturis Teoriis amosavali wertili aris
`istoriuli, ideologiuri da mxatvruli evoluciis Zire-
uli erTianoba~. amasTan, msoflio literaturaSi SeuZlebe-
lia istoriuli an sxva kvlevebis warmarTva erovnuli li-
teraturis gaTvaliswinebis gareSe (marino 2010: 32-38; 57; 63).

dasavleT-aRmosavleTis kavSirs; aqedan gamomdinareobs radikalurad axa-


li literaturuli xedva (marino 2010:44-45).
162
universaluri literaturis komparativistuli kvle-
vis meTodebis analizisas a. marino yuradRebas amaxvilebs
invariantze. igi wers: mravali moazrovne gauocebia (da
araerTgzis) literaturuli damTxvevebis, msgavsebebis, ga-
dakveTis da Sesatyvisobebis arsebobas; amitom am movle-
nas ver vuwodebT ubralod damTxvevas. saerTo elementebis
(Tundac zedapirulad SemCneuli elementebis) arseboba li-
teraturul movlenaTa romelime jgufSi eWvs ar iwvevs. `in-
varianti~ swored maT aRsaniSnavad gamogvadgeba. invarianti
aris literaturis da literaturuli azrovnebis universa-
luri elementi; literaturuli diskursis an literaturu-
li azrovnebis `xasiaTi~, `saerTo elementi~ an niSani. is aris
`yvela drois~ mudmivmoqmedi faqtori, romelic amave dros
droebiTia da yvelgan SeiZleba misi Semowmeba – maSasadame,
geografiulad universaluria. invariantebi gvevlineba erT-
droulad universalurobis meTodologiur da `istoriul~
formebad.* es aris universaluri literaturis Semadgeneli
saerTo, ucvleli, stabiluri da Seqcevadi, maSasadame, mud-
mivi elementi. saocar literaturul mravalferovnebaSi
invariants Semoaqvs garkveuli wesrigis principi, namd-
vili tipobrivi ganawesi. invarianti aris universaluri ka-
tegoria. marino gamoyofs invariantebis oTs tips: 1. anT-
ropologiuri, 2. Teoriul-ideologiuri, 3. Teoriul-li-
teraturuli, 4. literaturuli. TiToeul invariants aqvs
horizontaluri (sivrciTi) ganzomileba da vertikaluri
ganzomileba (istoriuli). maTi erToblioba adasturebs
unitaruli literaturuli struqturis arsebobas (marino
2010:80-81;87;93;95;111).
a.marino moixmobs c.todorovis mosazrebas: `sworia va-
raudi, rom literaturis Tematuri mravalferovneba mxo-
lod moCvenebiTia; yvela literaturas safuZvlad udevs
erTi da igive, ase vTqvaT, mcire raodenobis universaluri
Tematika, magram maTi kombinaciebi da gardaqmnebi gvaZlevs
arsebuli teqstebis mTels mravalferovnebas~ (marino
2010:110).

* miuxedavad yvelafrisa, homerossa da malarmes Soris arsebobs raRac saer-


To. es `saerTo raRac~ aris swored poeturi invarianti (marino 2010:92).
163
nacionaluri literatura, ase vTqvaT, pirveladi, Ziri-
Tadi ujredi, aris mxolod fragmenti, universaluri li-
teraturis nawili. universalur literaturul erTob-
liobasTan SedarebiT yoveli erovnuli literaturidan
amoRebuli literaturuli gansazRvrebani SezRuduli,
arasruli da arasakmarisia; isini yovelTvis globaluri
struqturis Sesabamisad unda ganvixiloT. universaluro-
bisken gaxsniloba SesaZlebelia nebismieri literaturis
saSualebiT.. literaturuli universalizacia mogviwodebs
internacionaluri literaturuli sazogadoebis mimarT
Riaobisaken. es aris nacionaluri literaturebis inte-
graciis unari universaluri literaturis konceptsa da er-
Tian literaturul TeoriaSi (marino 2010:142).
Cven SevecdebiT swored am Tvalsazrisze (romelsac Ta-
vad a. marino hipoTezas uwodebs) dayrdnobiT warmovadgi-
noT sulxan-saba orbelianis mimarTeba evropul literatu-
rul procesebTan.

`sibrZne sicruisa~: saxelmwifos mowyoba;


aRzrdis koncefcia; religia

sulxan-saba orbeliani, evropel ganmanaTlebelTa


msgavsad, ganaTlebuli absoluturi monarqiisa da ganswav-
luli, humanuri, progresuli monarqis momxrea. es Tval-
sazrisi qarTul samecniero sivrceSi safuZvlianad aris
argumentirebuli. Cven ar SegviZlia dabejiTebiT vTqvaT,
icnobda Tu ara Wabuki sulxani evropul koncefcias ga-
naTlebuli absolutizmis Sesaxeb. meti albaTobiT SeiZleba
vivaraudoT, rom es mwerlis sakuTari TvalTaxedvaa. Tavisi
poziciis CamoyalibebaSi, savaraudod, mas daexmara piradi
dakvirveba da, rogorc Cans, antikuri epoqis moazrovneTa
Tvalsazrisebis codnac.*5
Cven SevecdebiT warmovadginoT is konceptualuri no-
vacia, romelic sulxan orbelianma, rogorc mweralma, Se-
* sulxan-saba orbeliani icnobda antikurobas. amis Sesaxeb ix. asaTiani
1987:98-101 da sxv. marTalia, es naSromi ZiriTadad, `sityvis konis~ analizs
moicavs, magram, faqtia, rom avtori icnobda antikur samyaros.
164
mogvTavaza ganaTlebuli absoluturi monarqiis ideis upi-
ratesobis dasasabuTeblad.
`sibrZne sicruisa” Sedgeba arakebis, ambebisa da Segonebe-
bisgan, romlebsac aerTianebs da kravs martivi ambavi: erTi
Zlieri da mdidari saxelmwifos mefes mravalwliani uSvi-
lobis Semdeg vaJi SeeZina. memkvidris aRzrda mefe finezma
sizmarSi gamocxadebul ucnob ymawvils – leons daakisra.
leonma ufliswuli jumberi Rirseul memkvidred aRzarda.
misTvis samefo taxtis gadacemamde sasaxlis karze serio-
zuli paeqroba gaimarTa. mefem, sedraqma, ruqam gamoscades
jumberis ganswavluloba, inteleqti, qveynis marTvis miseu-
li xedva. azrTa Widili warimarTa arakebiT, gamocanebiT, Se-
gonebebiT, rac, rogorc cnobilia, uZvelesi droidan miiC-
neva inteleqtualuri SesaZleblobebis Semowmebis yvelaze
aprobirebul formad.

saxelmwifos mowyoba

Cveni dakvirveba swored am konteqstis analizs exeba.


kerZod imas, rom sulxan orbelianis teqstSi mkafiod aris
gamijnuli araki da igavi – alegoria da simbolo. termine-
bi araki da igavi mkafiod gancalkevdnen evropul sivrceSi
qristianuli teqstebis Seswavla-gaazrebis kvaldakval. aR-
mosavlur literaturaSi leqsikur donezec amgvari gami-
jvna ar dasturdeba Tavad sulxan-saba `sibrZne sicruisaSi~
iyenebs termin araks. igavs sulxan-saba orbeliani ganmartavs
`sityvis konaSi~ (amaze dawvrilebiT ix. canava 2012:259-266).
`sibrZne sicruisaSi~ 95 arakia. ratom ar aris `sibrZne
sicruisas~ arakebi simboloebi? imitom rom viri suleli-
caa da Wkvianic; mgeli – gamarjvebulic da damarcxebulic,
meli – moxerxebulic da gacucurakebulic, lomi (vefxvi) –
cxovelTa mefec da virisgan SeSinebulic da a.S. mxatvruli
saxe ki simbolod mxolod maSin gadaiqceva, Tu mas myari `sta-
susi~ aqvs. ar SeiZleba simbolos azri icvlebodes situaciis
mixedviT. aqedan gamomdinare, vaskvniT, rom sulxan-sabas ar-
akebi alegoriebia. igavi ki aris `dafarulad ganmcxadebeli~
(wminda basili didi). komentatorebi miuTiTeben uflisgan
165
gadmocemuli igavebis umTavres Tvisebaze: gonier arsebas
is igavebi saocari cnobiswadiliT da dafarulis wvdomis
surviliT avseben, ugunurisTvis ki es sibrZne amoucnobi da
gaugebari rCeba. gamoiTqva sayuradRebo mosazreba Janris
specifikis Taobaze: termin `igavis~ axsnisas sabas miTiTe-
buli aqvs maTes saxarebis mecamete Tavi. swored am TavSi gan-
martavs macxovari, ratom elaparakeba igi xalxs igavurad:
imitom, rom isini (adamianebi) uyureben da ver xedaven, usme-
nen da ar esmiT. `da sruldeba maTze esaias winaswarmetyvele-
ba, romelic ambobs: smeniT moismenT da ver gaigebT, TvaliT
uyurebT da ver dainaxavT~, `movlenis arsis gageba yvelas
rodi xelewifeba, arsis amocnobas Zlieri analitikuri go-
neba unda, movlenisadmi mecnieruli midgoma esaWiroeba.
arsi grZnobis organoebisTvis dafarulia, igi movleniT
aris gaSualebuli. sxva sityvebiT: arssa da grZnobis orga-
noebs Soris movlena dgas, romelSic arsi srulyofilad
verasdros ver gamovlindeba. Tu gvsurs movlenis arss Cavw-
vdeT, movlenisagan abstrahireba unda movaxdinoT. amgvari
abstrahirebis (oRond xatovani abstrahirebis!) Sedegi aris
swored igavi (bregaZe 1991:91).
axla ase davsvaT kiTxva: Tu ikveTeba simbolo `sibrZne
sicruisas~ zogad koncefciaSi? diax! am Txzulebis mTa-
vari simboloa mwyemsi keTili (ioane, 10). es simbolo sul-
xan-sabasTan mefe-mwyemsis simbolur xatad warmogvidgeba.
swored am simbolos garSemo `lagdeba~ mTeli teqsti. am
simbolos axsna-komentirebas emsaxureba CarCo ambavic, ara-
kebis bloki, ambebi da Segonebebi. yvelaferi mefe-mwyemsis
simbolos garSemo `trialebs~. movixmobT pasaJs teqstidan:
ganrisxebulma mefe finezma leonis sikvdiliT dasja ganiz-
raxa. leonma mefes fici moagona, dasamSvideblad dro misca
da hkiTxa: `Ze Seni samefod ginda, Tuca6 mwyemsad? mravalni
mwyemsni umjobes arian ugvanTa mefeTa. mwyemsi xams cxo-
varTaTvis iWirvodes, keTilTa balaxTa aZoos, amod ataros,
dakodili Seuxvios da mparavs aridos. ese Tuca vera yos, sam-
wyso Seumcirdes. egreve mefe eseTi xams: glaxakTa, monaTa,
glexTa, msaxurTa, aznaurTa, TavadTa, didebulTa, mefeTa da
xelmwifeTa wesi, rigi, Sroma, Wiri, muSakoba, saqme, vaWroba,
sma-Wama da micema icodes... aw yovelTa glaxakTa, uRonoTa da
166
mdabalTa Wirni miswavebia da amisa Semdgomad naxeT Tqvenca,
ra aris saswavlod misa?~ am pasaJSi lakonurad da yovlis-
momcveladaa Camoyalibebuli mefe-mwyemsis universaluri
simbolos arsi. es simbolo universaluria imitom, rom is Ta-
nabrad misaRebia yvela droisa da sarwmunoebis adamianisT-
vis. arc is aris SemTxveviTi, rom samefo xelisuflebis mTa-
vari simbolo – kverTxi mwyemsis komblisgan iRebs dasabams.
swored Rirseuli mefe-mwyemsis aRzrda daisaxa miznad
leonma.
mefe (Tu calkeul gamonaklisebs ar miviRebT mxedvelo-
baSi) Wkviania, magram sakiTxavia, rogoria es Wkua, ra `amoZ-
ravebs~ mas – sikeTe (mimtevebloba, mowyaleba da a.S.) Tu
boroteba (SurisZieba, momxveWeloba, sixarbe da a.S)? mefeze
saubrisas jer gamoikveTeba Rirseuli adamianis tipi da misi
mTavari Tviseba – siqvele, romelic `sikeTeebis~ yvelaze
momcveli definiciaa. qveli unda iyos mefec da misi gare-
mocvac (ix. Segoneba II da VI). cnobilia, rom yvelaze kargi me-
feebic ki droTa ganmavlobaSi swored TavianTi garemocvis
wyalobiTac kacTmoZule nihilistebi xdebian, amitom amxa-
nags didi mniSvneloba aqvs (ix. Segoneba X). ruqa jumberis-
Tvis miuRebelia ara imitom, rom is saWurisia da qosa (es
SeiZleba iyos mxolod erT-erTi mizezi imisa, ris gamoc ruqa
gaborotebulia), aramed imitom, rom mas ar sjera kacTa mod-
gmis momavlis (ruqas pozicias gamoxatavs – `kaci da gveli~),
is pesimistia, xeli aqvs Caqneuli. uimedo kaci ki ver CaerTve-
ba im gegmebis ganxorcielebaSi, rac jumbers aqvs. ruqa Wkvi-
ania, man adamianebis bevri nakli icis, magram es naklovanebe-
bi jumberma da leonmac ician. ra u nda qnas mefem – xeli
Caiqnios da mihyves dinebas? Tavad imefos da xvalem izru-
nos xvalisa? ar Seecados gamosworebas. vin unda aiRos Ta-
vis Tavze sarevelis amoZirkva? vin unda moatrialos faras
Camocilebuli cxovari? vin unda izrunos sazogadoebis
TiToeul wevrze? jumberi Tavis Tavze iRebs am pasuxismge-
blobas. aseTad aRzarda igi leonma. idealuri mmarTvelis
tipis daxatviT sulxan-saba gamoexmaura cnobil diskurss,
romelic uZvelesi droidan aRelvebda cnobil moazrovne-
ebs: platons, aristoteles, cicerons, evropel ganmanaT-
leblebs; am TvalsazrisiTac mwerali evropuli orientaciisaa.7
167
mefe mwyemsis universalur igaviT avtori mkafiod aya-
libebs idealuri absoluturi monarqis koncefcias. gans-
wavluli, humanuri, samarTliani, mzrunveli, qveynis aRma-
Senebeli, progresuli ekonomikuri politikis gamtarebeli
aboluturi ZalauflebiT aRWurvili monarqi evropel gan-
manaTlebelTa idealia. aseTi mefis saxe Seqmna sulxan-saba
orbelianma `sibrZne-sicruisaSi~.
kidev ramdenime komponents mivaqcev yuradRebas, rac ev-
ropul ganmanaTleblur azrovnebasTan aaxloebs sulxans:
SejibrebiToba; teqstis kompozicia.
leoni Tavisi Tavgadasavlis Txrobisas xSirad aRwers
sxvadasxva tipis Sejibrebebs. Sejibri, uZvelesi da sayo-
velTaod cnobilia yofaSi, folklorSi, literaturasa
da filosofiaSi. Sejibris suli amoZravebs kacobriobas
gaCenis dRidan dRemde. Sejibri progresis erT-erT ZiriTad
mamoZraveblad iTvleba. Sejibris Tema popularuli iyo
rogorc evropul, ise aRmosavlur literaturasa da
folklorSi.*
`sibrZne sicruisas~ mTeli teqsti mTavari protagonis-
tebis (leonis, jumberis, sedraqis, ruqas) sityvier paeq-
robas asaxavs, Sesabamisad, Sejibris principzea agebuli.
Cven yuradRebas mivaqcevT or epizods – mxatvrebis Seji-
brs, romelic leonma italiaSi ixila da monadireTa Sejibrs
tyuilebis TqmaSi. Cemi azriT, es ambebi e.w. `Sejibris Temis~
erT-erTi makoordinirebeli – RerZuli epizodebia.8
italia – evropuli renesansis akvani – evropuli ferw-
erisa da skulpturis mTavari centri iyo. sulxan-saba or-
beliani didostati mxatvrebis Sejibris asparezad swored
italias (italiis erT qalaqs) irCevs. Tumca aqve unda aRin-
iSnos, rom xelovanTa Sejibris tradicia italiaSi antikuri
romidan, romSi ki antikuri saberZneTidan Sedis. romaelebma
(italielebma) berZnebisgan gadaiRes ara mxolod RmerTebis
panTeoni da mzamzareuli literaturuli Janrebi, aramed
agonisturi suliskveTeba, rogorc cxovrebiseuli princi-

* es sakiTxi Zalian kargadaa warmoCenili naSromSi (oinebi 1977), romelSic


ganxilulia zRapruli matyuaras igive brZenis – e.w. triqsteris tipi aR-
mosavleTis xalxebis folklorSi.
168
pi. saqme is aris, rom berZnuli xasiaTis da sulis erT-erT
ganmsazRvrel Taviseburebad miCneulia saocari swrafva
Sejibrisken, romelsac berZnebi agons uwodeben (gordezi-
ani 1988:14-19. frankforti 2001:7-17). berZnebi erTmaneTs
ejibrebodnen yvelaferSi: sportis saxeobebSi, xelovnebis
dargebSi, sasamarTloSi, politikur arenaze. SejibriT iyo
moculi yvelaferi. marto is rad Rirs, rom pirvel farTo-
masStabian sportul asparezobebs saberZneTSi Caeyara sa-
fuZveli (olimpiuri, delfuri, piTiuri da sxv.). berZenTa
warmodgeniT, Sejibrisas mniSvnelovania ara marto is, rom
gamovlindeba saukeTeso, aramed swrafva pirvelobisken ne-
bismier adamians aZlevs Sanss, daxvewos da ganaviTaros Ta-
visi SesaZleblobebi, gaxdes saukeTeso. antikuri kulturis
mkvlevarebi aRniSnaven, rom swored berZenTa agonisturi
suliskveTeba iyo erT-erTi yvelaze mniSvnelovani im faq-
torTagan, ramac xeli Seuwyo am civilizaciis aseT ganvi-
Tarebas. Sejibri TamaSis komponentia, TamaSi ki, rogorc am-
tkicebs haizinga, aris is, saidanac (ufro sworad, romelSic)
aRmocenda civilizacia. amave naSromSi Camoyalibebulia
berZnuli `agonuri sulis~ fenomenis analizi: zogi evro-
peli mecnieris azriT, termini agoni (agonuri) aris paTosi,
romelsac arc erTi sxva xalxi ar icnobs berZnebis garda
(burkhardti; erenbergi). dRes am mosazrebis kategoriulo-
bas bevri mecnieri akritikebs, magram yvela Tanxmdeba, rom
agons berZenTaTvis marTlac gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba
hqonda. saqme is aris, rom berZnebi iyvnen pirvelebi, rom-
lebmac sportuli TamaSebi omsa da dapirispirebebze maRla
daayenes: olimpiuri, isTmuri, nemeuri asparezobebis peri-
odSi wydeboda omebi Sin Tu gareT – asparezoba yvelaferze
maRla idga. berZnuli identobis ganmsazRvrel faqtorebs
Soris (ena, religiuri panTeoni, adaT-wesebi) sportuli as-
parezobebi iyo is, rac mTel saberZneTs aerTianebda – agoni
berZnuli sazogadoebis zogadi sasicocxlo principi iyo.
es ar iyo mxolod erovnuli sportuli dResaswaulebi, am
asparezobebs mWidro kavSiri hqonda religiasTan, risi
TvalsaCino dasturia pindares poezia. berZnebi erTmaneTs
ejibrebodnen yvela sferoSi, silamazis konkursebic pirve-
lad maT Caatares; ejibrebodnen nadimis drosac: simReraSi,
169
gamocanebSi, sifxizlis SenarCunebasa da smaSi. saintereso
analizis safuZvelze haizinga askvnis, rom kultura iwyeba
ara rogorc TamaSi da ara TamaSi-dan, aramed TamaS-Si (haiz-
inga 2004:69-106). rogorc iTqva, antikur saberZneTSi erT-
maneTs ejibrebodnen ara mxolod sportsmenebi, aramed po-
etebi, oratorebi, musikosebi da mxatvrebi. cnobilia, rom
Zv.w. 470 wels piTiuri da isTmuri asparezobebis programaSi
Seitanes mxatvarTa Sejibrebebic. cnobilia gadmocemebi
calkeul mxatvarTa Serkinebebis Sesaxeb.
`italieli mxatvrebi~, erTi mxriv, renesansuli cxovre-
bis wesisa da atmosferos codnas gvidasturebs, meore mxriv
ki cxadyofs, raoden did mniSvnelobas aniWebda mwerali cru,
gamogonil ambebSi mxatvruli motivirebis damajereblobis
efeqts. aSkarad Cans, rom esTetika, romlis CarCoSic qmnian
italieli mxatvrebi, `mimesisis~ esTetikaa. sulxan-saba or-
beliani, rogorc antikuri da renesansuli tradiciebis mem-
kvidre, araerTxel iyenebs msgavsebis kriteriums xelovne-
bis nimuSTa Sefasebisas. am mxriv uxv masalas iZleva `mogza-
uroba evropaSi~. sulxan-sabas esTetika iyo aristoteluri
esTetika SeTavsebuli stoikosTa Semecnebis TeoriasTan
(doiaSvili 2010:15-25).
Tu davakvirdebiT, leonis TavgadasavalSi, romelic am-
bebisgan Sedgeba da ara arakebisgan, swored es tendenciaa
win wamoweuli. erTmaneTs ejibrebian italieli mxatvrebi,
eqimebi, maqciebi, matyuarebi, romlebsac TavianTi qveyana
aqvT.*
leoni sxvadasxva qveyanaSi (aRmosavleT-dasavleTSi) xe-
tialiT tyuil-marTalSi gaerkva, mixvda, rom cruTa qveynis
mkvidrTa `mamali~ tyuilebisganac SeiZleba simarTlis mar-
cvlis gamotana. mainc ra sargebloba moaqvs crupentela
monadireTa repertuaris gacnobas? am gamogonil ambebSi
Cans adamianis ukidegano fantazia da warmosaxvis SesaZleb-

* matyuarebis qveyanaSi, romelic zRvis gadmoRma aziis romeliRac qveyanaa,


nadimze monadire didebulebma da mefem erTi meoreze daujerebeli gamog-
onili cru Tavgadasavlebi uambes erTmaneTs (`Savardeni da wero~, `brma
avazi~, `bzikis mwvrTneli~, `maTraxiani xoxobi~, `Tavtafiani~, `bneleTis
pirsa msaxlobeli kaci~, `abdul-azim davriSi~).
170
lobebi. ocnebas veravis dauSli. yvela diad teqnikur aR-
moCenas fantaziiT Seqmnili zRapruli Tu literaturuli
prototipi uZRoda.
Cven yuradReba gavamaxvileT Sejibris 2 modelze: ita-
lieli mxatvrebi da aRmosavleli crupentela monadireebi.
pirvelSi prevalirebs fantazia da realuri ostatoba, me-
oreSi – fantazia. avtoris mTavari saTqmeli ki erTia (Sesa-
bamisad, teqstis RerZic) mjobnis mjobi ar daileva.
jumberi, leoni, sedraqi da bolos mefec irCeven axal
gzas – sirTuleebis daZleviT axali simaRleebis miRwevis,
jansaRi konkurenciis, axali ekonomikuri politikis, swrafi
progresis gzas. amitom ruqa jumberis gundSi ver moxvdeba,
is bunebiT urwmuno da pesimistia, miaCnia, rom am qveyanas
(igulisxmeba, zogadad, qveynierebas da zogadad, adamians)
araferi Secvlis, araferi eSveleba, brZola ramis Sesacvle-
lad fuWia da ar Rirs, jobs yvelaferi ise darCes, rogorc
aris. es pozicia ki jumberis gundisTvis miuRebelia. jum-
bers ar sWirdeba ruqas tipis mrCevlebi. marto erTguleba
da Wkua sakmarisi ar aris, saWiroa Tanamoazreoba. ruqa pe-
simistia, misi azriT, mTavari adamianuri naklovanebebi ve-
rasdros daiZleva – ase iyo, ase iqneba. jumberi da leoni
sxvagvarad fiqroben. maTi xedva evropuli xedvaa da swored
amitom aris sulxan-saba evropuli orientaciis moazrovne.
misi xedva ganmanaTlebelTa pozicias eTanadeba.
Tamamad SeiZleba iTqvas, rom leoni `sibrZne sicruisas~
yvelaze saintereso, `evropul Targze awyobili~ personaJia.
is, rom leonma finezis qveyanaSi mosvlamde gaiara ini-
ciacia, misi Tavgadasavlidan kargad Cans.9 aRniSnuli ritu-
ali antikurobam werilobiTi teqstebis wyalobiT ukeT Se-
moinaxa. iniciaciebis amsaxveli epizodebi gvxvdeba qarTul
folklorsa da literaturaSic, magram leoniviT detalu-
rad arc erTi personaJi ar yveba, ra gza gaiara da rogor ezi-
ara srulyofil codnas. am TvalsazrisiT sainteresoa leo-
nis Sedareba `odiseas~ gmirebTan.10 saqme isaa, rom `odiseaSi~
ori iniciaciaa: erTi odisevsis Svilis – telemaqosis (te-
lemaqiada) da meore – odisevsis mier samyaros Secnoba (rasac
odisevsis aTwliani xetiali dasWirda). leonis ambavSi aris
171
telemaqiadis elementebic da odisevsis Tavgadasavlisac.
es sulac ar niSnavs imas, rom `sibrZne sicruisaSi~ homero-
sis gavlena igrZnoba. gamoricxuli araa, rom sulxan-sabas
homerosi wakiTxuli hqonoda, arc is, rom – ar hqonoda. la-
parakia saerTo wyaroze, romliTac sargeblobs yvela didi
mwerali, raTa saTanado zemoqmedeba moaxdinos mkiTxvelze;
es wyaroa tradiciuli ambavi (miTi), an desakralizebuli
miTi – zRapari da rituali, anu, sayovelTaod gavrcelebuli
folkloruli modelebi. es swored is invariantia, romel-
zec miuTiTebs a. marino.11
`sibrZne sicruisaSi~ mkafiod ikveTeba principi: `kar-
gze kargi ar daileva~ da `cudze cudi ar daileva~. es idea
gacxadebulia pirvelsave arakSi M`mefe xorasanisa~. Txrobis
dasrulebis Semdeg sedraqi ambobs: `es araki amisTvis mogax-
sene: verc aseTs gascems kaci, rom sxvas ar eqmnas da arc
kargsa saqmesa RmerTi daukargavs~ (orbeliani1959:10). Tu
leonis mier moyolili ambebis paToss SevudarebT sedraqis
pozicias, maTi msgavseba aSkaraa. ase rom, mxatvrebis SemTx-
vevaSic (mjobnis mjobi) da goliaTebis SemTxvevaSic (saSiSze
saSiSi) laparakia metaforaze da ara ambavze, romelic vinmem
SeiZleba namdvilad daijeros. kargze kargis an cudze cu-
dis warmosadgenad ki yvelaze marjve swored fantastikuri
saxea, radganac warmosaxvas sazRvari ara aqvs. leoni kargi
aRmzrdelia, magram SeiZleba ukeTesic gamoCndes (kargze
kargi xom ar daileva?!). iseve rogorc finezze ukeTesi mefe
iqneba jumberi, magram jumberze ukeTesic SeiZleba gaCndes.
rogorc vxedavT, sulxan-sabam Camoayaliba Tavisi mTavari
saTqmeli: adamianebs unda surdeT, mudmivad ukeTesisken
iswrafon, ar SeiZleba miRweuliT dakmayofileba.* raki xSi-
rad ukeTesi mxolod warmosaxvaSi arsebobs (iseve, rogorc
uaresi), mwerali uxvad iyenebs fantastikur saxeebs (erT-
maneTis mjobi mxatvrebi `italieli mxatvrebi~, an saocari
mkurnalebi, romelTa mourCeneli sneuleba ar arsebobs, IV
ambavi). swored es mTavari siaxle Semoaqvs leons dinastiur
* leons ar hgonia, rom man ukve yvelaferi icis da axla SeuZlia codnis na-
yofiT datkbes. mas ar surda mefis karze darCena. mxolod finezisTvis siz-
marSi boZebuli portretis naxvam daarwmuna, rom ufliswulis aRzrda misi
movaleoba iyo. `mowodebuli” valdebulia, Seasrulos misia da Semdeg axal
misiaze ifiqros.
172
TviTkmayofilebaSi. `uflisgan cxebulic~ SeiZleba xSirad
Secdes, raRac ar icodes, amitom gansja, fiqri da analizis
survili adamians cxovrebis dasasrulamde aA r unda tovebdes.
iniciaciagavlili leoni Sin, indoeTSi, brundeba. indo-
eTidan ki igi axal gzas Seudgeba – axla ukve konkretuli
misiiT – leonma ufliswuli unda aRzardos. aRmosavleTis
qveynebSi ufliswulis aRzrdas brZen xandazmul adamianebs
andobdnen xolme, leoni ki Wabukia. Wabuki aRmzrdelis
Semoyvana teqstSi sulxan-sabas konceptualuri xedvis
erT-erTi mniSvnelovani aspeqtia. leonis mier aRzrdili
jumberi ki – axali tipis evropuli orientaciis monarqi;
Aabsoluturi monarqiis momxre (surgulaZe 1959:211). uflis-
wuli samefo karze pirveli oficialuri vizitisTanave
akeTebs Tavis mTavar ganacxads axali ekonomikuri kursis
Taobaze. es pozicia teqstis sxva pasaJebSic Cans: rodesac
igi mefes uxsnis qvisa da miwis simbolur mniSvnelobas: `qva
da miwa rad miZRven?~ – hkiTxa finezma jumbers. `miwa es aris:
ra gind didebuli da Zlieri mefe iyo, scan ese: miwa xar da
miwad miiqcevi. RvTis saTno gijobs kacTa saTnosa. da qva ese
aris: rac salaro gaqvs, Tu ar ixmareb, qva da oqro sworia
kacTaTvis~. jumbers, rogorc Cans, ukve aqvs ekonomikuri
koncefcia, romlis gatarebasac apirebs: fuli salaroSi ki
ara – moZraobaSi (`ukan midevnebuli lampari~).

aRzrdis koncefcia

qarTul samecniero literaturaSi araerTgzis gamoiT-


qva mosazreba, rom leonma jumberi spartuli meTodiT
aRzarda, rasac Cven (ramdenime qarTveli mkvlevaris darad)
ar viziarebT. aRzrda, gansakuTrebiT, ymawvilis aRzrda,
xSirad amoixateba gamowrTobis, wrTobis terminebiT.* spar-

* rogorc cnobilia, wrToba teqnologiuri procesis aRmniSvneli terminia,


romelic metalis damuSavebas ukavSirdeba. berZnul miTologiaSi cnobilia
ramdenime siuJeti, romelic Cvilis gamowrTobas aRwers: Tetisis mier aqi-
levsis gamowrToba quraSi (qalRmerTi Svils jer quraSi Sedebda, mere civ
wyalSi amoavlebda), demetres mier demofonis wrToba quraSi. aseTi wrTo-
biT Cvilebi mouwyvlelebi xdebodnen, iaraRi maT verafers daaklebda. re-
alur cxovrebaSi wrTobisTvis civ wyals iyenebdnen (mag. germanelebi).
173
taSi dabadebisTanave bavSvi mihyavdaT uxucesebTan, rom-
lebic Cvils sinjavdnen: Tu janmrTeli iyo, mamas ubruneb-
dnen aRsazrdelad. sustebsa da fizikuri naklis mqoneT xe-
vSi yridnen. dedebi axaldabadebul Svilebs RvinoSi bandnen.
epilefsiiT daavadebulni da sustebi Rvinis abazanebs ver
uZlebdnen da iRupebodnen, janmrTelebi ki ufro Zlierde-
bodnen (plutarqe 1987:108).
sulxan-saba orbelianis `sibrZne sicruisaSi~ warmodge-
nili sami epizodis mixedviT (qancgawyvetamde sirbili,
mwdeoba, usamarTlod cema) ver vityviT, rom leonma jumbe-
ri spartuli wesiT aRzarda. saqme is aris, rom spartuli
meTodi mamaci mebrZolis aRzrdas isaxavda miznad, amitom
yuradReba, ZiriTadad, fizikur mxareze iyo gamaxvilebuli.
spartel mebrZols ar moeTxoveboda arc fizikuri Sroma,
arc rame xelobis codna, Sroma da meurneobis gaZRola
(fizikuri Sroma saTakilodac iTvleboda). spartelebi arc
gonebas itvirTavdnen zedmeti codniT. leonma ki jumbers
`glaxakTa, monaTa, glexTa, msaxurTa, aznaurTa, TavadTa,
didebulTa, mefeTa da xelmwifeTa wesi, rigi, Sroma, Wiri,
muSakoba, saqme, vaWroba, sma-Wama da micema” aswavla. rac
Seexeba azrovnebas, amaze jumberis mier amoxsnili `araki-
gamocanebi”, sityva-pasuxi da arakebi metyveleben, romlebic
uxvadaa teqstSi. ase rom, leonis aRzrdis meTodi aerTi-
anebs spartul simkacres da inteleqtualur ganviTarebas,
praqtikuli unar-Cvevebis Camoyalibebas. am mxrivac sulxan-
saba axal versias gvTavazobs. is sxvadasxva koncefcias erT
meTodad ayalibebs da am meTodSi spartuli kvalic ikveTeba.
sulxan-sabas aRzrdis sistemis Taviseburebad miaCniaT
Semdegi momentebi:
1. garkveuli mosazrebiT finezi Tavisi Svilis aRmz-
rdels sasaxlis gareT eZebs.
2.A amas akeTebs imitom, rom mas surs iseTi aRmzrdeli
monaxos, romelic SeuboWavia sasaxlis zne-CveulebebiT da
moraliT. Tavisufalia Tavis SemoqmedebaSi. kaci, romelic
mowodebiT aris aRmzrdeli da xalxis wiaRidanaa gamosuli,
ugvartomoa da uCinari.
3.Uufliswuli izrdeba sasaxlis gareT mkacr pirobebSi,
ded-mamis yoveldRiur mzrunvelobas moklebuli. is izr-
deba spartanuli meTodiT.
174
mSoblebis meTvalyureobis gareSe aRzrda ar aris rame
gansakuTrebuli da uCveulo. aRzrdis aseTi instituti
odgiTganve arsebobda rogorc dasavleTSi, aseve aRmosav-
leTSi da gansakuTrebiT gavrcelebuli iyo kavkasiaSi (ja-
veliZe 1985:158-159). samecniero literaturaSi aRniSnulia,
rom kavkasiaSi gavrcelebuli iyo aRzrdis sistema aTalikis
saxeliT cnobili: kavkasiel mTielTa Soris, gansakuTrebiT
ki maRal fenaSi, SemoRebuli iyo bavSvis gaZiZavebis wesi.
bavSvi 15 wlamde sxvagan izrdeboda ise, rom mSoblebi mas
ar naxulobdnen. es wesi Zalze Zveli Cans. zogierTi mecni-
eris azriT, misi saTave gvarovnul sazogadoebaSi unda ve-
ZeboT. gaZiZavebis wesi arsebobda saukuneebis manZilze sa-
qarTveloSi. Aamaze aSkarad metyvelebs qarTuli saistorio
wyaroebi (juanSeris Txzuleba, qarTlis cxovreba) Tu lite-
raturuli Zeglebi (vefxistyaosani). Aase rom, am instituts
sulxan-saba kargad icnobda. amitom nawarmoebSi asaxuli
aRzrdis es sistema savsebiT bunebrivi Cans Sua saukuneebis
saqarTvelosTvis da ar miuTiTebs sabas aRzrdis meTodis
raime Taviseburebaze. amasTan nawarmoebSi arsad ar aris naT-
qvami, rom leoni xalxis wiaRidan aris gamosuli da ugvarto-
moa (es kargad gamoCnda leonis Tavgadasavlis analizisas).
piriqiT, leonis warmoSobis gabundovanebiT mwerals
surs warmoaCinos, rom leoni gangebiT movlenili pirovne-
baa. aAmaze metyvelebs sizmrisa da naxatis gadacemis epizo-
di. saerTod aseTi gasaidumloebuli pirovnebis movlineba
aRmzrdelisa Tu sxva rangis rolSi gavrcelebuli motivia
folklorsa da Sua saukuneebis literaturul samyaroSi.
e. javeliZis azriT, `sibrZne sicruisaSi~ aRwerili aRz-
rdis wesi ar aris spartanuli, magram is ar hgavs arc aRzrdis
im wess (e.i. sparsuls), romelic Seqebuli aqvT qsenofonts,
herodotes, platons, montens, hegelsa da sxvebs. Sedarebis
safuZvelze vaskvniT: sulxan-sabas aRzrdis meTodi ar hgavs
arc sparsuls, arc – spartuls, mkveTrad gansxvavdeba maT-
gan. arsebiTad gansxvavdeba sabas aRzrdis mizani da saerTod,
misi Sexeduleba adamianis daniSnulebaze zemoxsenebulTagan
(javeliZe 1985:160-164). me srulad viziareb am mosazrebas.
g. TavziSvilis azriT, sulxan-sabas Tavisi qveynis da-
moukideblobis Senaxvis mTavar pirobad miaCnda DdasavleT
175
evropis orientacia (TavziSvili 1954:93). sulxan-sabas idea-
lia `kacuri kaci~. kacuri kacis cneba sulxan-sabas aRebuli
aqvs qarTuli xalxuri metyvelebidan da pirvelad gamoye-
nebulia `qilila da damanas~ leqsebSi. kacuri kacis erTi
SesaniSnavi Tvisebaa `sityva saqmiani da saqme sityviani~. ka-
curi kacis daniSnulebaa miswrafeba maRali idealebisken
(`maRalsa saqmesa eZiebde~) (TavziSvili 1959:98-99).
sulxan-saba sagangebod gamoyofs Sromas da wvrTnas. le-
onma jumberis aRzrdisas gansakuTrebuli simkacre gamoi-
Cina 3 mTavari faseulobis Segonebisas; tkivils, SimSilsa da
usamarTlobas adamiani mxolod maSin gaiTavisebs, rodesac
Tavad gamocdis (sxva yvelafris swavleba SeiZleba). Aamas le-
onic asabuTebs mefis winaSe Tavis marTlebisas). Aase rom, es
sami SemTxveva spartul aRzrdaze ki ar miuTiTebs, aramed
imaze, rom leonma kargad icis – risi swavleba SeiZleba wig-
niT (SegonebiT) da risi – mxolod piradi gamocdilebiT.
sulxan-saba icnobda ZvelberZnul formulas `Seican Ta-
vi Seni~. sakuTari Tavis Secnoba SeeZlo mxolod gansjis
unaris mqone adamianebs. gansjis erT-erTi niSani `sityvis
konis~ mixedviT aris `TaviT TvisiT WeSmariti zedcnobai.
ese aris Tavisa Tavis cnobai~.
aRzrdis mTavari Sedegia maRali zneoba: `avsa da cudsa
saqmes bolo mokle da sawyeni aqvs da kargsa da samadlosa
daulevneli saukunomdes~.
sulxan-saba did mniSvnelobas aniWebs memkvidreobisa da
garemos sakiTxs. keTili xe keTils moisxams, qori qors Ceks,
Zera – Zerukas. jumberis ganviTarebaSi Tanabrad monawile-
obs memkvidreoba da aRzrda: `pirvelad kargis nergis xili
var, meored: xelovanis mebaRis SewvrTili, mesamed: frTxi-
lis Semnaxavis barebuli~. nergad aRiarebulia mama, mebaRed
– sedraqi, Semnaxavad – leoni.
AaRzrdis ZvelberZnul tradiciaSi kargad ikveTeba 2
modeli: mentoruli da paradigmuli. mentoruli meTodi
gulisxmobs ama Tu im qmedebis ganxorcielebas imperati-
ulad – axsna-ganmartebebisa da magaliTebis moxmobis gare-
Se (am models iyenebs mentorad gardasaxuli qalRmerTi aT-
ena, rodesac odisevsis vaJs – telemaqoss miuTiTebs, rogor
moiqces). meore meTodia ama Tu im SemTxvevis msgavsi viTa-
176
rebis amsaxveli magaliTebis (paradigmebis) moxmobiT adami-
anis swor gzaze dayeneba. am SemTxvevaSi sxvadasxva magaliTis
gaanalizebis Semdeg gonieri kaci Tavad Rebulobs marTebul
gadawyvetilebas (am meTods iyenebs nestori `iliadidan~).
zogadi mniSvnelobis mqone `magaliTi”, rac gaxda safuZveli
filosofiuri `keTilis” (keTildReobis), ufro swored `aga-
Tosis~ (ajgaqovn) ideisa, uSualo gagrZelebaa sulier-isto-
riuli ganviTarebisa, romelic momdinareobs magaliTis cne-
bisgan Zvel aristokratiul `aretes~ eTikaSi (iegeri 2001).*
miTi da sagmiro Tqmulebebi iyo amouwuravi salaro
magaliTebisa, es aris eris monapovari, romlisganac azrov-
neba iRebs idealebs da cxovrebiseul normebs. imas, rom
homerosis damokidebuleba miTisadmi swored amgvaria,
adasturebs miTosuri paradigmebis gamoyeneba yvela cxov-
rebiseuli situaciis mimarT, rodesac erTi adamiani cdi-
lobs meores misces rCeva, daicvas igi, daarigos, STaagonos,
aukrZalos rame an ubrZanos. aRsaniSnavia, rom miTebis amg-
vari gamoyeneba damaxasiaTebelia ara TxrobisaTvis, aramed
eposis personaJebis sityvebisaTvis. Aam SemTxvevebSi miTi
warmoadgens avtoritetul instancias, romelzec apelirebs
molaparake. ufro gviandel epoqaSi miTologiuri magali-
Ti xdeba stilis dekoratiuli elementi, gansakuTrebiT ma-
Sin, rodesac igi gamioyeneba epideiqtikur ritorikaSi. az-
rovnebaSi racionaluri elementis zrdasTan erTad (Semdgom
epoqebSi) miTosuri magaliTi umetesad icvleba istoriuli
magaliTiT, anu idealuri magaliTi adgils uTmobs empi-
riuls TandaTan miTs Caenacvla araki.

religia

rogorc vxedavT, sulxan-saba orbeliani Tavis `sibrZne


sicruisaSi~, evropel ganmanaTlebelTa msgavsad, emxroba
ganaTlebuli absoluturi monarqiis ideas da warmogvid-
gens aseTi monarqis aRzrdis miseul models.
erTaderTi sakiTxi, rac sulxan-sabas pozicias ganas-
xvavebs dasavleT evropeli moazrovneebisagan, aris reli-

* Pplatoniseul ideaze `agaTosis~ Sesaxeb, rogorc paradigmaze mefe-filo-


sofosis sulSi ix. Plat. Resp. 472 C, 484 C,500 E, 540 A da (iegeri 2001:279-280).
177
giisadmi damokidebuleba. sulxan-sabas teqstSi ar aris qris-
tianuli religiis kritika (calkeul arakebSi warmodgenili
sxvadasxva religiis briyvi da msunagi msaxurebi, saxelmwifo
moxeleebis msgavsad, konkretuli adamianebis naklze miu-
TiTeben). saerTodac, qarTul mwerlobaSi orTodoqsuli
marTlmadidebluri rwmenis kritika ar Cans. amas Tavisi mi-
zezebi da axsna aqvs (es diskursi religiis mkvlevarTa pre-
rogativaa). vityviT mxolod erTs: marTlmadidebloba mah-
madianuri qveynebis garemocvaSi moqceuli saqarTvelosTvis
yovelTvis iyo Tavdacvisa da TviTidentifikaciis mTavari
iaraRi. amitom, evropisgan gansxvavebiT, religiis kritikas
Cvens qveyanaSi arasdros hqonia tendenciis forma.
sicocxlis meore naxevarSi sulxanma kaTolikoba miiRo.
qarTvel mkvlevarTa azriT,E es gamowveuli iyo ara kaToli-
kobis, rogorc garkveuli religiuri sistemis, upirateso-
bis SegnebiT, aramed mxolod da mxolod politikuri mosaz-
rebiT: sulxans undoda am aqtiT Tavisi saqmisadmi (an, ukeT,
qarTuli saqmisaTvis) ufro metad miepyro papisa da aRmo-
savleTSi kaTolikeTa mfarvelis – safrangeTis yuradRe-
ba. rodesac is darwmunda, rom kaTolikobam ver gaamarTla
is miswrafebani da idealebi, romelTa gulisTvis man romis
primatoba aRiara, ukanve daubrunda mamapapeul aRsarebas
(kekeliZe 1959:140-141). rogorc ar unda aixsnas misi gadawy-
vetileba, faqtia rom sulxan-sabam es nabiji gadadga, rac
mis maZieblur sulsa da saocar gaxsnilobaze miuTiTebs.
sulxan-saba ar iziarebs providencializmis koncef-
cias, romelic popularuli iyo XVII-XVIII ss-Si. sabas aseTi
protestantuli ganwyobileba feodaluri istoriografiis
am uZiriTadesi principis mimarT bevrgan aris gamomJRavne-
buli mis nawerebSi. Uupirveles yovlisa, amas vxedavT mis
leqsikonSi, sadac sityva `bedTan” dakavSirebiT naTqvamia:
`nu vin hgonebT bedisaTvis, viTarmed arsebiT rame iyos,
romelsa umecarni ityvian da mas miaweren niWsa RmrTisasa.
Bbedi saxeli ars mefeTa simaRlisa da glaxakTa simokodavisa
da ege viTarni. kualad kaci vinme borotisa Rirsi ra Rmer-
Tman Seiwyalos da Seucvalos boroti keTilad, eseviTarTa
saxelad bedi ewodebis~. `sibrZne sicruisaSi~ am mxriv sagu-
lisxmoa ori araki: `cxriliani kaci~ da `ugunuri mcuravi~.
178
sabas azriT, bedi ar aris raRac obieqturad arsebuli ram,
romelic winaswar dadgenil-gansazRvrulia RvTaebis mier
da romelic, TiTqos, TviTon miuva yvelas `Tavisi fexiT~.
piriqiT, sabas miTiTebiT, bedi aris TiToeuli adamianis Tu
mTeli sazogadoebis cdis nayofi, maTi mondomebisa (`xelis
gaqnevis~) da garjis Sedegi. ra Tqma unda, warmatebisTvis
mniSvnelovania RvTis Sewevnac. aseTi qadageba TvalsaCino
siaxles warmoadgenda XVII s-is miwurulis qarTul isto-
riografiaSi (grigolia 1959:43-45).
finezi ambobs: `bedi momec da nexvsa damfalo~ (`mefe da
avsityva kaci~). leonis azriT: `bedi yovels kacsa aqvs, Tuca
patroni ara risxavs” (`xalifa da arabi~). arakSi `xalifa da
arabi~ sainteresodaa wamoweuli bedis, cdisa da RmerTi-
sadmi damokidebulebis sakiTxi. am arakSi ierarqiulad Cans
RmerTi, romlis winaSec loculobs xalifa da Semweobas
iTxovs misgan; glaxaki arabi, romelic, ase vTqvaT, `xalifas
gavliT (mibaZviT)~ RmerTisgan iTxovs daxmarebas. saboloo
jamSi, glaxakis bedi (romelmac RmerTisgan miiRo ganZi) xali-
fas xelSia. leoni am arakiT mefes eubneba, rom qveSevrdomis
(qvemdgomis) bedi damokidebulia zemdgomze. zemdgomisa –
mefisa Tu xalifas bedi ki Tavad mis xelSia da bedis avkar-
gianoba mxolod RmerTis nebas ukavSirdeba. mefe unda iyos
samarTliani da misma ganwyobam ar unda daarRvios RmerTis
samarTali. qvemdgoms bedi maSin gaumarTlebs, roca misi
zemdgomi iqneba RvTismosavi, brZeni, samarTliani da mowya-
le. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom es aris qarTuli renesansuli es-
Tetikis erT-erTi principis – kacis bedisa da RvTaebrivi
gangebulebis sulxan-sabaseuli igavuri gaazreba (siraZe
1982:170-171). amgvarad: adamianis bedi TviT mis xelSia, kacs
aqvs Tavisufali neba arCevanisa – an unda scados, an moica-
dos. gamarjveba mas RmerTis kurTxeviT eZleva. RmerTi
mxolod marTebulad gakeTebul arCevans moiwonebs (Rlon-
ti 2009:20-28).
sabas Semoqmedebis mTavari maxasiaTebelia mkveTrad ga-
maxvilebuli mizanswrafva qveynis msaxurebisa (grigolia
1959:45). amasve asabuTebda ciceroni traqtatSi `saxelm-
wifos Sesaxeb~, romelSic romaeli politikosi vrclad
msjelobs, Tu ratom aris qveynis msaxureba Rirseuli mo-
qalaqisTvis umaRlesi siqvele da movaleoba.
179
SeniSvnebi:

1. sofisti niSnavs brZens, magram terminad gadaqcevis Semdgom


am sityvam ramdenime mniSvneloba SeiZina: konkretuli saqmis os-
tati (sityvisa da mtkicebis xelovnebaSi gawafuli); praqtikuli da
politikuri sakiTxebis Rrmad mWvreteli; mecnieruli, Teoriuli
an filosofiuri sibrZniT aRWurvili (kerferdi 1981:24). amasTan,
sofisti aris is, `vinc aswavlis gramatikas, maTematikas, ritorikas
da gasamrjelod iRebs fuls~ (leqsikoni 1961). sofistebs uwodebd-
nen poetebs, filosofosebs, kanonmdeblebs, musikosebs da qurumeb-
sac ki. rogorc varaudoben, pirvelad sityva sofisti uaryofiT
konteqstSi moixsenia esqilem `miWaWvul promeTeSi~ (aq sofisti
eSmaki da matyuaraa Aesch. PV 62). Zv. w-is V s-dan sofisti umetesad
uaryofiTi konotaciiT gvxvdeba, Tumca rig SemTxvevebSi (umete-
sad, filosofosebi) Zveli mniSvnelobiTac iyeneben.
sofistebis swavlebaSi ramdenime ZiriTad aspeqts gamoyofen:
1. maT maZRvrebas mkafiod praqtikuli mniSvneloba hqonda da miz-
nad isaxavda arete-s (siqvelis) damkvidrebas. 2. maT axasiaTebdaT sa-
yovelTao skepticizmi da ar sjerodaT, rom adamians SeuZlia ab-
soluturi codnis wvdoma. am konteqstSi religiisadmi sofistebis
damokidebuleba SeiZleba gamovxatoT pP rotagoras sityvebiT: `rac
Seexeba RmerTebs, me ar SemiZlia vicode arseboben isini Tu ara,
an ra formisani arian isini; rameTu aseT codnas bevri ram udgeba
win, maT Soris – sagnis bundovaneba da adamianuri cxovrebis simo-
kle~. aqedan gamomdinareobs maqsima – `adamiania yvela sagnis sa-
zomi~ (gaTri1983:83-4). platonis interpretaciiT, protagorasTvis
WeSmaritebas gansazRvravs, Tu rogorad eCveneba sagnebi konk-
retul pirovnebas: me ase vxedav, Sen – ise. veravin amxels meoris
Secdomas, radgan Tu kaci ase xedavs sagnebs, isini misTvis aseTebi
arian kidec, Tumca sxvisTvis SeiZleba sxvanairebi iyvnen. WeSmar-
iteba wminda SefardebiTi ramea (gaTri1983:84). sofistebi eWvqveS
ayenebdnen uamrav Rirebulebas, maT Soris kanonis xelSeuxeblobas
(antikur saberZneTSi kanoni RvTaebriv sanqciaze dafuZvnebulad
miaCndaT). protagora, romelic Tavad monawileobda aTenis axali
koloniis (samxreT italiaSi) konstituciis SeqmnaSi, erT-erTi
pirvelia, romelic msjelobs kanonis da kanonierebis warmoSobis
socialur safuZvlebze. adamianebma `Seignes kanonisa da pirobiTo-
bis aucilebloba, romlis ZaliTac Zlierebi valdebulebas iReben,
180
ar daCagron da ar daamciron sustebi mxolod imis gamo, rom ufro
Zlierebi arian~ (gaTri 1983:85-6). im sofistebis gverdiT, romlebic
mxars uWerdnen e.w. socialuri xelSekrulebis Teorias (adamianebi
unda emorCilebodnen kanonebs) iyvnen radikalurad moazrovnee-
bic, romelTa azriT, yvelaferi ZlierTa nebis qveSaa; WeSmariteba,
siyalbe, sibrZne, samarTlianoba da sikeTe carieli sityvebia (ga-
Tri 1983:86-7). Cven ar SevudgebiT sofistebis Sexedulebebis av-
kargis analizs; aRvniSnavT mxolod imas, rom sofisti bizantiel
avtorebTanac orive mniSvnelobiT gvxvdeba.
sofistebis saqmianobis arsebiTi maxasiaTebeli aris is, rom
isini saWiro dros aRmoCndnen saWiro adgilze. saqme isaa, rom Zv. w-is
Vs-is aTenSi, romelic pirveli demokratiuli saxelmwifos mSe-
neblobis gzas daadga, aucilebeli Seiqna Tavisufali moqalaqis
aRzrda. Tavisufleba ki gulisxmobs sakuTari Sexedulebebis Camo-
yalibebis da maTi mticebis xelovnebis flobas. amisTvis aucile-
belia Sesabamisi ganaTleba. sofistebis erT-erTi umTavresi miza-
ni saxelmwifo saqmianobaSi CarTuli adamianis momzadeba iyo. Tavad
sofistebi warmoSobiT saberZneTis sxvadasxva kuTxidan iyvnen, mag-
ram demokratiuli aTeni (perikles aTeni) gaxda sofistebis mTa-
vari samoRvaweo adgili (celeri 1996:78,203).
2. sokrates damokidebuleba sofistebisadmi antikurobis erT-
erTi umniSvnelovanesi sakiTxia. tradiciuli SexedulebiT, sokrate
kategoriulad emijneboda sofistebs. Tumca, zogi mosazrebiT,
sokrate iyo `sofisti sofistTagani~; erTaderTi gansxvaveba maT
Soris iyo is, rom sofistebi swavlebisTvis gasamrjelis iRebdnen,
sokrate ki – ara. es msgavseba gansakuTrebiT TvalsaCinoa saubris
warmarTvis xerxebis Sedarebisas (kerferdi 1981:62-67). mecnierTa
umetesoba miiCnevs, rom sokrates sofistebisgan mkafiod ganas-
xvavebs midgoma codnisa da WeSmaritebisadmi: sofistebi uaryofen
obieqturi WeSmaritebis arsebobas. sokratesTvis codna aris um-
Tavresi sikeTe (arete). obieqturi WeSmariteba arsebobs, Tumca misi
wvdoma Znelia.
3. gamomdinare mZime politikuri viTarebidan, odesRac umdid-
resi qveyana – italia gaRaribda, man dakarga msoflio kulturuli
centris funqcia. XVII s-Si italiaSi ar Seqmnila araferi mniSvnelo-
vani, rac saSualebas mogvcemda italiuri kultura gangvexila
msoflio literaturuli procesebis konteqstSi. daaxloebiT ig-
ive procesebi ganviTarda XVII s-is germaniaSi. espaneTi ki XVI s-is
181
droebiTi aRmavlobis Semdeg daqveiTebis gzas daadga. servantesis
gardacvalebis Semdeg (1616w.) espanuri proza kargavs sazogadoeb-
riv mniSvnelobas. XVII s-is I naxevris espaneli mwerlebis lope de
vegas da kalderonis SemoqmedebaSi jer kidev ismis aRorZinebis
epoqis optimizmi. XVI s-is inglisSi seriozuli politikuri Zvrebi
moxda. es iyo pirveli qveyana evropul sivrceSi, sadac dominanturi
gavlena moipova kapitalisturad wodebulma sistemam. XVII s-Si ing-
lisSi moRvaweoben cnobili filosofosebi frensis bekoni da gobsi,
literaturaSi – miltoni. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom XVII s-is dasavleT
evropul mwerlobaSi safrangeTis dro dadga. XVI s-Si safrangeTma
gadaitana umZimesi religiuri brZolebis periodi da XVII s-Si iq dam-
yarda absoluturi monarqia klasikuri formiT. safrangeTma mo-
axerxa gaerTianeba (XVII s-is II naxevarSi). swored am periodSi iwyeba
kulturis mZlavri aRmavloba. am kulturuli Zvrebis saTaveebTan
dganan dekarti, korneli, rasini, molieri, bomarSe. lafonteni qmnis
klasikuri arakis nimuSs. viTardeba franguli proza: aforistuli
(paskali, laroSfuko, labriuieri), memuaruli (kardinali de re,
hercogi sen-simoni), fsiqologiuri romani (lafaieti).
4. raki XVII-XVIII ss-is evropuli literaturis teqsti da qveteq-
sti, arsebiTad, gajerebulia fiqrebiT absolutur monarqiasa da
mis alternatiul axal sazogadoebriv mowyobaze, mokled mimovi-
xiloT evropuli qveynebis politikuri suraTi: espaneTi – iezuit-
Ta samSoblo. am qveyanaSi yvelaze sastikad mZvinvarebda inkvizicia
XVI-XVIIIss-Si; espaneTSi inkvizitorTa ganaCeniT koconze dawves 30
aTasze meti adamiani, 300 aTasamde ki cixeebSi amoalpes. es qveyana
iyo kaTolicizmis – romis papis – yvelaze erTguli mcveli. espane-
Tis monarqi iwodeboda `mis kaTolikur umaRlesobad~. kaTolikuri
eklesia gaxda absolutizmis uZlieresi da umdidresi iaraRi. ameri-
kis koloniebidan uzomo raodenobiT Camozidulma oqrom, erTi
mxiv, xeli Seuwyo espaneTis gamdidrebas, meore mxriv, gamoiwvia
qveynis Sida warmoebis damuxruWeba, erovnuli ganviTarebis stag-
nacia. `uZleveli armadis~ daRupvam (XVI s.) biZgi misca espaneTis
Zlierebis dasasrulis dasawyiss. erTi meores miyolebiT aRigava
pirisagan miwisa asobiT espanuri dasaxleba; mosaxleobis raodeno-
ba aTjer Semcirda. sabolood, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom absoluturma
monarqiam espaneTSi ver moaxerxa qveynis winsvlisa da ganviTarebis
uzrunvelyofa. ase rom, XVII s-Si espaneTi dasavleT evropis meo-
rexarisxovan qveynad iqca, xolo qveynis monarqebi dekoratiul
182
figurebs warmoadgendnen. XVII s-is espanur literaturaSi gamoiyo-
fa 3 mimdinareoba: renesansuli realizmi (lope de vega), klasicizmi
(swavluli poetebi), baroko (kalderoni). amaTgan: espanuri renesan-
suli realizmi (XVII s-is I naxevari) moicavda antikuri kulturis
mxatvrul gamocdilebasa da espaneli xalxis nacionaluri kul-
turis tradiciebs. klasicizmi efuZneboda antikur avtoritetebs
da ignorirebas ukeTebda nacionalur kulturas, espanelTa li-
teraturul gemovnebas. swored amitom ver gascda es mimdinareoba
`swavlulTa~ literaturuli wris farglebs. rac Seexeba espanur
barokos, man farTod gaSala frTebi. barokos ar uaruyvia renesan-
sisa da antikuri xelovnebis esTetikuri miRwevebi, ar gamijvnia arc
xalxis nacionalur gemovnebas.
XVII s-is safrangeTi evropis yvelaze Zlieri saxelmwifoa.
franguli absolutizmis CamoyalibebaSi didi wvlili Seitanes mefe
anri IV-m, misi vaJis – lui XIII-is ministrma kardinalma riSeliem da
ludoviko XIV-m.
5. ras unda niSnavdes tradiciuli modelebis (viri jiutia; mels
veravin moatyuebs; gveli borotia) alternatiuli saxeebis (viri
Wkviania, mels atyueben, gveli keTilia) warmodgena? imas xom ara,
rom adamianSi (romlis alegoriebi cxovelebia) ori sawyisi – kargi
da cudi – ebrZvis erTmaneTs? adamianma jer Tavis TavSi unda sZli-
os ukeTur Tvisebebs? es zneobriv-eTikuri problema xom ar wamos-
wia sulxan-sabam? am sakiTxis gasarkvevad isev antikurobas mivu-
brundeT.
antikurobasa da adrebizantiur epoqaSi Zalian popularuli
iyo fiziognomika – swavleba imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogor ganvsazRvroT
adamianis xasiaTi misi garegnobis mixedviT. antikuri fiziognomika
(romelic iwyeba Zv. w. V s-dan), yovelTvis orientirebuli iyo xasi-
aTis Tvisebebis gansazRvraze. fiziognomikaSi Sevida Teoriebi,
romlebic ganaviTares medicinam da eTnografiam (mag.: garemos zemo-
qmedeba adamianis xasiaTis Camoyalibebaze; klimaturi sartylebis
Teoria). fiziognomika `sazrdoobda” istoriuli biografiebTan
da `saxasiaTo” literaturidanac. antikurobaSi diskusiis obieqti
iyo im fiziognomikis samecniero Rirebuleba, romelic aRiarebda
garegnuli saxisa da sulieri arsis harmonias. Cvenamde moRweuli
Yyvelaze mniSvnelovani fiziognomikuri teqstebi ukavSirdeba fsev-
do-aristoteles da elinisturi xanis ritors – polemons.
183
Aaverincevis azriT, araki `SeiWra~ fiziognomikaSi – mecnierebas
mimsgavsebul filosofiur literaturaSi. MmagaliTad, moTxrobe-
bi gonier, moralur cxovelebze arcxvenen adamianebs. am Tval-
sazrisiT gansakuTrebiT sayuradReboa klavdius elianusis wigni
`cxovelTa Sesaxeb~ (II-III s.) es ar aris mecnieruli Rirebulebis
naSromi, magram arsebiTia moralisturi daskvnebi: uyure, rogor
iqcevian utyvi cxovelebi, maSin rodesac Sen, gonierebiT aRsavse
kacs, gWirdeba Segoneba da akrZalva, raTa Tavi Seikavo borotisgan
(mag.:sparteli likurgosi ufrosebisadmi pativiscemas unergavda
lekedemonelebs, maSin rodesac spiloebi yovelgvari Segonebebis
gareSe akeTeben amas. an: adamiani sikvdils ver xedavs, magram misi eS-
inia; gedi grZnobs sikvdilis moaxloebas da simReriT egebeba mas).
arakuli Txrobis tradiciam, udavod, imoqmeda fiziognomikazec.
magaliTad: vinme adametesi werda: didi TvalisWrili uwignurobas
amxels, patara – siverages. cocxal arsebebs Soris viwro Tval-
isWrili aqvT qvewarmavlebs, maimunebs, meliebs da sxva verag qmnile-
bebs; cxvrebs, Zroxebs da msgavs mSvid cxovelebs farTo Wrili aqvT.
Aadamianis moxerxebuloba meliisa da iqnevmonis moxerxebulobasTan
erTbunebovnebas avlens, saTnoeba ki – cxvrisa da Zroxis saTnoebis
msgavsia.
fiziognomikuri swavlebis mixedviT, `eTosi – zne~ iseve Tvalsa-
Cinod da ucvlelad vlindeba, rogorc `eidosi – saxe~. arakis mela
ver moiSlis cbierebas, gveli ki veragobas. Aam fiziognomikur swav-
lebaSi koreqtivis Setana scada filosofiurma moralizmma – adami-
ans SeuZlia Secvalos sakuTari Tavi. meore koreqtivi: qristianuli
dogmatikis mixedviT adamianuri neba Tavisufalia (aujt-exouvsio~).
Aadamians pirutyvi cxovelisgan swored nebis Tavisufleba ganasx-
vavebs. cxoveli ver Secvlis Tavis bunebiT Cvevebs, adamians ki es
SeuZlia. `gonis Secvla” aris metav-noia-s – `monaniebis~ pirdapiri
mniSvneloba. Kkliment aleqsandrielis mixedviT: `RvTaebrivi ada-
mianTmoyvareoba imaSi gamomJRavnda, rom nebis Tavisuflebis gziT
suls mieniWa monaniebis SesaZlebloba~. Tavisufali neba, romelic
adamians cxovelisgan ganasxvavebs, SeiZleba isev igavuri saxeebiT
warmodges: mag.: pavle cxvrad qceuli mgelia; iuda – mglad qceuli
cxvari. Ee.i. adamiani imiT gansxvavdeba cxovelisgan, rom Tavad irCevs,
romel cxovelad iqces: cxvrad Tu mglad da a.S. Tavisufali nebis
aqts, romelic adamians ukeTesobisken an uaresobisken mimarTavs,
bizantieli avtorebi aRniSnavdnen sityviT meta-bolhv, romelic See-
184
sabameba `gadawyobas~, `gadaqcevas~, evqaristias purisa da Rvinisa
qristes xorcad da sisxlad. Mmetanoia aris metabole, monanieba aris
`daujereblis” anu `paradoqsulis~ gadaqceva (averincevi 1977:166).
qristianuli swavlebis mixedviT, adamianis gardasaxva (metamor-
foza) da sulTa reinkarnacia mxolod metaforaa da am aqtSi igu-
lisxmeba adamianis `sulis gamxeceba~ (origene). adamians SeuZlia
Seicvalos, radgan `Cven raRacnairad Tavad varT sakuTari Tavis
mamebi – iseTebi viqnebiT, rogorebadac visurvebT Cveni Tavis Sobas
(grigol noseli, De Vita Moysis, GNO VII/1 34,11ff.).
ver vityviT, rom fiziognomikuri warmodgena Cvevis absolu-
turi statikurobis Sesaxeb da RvTismetyvelebiTi warmodgena
nebis absoluturi dinamikis Sesaxeb mTlianad gamoricxavs erTma-
neTs. isini Tanaarsebobdnen epoqis SemecnebaSi da TiToeuli iga-
vuri formiT Segonebis Tavis xerxs gvTavazobs: Aadamianma Tavad
unda moZebnos msgavsi Tanasaxieri (msgavsi bunebis mqone), raTa amg-
var sarkeSi dainaxos Tavisi ucvleli zne – gvaswavlis fiziogno-
mika. RvTismetyvelebiTi moralizmis mixedviT ki, adamianma unda
gaiTvaliswinos keTilisa da borotis cxoveluri heraldika, raTa
gaigos, rad surs yofna, rad yofna evaleba, raTa Tavisufali nebiT
uaryos erTi da meoriT Seimosos (averincevi 1977:167).
6. pirveli STabeWdilebiT, kavSiri `Tuca” TiTqos apirispirebs
mefes da mwyemss, magram Tu teqstis mTel monakveTs kargad gaviaz-
rebT, cxadi xdeba, rom es dapirispireba mxolod mxatvruli xerxia
ZiriTadi azris gamosakveTad. `me var mwyemsi keTili, da vicnob Ce-
mebs, da Cemebi micnoben me” (ioane 10,14), – ambobs ufali, da ra Tqma
unda, aravin SeiZleba iyos am `mwyemsze” aRmatebuli. Tu am frazas
profanul doneze ganvixilavT – mwyemsSi Cveulebriv mwyemss vigu-
lisxmebT, romlis funqcia faris dacvaa, am SemTxvevaSi mefe, ra Tqma
unda, aRemateba mwyemss; Tumca sulxan-saba msjelobas ise `atria-
lebs~, rom ubralo mwyemsic SeiZleba iyos ugvan mefeze aRmatebu-
li. Cveulebriv mwyemsSic Zevs simboluri arqetipi. mzrunveli da
gonieri (ganswavluli) mefe ki idealuri mwyemsia – keTil mwyemsTan
miaxloebuli saxe-simbolo.
7. sulxan-saba orbelianis arakebis mimarTeba saxarebiseul ig-
avTan sainteresodaa warmodgenili m. Rlontis naSromSi. avtori
teqstSi gamoyofs 3 ideur-kompoziciur kvanZs, birTv-arakebs Tan-
mxlebi arakebiT. am kvanZebis pirobiTi saxelebia: gamyareba, Ze me-
fisa, sityva. samive kvanZSi ZiriTad saTqmels amboben finezi, leo-
185
ni, jumberi (Rlonti 2009:4-10). I kvanZis (`gamyareba”) birTvi arakia
`Zala erTobisa~, romelsac yveba mefe. arakis garemomcvel kompoz-
iciur sivrces qmnis mefe-ymaTa qcevebis ganmsazRvreli ramdenime
siuJeturi segmenti: erT-erTia leonis Segonebebi – `wesi mefeTa~,
romliTac gansazRvrulia mefis movaleobebi (`mefeTagan samni uy-
varan RmerTsa~ ..… da a.S). es teqsti mTavrdeba sityvebiT: `ese ars
wesi mefeTa, ese ars saboZvari TemTa, ese ars godoli spaTa, ese ars
zRude qalaqTa! romelman hyos, igi da qveyana misi daemyaros~; meo-
rea mefe finezis Segonebani `vazirTa wesi~, mesame – leonis `mefeTa
Tana myofTa wesi~. aqvea ganxiluli – bedi, cda, arCevani, romlis
sakvanZo arakia `xalifa da arabi~ (Rlonti 2009:13-28). Cveni azriT, m.
Rlonti marTebulad da Tanmimdevrulad warmoaCens veqtors araki-
dan da Segonebidan – > igavamde. `sibrZne sicruisaSi~ saxarebiseuli
(bibliuri) brZeni mefis igavuri (simboluri) saxe teqstis siRrmeSia
`Camarxuli~, is uxilavad qmnis teqstis Semkvrel bades da am fonze
alegoriuli arakebic sagangebo funqcias iZenen. amisi nimuSia Tun-
dac araki `Zala erTobisa~. am arakis warmomavloba, gavrcelebis
areali da savaraudo arqetipis ritualuri versia gamoikvlia i. li-
seviCma (liseviCi 1971). es siuJeti `tompsonis indeqsSi~ registri-
rebulia nomriT – J.1021. mkvlevarma gamoavlina da Seiswavla 20-ze
meti teqsti, romlebic ar aris miTiTebuli tompsonis indeqsSi. maTi
umetesoba Seiqmna aRmosavleTSi – CineTSi, tibetSi, monRoleTSi,
yalmuxeTSi, saqarTveloSi, uzbekeTSi da sxva. igi ganixilavs arakis
sabaseul versiasac. vrceli mecnieruli analizis safuZvelze li-
seviCi askvnis: arakis siuJeti, daibada samxreT ruseTis stepebSi da
ori aTasi wlis Semdeg isev dabrunda ruseTSi sami gziT. aRmosav-
leTidan is moitanes yalmuxebma, dasavleTidan Semovida naTargmni
literaturiT; wina saukunis dasasruls ki mesame varianti Semovida
saqarTvelodan (liseviCi 1871:300). es siuJeti dasturdeba mxolod
evraziis xalxebSi, amasTan, ZiriTadad, mis centralur nawilSi didi
abreSumis gzis gaswvriv. am regionis birTvs warmoadgenda teri-
toriebi, romlebic odesRac skviTebiT iyo dasaxlebuli (Saviz-
RvispireTi, Sua azia) an xalxi, romelic ganicdida skviTebis xangr-
Zliv Tavdasxmebs (kavkasia, wina azia).
Semdgom mkvlevari svams kiTxvas: ratom gaCnda moSuRari vaJiS-
vilebisa da wnelebis konis igavi swored skviTebSi da ara sxva xalx-
Si? analizma mkvlevari skviTebis yofasa da rwmena-warmodgenebamde
miiyvana. wnelebis konas mniSvnelovani adgili ekava skviTebis cx-
186
ovrebaSi: wnelis kona iyo wminda simbolo, mas eniWeboda sakraluri
mniSvneloba, mistikuri azri. swored amitomac gamoiyeneboda mis-
nobisas. wnelebis konas hqonda sakraluri mniSvneloba ara mxolod
SavizRvispireTis skviTebSi, aramed maT monaTesave xalxebs Sorisac.
amitom gasakviri ar aris, rom skviTebSi daibada araki, romelSic
wnelebis konas aqvs damrigeblobiTi funqciac. am konebis daSliT
da awyobiT mefe, faqtobrivad, Svilebs momavals uwinaswarmetyve-
lebs. avtoris azriT, yvelaze Zvelia is versia, romelSic TviT mama
Slis wnelis konas (konis sakraluri mniSvnelobidan gamomdinare,
yvelas ar SeeZlo misi daSla). qarTul versiaSi wnelis kona Canac-
vlebulia isrebiT; am SemTxvevaSic maT mxolod mefe hkidebs xels.
aseTia am sakvanZo arakis winaqristianuli axsna. Cven SeiZleba gavi-
ziaroT es axsna, an – ara. mTavaria rogor xsnis teqstis arss dakvir-
vebuli mkiTxveli. mefis, Zis (Zeebis), isris (isarTa konis) urTierT-
mimarTeba qarTul arakSi ikvreba mTavari postulatiT, romelsac
erToba (erTianoba, erTsulovneba) hqvia.
8. italiis erT qalaqSi leoni adgilobrivma mxatvarTuxucesma
istumra, romelTanac erTi Tve dahyo. maspinZels leoni sxva mxat-
vrebTanac dahyavda. leoni Seeswro italieli mxatvrebis msubuqi
iumoriT gajerebul Sejibrebebs: erTma mxatvarma ise ostaturad
daxata saweri kalam-qaRaldi, rom meore mxatvars namdvili egona,
daxatul tilos xeli aZgera da kedeli daxvda. Semdgom am `Ser-
cxvenilma~ mxatvarma miiwvia sawer-qaRaldis damxatavi. stumrad
miwveul mxatvars daxatuli kari namdvili egona da kedels TaviT
daetaka. sxva mxatvarma ise daxata wyali, rom yvelas namdvili ego-
na, erTma WiqiT wylis amoReba moindoma. erTma brZenma mxatvarma ki
wylis avzs ZaRlis myrali mZori ise miaxata, rom avzSi Cavardnils
hgavda. wylis asaRebad Sesuli mxatvari ukan gamobrunda da mego-
bar mxatvrebs uTxra: eg wyali ar daileva, avzSi mZori gdiao. erTma
mxatvarma megobari mxatvris coli daxata da naxati moqeife mxat-
varTa Soris dado. rodesac daxatuli qalis qmari Semovida, qals
xeli Semohkra da colis nacvlad kedeli daxvda.
9. iniciaciis (xeldasxmis) rituali erT-erTi uZvelesia; es ada-
Ti yvela xalxis kulturaSi dasturdeba. leonis Tavgadasavalsa
da iniciaciaze dawvrilebiT ix.:canava 2012:276-293. Cemi varaudiT,
leonis marSruti cnobili punqtebis mixedviT daaxloebiT ase war-
mogvidgeba: italia –> Aazerbaijani(?) –>iran-avRaneTi –>indoeTi.
187
aqve aRvniSnav erT sayuradRebo moments. Tavisi Tavgadasavlis
moyolamde ruqasTan paeqrobisas leoni yveba araks: `indoT mefe da
vazirni~. araks leoni ase iwyebs: `mamisa mamaCemi, masmia, indoT me-
fisa xuTTa vazirTa uxucesi yofila~ (orbeliani 1959:18). rogor
gavigoT es? rogorc ambavi, romelic leonis realur papas gadaxda
Tavs, Tu meti damajereblobisaTvis araks wamZRvarebuli pream-
bula? Tu leonis papa indoeTis mefis karze vezirobda, didi alba-
Tobaa, rom igi warmoSobiT indoeli iyo. Sesabamisad, leonic (papis
xaziT) indoelia.
leoni, savaraudod, indoeTidan iwyebs qveynierebis moxilvas
– SeiZleba is indoelia da isev indoeTSi brundeba; es tradiciuli
kvlavdabrunebis miTis modelia.
10. `odiseasTan~ Sedareba ar aris SemTxveviTi, an rame axirebis
Sedegi. saqme is aris, rom samecniero literaturaSi sayovelTaod
aRiarebulia `odiseas~ udidesi gavlena mTel evropul azrovne-
baze, cnobili gamoTqmaa: mTeli evropuli mwerloba `odiseadan~
amovida. miT umetes es mosazreba aqtualuria, rodesac saqme exeba
samogzauro, saTavgadasavlo, fantastikur Janrs. amitom, Cemi az-
riT, Tu `sibrZne-sicruisaSi~ aRmoCndeba mniSvnelovani msgavsebebi
(iqneba es struqturul-kompoziciuri, Tu personaJis damaxasi-
aTebeli an avtoris mentalur orientaciaze mimaniSnebeli) `odis-
easTan~, vfiqrob, yvelaferi erTianobaSi saintereso varaudebis
gamoTqmis saSualebas mogvcems.
11. orive TxzulebaSi gvxvdeba fantastikuri ambebi. aravin icis
sjerodaT Tu ara amgvari ambebi homerosis Tanamedroveebs, magram
homerosidan ramdenime saukunis Semdeg aristotele Seecada gane-
marta, ratom unda moeTxro mwerals daujerebeli ambavi. igi wers,
rom gamonagoni SeiZleba iyos rogorc `SesaZlebeli mosalodneli~,
ise `SesaZlebeli aucilebeli~ (aristotele 2005:26). mweralma Ta-
vad unda airCios, romeli maTgani moaxdens met zemoqmedebas mkiTx-
velze. aristotele upiratesobas aniWebda `SesaZlebel mosalod-
nels~. `SesaZlebeli mosalodneli~ SeiZleba irealuri sferodanac
yofiliyo. Cven ver vityviT iziarebda Tu ara am princips sulxan-
saba orbeliani, romelmac leonis TavgadasavalSi ramdenime fan-
tastikuri epizodi CarTo. gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia goliaTebis
ambavi. `odiseasTan” misadagebiT Tu ganvixilavT, am epizods See-
fardeba odisevsis stumrobani kikonebTan, lotofagebTan, kiklop-
188
Tan da a. S. yoveli momdevno `maspinZeli~ winaze saSiSia (homerosi
1961). igive principia gatarebuli `goliaTebis epizodSi~. yoveli
momdevno goliaTi winaze didi da saSiSia. faTerakis maZiebelTa siu-
Jets, sxva siuJetebis msgavsad, mravali paraleli daeZebneba; magram
raki axla esaa Cveni yuradRebis centrSi, aRvniSnav, rom goliaTe-
bis ambis msgavsi Zalian saintereso gadmocemaa `narTebis eposSi~.
qarTul TargmanSi qveTavadaa gamoyofili `soslani eZebs Tavisze
Zliers~. aq moTxrobilia, rogor gaemarTa soslani Tavisze Zlieris
saZebrad da erTimeoris miyolebiT ixila sami meTevze, romlebsac
ankesze satyuarebad, Sesabamisad, cxvari, Zroxa da xari wamoec-
vaT. meTevze Zmebis dedam soslani sacerqveS damala da sikvdils
gadaarCina. gzad mimaval Wabuks ki calxela da calTvala mgzavri
Semoxvda, romelmac soslani enisqveS damala. calxela samive Zmas
gausworda da soslans Tavisi Tavgadasavali uambo, romelic wylis
wveTiviT hgavs `sibrZne sicruisas~ mTesveli goliaTis ambavs. so-
slanis epizods Segonebac axlavs: `nurasodes ifiqreb, Cemze Zlieri
aravin iqnebao~ (narTebi 1977:41-44).

damowmebani:

averincevi 1977: Аверинцев С.С. “Мир как школа”, в кн: Поэтика


ранневизантийской литературы. Москва: «Наука», 1977.
artamonovi .. 1973: Артамонов С.Д., Гражданская З.Т., Самарин Р.М. История
зарубежной литературы XVII-XVIIIв.в. Москва: “Просвещение”, 1973.
amirxanaSvili 2012: amirxanaSvili i. sulxan-saba orbeliani – gan-
manaTleblobisa da enciklopedizmis ideebis mkvlevari. krebulSi:
XVI-XVIII saukuneebis qarTuli literatura aRmosavluri da dasavluri
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192
Tamar barbaqaZe

mefeTa poezia da versifikaciuli formebis


mravlferovneba

XVIII s. pirvel mesamedSi, pirvel qarTul normatikul


traqtatSi, mamuka baraTaSvilis `WaSnikSi~ gamoikveTa avto-
ris deklarirebuli pozicia: aSkara brZola ucxour, kerZod,
sparsuli literaturuli gavlenis wi­naaRmdeg. qarTveli
poeti-Teoretikosi `WaSnikSi~ gmobs im qarTvel poetebs,
rom­lebsac `TaTris zRaprebi gauleqsavT, msmenT sazianod
da mTqmelT saurigod~. sparsuli mwerlobis winaSe qedis
moxra qarTvel mwignobars saaugo saqmed miuCnevia. avtoris
moTxov­niT, qarTvelma poetebma unda izrunon leqsis Tema-
tikis Ser­Cevaze: `kai ambebi~ unda galeqson, anu: `kai swavlis
ambebi~, sag­miro saqmeebi, samSoblos siyvaruli, vinaidan
`leqsi erTi ram aris am soflis saqmeSi~ da leqsis zemoq-
medebis Zala msmenelze ueWvelia: `kacs gaagulovnebs, oms
moandomebs da ... qveynis mterze gamosayenebelia~. poetma da
Teoretikosma dagmo is avtorebi, romelTac `saRmTo werili
sameZaod gauleqsavT~.
pirveli qarTuli leqsmcod­neobiTi traqtatis analizi
amtkicebs, rom misi avtori, mamuka baraTaSvili, iTvalis-
winebs rogorc qarTul, ise mowinave dasavluri qveynebis
poetikur-leqsmcodneobiT gamocdilebas da aTanxmebs am
ukanasknels erovnuli leqsis bunebasa da Tavi­seburebas-
Tan. swored am gzas daadga italia da inglisi XVI saukuneSi,
safrangeTi – XVII saukuneSi, poloneTi, germania – XVIII sa-
ukuneSi, ruseTze adre ki – saqarTvelo, mefe arCilis,
vaxtang VI-isa da mamuka baraTaSvilis wyalobiT. 1731 wels,
trediakovskisa (1735) da lomonosovis (1739) leqsmcodne-
obiT naS­romebamde, anu rusuli leqsis reformamde, mamuka
baraTaS­vilma mkafiod gansazRvra qarTuli leqsis raoba,
misi buneba, saxeebi, riTma, strofi, taepi, muxli. qarTuli
ena da leqsi erTmaneTs mWidrod daukavSira Tavisi bunebiT.
mamuka baraTaSvilma dawera ra `WaSniki~, aramarto mxa-
ri auba evropuli leqs­mcod­neobis reformatorul kurss,
193
aramed – Seqmna pirveli qarTu­l­i saleqso kanoni, romelmac
didad gansazRvra, rogorc misi Tanamedrove, ise roman-
tizmis epoqis qarTuli poeziis forma­luri modelebi.
rodesac qarTul xalxur saleqso kanonze da XVII-XVIII ss.
qarTul leqsze vsaubrobT, pirvel yovlisa, mefeTa poezi-
aze unda SevCerdeT.
Teimuraz I-is poezias Tanamedrove mkvlevrebi, erTi
mxriv, sparsuli literaturis ZiriTad tendenciebTan mi-
marTebaSi ganixi­laven, xolo meore mxriv, misi `wameba qeTe-
van dedoflisa~ (1628), `qar­Tuli barokos~ erT-erT pirvel
nimuSad aris miCneuli (d. laS­qaraZe, g. gaCeCilaZe, i. kenWoS-
vili, m. naWyebia).
viziarebT qarTul literaturaTmcodneobaSi aRiare-
bul azrs, rom Teimuraz I ori literaturuli stilis mij-
naze myofi Semoq­media. igi, erTi mxriv, amuSavebs da aqar-
Tulebs sparsuli poeziis nimuSebs, amkvidrebs aRmosavlur
siuJetebsa da saxe­ebs, meore mxriv, masTan iRebs saTaves ar-
Cil mefis mier Camo­ya­libebuli `mar­Tlis Tqmis~ principi.
erTi mxriv, Teimuraz I (1589-1663) XVII-XVIII saukuneebis pir­
veli poetia, romelmac qarTuli erovnuli Tematika gaixada
Se­moq­mede­bis wyarod (r. baramiZe), meore mxriv ki, mas ioseb
gri­SaSvilma `maja­mis amirbari~ uwoda da amiT, erTgvarad,
gaamyara poetis adgili erovnuli literaturis istoriaSi,
rogorc aR­mo­savluri saleqso kanonikis ganmamtkiceblisa.
XVII saukunis epoqis tendenciebi iTvaliswinebda for-
mis upi­ratesobas SinaarsTan SedarebiT, amitomac ganzrax
garTu­lebuli, xelovnuri saleqso formebi ucxo ar aris
Teimuraz I-is versi­fi­kaciisaTvis. e.w. `leqsebi smenisaTvis~
Teimuraz I-is poeziaSi gapi­ro­bebulia poetis motivaciiT,
moipovos sivrce da originaluri TviTgamoxatva mSobli-
ur poeziaSi sparsuli enis musikalobis da­nergvis xarjze;
swored amis gamo Teimu­ra­zis leqsis evfonia xSi­rad eyr-
dnoba sparsul leqsikas (`isa~- `geSt~//`geCedi~, `xazali~,
`fasli~, `Saari~ – ieso, seirnoba, Se­­­modgoma, dro//sezoni),
zogjer sinonimur paralelizmsac vxvdebiT mis leqsSi.
Teimurazis poezias, epikursa Tu lirikuls, or jgufad
ga­na­cal­keveben mkvlevrebi, romlebic `saRvTo da sakaco~
194
Sina­arss ecnobian masSi. magaliTad, k. kekeliZe miiCnevs, rom
Teimuraz I-is saero lirika `ufro lamazsa da Sinaarsian
nimuSebs iZleva~ (kekeliZe 1981: 556).
Teimuraz I-is poezia misi epoqis qarTvelma poetebma
moiwo­nes da lamis rusTvelis Semoqmedebas gauTanabres (ar-
Cil mefe, nodar ci­ciSvili, mamuka mdivani-TavaqalaSvili).
am faqts T.do­iaSvili imiT xsnis, rom `Teimuraz pirvelis
metrul-rit­muli struqtura mowes­ri­gebulobiTa da har-
moniulobiT gamo­ir­Ceva.. misi rusTvelTan gatoleba, rac
xSirad xdeboda aRor­Zinebis xanaSi, Tundac wminda versi-
fikaciuli TvalsazrisiT, sa­fuZvels moklebulia, magram
Teimuraz I Tavisi poeturi kul­turiT tonis mimcemia XVII-
XVIII sa­ukuneebis qarTul poeziaSi~ (doiaSvili 2002: 450).
SemTxveviT ar imowmeben Teimuraz I-is leqsis mkvlevre-
bi Teimuraz bagrationis sityvebs: `stixTa Soris qarTvel-
Ta enasa ese uaRresad sxvaTa aRmoCenil ars da didisa xe-
lovnebiTa qmnili~.
XX s. 30-ian wlebSi Teimuraz I-is versifikaciul siaxleTa
Ta­obaze yuradReba gaamaxvila akaki gawereliam. man aRniSna,
rom Te­imuraz pirvelma daarRvia poemis Janris batonoba da
Se­moitana li­rikuli leqsebi. mkvlevarma miuTiTa, agreTve,
im faq­tze, rom aRor­Zinebis xanis poeziaSi `Teimurazs ekuT-
vnis pirveli cda axali sazo­mis monaxvisa. es cda, rogorc
Cans, uSe­degod damTavrebula. mxo­­­lod erT leqsSi `SvidTa
krebaTaT­vis~ Teimurazi mimarTavs e.w. `Caxru­xauls~ da am
metris gziT – Sinagan riTmas~ (gawerelia 1937: 46).
konstantine WiWinaZe Teimuraz I-is leqss arCil mefis
po­ezias adarebs fonikis, bgerweris mixedviT, misi azriT,
Teimu­razis Sairis SedarebiTi keTilxmovaneba ufro imiT
aixsneba, rom `imis stri­qonSi, ise rogorc guramiSvilis
leqsSi, ar xdeba Tanxmovani bge­rebis an mokle sityvebis er-
Tad dagroveba, ro­gorc es arCil mefes sCvevia~ (WiWinaZe
1979: 59).
Teimuraz doiaSvilma, rogorc aRvniSneT, sagangebod
gamo­ik­vlia Teimuraz I-is TxzulebaTa metrul-ritmuli
struqtu­ra, riTma da strofika. mecnieris winaswari dask-
vna, rom Teimu­raz I mtkiced dgas qarTuli klasikuri poeziis
195
magistralur gzaze da uryevad axorcielebs rusTveluri
leqsis tradici­ebs, eyrdnoba poetis TxzulebaTa metrul-
ritmuli struqtu­ris skrupulozur leqsmcodneobiT kvle-
vas, statistikis mona­cemebis gaTvaliswine­biT: SairiT Ses-
rulebulia Teimuraz I-is 1175 strofi, versifikaci­uli
gadaxvevebi ki minimaluria (doiaSvili 2002: 451).
aRiarebuli TvalsazrisiT, Teimuraz I-is leqsiT iwye-
ba qar­Tuli klasikuri leqsis dekadansi (T. doiaSvili),
rac, upirve­les yovlisa, gamoixateba rusTveluri sazomis
rRveviT: erTi taepis farglebSi maRali da dabali Sairis
SereviT. rusTve­lu­ri Sairis rRvevas Teimuraz I-is leqsSi
adasturebs eqvs, an met­marcvliani (3 Svidmarcvliani) sity-
vebis sixSirec, rac gansa­kuT­rebiT uxerxulia maRal SairSi
(4 4). T. doiaSvilma 14 Sem­Txveva aRnusxa amgvari po­etikuri
`uxerxulobisa~ Teimuraz I-is poeziaSi; Tumca es SemTxve­vebi
mecniers ar miaCnia poetis met­ruli wesrigis darRvevad.
veTanxmebiT mkvlevris am Tvalsazriss da, amave dros,
vfiq­robT, rom amgvari @uTanasworo svlebi aSkarad migvaniS-
nebs ba­ro­kos arsebobaze XVII s. qarTul leqsSi.
Teimuraz I-is riTmaze msjelobisas mecnieri sagangebod
ikvlevs riTmis evfonias da afiqsirebs pirvel qarTul kon-
so­nansur riTmas XVII s. 20-ian wlebSi: naTeli – SemonaTvali.
savsebiT gasaziarebelia Teimuraz doiaSvilis daskvna,
rom versifikaciuli gadaxvevebi Teimuraz I-is poeziaSi
mxolod gamo­naklisebia, rogorc metrikis, ise riTmis sfe-
roSi. aRorZi­nebis xa­nis poeti Teimuraz I rusTvelis xazis
erTgulia leq­swyobis Tval­sazrisiT (doiaSvili 2002: 456).
sagulisxmoa, rom araidenturi riTmis, kerZod, konso-
nansis ma­ga­liTebis moZieba XVI-XVIII ss. qarTul poeziaSi
akaki gawere­liamac scada da moixmo kidec `qarTul klasikur
leqsSi~, oRond ara Teimuraz I-is Txzulebebidan, aramed
arCilisa (sxva­caa – xocaa. `saqarTvelos zneobani~, 60) da
daviT guramiSvi­lis (SemirTavs – damirTavs) Semoqmedebidan
(gawerelia 1981: 173).
araidenturi riTma da majamiT, omonimuri riTmebiT ga-
ta­ceba, TiTqos, SeuTavsebeli unda iyos erTi poetis Se-
moqme­debis sazR­vrebSi, magram, Cemi azriT, swored am faq-
tis arsebo­ba sagulisxmo anareklia Teimuraz I-is epoqis
196
Teimuraz I

211
212
kulturuli ten­denciebisa: har­mo­niis, keTilxmovanebisaken
swrafva da dishar­moniis, rRvevis, po­etu­ri umweobis aRiare-
bis gulwrfeloba.
Teimuraz I-is TxzulebaTa Sinaarsis gacnoba gvarwmu-
nebs, rom poeti iTvaliswinebs Tavisi Tanamedrove, ganaT-
lebuli, ev­ropuli orientaciis mkiTxvelis SekveTas da es-
Tetikur gemov­nebas da, sa­suliero, religiuri xasiaTis
leqsebis nacvlad, sat­rfialo da di­daqtikur Txzulebebs
sTavazobs qarTvel sa­zo­gadoebas. Teimuraz I-is poeziis
daaxloeba evropuli lite­raturis suliskveTebasTan, up-
irveles yovlisa, sparsuli leq­sis formis sirTulisa da
`Sewmas­nili~, RvarWnili striqonebis nacvlad, `martivad
mbobis~ ndomiT gamoixata. mefe-poetma al­Ro auRo sazoga-
doebis moTxovnilebas da `leil-majnunianis~ dasasruls Ta-
vadve aRniSna Tavisi Semoqmedebi­Ti meTodis Taobaze:

hmarTebs, kacman kargi naxos, manca misgan gardmoiRos,


ugbilman da ugunurman vera rame wamoiRos.
(Teimuraz I 1934: 184)

Teimuraz I-is Semoqmedebas XX s. 70-iani wlebidan qar-


Tuli da evropuli literaturis mkvlevarni, qarTveli
komparati­vistebi, mWidrod ukavSireben evropul barokos
(g. gaCeCilaZe), ufro metic, cdiloben, damkvidrdes termini
`qarTuli baro­ko~, `aRorZinebis xanis~ (XVII-XVIII ss. qarTu-
li literatura) nacvlad (i. kenWoSvili). mogvianebiT am
problemas sagangebo naS­romi miuZRvna m. naWyebiam, romel-
mac yuradReba miaqcia Teimuraz I-is mier `gabaasebis~ (spar­
suli munazares) Janris dam­kvidrebis sakiTxs (naWyebia 2009:
89-100).
Cemi azriT, evropul tendenciebTan Teimurazis poeziis
na­Te­saobis erT-erT dasturad unda miviCnioT is ramdenime
gamo­naklisi, ase gamokveTilad rom Cans kanonikuri, konven-
ciuri qarTuli kla­si­kuri leqsis fonze Teimuraz I-is liri-
kul Txzu­­­lebaTa Soris.
vgulisxmobT Teimuraz I-is leqss `Tamaris saxe daviT
gare­jas~. igi sruliad samarTlianad aris miCneuli qar-
Tuli ver­lib­ris pirvel nimuSad (a. gawerelia, m. mamacaSvili,
197
T. doiaS­vili). vfiq­robT, am leqsis Sinaarsi, intonacia,
ritmuli impul­si, misi grafi­kuli forma – oTx monakveTad
dayofa, misi avto­ris XVIII s. evro­pul poeziasTan kavSirze
migvaniSnebs.
`Tamaris saxe daviT garejas~ iwyeba 16-marcvliani daba-
li Sa­iriT (53/53), mosazRvre, oTxjeradi riTmiT Sesrule-
buli katreniT:

mefeni movlen surviliT, Sensa saxesa hmoneben,


Seuracxyofen mnaTobTa, naTlad ar moigoneben,
sxiv-mosierad gimzeren, ukvdav-myofelad ggoneben,
iSveben, maTTa patiJTa maT lxinTa Seuwoneben.
(Teimuraz pirveli 1989: 328)

leqsis am pirvel, gariTmul strofs, naTeli, gasage-


bi eniTa da sparsu­li `leqTa wmasvnisagan~ gansxvavebuli
stiliT dawerils, mos­devs locva, romelsac ara aqvs sazomi
da riTma, magram aqvs Si­na­gani ritmi, ufro sworad, ritmuli
impulsi, locvis pirvel samtaepedSi mefe-poeti mimarTavs
ufals:

Sen saxebao, erT-arsebao, sam-gemovnebiT erTo, gauwvalebelo,


erT bunebao uSobelo da Zeo Sobilo, sulo mamisagan gamomavalo,
mosavsa Sensa mefesa, patrons Teimurazs, meox meyav.

am samtaepeds mohyveba uriTmo II monakveTi, mimarTuli


qristesadmi:

odes moxvide gankiTxvad, qriste, da gamoCndes madli, dideba


Seni da dasjde cxovelTa da mkvdarTa msajulad, da ganarCevde
cxovarTa TikanTagan, nu warmavlen marcxeniT kerZo
Secodebulsa amas monasa Sensa, aramed momec Sendoba braleulisa.

am oTxtaepedSi yuradRebas iqcevs anJambemani, romelic


mTel monakveTs erT ritmul intonacias umorCilebs.
III monakveTSi poeti RvTismSobels mimarTavs:

dedao usxeulosa naTlisao da mSobelo sityvisa RvTisao,


saydaro, etlo, Rrubelo naTlisao, me dabnelebulsa amas
codvaTagan, miTxove Zisa Senisagan Sendoba bralTagan.
198
es monakveTic, I-is msgavsad, samtaepedia.
IV monakveTs ki strofis forma namdvilad aRar aqvs da
ufro ritmuli prozaa, vidre – leqsi.
am verlibris mkvlevarebi obieqturad afaseben mis
mniSvne­lobas qarTuli leqsis istoriisaTvis: XVII s. saqarT-
veloSi, Se­iZleba iT­qvas, rom ukve gvaqvs pirveli origi-
naluri verlibris nimuSi, rad­gan Teimuraz I-ma namdvilad
icis, rom Sairis gver­diT usazomod da uriTmod dawerili
monakveTebi uCveuloa, Tumca sakuTari su­lieri mdgomareo-
bis gamosaxatavad swored amgvar formas miiCnevs Sesaferi-
sad. amis Taobaze sagangebod miuTiTeben Teimuraz I-is po­
eziis mkvlevarebi: `poets sruliad Segnebuli aqvs Secvlili
Sairis Semdeg leqsis forma da metri. TeimurazisaTvis am
SemTxvevaSi amo­savalia leqsis xasiaTi, misi buneba. wminda
samebis aRsareba dawe­rilia locvis saxiT, ro­gorc Sesxma
Tamarisa. am nawilSi daculia locvis da Zveli qar­Tuli sa-
galoblis intonacia, metri da Sinagani ritmi~ (mamacaSvili
1967: 139).
sagulisxmoa, rom klasicizmis poetikis fuZemdeblis
niko­la bualosaTvis religiuri Sinaarsis nawarmoebi miuRe-
beli iyo, Tu masSi ar iqneboda ori elementi – miTologi-
uri da sa­siyvarulo. uamisod Txzuleba bualos mosawyenad
miaCnda (bualo 1998: 25). TiT­qos, klasicisturi poetikis
es moTxovna ikiTxeba Teimuraz I-is zemoxsenebul leqsSic.
`Tamaris saxe daviT garejas~, locvasTan er­Tad, namdvili,
realuri da Tanac zRaprulia, miTiuri Tamar mefis siyvaru-
liT aris STagonebuli.
Teimuraz I-is poeziaSi gansakuTrebuli adgili ukavia `ma­
jamas~ – mefe-poetis originaluri lirikis erT-erT Sedevrs.
`majama~, rogorc cnobilia, qarTul sinamdvileSi orgvari
mniSvnelobiT ix­ma­reba. erTi mniSvnelobiT igi omonimuri
riT­mebiT dawerili leq­sis Sesatyvisi teqnikuri poetikuri
termi­nia, meoregvarad ki igi aRniSnavs omonimuri riTmebiT
dawerili strofebis, an leqsebis krebuls. omonimuri ma-
jamis nimuSad mkvlevarebi xSirad asaxeleben Teimuraz I-is
yvelasaTvis kargad nacnob strofs:

199
rad, sofelo, sxva ar daswvi Cemebr, me mqen dasadage?!
glax, laxvari, sasikvdine yvela me mkar, dasad age!
damikarge Ze, asuli, Zma, ar vici da sad age!
sxva nayofi maTebr turfa ra aSene da sad age?

Teimuraz I-is `majamas~ lirikul poemadac miiCneven


(bara­miZe 1966: 327), romelSic gaerTianebulia sevdiani
ganwyobile­bis gamo­m­xatveli, satrfialo da mosalxeni leq-
sebi, agreTve, xotbebi. Cemi azriT ki, `majama~ lirikuli
leqsebis gaerTiane­bis mcdelobaa po­eturi ciklis meSveo-
biT: `majama~ 8 ciklad aris dayofili: I. mze cud maSvralobs;
II. SenTvis xelman; III. mze anaTle hqmen; IV. turfa xar Sveni-
erebiT; V. gabaaseba Rvinisa da bagisa; VI. mzesa Seswrfa mis­
gan guli: VII. eSurebis bage vardi; VIII. qeba da mkoba xelmwifis
aleq­sandresi da dedoflis nestan-darejanisa.
leqsebis ciklizacia, Cemi azriT, evropuli poeziis
erTi sain­tereso tendenciis (`Sereva~) asaxvaa aRmosav-
luri, omoni­mu­ri riT­mebiT gamarTuli leqsis saxeobaSi, e.w.
`majamaSi~.
rogorc cnobilia, majama ar aris sakuTriv sparsuli
mov­lena. majamaur (omonimur) xerxs yvela qveynis poetebi mi-
mar­Taven, magram meore mxriv, unda gaviTvaliswinoT Teimu-
raz I-is cnoba termin `majamas~ warmomavlobis Taobaze:

leqsTa RaribTa, ucxoTa, romel ars gamokrebuli,


mominda wera amisTvis. ar iqmnas daviwyebuli.
sparsulad hqvian `majama~, – Seyrilad iTargmanebis.

XV-XVIII saukuneebis sparsul poeziaSi swored xelov-


nuri, maja­muri da sxva amosacnobi tipis leqsebma moipova
gabatone­buli mdgo­mareoba (kobiZe 1960: 144-152). miuTiTeben,
rom mTli­anad omo­nimur riTmebzea gawyobili, magaliTad,
qaTibisa da mavlana Siraze­lis (XVI s.) poemebi. am poetebis
TxzulebebSi vxvde­biT gansakuT­rebiT originalur poetur
teqnikas, ris gamoc maTi Sinaarsis gamocnobac ki Zneldeba.
XV-XVIII saukuneebis sparsma da sparsul enaze mweralma
aRmo­savleTis sxva qveynebis poetebma ukiduresad gaarTules
da gaabun­dovnes poeturi ena, leqswyoba ki xelovnuri gaxa-
200
des, kombinato­ruli poezia aqcies Semoqmedebis umTavres
formad: rebusebsa da Saradebs miamsgavses leqsi. Sinaarsi
amgvari `muam­mebisa~ TiTqmis aRar ikiTxeboda; `muamma~ mxo-
lod miniSnebebis meSveobiT gvagebi­nebs poetis saTqmels.
muamis gamocnobisaTvis mkiTxveli unda aR­Wurviliyo rTu-
li, sqolastikuri leqsmcod­ne­obiTi terminologi­iTa da
didi moTminebiT. XV s. aRmosavlur poeziaSi dam­kvidrebul-
ma muammam mTlianad STan­Tqa poeziis Sinaarsobrivi mxare
da leqss dautova mxolod gasar­Tobis, teqnikuri savar­ji-
Sos roli. e. bertelsi am process `poezi­is TviTmkvlelo-
bad~ miiCnevs (bertelsi 1949: 32-33). formalistur varjiSs
leqse­biT, kombinatorikis sazRvrebis gafarToebis cdebs
vxvdebiT XV-XVIII saukuneebis iranisa da Sua aziis poeziaSi.
amgvari nimuSebi uxvad gvxvdeba aliSer navois Semoqmede-
baSi. buneb­rivia, rom epoqis tendencia aisaxa Teimuraz I-is
poeziaSic, rogorc Tar­gmnil, ise originalur TxzulebebSi;
Tumca Teimu­razis gataceba amgvari yaidis leqsebiT maja-
mas SesaZleblobas ar gaSorebia da Sinaarsis gamocnoba mis
poziaSi namdvilad ar aris SeuZlebeli. leqsis struqtura
Teimuraz I-is leqswyobi­saTvis ar gadaqceula umTavres saz-
runavad: mefe-poeti ver uaryofda saqveyno da pirad sat-
kivars, ver gaeqceoda sazru­navs: piriqiT, gulistkivilis
gamo­sa­xatavad, TavSesafrad sWir­deboda swored poezia da,
kerZod, zemoxsenebulma, omonimuri riTmebiT gamarTulma,
Sedevrmac swo­red es suliskveTeba airek­la: `dasadage~ – ma-
jamuri strofis pir­veli sariTmo cali, swored is sityvaa,
romelic wuTisoflis mi­marT poetis guldamwvar sayvedurs
yvelaze zustad miesadageba.
Teimuraz I-is mier sparsulidan Targmnili `leil-majnu­
nianis~ originali SerCeulia ara sparsuli klasikuri po-
eziis mixedviT, aramed sparsuli poeziis dekadansis wyaro-
ebidan (XV-XVII ss.), ro­desac ase Zlieri iyo formalisturi,
kombinato­ruli poezia. a.bara­miZe saubrobs sparsuli leq-
sikis Warbad gamoyenebis Taobaze Teimuraz I-is poeziaSi,
romelic sinonimu­ri paralelizmis xerxiT gadmogcems am-
gvar formebs: `dro – fasli~, didni `qalaqni – Saarni~ (ba-
ramiZe 1966: 331).
201
Teimuraz I-is poeziaSi gamorCeul adgils iWers e.w. `ga-
ba­asebis~ Janris Txzulebebi. `majamas~ ciklSi CarTulia
swored erTi misi ni­muSi – me-5 leqsi: `gabaaseba Rvinisa da
bagisa~. igi, SeiZleba, ev­ropuli, e.w. `dialoguri lirikis~
erT-erT pirvel nimuSad mi­viCnioT qarTul poeziaSi. Tei-
muraz I-s gabaasebis Janris ori ori­ginaluri Txzuleba dau-
weria. 1. `gabaaseba gaza­fxulisa da Semod­gomisa~; 2. `gabaaseba
Rvinisa da bagisa~.
safiqrebelia, rom `gabaasebis~ Janris Semotana-damkvid-
reba Teimu­raz I-is SemoqmedebaSi ganapiroba mefe-poetis
mkafiod gac­nobiereblma swrafvam sibrZnisaken; `vard-bul-
bulianSi~ avtori Seufaravad acxadebs:

ritori var, msuris sibrZne, Tvar momadga visgan barja?

Teimuraz I, rogorc vxedavT, erT-erTi pirveli war-


momadge­ne­lia qarTuli ganmanaTleblobisa; realisturi
msoflaRqmis gaZli­erebulma survilma, gonebis TvaliT da-
naxulma sinamdvi­lem gansakuTrebuli fasi SeiZina XVII-XVIII
ss. qarTvel mwe­ralTa Semoq­medebaSi. ganmanaTlebluri re-
alizmi, e.w. `marTlis Tqmis~ principi, ufro arCil mefis poe-
ziaSi ikveTeba, magram, nawilobriv, ukve Teimuraz I cdilobs,
`soflis samduravisa~ Tu `gabaasebis~ Janreb­ze yuradRebis
gamaxvilebiT, axali mxat­vruli saazrovno sistema daam-
kvidros erovnul literatu­raSi. erTi mxriv, aRmosavluri
pesimizmis, sufizmisa da misti­cizmisa da, meore mxriv, ev-
ropuli `ganmanaTlebluri realiz­misa~ da individualizmis
Serwymis fon­ze, sentencia – aforiz­mebiT amdidrebs Teimu-
raz I rusTvelis sib­rZnes SeCveul mki­Txvels. sagulisxmoa
isic, rom amgvar stro­febSi iSviaTad vxvde­biT Sairis Sere-
visa da versifikaciuli normebis rRvevis faqtebs.
meore qarTveli mefis – arCilis – literaturuli mem-
kvidreoba, `arCilianad~ saxel­de­buli, afuZnebs inovaciur
saliteraturo skolas – axali gemov­nebiTa da poetikuri
principebiT. mefe-poeti ayalibebs `marTlis Tqmis~ princips,
`zRaprul Sairebs~ (gamocanebs) ki mwerlobis nak­lad miiC-
nevs; adgens saliteraturo Janrebis kla­sifikacias; mkveT­
rad mijnavs `xotbas~ saistorio Janris Txzu­lebebisagan.
202
arCili mwerlebisagan iTxovs nacionaluri Tematikis ga-
batonebas; mis Sexe­dulebebSi sagangebo adgili eT­moba
Txzulebis Tematikisa da struq­turis urTierTmimar­Te­bis
problemas – formas, riTmaTam­Txzvelobis upiratesobis
aRiarebiT, Tumca mefe-poeti gmobs uaz­ro `sityvaTa siux-
ves~; `Teimurazisa da rusTvelis gabaasebaSi~ is msjelobs
Txzu­lebis kompoziciis raobasa da Taviseburebebzec: `swo-
rad unda leqsi vin Tqvas..~ amave TxzulebaSi avtori sagan­
gebod amaxvi­lebs yuradRebas leqsis melodiurobaze: `tkbi-
lad iyos gasa­goni~, – SeniSnavs igi.
XVII s.-is saqarTveloSi dasavluri kulturisken Semob-
ru­ne­ba, upirvelesad, ganmanaTleblobis tendenciebis dam-
kvidrebiT gamo­ixa­ta, safuZveli ki azrovnebis amgvar mimar-
Tulebas mefe-poetis arCilis SemoqmedebiTma moRvaweobamac
Cauyara.
d. laSqaraZis azriT, arCilis Sexeduleba, zogadad,
`adamian­ze~ axlos dgas adamianis bunebis renesansul gage-
basTan, rom­lis arsi kargad aris gadmocemuli aRorZinebis
xanis italieli moazrovnis piko della mirandolas naSrom-
Si `adamianis Rirse­baze~. mirando­las mixedviT, adamiani Seq-
mnilia `ara zeciur, magram arc mxolod miwier, ara ukvdav,
magram arc mokvdav ar­sebad~. arCilis mixed­viTac, `soflis
sapatronod~ mowodebuli adamiani cdunebasac aris daqvem-
debarebuli~ (laSqaraZe 1977: 37).
arCils saintereso moazrovned, magram naklebad Rire-
bul poetad miiCnevs T. doiaSvili, Tumca man sagangebod Se-
iswavla mefe-poetis versifikacia (doiaSvili 2003). T. doiaS-
vili akvir­deba arCilis ZiriTad metrs – Sairs da SedarebiT
naklebi sixSiriT arsebul sazoms mis poeziaSi – ocmarc-
vleds. Cven­Tvis gansakuT­rebiT sagulisxmoa T. doiaSvilis
mier arCilis riT­miansa da metru­lad mowesrigebul Txzu-
lebaTa fonze erTi aTtaepedis, usaTauro leqsis `Tana war-
hxed..~ miCneva verlib­rad da arCilis poeziaSi anJambemanis
30-mde SemTxvevis aRniS­vna. Txzulebas `mefeTa saqe­bel­ni da
saxilebelni~ boloSi dar­Tuli aqvs damoukidebeli, zemo­
xsenebuli verlibri, romlis ak­rostixi ase ikiTxeba: `Tu Sen
ara, vina gamocdil?~ igi sasu­li­ero poeziis mibaZviT Seqmnili
leqsia SinaarsiTac da formi­Tac. a. gawerelias Tvalsazri-
203
sis sapirispi­rod, romelic uar­yof­da gadatanis arsebobas
XIX saukunemde, T. doiaSvilma arCil mefis SemoqmedebaSi
anJambemanis araerTi maga­liTi moiZia. maga­liTisTvis movix-
mobT mkvlevris mier SeniSnul erT strofs, romelSic ori
gadatanaa realizebuli:

odes JamTa erTTa Sina Seiyarnes da gavides


galaqunad, Caiares xaCoani da Cavides
qveyanas yvaryvarisasa.

mniSvnelovania mkvlevris kidev erTi daskvna: `arCilis


po­eziaSi, sruliad aSkaraa leqsis formis iseTi arsebiTi
kompo­nentebis dekadansi, rogoric aris metrul-ritmuli
struqtu­ra da riTma. Zalian iolia, es movlena arCilis,
rogorc poetis, niWis ukmari­sobiT avxsnaT, magram xom ar
dgas formisadmi am­gvari damokide­bulebis miRma garkveu-
li pozicia..~ (doiaSvili 2003: 354). SesaZloa, es `garkveuli
pozicia~ nakarnaxevi iyo epo­qis esTetikur-poeti­kuri ka-
nonebiT, romelic erovnuli inte­re­sebis samsaxurs leqsis
meSveobiTac gamoxatavda. kerZod, spar­suli poeziis gav-
lenisagan ganTavisuflebisaTvis mebrZo­li mefe-poeti ar-
Cili rusTvelis leqss aRiarebda etalonad: `vin ver mihyves
rusTvlis Tqmulsa, gardmobrZandes isev aqeT!~
arCil mefes sakuTari poeziis Rirsebad miaCnia is, rom
wminda qarTuliT metyvelebda. amis Taobaze erTgvari Tav-
mowo­nebiTac ki acxadebs:

miTqvams qarTulis eniTa, sxva ena ar urevia.

amgvari pozicia enobrivi siwmindis mimarT ucxo ar aris


XVII s. evropisTvisac. XVII-XVIII ss. germaniaSi germanuli ena,
garda laTi­nuri enisa, romanuli enebis, gansakuTrebiT
franguli enis, did Semotevas ganicdida. cnobili germaneli
moRvaweni icaven germanu­li enis siwmindes. amave dros,
XVII saukuneSi, germanuli leqsi iwyebs brZolas romanuli
leqswyobis gavle­nis winaaRmdeg: poet verek­lins, `germanel
kantemirs~, romelic germanuli aleqsandriul leqsebs
Txzavda franguli aleqsan­driuli leqsis ritmis yaidaze,
daupirispirda poeti da mecni­eri martin opici, `germaneli
204
lomo­nosovi~. martin opicis mom­cro wignakma `germanuli
poeziis Ta­obaze~ (1624) Zireulad Sec­vala germanuli leqsis
ganviTarebis gza, ixsna igi franguli silaburi leqswyobis
gavlenisagan da germanul enaSi arsebul maxvils daumorCila
erovnuli versifikaciis kano­nebi: `yoveli leqsi ise unda
iyos agebuli, rom maxvilis meSveobiT gan­vsa­zRvroT,
romeli marcvali iyos maRali~. martin opici Tavis naS­romSi:
`aristarxusi anu germanuli enis ugulebelyofis Se­sa­xeb~
mkiTxvels mouwodebda mSobliuri enisa da literaturis
siw­mindis dacvisaken da nimuSad asaxelebda minezingerebis
Semoq­mede­bas iseve, rogorc qarTuli leqsis sparsuli gav-
le­nisagan ganTavi­suflebisaTvis mebrZoli arCili rus-
Tvelisaken mibrunebas miiC­nev­da saWirod.
evropuli ganmanaTleblobis ideebis codna da Tavmo-
woneba sibrZniT, ucxo ar aris arCilis mier Targmnili da
galeqsili `vis­ramianisaTvis~. `visramiansa~ davswere~, – am-
bobs poeti, ro­melic mkacrad emijneba aRmosavluri poeziis
gavlenas qarTul leqsSi da cdilobs, sparsuli, `zRapruli
Sairoba~ gandevnos Tavisi Semoqmedebidan.
arCilis `gabaaseba Teimurazisa da rusTvelisa~ mkafiod
war­mog­vidgens erovnuli leqsis apologetisa da aRmosav-
luri omonimuri riTmisa, majamebis uarmyofeli poetis
pozicias. rusTvelis pi­riT arCili dascinis Sinaarsisagan
daclil, araf­ris mTqmel, `riT­maTmTxzvelobis~ nimuSebs,
romelTac zogier­Ti meleqse `Sairs~ uwodebs:

moabasiTa, mo aba siTa, mo eso, miTxar, viT moe kide


moabasiTa, moabasiTa, moesog tvirTad, viT moekide,
moabasiTa, moabasiTa, moeso ifrde an mo ekide.

arCil mefe aRniSnavs, rom rusTvels aseTi umweoba ar


sCve­via: misi poeturi sityva arasodes yofila aseTi uSinaar-
so: `Cems mos­wrebaSi arodes kvlav me es ar damemarTao!~ ar-
Cil mefe savsebiT samarTlianad aRniSnavs imasac, rom Teimu-
raz I-is po­eturi sityva­uxvaoba sruliadac ar gulisxmobs
misi leqsis sib­rZnes: `Tumc uxvia Teimuraz, magram sibrZnes
ki ar gascems!~
205
arCil mefis literaturaTmcodneobiTi Ziebani kar-
gad aisa­xa im winaTqmaSi, romelic poetma waumZRvara Tavis
cnobil naS­roms: `ga­baaseba Teimurazisa da rusTvelisa~.
mefe-poetis mier Sedgenili gamokvleva: `ZvelTa da axalTa
saqarTvelos meleq­se­TaTvis~ nam­dvi­lad SeiZleba miviCnioT
qarTuli leqsis `pir­vel kritikul mimoxilvad~ (baramiZe
1987: 357).
garda imisa, rom arCil mefe erovnuli poeziis isto-
riis erT-erTi pirveli mkvlevaria, igi gvevlineba leqsis
Teoreti­kosadac: forma-Sinaarsis urTierTobis garkvevas-
Tan erTad, me­fe-poeti msjelobs poeturi Txzulebis kom-
poziciaze, Sesav­li­sa da ZiriTadi nawilis urTierTSesa-
bamisobaze: xandaxan vrcel Sesavals mwiri, uSinaarso, fuye
teqsti erTviso, – ambobs poeti:

ra Sin Sexvide, ver sWvretde sibrZnesa mas minakarsa!

arCili aqve msjelobs poeturi nawarmoebis Rirseul


finalzec:

yoveli saqme bolosi sjobs, rasac ukeTesdeba


Tor erT wam kai ram ari da mas ukan ki waxdeba,
ityvian, cudi ra miyo, sasacilodac gaxdeba.

misi azriT, poeti gansakuTrebiT unda zrunavdes leq-


sis teq­nikis gamarTulobaze, taepis dasawyisisa da bolos
Sexamebaze:
sworad unda leqsi vin Tqvas, marTlad scemdes, gana gahkras,
Tavi kargad man auRos, bolo uxams zed moakras,
viT xuTZalsa gamarTulsa qveidame xeli ahkras
tkbilad iyos gasagoni, gana Tavsa visme dahkras..

leqsis Teoriis kargad mcodne poeti gonebamaxvilurad


SeniSnavs:

Tqma leqsisas es zneda sWirs, sityvas ucxos Semoiyvans.

mefe-poeti Tamamad acxadebda: `sityva nagrexi ar miTqvam­


so!~ da did mniSvnelobas aniWebda leqsis melodiurobas:
206
TviT SeeqnaT maT cileba, sxvaT meleqseT ar ireven
sityvas Rrmasa brZnad sasmensa, Seawyoben, ar ireven,
swors aasxmen margalitsa, ar Tu mrudsa gaureven,
maTsa pirsa tkbili wyaro wmindaT mosdiT, ar amRvreven.

rogorc arCil mefis poeziis mkvlevrebi fiqroben, `mar­


ga­litSi~ gariTmuli striqonebi unda igulisxmebodes, zo-
gadad, riTma (gavixsenoT rusTveliseuli: `aw margaliti
wyobili..~).
`margaliti, saerTod, kargad gariTmuli leqsis meta-
foraa, po­emaSi `gabaaseba Teimurazisa da rusTvelisa~ [arCi-
li] kargad awyo­bil leqss margalitad moixseniebs~ (kuWuxiZe
2003: 124).
arCil mefem `margalitis~ paralelurad, arabuli sityva
`ma­sa~ axsena amave gabaasebaSi, romelic, g. kuWuxiZis azriT,
`al­mass~, `al­masis natexs~ niSnavs da es leqsikuri erTeuli
`ve­fxis­tyaosnis~ me­taforad unda iyos `gabaasebis~ me-80
strofSi moxmobili:

CaxruxaZem uwin ar Tqva, rad iparav pirvel Tqmasa?


ras mierCi mas ritorsa, ar anebeb missa masa!
veWv, mas darCes pirveloba, dagixios Seni masa,
Torem vhkiTxoT qoranikons, gagiCndebis Seni basa.
(arCili 1989: 346)

Teimuraz I-is mier rusTvelis mimarT gamoTqmuli bral­


de­bis naxevartaepSi: `dagixios Seni masa~ – `masa~, g. kuWuxiZis
az­riT, un­da iyos arabuli sityva `masa~ (`masaTun~), romel-
ic qar­Tulad niS­navs `almass~, `almasis natexs~.. `aq arCili
Teimu­razs, rogorc Cans, aTqmevinebs, rom gamarjvebuli
CaxruxaZe damarcxebul rusTvels mis `Zvirfas Tvals~ (am
SemTxvevaSi – almasis natexs), e.i. `vefxis­tyaosans~ dauxevs..
amasTan, almasi, margalitisgan gansxvavebiT, kargad gariT-
muli poeziis simbo­lo ar aris da am sityvis xmarebiT cxa-
dad ixateba rusTveli­sadmi Teimurazis upativcemuloba; am
Sem­TxvevaSi, margalitTan SedarebiT, bevrad ufro naklebi
faseulo­bis mqone nivTad aris warmodgenili `masa~ (kuWuxiZe
2003: 124).
207
veTanxmebiT g. kuWuxiZis Tvalsazriss, rom CaxruxaZis
omo­ni­mu­ri riTmebiT gajerebuli poema `margalitad~ miaCn-
da Teimuraz I-s, romelic TviTonac ganTqmuli iyo, rogorc
`ma­jamis amirbari~, ami­tomac igi agdebiT moixseniebs rus-
Tvelis poemas, romelic omoni­muri riTmebiT ar aris gamar-
Tuli, ami­tom igi `almasia~, `almasisi natexia~, `masaa~ da ara
`margaliti~.
arCil mefem, rogorc cnobilia, didi roli Seasrula
`ga­baase­bis~ Janris ganvrcoba-dakanonebaSi Teimuraz I-is
Semdeg. k. kekeliZe sagangebod SeniSnavda: `gabaseba anu gab-
Woba dialogu­ri formaa.. es Janri dakanonda da CvenSi gamo-
yenebul iqna Semdegi drois mwer­l ebis mier, rogorebic
arian arCil mefe, Teimuraz meore, daviT guramiSvili da
sxv.~ es Janri, k. keke­liZis azriT, XI s. iyo cnobili sparsul
literaturaSi, Tumca `is cnobili iyo agreTve evropaSic,
gansakuTrebiT provansis truverebs Soris~ (kekeliZe 1981:
580). k. kekeliZis Tvalsaz­ri­siT, arCilis poema `gabaaseba ka-
cisa da sof­lisa~ unda miviCni­oT didaqtikur-moraluri
Janris lirikad, e.w. `moralited~.
vfiqrobT, arCilis versifikaciam adekvaturad airekla
po­eti mefis gaorebuli, winaaRmdegobrivi msoflmxedvelo-
ba po­eti­kis TvalsazrisiTac.
erTi mxriv, mefe-poeti majamebis didostatobas cdi-
lobs, wers kidev 46 strofisagan Sedgenil Txzulebas,
romelsac `sa­mijnuro­ni~ uwoda. k. kekeliZis azriT, `Tavisi
moxdenilobiTa da poeturi SvenebiT, es nawarmoebi Teimu-
razis majamis msgav­sad, pirdapir Se­devrad unda CaiTvalos
qarTul poeziaSi. Txzu­leba Sedgeba sul 46 strofisagan,
romlebic erTimeoreze ukeTesia poeturi Tval­sazrisiT~
(kekeliZe 1981: 587):

mkiTxvel-mTargmnelo, `majamas~ wil mec es momirTmevia,


Cemi da Cemmagierad, arvisTvis wamirTmevia;
miTqvams qarTulis eniTa, sxva ena ar urevia.
vici, SeityobT ucdurad, Tu sityva amirevia.
(arCili 1989: 569)

208
meore mxriv ki, mefe-poeti wers verlibrs (`..Tana war-
hxed~), iambikos, romelSic marcvalTa raodenoba darRve-
ulia, Tumca am xarvezs kidurwerilobiT gamoasworebs.
akrostixi marjvni­vac aqvs da marcxnivac Caxruxaulis sa-
zomiT Sesrulebul am ori­ginalur teqsts:

samebiT RmerTo, bunebiT erTo, damxsen saxmilsa, uSretad mwvelsa,


miSvele rame, Sen mnaxo ra me, saTnoebiTa rom vgevar mwvelsa;
Sens nebazedan, Senebazedan, aRar mimiSva belier mwvelsa.
da a.S.
`saqarTvelos zneobanis~ avtori, mefe-poeti arCili,
rome­lic `zneobaTa~ Soris moixseniebs: zmas, leqsTmTargm-
nelobas, meleqse­obas anu Sairobas, TviTonac aris erT-erTi
pirveli Te­oretikosi, `mTargmneli~ leqsTTxzulebisa. igi
aris pirvelSe­momtani qarTul poeziaSi `Carxebr mbrunavi
leqsisa~. a. bara­mi­Ze mas `ugemurobad~ miiCnevda, magram Tvi-
Ton arCili ki amayob­da, rom swored man daam­kvidra es saleq-
so forma:

ar gikvirsT CemTa mnaxavTa, viT movicale amdenad,


es leqsi Carxebr mbrunavi, – aw movigone usmenlad.
erT striqons sityva ramdeni aqvs, leqsic iqmna imdenad,
naZlevi var, Tu Cems wineT eTqvas vis, iyoT mosmenad.

oTxtaepediT, katreniT Sesrulebuli es strofi gamar-


Tu­lia dabali SairiT da igi, T. doiaSvilis azriT, `warmod-
genas gviqmnis ara marto avtoris, aramed garkveuli epoqis
esTeti­kur gemov­nebaze~ (doiaSvili 2003: 352).
`Carxebr mbrunav leqss~ qarTuli leqsis erT-erT sa-
xeobad mi­iCnevs d. kobiZe, romlis azriT, igi qarTul po-
eziaSi sparsu­lidan unda Semosuliyo da mas garkveuli
daniSnuleba hqonda: `igi, ro­gorc Cans, gamoyenebuli iyo
saleqso sazomebisa da ritmis Sesas­wavlad, aRebuli yve-
la variantis SesaTviseblad~ (kobiZe 1967: 10). `Caxrebr
mbrunavi leqsis~ nimuSad d. kobiZes miaCnia galaktion
tabiZis cnobili palindromi `ai ra mzis sizmaria~, romelic
erTnairad iki­Txeba marjvnidanac da marcxnidanac. d. kobi-
Zis azriT, `g. tabiZis SemoqmedebaSi aRmosavluri elemen­tebi
209
SeWrilia Zveli qarTuli poeziidan. mis leqsebs Soris `Car­
xebr mbrunavi leqsis~ arseboba, Se­iZleba iTqvas, rom didi
poetis mier Zveli, miviwyebuli saleqso formis gaxsenebas
warmoadgens~. Tumca, mkvlevarma g. miqaZem dama­jereblad
uaryo es varaudi da aRniSna, rom: `ai ra mzis sizmaria~ aris
palin­dromi, momdinare rusuli poeziidan da ara e.w. `Carxebr
mbru­na­vi leqsi~, romelic Zvel mwerlobaSic ar yofila
maincda­ma­inc gavrcelebuli (miqaZe 1970: 7).
wminda lirikuli xasiaTis Txzulebani arCilis Semoqme-
de­baSi naklebia (kekeliZe 1981: 583): sul eqvsi nawarmoebia,
romel­Tagan oTxi xotbaa, anu oda. mefe-poetis lirikuli
oda `mefeTa saqebul­ni da samxilebelni~ erT aseT strofs
gvTavazobs petre didze:

gonieri, mecnieri, bednieri, kadnieri,


Svenieri, nivTieri, armcbieri, saxnieri,
mqonieri, cnobieri, mZnobieri, grZnobieri,
amdoni eri, amqveynieri, monebri ari gamgonieri.

`strofi sainteresoa gariTmvis xerxiTac da metrula-


dac: Tu gariTmvis mxriv es strofi CaxruxaZis cnobili
`Tamar wyna­ris~ mi­baZvaa, metrulad igi Sereulia. maRali
SairiT daweril striqonebs asrulebs CaxruxauliT (55/55)
Sesrulebuli, oc­mar­cvliani taepi. msgavsi gasvlebi Sairis
kanonikuri strofi­dan qarTulma klasiku­ri xanis poeziam
ar icis~ (doiaSvili 2003: 353).
arCilis riTma, miuxedavad majamis mimarT misi pati-
visce­misa, xSi­rad aris araidenturi da nakluli (miumatebs
– aama­yebs – ro­yebs – ibriyvebs; mogdebuli – gdebuli –
migdebu­li – agdebu­li). T. doiaSvilma moiZia arCilis po-
eziaSi uneb­lie konsonansis magaliTebic: Sah-abas – Seabas;
miamis xleba – me amis xleba.
arCil mefe `riTmTamTxzvelobas~ da, sazogadod, leq­
sis formiT gatacebas, epoqis gemovnebisaTvis xarkis gad-
axdad miiC­nevda: poeti xSirad arRvevda Sairis tradiciul
sqemas da riTma nakluli, araevfoniuri gamosdioda.
arCilis versifikaciuli sistema mkafiod aireklavs aR-
mo­sav­luri, sparsuli poetikuri kanonebis ugulebelyo-
210
fas da ev­ropuli (kerZod, ganmanaTlebluri) principebis
damkvidre­biT Tavmowonebas.
dResdReobiT sruliad ueWvelia, rom XVIII saukunis qar­
Tu­li leqsis reformis momzadebaSi udidesi wvlili miuZR-
vis mefe vaxtang meeqvses, rogorc originaluri da Targ-
mnili leqsebiT, aseve Ta­visi organizatoruli saqmianobiT:
sulxan-saba orbe­li­anis, mamu­ka baraTaSvilisa da daviT gu-
ramiSvilis versifi­kaciuli siaxleni mWidrod ukavSirdeba
vaxtang VI-is samefo karsa da poeziis WeS­mariti moyvarul-
damfaseblis mefe-poetis saxels.
miCneulia, rom vaxtang VI, umTavresad, lirikosia. upi-
rate­sad, erovnuli satkivari asazrdoebs mefe-poetis pat-
riotuli xasiaTis leqsebs, Tumca satrfialo Temac aranak-
leb mniSvne­lovania mis­Tvis; magram, rogorc miuTiTeben:
`vaxtangis sat­rfo aris ara am­qveyniuri, cocxali arseba,
konkretuli lamazi qali, aramed – mSobliuri mamuli, qar-
Tli~ (menabde 1966: 109).
vaxtangis poeziisaTvis niSandoblivia siyvarulis ale-
gori­ul-mistikuri gaazreba. misi `satrfialonis~ komen-
tarebSi vki­Txu­lobT: `mkiTxvelTa uxms gulisxmiereba, Tu
visadme trfi­alebs mefe-saxmar ars yuri smenad da guli
gamokvlevad~. Cans, poeti Si­Sobs, misi trfobis obieqti
xorciel arsebad ar miiC­nios mki­Txvelma. vaxtang VI-is `sat-
rfialoni~ – aris `Sairobani friad patiosani uflisa da
yovelTa wmindanTa mimarT mefis vaxtangisagan sulierad
naTqvami~, – RvTaebisadmi miZRvnili samijnuro sagalo­beli,
satrfialo himni.
vaxtang VI-is bevri poeturi Txzuleba ramdenime xelna-
we­ri­Ta da redaqciiTaa Cvenamde moRweuli: Cans, poeti
bevrs muSa­obda maTi srul­yofisaTvis. cnobilia vaxtangis
Targmanebi: `amirnasariani~, `qilila da damana~, `sibrZne
malaRobeli~.
vaxtang VI-is versifikaciul novaciebs jer kidev misma
Ta­na­med­roveebma miaqcies yuradReba da kuTvnili adgilic
miuCi­nes. pirvel qarTul normatikul poetikur saxelm-
ZRvaneloSi, mamuka baraTaS­vi­lis `WaSnikSi~, vaxtangis eq-
vsi leqsia Setani­li, romlebic siaxli­Ta da originalo-
biT gamorCeulad miuCne­via imdroindel qarTul poeziaSi
211
erovnuli leqsis pirvel Teoretikoss; esenia: `mefis Tqmu-
­li uwyveteli~, `mefis Tqmuli boloerTi~, `mefis Tqmu­li~
(`Su­riT aRivsnen ugbilni~), `mux­ranuli~, `vaxtanguri~ da
`me­fis naT­qvami leqs-ambavi~; ioane bag­rationma ki `kalmaso-
baSi~ da­imowma da ganixila vaxtangis anbanTqeba.
vaxtang VI-is es eqvsi leqsi araerTxel qceula sagan-
gebo msje­lobis sagnad Tanamedrove qarTul literatu-
raTmcod­ne­obaSi.*
vaxtang VI zedmiwevniT flobda qarTulsa da sparsul
enebs. es codna kargad Cans mis originalursa Tu Targmnil
poetur Txzu­lebebSi. 1704-1712 wlebSi iranis Sahis brZa-
nebiT, vaxtang VI qarTlis gamgebeli, anu janiSini iyo. magram
sameurneo da politikuri saqmi­anobis garda, vaxtangi aqti-
ur kulturul-literaturul muSaobas eweoda. janiSino-
bis dros Targmna man sparsulidan: `baramgulan­da­mi­ani~,
`baxTiar-name~, `amirnasari­ani~, nawilobriv, `qilila da da­
ma­na~. amave periodSi dawera man Tavisi, sakuTari lirikuli
leqsebic.
1712 wels iranis Sahma, romelsac afrTxobda vaxtangis
erov­nul-kulturuli moRvaweoba, qarTlis janiSini ispa-
hanSi gaiw­via da gamahmadianeba mosTxova – sanacvlod ki
qarTlis mefoba SesTa­vaza. vaxtang VI-m Tavisi aRmzrdeli
sulxan-saba orbeli­ani swored am dros gagzavna evropaSi
diplomatiuri misiiT: evropel mmar­Tvelebs unda exsnaT misi
samSoblo; TviTon ki, Sahis tyveobaSi, ori wlis ganmavloba-
Si (1712-1714 wlebi), sev­diT aRsavse, sparsuli emo­ciurobiT
aRsavse lirikul leqsebs qmnida (`alsa vzivar cecx­li­sasa,
sanam gaqres, unda mwosa!~). ro­gorc cnobilia, vaxtangis
tyve­obidan gamoxsnis rTuli sakiTxi sabas unda moegvare-
bina, magram, molodini ar gamarTlda. evro­pidan sabas uime-

* sa­yu­radRebo mosazreba gamoTqva maT Sesaxeb b. darCiam. man aRniSna, rom


mamuka baraTaSvilis `WaSnikSi~ Setanili vax­tang VI-is leqse­bidan arc erTi
ar Sesula mis xelnawer kre­bulebSi, isini Setanilia mxolod mamukas poet-
ikur traq­tat­Si da sxvagan – arsad. am leq­sebis Taviseburebas saTa­ure­bic
adas­turebs. Cans, rom vaxtangs isi­ni sagangebod versifi­ka­ciuli Tvalsaz-
risiT aqvs SeTxzuli (dar­Cia 1982: 29). vaxtang VI-is TxzulebaTa a. baramiZ-
iseul gamocemaSi (1975), romliTac Cven visargebleT naSromze muSaobisas,
am eqvsi leqsidan xuTi da­beWdili, xolo erTi – `muxranuli~, ratomRac, ar
gvxvdeba.
212
dod dabrunebis Sem­deg, vaxtang VI-m iZulebiT, formalurad
aRiara mahmadianoba da qarTlis mefedac dainiSna 1716 wels.
qarTlis mefes, amav dros, iranis spasalarobac evaleboda.
ispahansa da qirmanSi yofna vaxtangma intensiuri lite-
ratu­ruli muSaobisaTvis gamoiyena. am qalaqebSi dawera man
ramde­ni­me lirikuli Sedevri. `qilila da damanas~ Targmanis
srul­yofa ki sulxan-saba orbelians, evropidan axaldab-
runebuls, daava­la. es amocana sabam samagaliTod Seasrula
(baramiZe 1975: 8).
vaxtang VI-is versifikaciuli siaxleni gansakuTrebiT
qar­Tu­li leqsis strofikas ukavSirdeba. mkvlevarebi sa-
gangebod aRniSnaven, rom qarTul poeziaSi pirvelad vaxtan-
gTan gvxvdeba erTstriqo­niani leqs-strofi – e.w. `taepi~.1
vaxtang VI xSirad mimarTavs orstriqonian leqs-stro-
febs, rom­lebic manamde arCil mefis poeziaSi gvxvdeba, ufro
adre ki vanis qvabTa monastris warwerebma Semogvinaxa (oni-
ani 1960: 33-34). `leqss~, rogorc vaxtang VI-is Tanamedroveni,
aseve misi memkvidre­nic – Txzavdnen 16-marcvliani SairiTa
da wyviladi riTmiT.2
katrens, 16-marcvliani SairiTa da oTxjeradi riTmiT,
gaba­to­nebuli adgili ukavia vefxistyaosnidan mokidebu-
li me-18 sa­ukunem­de. vaxtang VI, marTalia, Zireulad cvlis
qarTuli leq­sis stro­fikas da erovnul poeziaSi amkvid-
rebs sxvadasxva stro­fuli agebu­lebis leqsebs, magram yve-
laze xSirad mainc tradiciul saleqso formas iyenebs; ra-
ime mniSvnelovan gadax­ras metrisa Tu riTmis mxriv vaxtangis
mier momarjvebuli katreni ar gviCvenebs, amitom masze sa-
gangebod arc vimsjelebT. aRsaniSnavia, rom zogjer, erTi
strofis farglebSi, gvxvdeba Sereva dabalsa da maRal Sa-
irs Soris, ro­me­lic arCil mefisa da Teimuraz II-is leqsSi
SeimCneoda pir­velad.3
rac Seexeba `vaxtangurs~, xuTtaepian heterometrul
leqs-strofs, masze specialur literaturaSi sagangebo
dakvirve­ba­ni gamoTqves: a. baramiZem, g. miqaZem, a. xinTibiZem,
b. darCiam da sxvebma. aRvniSnavT, `vaxtanguri~ Sesrulebu-
lia heterosila­bu­ri xuTta­epe­diT, romlis metruli sqema
amgvaria: I-III stri­qonebi 16 mar­cvli­ania (6/5//5; 5/6//5); III
213
striqoni 5/4//4/3, IV striqoni – 13-mar­cvlianis – 5/3/5, xolo
V – 19 marcvliani – 8/6//5.4
6-taepiani strofi qarTul leqsSi sulxan-saba orbelian-
ma Semo­itana, romelmac `qilila da damanaSi~ CarTo amgvari
saxe­obis leq­sebi. vaxtang VI 6-taepedis formiT aqvs warmod-
genili Tavisi liri­kuli Sedevri `rani da movakani da..~:
rani da, movakani da, saxli da, kari, bani, da,
gaTavda yovli werili, ani, bani da, gani, da..
viare yovli qveyana sigZe da sivrce, gani, da,
vera vpove ra mis meti, davyare Zma da dani, da..
xorcsa mravali davakle, suls mivec iqi rjani, da,
vai-va, msajes ubralod, ar momces me ajani, da!
(vaxtang meeqvse 1975:16)

leqsi rusTveluri dabali Sairis (53/53) metriTaa age-


buli, 6 taeps eqvsjeradi riTma aerTianebs amdengzisve ga-
meorebuli `da~ daboloebiTa da SidariTmebiT. vaxtang me-
eqvses am liri­kuli Sedev­risaTvis aseTi minaweri daurTavs:
`erTi leqsis xma esec aris..~ es mi­na­weri imis naTeli dastu-
ria, rom strofikis garda, vaxtangisaT­vis didmniSvnelovan
movlenas warmoadgenda gariTmvis kombinacia (am SemTxvevaSi
eqvsjeradi riTma mudmivi `da~ daboloebiT!), ro­gorc leq-
sis sazomis (xmis) Semqmneli.
ori eqvstaepiani strofi (182, 193) aqvs CarTuli vaxtang
VI `sib­rZne malaRobelSi~. orive maTganis sazomia 35/35 da
riTmac erTgva­ri aqvT: aabbbb. erT-erTi 6-taepedi (182) iseT
STabeWdi­lebas to­vebs, TiTqos, 3 `leqsidan~ (ortaepedisa-
gan) Sedgebo­des, magram az­rob­rivad eqvsive taepi mWidrod
ukavSirdeba er­Tm ­ aneTs da, SeiZ­leba, struqturulad es er-
Teuli strofad CaiTvalos:
182. kvlav kidev keti aZgeres, merme rqves: gandeg kideniT.
manc TavSi joxi daartya: aw Tqvenca momerideniT!

midelma kbilSi Semohkra, dioRen Civils bedavsa,


da man kacma TeTri miuZRvna magad, nu mizam me davsa.
dilas dioRen Semohkra, TeTrs aZlevs, masve bedavsa:
salbuni Tqveni Tqvendave miZRvnia, gaubedavsa.
(vaxtang meeqvse 1975: 110)
214
vaxtang meeqvsis poeziaSi vxvdebiT, agreTve, 7, 9, 10 da
11-stri­qonian strofebs.5
garda zemoT dasaxelebuli leqs-strofebisa, vaxtang
VI-is po­ezi­aSi aris ufro vrceli strofebic, romlebic
monorimiT ariT Sesrulebuli, an tavtologiur riTmas
efuZneba.
18-taepediania vaxtangis cnobili leqsi `vai, sikvdilo~
(`ra da­vi­bade..~), romlis yvela striqons refrenad gasdevs
sityve­bi: `vai, sikvdilo, mware sikvdilo~; es leqsi Caxruxa-
ulis sazo­miT (55/55) aris Sesrulebuli: yovel taepSi gamo-
yenebulia sa­valdebulo Si­dariTma. misi danawevreba ufro
mcire stroful monakveTebad Se­uZ­lebelia da, amdenad, igi
SeiZleba monos­tro­fad miviCnioT. ro­gorc mkvlevarTa um-
ravlesoba fiqrobs, es leqsi `WaSnikSi~ swored am uwyveto-
bis, daunawevreblobis, ganuyoflobis gamo Seitana mamuka
baraTaSvilma Semdegi saTa­uriT: `mefis Tqmuli uwyveteli~.
am leqsis Taobaze sayurad­Re­bo mosazreba aqvs gamoTqmuli
l. me­nabdes, romelsac igi elegi­ad miaCnia: `vaxtangma daam-
kvidra ele­giuri leqsi. man aiRo Cax­ruxauli leqsi, marc-
valTa odenoba uc­vlelad datova, Secvala konstruqcia,
taepis meore naxevari gada­axalisa da mas axali saxe misca –
refrenad aqcia. arsebiTad Sec­vala man Caxruxa­ulis kiloc
da ganwyobilebac. Tu adre igi sazeimo – saxotbo leqsisaTvis
gamoiyeneboda, vaxtangma am leqsiT naR­vliani gan­wyobileba
gadmogvca~ (menabde 1966: 118).
`mefis Tqmuli uwyvetelisagan~ gansxvavebiT, ufro vr-
celia vaxtang meeqvsis `leqs-ambavi~, romelic, agreTve,
versifikaci­ul siaxled miuCnevia jer kidev mamuka baraTaS-
vils. igi 28-ta­epiania da yoveli striqoni bolovdeba tav-
tologiuri riTmiT; `mefeo~. met­rikis mixedviT, igi dabal
Sairs eyrdnoba: 53/53.
leqsi – `nacvlad CemTa sikeTeTa~ monostrofia, leqs-
strofi ar aris, icavs strofuli danawevrebis princips,
Tumca igi uwyveti monorimia (vaxtang meeqvse 1975: 19). am
xuTstrofian leqsSi yoveli stro­fis bolos meordeba
taepi: `nacvlad CemTa sikeTeTa aRmimar­Tes sakvdad jvari~.
monorimis gamo uwoda mamuka baraTaSvilma mas: `mefis Tqmu-
li boloerTi~ da meore adgili miakuTvna `mefis Tqmu­li
215
uwyvetelis~ Semdeg `WaSnikSi~, sadac igi monorimis nimuSad
aris Setanili. `boloerTis~ msgav­sia `vai, ra mwared iwoda
nawlevni ma­ri­amisa~ (`mefis Tqmuli~), oRond im gansxvavebiT,
rom igi 2-stro­fi­ania. l. menabdis az­riT, es leqsic elegiaa,
romlis sazomi aris rusTveluri Sairi (53/53), Tumca gada-
xalisebulia refreniT – strofis ukanas­kne­li taepebis
gameorebiT (menabde 1966: 118):

SuriT aRivsen ugbilni, wesi qmnes maTi mamisa,


sikvdils zraxvidnen uwesod, Tu dro daicen Jamisa,
usjulo misi mowafe micemas hpiravs amisa,
vai, ra mwared iwoda nawlevni mariamisa!
mtilSi miuZRva krebulTa sawuxi yovlis gvamisa,
mRvdelT moZRvris palats mividnen gasatanjvelad, va, misa,
brali ver poves mis zeda, kvlav scemdnen wamdawamisa,
vai, ra mwared iwoda nawlevni mariamisa!

rogorc vaxtang VI-is poetur memkvidreobaze dakvir-


vebam gviC­vena, sxvadasxva taepian leqsTa umravlesoba mefe-
poetis mier Targmnil TxzulebaSi – `sibrZne malaRobelSi~
aris Car­Tuli. SesaZloa, qarTuli leqsisaTvis am ucxo, axa-
li aRnago­bisa da for­mis strofebis CarTva saTargmni masa-
liTac iyo gan­pirobebuli, Tum­ca verc imas uarvyofT, rom
vaxtangi xSirad TviTon cvlida leqs-strofis stroful
struqturas, raTa, rac SeiZleba zustad, lakoniurad da
amomwuravad gadmoeca saTqmeli.
sxvadasxva raodenobis taepian strofTa erT leqsSi ga-
erTi­ane­bis sagulisxmo nimuSia vaxtang VI-is leqsi `joxze
dawerili~ (dedanSi: `vaxtang joxze daswera~).6
vaxtang VI-is leqsebis metruli repertuari mravalfe-
rov­nebiT ar gamoirCeva. poeti, ZiriTadad, misdevs 16-marc-
vliani maRali da dabali Sairis tradiciul sqemebs mcire-
odeni vari­aciebiT.
qarTul leqsTa saxeebidan vaxtang VI-is poeziaSi yurad­
Rebas ipyrobs `anbanTqeba~ da `palindromi~.
anbanTqebam – XVI-XVIII saukuneebis qarTuli poeziis am po­
pu­la­rulma saleqso formam – Taviseburi saxe miiRo vaxtang
216
VI-is Semoq­medebaSi. mefe-poetis damsaxureba axali tipis
anban­Tqebis SeqmnaSi saTanadod Seafases anton kaTalikosma,
ioane batoniSvilma, paata batoniSvilma (miqaZe 1974: 103).
aRorZinebis xanis qarTul poeziaSi gansakuTrebiT gav-
rcel­da waRma-ukuRma sakiTxavi leqsi, romelsac mefe-poeti
arCili `Car­xebr mbrunav leqss~ uwodebda. amgvari leqsebi,
rogorc samecniero literaturaSia miTiTebuli, ufro axa-
li formebis ZiebiT gata­cebis Sedegia, vidre – poeturi ni-
Wierebis dastu­ri. vaxtang meeq­vsis palindroms win uZRvis,
albaT, vaxtangis dros sakmaod gavrce­lebuli da popula-
ruli waRma-ukuRma sakiTxavi: `imata asvaT aseTi, iTesa Tav-
sa atami~.

abana ersa moSiSTa : aTSiSom asre anaba.


abana darad ideba : abedi darad anaba.
abana iSim rameTu : uTemar SiSi anaba.
abana arad azeda: adeza dara anaba.

es palindromi, Cveni azriT, sayuradReboa kidev erTi


for­maluri siaxliT: yoveli striqonis dasawyisSi erTi da
igive sityvaa da, amdenad, dasasrulic, taepebis boloebiT,
urTierT­SeTanxme­bulia. erTi strofis farglebSi sityve-
bis TamaSis xe­lovneba kombinatoruli literaturis siaxled
unda CaiTvalos.
vaxtang meeqvsis Semoqmedebis mkvlevarni sagangebo yu-
rad­RebiT ekidebian mamuka baraTaSvilis `WaSnikSi~ Sesul
`muxra­nuls~, rom­lis avtorobis sakiTxi karga xans dadgeni-
li ar iyo. `WaSnikis~ saTa­nado xelnawerebis gacnoba-Seswav-
lis safuZvel­ze, b. darCias dama­je­reblad aqvs damtkicebu-
li, rom misi avto­ri namdvilad vaxtang meeqvsea (darCia 1986:
188-190). am leqsis Setana `WaSnikSi~ vaxtang VI-is leqsebis
rigSi, TavisTavad, ueW­vels xdida misi mikuTvnebis sa­kiTxs
mefe-poetis Semoqmede­bi­saTvis (`mefis Tqmuli uwyveteli~,
`me­fis Tqmuli boloerT~, `me­fis Tqmuli~, `muxranuli~, `vax-
tangu­ri~, `mefis naTqvami leqs-ambavi~).7
vaxtang VI-is SemoqmedebaSi sagangebo dakvirvebis sagania
omoni­mebi, romlebsac xSirad mimarTavs poeti.
217
vaxtang VI-is `majama~ (vaxtang meeqvse 1975: 50-56) 54
strofi­sagan Sedgeba da mTlianad omonimuri riTmebiT aris
gamarTu­li. rogorc cnobilia, es strofebi gamokrebilia
poetis sxva danarCeni nawar­moebebidan da arc erTi maTgani
ar aris damo­ukidebeli.
ueWvelia, rom vaxtang meeqvsis versifikaciuli Ziebis
gza im­dro­indeli evropuli da aRmosavluri leqswyobis
kanonebis gaT­valiswinebiT ikvaleboda. kerZod, kombina-
toruli poezia, sparsul da rusul Tu frangul-italiur
leqsTan erTad, qar­Tul versi­fikaciaSic ikidebda fexs.
vaxtang VI-is SemoqmedebaSi, umTavresad, gariTmvis Sem-
deg siste­mebs vxvdebiT: aa, aaa, xaa, aax, aaaa, aabb, abab, xaaaa,
aabbbb, aaaaa; amasTan erTad, mefe-poeti mimarTavs SidariT-
mis TiTqmis yvela saxeobas: cezuruls, winacezuruls, wi-
nacezurul-ukana­ce­zuruls, kibursa da tavtologiur
riTmebs. zogjer, SeiZle­ba, wavawydeT araiden­tur riTmasac:
`qebasa-xmobasa~ – `mbobasa – gmobasa~ (vaxtang meeqvse 1975: 57).
`mec mivhyev sparsTa zRaprisa Targmanebisa mgebarTa~,
– aR­niSnavs vaxtangi `qilila da damanas~ galeqsili stro-
fis da­sawyisSi. aRmosavluri poeziis sufizmi da didaqtika,
gadaxali­sebuli rus­Tveluri Sairis formiT, da gajerebu-
li aRorZine­bis xanis poeziis novaciebiT – ase warmogvidge-
ba vaxtang VI-is Semoqmedeba, romelic gvarwmunebs, rom misi
avtorisaTvis kargad aris nacnobi Tavisi Tanamedrove evro-
puli leqsis kombina­to­rika: kvadratuli Tu pa­lindromuli
leqsebi, monorimi da tav­tologiuri riTmebiT agebu­li enis
gasatexi poeturi sakiTxavebi.
TumcaRa, vaxtang VI-is Semoqmedebis versifikaciuli ana-
lizi cxadyofs, rom, miuxedavad imisa, poeti qarTuli leq-
sis ganax­lebis mosurnec aris da aqtiuri Taosanic, magram
sakuTari Se­moqme­de­biTi praqtikiT jer kidev gadaWriT ver
emijneba tra­di­ciul, qar­Tul klasikur saleqso formebs da
ver axdens ver­sifikaciul revolucias.

218
SeniSvnebi:

1. vaxtang VI-is Se­moqmedebaSi taepi gvxvdeba poetis mier galeq-


sil `qilila da damanaSi~, ramdenime nimuSi taepisa aris `satrfia-
lonSi~ (vax­tang meeqvse 1975: 42, 49, 71, 141-143), gansakuTrebiT ux-
vad aris warmodgenili taepi `sibrZne malaRobelSi~ (daaxloebiT
157 `ta­epia~!). vaxtang VI-is taepebi 16-marcvliani SairiT aris Ses­
rulebuli, Sesabamisad, – maRali, an dabali SairiT (44/44, 53/53);
iSviaTad gvxvdeba Sereva: 53/44 (`misive mcnebis sityva­nis~ taepi 295
ix.: `sibrZne malaRobeli~ 119):

mrud mosamarTle Tavsa sjis, svinidisic uwyebs brZolas.


(taepi 295)

taepis umravlesoba gauriTmavia. iSviaTad gvxvdeba Sida­riT­


mebiT (omonimuri riTmebiT) gamarTuli amgvari taepebi:

Seni fiqri Sen gasinje, merme sxvaTac gaasinje.


(`sibrZne malaRobeli~ 1975: 367)

gvxvdeba: a) winacezurul – ukanacezuruli riTmiani taepi:

Tu ram gesmas saidumlo, aramc wargcdes arsad ara.


(`sibrZne malaRobeli ~ 1975: 417)

b) taepi winacezuruli riTmiT:

ar miaCans Zesa brZensa mamis sityva gasamZimad.


(`sibrZne malaRobeli~ 1975: 12)

g) taepi araidenturi riTmiT:

vinc ufro aris mdidari, ufroa javriT mwuxari (519).

satrfialonis~ 4 taepidan mxolod erTs (141) aqvs SidariTma:

Tu Sens tvirTsa Sen ki ar zev, nu hkideb sxvas, ver azevsa.

ufro xSirad vaxtang VI-is taepebSi riTmis rols asrulebs paro­


nomazia, an sityvaTa sxvadasxva formiT gamoyeneba frazaSi evfoni­
uri TvalsazrisiT:
219
ver ipovnis briyvi bedsa, bedi poebs, ver ibedebs (`s.m.~, 404).
gangikiTxavs ganmkiTxveli, Tu borotsa ganikiTxav (`s.m.~, 154).
bevrs simdidres bedic unda, ubedoba gaacudebs (`s.m.~, 361).

zogjer saintereso, originaluri zmnuri formebic gvxvdeba


vaxtang VI-is taepSi:

vinc borotiT gamdidrebis, Tavsa didxans ver imdidrebs.


(`sibrZne malaRobeli~, 513)

Cveni azriT, vaxtang meeqvsis `sibrZne malaRobelSi~ (vaxtang me-


eqvse 1975: 96-152) ramdenime taepi calke taepad ki aris gamoyo­fili
gamomcemlis mier, magram isini ortaepedebi ufro unda iyos da Sec-
domiT aris miCneuli erTstriqoniani leqsis – taepis – saxeobad.
vfiqrob, amas adasturebs wyviladi riTma, romelic erT­maneTTan
kravs azrobrivad da Sinaarsobrivadac mWidrod dakavSi­re­bul or
amgvar taeps ramdenime SemTxvevaSi; mimaCnia, rom umjobe­si iqnebo-
da am taepebis gaerTianeba da `leqsad~ (qarTuli leqsis erT-erT
saxeobad) warmodgena. maga­liTad, `sibrZne malaRobelSi~ calke
taepebad aris warmodge­nili 140-e da 141-e striqonebi:

140. sxvisgan avis moTmineba kacsa karga mouxdeba.


141. boroti da usamarTlo sxvaze TviTanc mouxdeba.

aSkaraa am ori taepis azrobrivi gamTlianebis aucilebloba


`leqsad~ omonimuri riTmiT: `mouxdeba~.
amrigad, vaxtang VI-is SemoqmedebaSi gvxvdeba daaxloebiT 162
ta­epi, romlebic dawerilia 16-marcvliani Sairis orive saxeobiT
(53/53; 44/44); maTi umravlesoba uriTmoa, mxolod mcire nawils aqvs
SidariTma.
2. vax­tang VI `leqss~ urTavs `satrfialonSi~ (vaxtang meeqvse
1975: 42; 49). erT SemTxvevaSi gvaqvs mxolod erTi `leqsi~:

72. radgana xar ori soflis saSovarad monamWiri,


viT iqneba ori nesvi erTis xeliT danamWiri!

meore SemTxvevaSi gvaqvs ori `leqsi~, anu orstriqonedi, wyvi­


ladi riTmiT:

220
144. buzs mwve mihgavs, ampartavnad, uridobiT moaruli,
da ar ician fTa Txeli aqvs, veras uzams saqme mtruli.
(vaxtang meeqvse 1975: 49)

rogorc aRvniSneT, `leqsebi~ dawerilia maRali SairiT da wyvi­


ladi riTmiT – aa. 16-marcvliani dabali SairiT aris Se­Txzuli vax­
tangis cnobili aforizmis: `cema gmarTebs gamzrde­lisa~ pirveli
variantic:
naxa yrma avad mqceveli, urigod moarulia,
gamwvrTnelsa cema dauwyo, rad avad ganswavlulia.

aforizmis saboloo saxe ki rvamarcvliani maRali SairiT (44)


aris Camoyalibebuli ortaepedad – leqs-strofis formiT:

cema gmarTebs gamzrdelisa,


ra yrma naxo avad zrdili.
(`avad zrdili~. vaxtang meeqvse 1975: 71)

`leqsi~ uxvad aris `sibrZne malaRobelSi~ (164).


3. magaliTad, leqsSi `salbunad gulisa~ 90-e strofi amgvari
ritmuli aRnagobiT gamoirCeva:

Tuca uTqvamT, daram ari etlni sveni da bedia, 44/44


magram amaTi miyola brZenTagan gaubedia 53/35
igia yovlis mpyrobeli, yovelTa zeda mxedia 53/53
sofeli – Cveni mesisxle – zRapari aris, ybedia 53/53

katrenTa umravlesobas axasiaTebs omonimuri riTma, xSiria Si­


da­riTmebi: winacezuruli, winacezurul-ukanacezuruli da kiburi
riTmis saxeobebi.

4. ori misi Tvali – ori jerani, bolos mzereli, 6/5//5


keklucobis ZaliT kacis mwyeneli, gulze mwereli 6/5//5
hnaxeT, moyvasno, sayvareli, Cemi Tvalis mkereli 5/4//4/3
imas ucxoT hgavs is turfa daujereli 5/3/5
ara, ara, is ar aris, me sayvarels vicnob misi mzereli 8/6//5

`vaxtangurs~ aqvs cezuruli riTma (mwereli – sayvareli) da


Si­dariTma (mwyeneli – mwereli, sayvareli – mkereli). akaki xinTi­bi­
Zis marTebuli dakvirvebiT, miuxedavad heterosila­biz­misa, leqsis
221
ritmi mainc regulirebulia erTiani xuTmarcvli­ani kadenciebiT
(bolos mzereli, gulze mwereli, Tvalis mkere­li, daujereli, misi
mzereli). akaki xinTibiZis azriT, vaxtangis es leqsi (`vaxtanguri~),
SeuZlebelia, metrul paradoqsad mi­viC­nioT, radgan aRorZinebis
xanis qarTul poeziaSi axal sazo­mebs daucxromlad eZiebdnen da
me­fe-poetic ar iqneboda gamo­naklisi (xinTibiZe 1981: 62). rogorc
ukve aRvniSneT, vaxtang VI sxva xuTtaepedebic dauweria, magram isi­
ni savsebiT gansxvav­debian `vaxtangurisagan~.
5. 7-taepiani strofis nimuSad, SeiZleba, davasaxeloT `sibrZne
malaRobelis~ me-17 strofi:

platon brZenia, brZenia, qveyaniT afonelia..

igi monorimulia da I taepSi gvxvdeba winacezuruli riTma. ro­


gorc cnobilia, mdenari, monorimuli, 7-taepiani leqsia, `WaSnikSi~,
sadac am saxeobis sanimuSod moxmobilia: `mdenari mamukasi~, dabali
SairiT gamarTuli, 7-taepiani monorimi:

Cem sayvarelo: vinao, : miwyiv midgexar : winao,


gonebiT Semkra : survilma : arodes mome : lxinao..

vaxtang VI-is `mdenar~ pirvel taepSi, mamukas `mdenarisagan~


gan­sxvavebiT, winacezurul riTmas gviCvenebs. msgavs monorimsa da
wi­na­cezurul riTmas mimarTavs poeti `sibrZne malaRo­belis~ 9-ta­
epian leqs-strofSic (34):

platon kacia, kacia, keTilis Senatkacia.


(vaxtang meeqvse 1975: 98)

vvaraudobT, rom am strofebis Sinaarsi, erTgvarad, nasaz­rdo­


ebia CaxruxaZis `Tamarianis~ neoplatonizmis sibrZniTa da sulis­
kveTebiT, rac ganapirobebs kidec `sibrZne malaRobelis~ zogierTi
strofis ritmul-riTmuli struqturis siaxloves cnobili mexot­
bis poemasTan. msgavsi ritmuli JReradobiTa da winacezuruli
riTmiT iqcevs yuradRebas `sibrZne malaRo­belis~ 10-taepiani leqs-
strofic (109):

antistinesa winesa yrma vinme Semoscinebsa..

aqac mxolod pirveli striqonia winacezuruli riTmiT ga­mar­

222
Tuli, xolo mTlianad leqs-strofi monorimiT ariT Sesru­lebu­
li. es monorimi, aTtaepiani, 16 marcvliani (53/53). leqsi `wyobili
mravalmuxlis~ saxeliT aris cnobili.
msgavsi struqturuli aRnagobiT gamoirCeva `sibrZne mala­Ro­
belSi~ CarTuli erTi TerTmetstriqoniani leqs-strofi (133), rom­
lis mxolod pirveli striqoni aris gamarTuli wina­cezuruli riT­
miT, xolo mTlianad leqsi monorimulia:

samoc orisa Sorisa JamTa Seiqna welisa..

11-striqoniania, agreTve, `sibrZne malaRobelis~ 77-e stro­fi,


iseve winacezuruli riTmiTa da monorimiT:

polen gonia, mgonia, aristotelTan msvlelia..*

amrigad, vaxtang VI-is 7-, 9-, 10-, 11-striqonian leqs-stro­febs


erTi specifikuri niSani axasiaTebs: yoveli maTganis pir­veli taepi
winacezuruli riTmiT aris gamarTuli, xolo mTli­anad Txzuleba
monorimia.
6. am leqsSi gaerTianebulia sxva­da­sxvagvari taepobrivi Sedge-
nilobis strofebi: 4+4+4+7+4+4+2. masSi CarTuli 7-taepedi: `vai,
samneo, samneo..~, rogorc cnobi­lia, mkvlevarma T. Wyoniam gamoav-
lina. am leqsis dasasruli, bolo 2-taepedi, Segoneba sentenciaa da
winamaval katrenebs xsnis da azustebs:

cru aris, vinc soflisaTvis zrunavs, Wmunavs, Sewuxdebis,


RmerTman icis, vin iSovnis, vin iRvwis da vis mixvdebis.
(vaxtang meeqvse 1975: 74)

`vefxistyaosnis~ maRali Sairis Targze moWrili ritmiT, vax­


tang mefe axleburi JReradobiT Seagonebs mkiTxvels RvTi­ur sib­
rZnes. ise ki, Cveni azriT, leqsi `joxze dawerili~ mxo­lod 1-3 kat­
re­niT unda SemoisazRvros – 7-taepedi `vai, sam­neo..~ meqanikurad
gvgonia CarTuli masSi. aseve, momdevno ori katrenica da 2-taepiani
zemoxsenebuli aforizmic, upriani iq­neba, calke Txzulebad ga­
formdes da ar miematos `joxze dawerils~.
* vaxtang VI-is versifikaciis mkvlevari b. darCia, ratomRac, am strofs 12-
ta­­epianad miiCnevs (darCia 1982: 25).
223
7. muxranuli
samkali gaqvs – samuSao, Zalo,
moimke da Seikribe, Zalo,
mteri rom mzers dasawvelad, Zalo-
ra mas dascem, moisveneb, Zalo,
Tu moimki, keTilsa iq, Zalo,
saukunod ar waxdebis, Zalo,
mas Seebi gulmesisxled, Zalo,
orsav sofels saxels poveb, Zalo.

am leqsis formis Taobaze samecniero literaturaSi azrTa sx-


vadasxvaobaa: g. miqaZe mas 4-taepian, Sinagan-garegan riTmian leq­
sad miiCnevs, rogoricaa igi g. avaliSvilis xelnawerSi. a.xin­TibiZe,
piriqiT, riTmis gamo, 10-marcvlian (4 4 2) da, am­denad, 2-strofian
leqsad Tvlis: `Tavisi arqiteqtonikiT `mux­ra­nu­li~ igive rvulia.
rvastriqoniani leqsi rvajeradi riTmiT oTx striqonad aris war­
modgenili, iseve rogorc `qilila da damanas~ sabaseuli redaqciis
aTmarcvliani rvulebi~ (xinTi­biZe 1981: 62). b. darCias dakvirvebiT,
es leqsi `kvadratul~, anu fi­gurul leqsad unda CaiTvalos, rome­
lic Zlier iyo gavrcele­buli sparsulsa da rusul poeziaSi. misi
Tavisebureba is aris, rom igi ikiTxeba rogorc Tarazulad, ise
Sveulad.

damowmebani:

arCili 1989: arCili. qarTuli mwerloba ocdaaT tomad. t. VI. Tbilisi:


`nakaduli~, 1989.
arCiliani 1936: arCiliani. TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli or tomad. a.
baramiZisa da n. berZeniSvilis redaqciiT. t. I. Tbilisi: 1936.
baramiZe 1966: baramiZe a. narkvevebi qarTuli literaturis istori­
idan. t.II. Tbilisi: 1966.
baramiZe 1975: baramiZe a. vaxtang meeqvse. leqsebi da poemebi. al. ba-
ramiZis redaqciiT. Tbilisi: `mecniereba~, 1975.
baramiZe 1987: baramiZe a. arCili da misi skola. kekeliZe k., baramiZe a.
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baramiZe 1989: baramiZe r. bolosityva. qarTuli mwerloba ocdaaT
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224
bertelsi 1949: Бертельс Е. Джами. Сталинабад: 1949.
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laSqaraZe 1977: laSqaraZe d. evropeizmis problema qarTul litera-
turaSi. Tbilisi: `sabWoTa saqarTvelo~, 1977.
mamacaSvili 1967: mamacaSvili m. Teimuraz pirvelis `leil-majnuni­
anis~ sparsuli wyaroebi. Tbilisi :1967.
225
menabde 1966: menabde l. vaxtang meeqvse. Tbilisi: `nakaduli~, 1966.
miqaZe 1970: miqaZe g. erTi leqsis saxeobisaTvis galaktion tabiZis po-
eziaSi. SoTa rusTavelis sax. qarTuli literaturis instoriis insti-
tutis XXX samecniero sesia. Tezisebi. Tbilisi: 1970.
miqaZe 1974: miqaZe g. narkvevebi qarTuli poetikis istoriidan. Tbili-
si: `mecniereba~, 1974.
naWyebia 2009: naWyebia m. qarTuli barokos sakiTxebi. Tbilisi: `mera-
ni~, 2009.
oniani 1960: oniani S. vanis qvabTa monastris warwerebi. `sabWoTa xe-
lovneba~, № 8, Tbilisi: 1960.
qiqoZe 1955: qiqoZe b. gabaaseba Zvel qarTul literaturaSi. baTumi:
1955.
WiWinaZe 1979: WiWinaZe k. aliteracia qarTul SairSi. Tbilisi: `sab-
WoTa saqarTvelo~, 1979.
xinTibiZe 1981: xinTibiZe a. WaSniki qarTuli leqsmcodneobisa. ba-
raTaSvili m. swavla leqsis Tqmisa. Tbilisi: Tbilisis universitetis
gamom­cemloba, 1981.

226
ivane amirxanaSvili

daviT guramiSvilis poeturi kontrapunqti


Sua saukuneebidan ganmanaTleblobamde

daviT guramiSvilis poeturi azrovneba, marTalia, Te-


maturi da ideuri mravalferovnebiT gamoirCeva, magram,
amave dros, is erTiani, mTliani, ganuyofeli sistemaa, rom-
lis polifoniuri xasiaTi mxolod adasturebs mwerlis
msoflmxedvelobis simwyobresa da masStaburobas. lite-
raturuli kontrapunqtis mdgradobas ganapirobebs reli-
giur-filosofiuri, istoriul-sazogadoebrivi da esTe-
tikur-poetikuri ideebis koncefciuri erTianoba. ufro
gasagebad rom vTqvaT, urTierTgansxvavebuli ideebi gura-
miSvils adaptirebli aqvs sakuTar SemoqmedebiT mrwamsTan.
mas erT fokusSi aqvs moqceuli ganmanaTleblobis raci-
onalisturi motivebi da Suasaukuneobrivi konvenciuri
modelebi, renesansuli esTetikis elementebi da barokouli
msoflxedvis wesebi...
daviT guramiSvilis esTetikis Taviseburebebs swored
es, erTi SexedviT, ekleqtikuri detalebi ganapirobebs.
amjerad SevexebiT ramdenime sakiTxs, kerZod, ganmanaTleb-
lobis kvals, simboluri jvaristvirTvis ideas, meore po-
eturi `me~-s problemas, nebelobisa da STagonebis motivebs,
wuTisoflis egzistenciur sazrissa da istoriis aRqmis
principebs.
ganmanaTleblobis istoria saqarTveloSi XVIII saukune-
Si iwyeba. ra Tqma unda, mas ar aqvs socialur-politikuri
Sinaarsi da iseTi masStabebi, rom gavlenian ideologiad
Camoyalibebuliyo, magram mwerlobam miiRo da aiTvisa gan-
manaTleblobis esTetikis iseTi ideebi, romlebic exmiano-
boda sazogadoebriv ganwyobilebebsa da mxatvruli lite-
raturis miznebs.
saqarTvelos politikuri da ekonomikuri cxovrebis
mdgomareoba moiTxovda konservatizmis met-naklebi sawi-
naaRmdego liberaluri ideebis gadmotanas da mis Serwymas
humanistur ganwyobilebebTan.
227
am ganwyobilebebis mxatvruli xorcSesxmisaken swrafva
yvelaze TvalsaCinod Tavs iCens sulxan-saba orbelianisa da
daviT guramiSvilis SemoqmedebaSi, romelSic umTavres ad-
gils didaqtikur-moralisturi motivebi ikavebs. sulxan-
saba orbelianis wignze `sibrZne sicruisa~ rom araferi vTqvaT,
misive `leqsikoni qarTuli~ ganmanaTlebluri ideebiT aris
STagonebuli, am moZRvrebis principebs mihyveba, cnebaTa
da saganTa definiciebs enciklopedistur mimarTulebas
aZlevs.
ganmanaTlebloba arsebiTad inteleqtualuri moZra-
obaa. ganmanaTlebloba gonebas aRiarebs TviTSemecnebis
mTavar kriteriumad, codnis kults – sazogadoebis gan-
viTarebis safuZvlad, ganaTlebas – identobis, TviTigi-
veobis dadgenis, suverenuli pirovnebis Camoyalibebis
saSualebad.
am konteqsts savsebiT Tanxvdeba daviT guramiSvilis Se-
goneba wignidan `swavla moswavleTa~:

ymawvili unda swavlobdes sacnoblad Tavisadao;


vin aris, sidam mosula, sad aris, wava sadao?

ganmanaTlelobis aRmniSvneli termini Aufkärung – `na-


Telyofa~, `axsna~, `gaxsna~ – momdinareobs sityvidan `na-
Teli~, romlis Zireuli mniSvneloba Zveli aRTqmis Sesaqmis
wigns ukavSirdeba. sinaTle adamianis gonebrivi Tvisebebis
aRmniSvnel epiTetadac gamoiyeneba. naTeli goneba RvTaeb-
rivi sulis gamovlinebad iTvleboda. `sinaTlis~ Sinaarsi
TandaTan ufro Rrmad SeiWra inteleqtis TvisebaTa gan-
sazRvraSi da aRniSnavda maZiebel, gamWriax, dinamikur go-
nebas. XVIII saukunis dasawyisSi termini `ganmanaTlebloba~
farTod gamoiyeneba da aRniSnavs Tavisufal, damoukide-
bel gansjas, Tumca misi gamokveTili gansazRvreba mogvca
imanuel kantma 1784 wels gamoqveynebul statiaSi `ra aris
ganmanaTlebloba?~
ganmanaTlebloba, kantis azriT, aris adamianis gamosvla
umwifrobidan anu uunarobidan, romelic sakuTari gansjis
gamoyenebis, ufro sworad, gadawyvetilebisa da simamacis
arqonas gulisxmobs. Sapere Aude! – gabede sakuTari gansjis
228
gamoyeneba! – es aris ganmanaTleblobis lozungi (kanti ...
2012: 31).
calkeul adamians gauWirdeba Tavi daaRwios umwif-
robas, miT umetes, am mdgomareobas bevri bunebriv mdgo-
mareobad miiCnevs, magram ufro realuria sazogadoebam
gaanaTlos Tavisi Tavi, rac Tavisuflebis pirobebSi arcTu
rTuli saqmea. yovelTvis gamoCndeba damoukideblad moaz-
rovne ramdenime adamiani, romlebic daexmarebian sazo-
gadoebas gadaagdos umwifrobis uReli. gansakuTrebuli
mniSvneloba aqvs imas, rom Tavisufali iyos sakuTari gone-
bis saWiro moxmareba, rac Seqmnis pirobebs ganmanaTleb-
lobis gavrcelebisaTvis.
ganmanaTlebloba iqca msoflmxedvelobad, romelmac
evropis kulturaSi epoqa Seqmna. es aris erTgvari religia,
romelSic RmerTis adgils ikavebs WeSmariteba, misi gage-
bis saSualebad ki miiCneven adamianis gonebas. absoluturi
WeSmaritebis miRweva SeuZlebelia, magram, lesingis azriT,
miuRwevlisaken swrafva adamianisTvis sicocxlis sazriss
warmoadgens (TevzaZe 2009: 344).
daviT guramiSvili ganmanaTleblobidan iRebs imas, rac
ar ewinaaRmdegeba bibliur WeSmaritebebs.
ganmanaTleblobis esTetikasTan kavSirs guramiSvili
sxvadas­xva konteqstSi avlens.
pirveli, es aris didaqtika, romelic mTel wigns la-
itmoti­vad gasdevs. poeti calke Tavs uZRvnis aRniSnul Te-
mas. `swavla moswav­leTa~ warmoadgens didaqtikur kompen-
diums, romelSic ganaTlebis Teoriul-racionalisturi
safuZvlebi ganxilulia praqtikasTan kavSirSi. guramiSvi-
lis azriT, praqtikuli Wkua-goneba sruliad usargebloa,
Tu adamians ganaTleba ar aqvs miRebuli:

Wkuva uxmar ars briyvTaTvis, Wkva codniT moixmarebis!


..........................................
hgavs uxorTumo spilosa Wkviani kaci briyvia!

meore, poeturi Tematikis demokratizacia. guramiSvi-


lis po­eturi Tvalsawieri Tavisufalia, misi SemoqmedebaSi
domi­nirebs xalxuri elementebi, gaxalxurebis tendenciebi
229
exeba ro­gorc Sinaarss, ise formas. lirikaSi uxvad Semo-
aqvs fol­klo­ruli moti­vebi. poema `mxiarul zafxulSi~ xaz-
gasmulia bu­nebisa da adamianis erTianoba, romlis fonze
gamokveTilia moralur-zneobrivi da sazogadoebrivi
problemebi.
dabolos, mesame, azrovnebis sombolur-alegoriuli
wesi. ro­gorc cnobilia, ganmanaTlebelTa esTetikaSi ale-
goria, sa­er­Tod, gadataniTi azrovneba, xelovnebis umaRles
kategoriad iqna aRi­arebuli da aRmzrdelobiTi funqcia
mieniWa. guramiS­vilis mxat­vruli azrovneba, misi poeturi
stili gapirobe­bulia simbolo-alegorizmis ganmanaTleb-
luri ideebis gamoye­ne­biT. es qmnis misi Semoqmedebis
Taviseburebas.

savsebiT naTelia guramiSvilis msoflmxedvelobis es-


Te-ti­ku­ri dominanta. es aris simboluri jvaristvirTvis
idea. da­nar­Ceni ele­men­tebi am ideis garSemo viTardeba di-
aleqtikuri kanonzomierebiT.
daviT guramiSvili gviani Sua saukuneebis sulieri kul-
turis tipuri warmomadgenelia. misi msof­lmxedveloba da
mxatvruli azrovneba am epoqis ideologiis, sulieri kon-
stituciisa da konceptebis gavleniT aris niSandebuli.
medievisturi mxatvruli azrovneba mkacri koniunqtu-
rebiT xasiaTdeba. Semoqmedi winaswar aRebuli, savaldebu-
lo ideebisa da principebis mixedviT qmnis Tavis Txzulebas.
Tumca litera­turu­li kliSeebis normatiuloba ar gulisx-
mobs Sinagani Tavi­suflebis srul ugulebelyofas. piriqiT,
Semoqmedis fantazia gasaqans isev tradiciuli poetikis
originalur gaazrebaSi hpo­vebs. mxatvris individualoba
winaswar mocemuli Temebis, ideebi­sa da saxeebis Tavisebur,
zogjer axlebur warmosaxvaSi vlindeba.
Sua saukuneebis literaturis mTavar orientirs biblia
war­moadgens. mwerali bibliuri wignebis gavleniTa da mibaZ-
viT qmnis Tavis literaturul praqtikas.
poeturi aRsareba, Sinagani Widili, daeWveba daviT gu-
ramiS­vi­lis, rogorc marTlmorwmune qristianis, sulieri
cxovrebis wesia.

230
rogorc cnobilia, qristianuli mrwamsi sam ZiriTad
ideas em­yareba: codviT dacemis ideas, xsnis ideas da gamos-
yidvis ide­as. saqristiano moZRvreba, bunebrivia, mesame
ideas gamoarCevs. ieso qriste, romelSic SenivTebulia
RvTaebrivi da adamianuri buneba, nebayoflobiT Seewira
adamianTa xsnis saqmes. am ideis erTgvari kompendiumia
mrwamsi anu simbolo sarwmunoebisa. Tu­ki am konteq­stSi wa-
vikiTxavT `daviTians~, davrwmundebiT, rom daviT guramiS­
vili TvalsaCinod gamokveTili orTodoqsia. masSi metad
Zlieria soterologiuri sawyisi. poetis locva da RaRadisi
koncentrire­bulia macxovarze. im SemTxvevaSic ki, ro­ca
locvas mama-RmerTis an RvTismSoblis mimarT aRavlens, mi-
si mzera mainc jvarcmuli Ze-RmerTisaken ixreba.
qristologiuri moZRvrebis Tanaxmad, yoveli WeSma-
riti mor­wmune qristes analogiiT amqveynad atarebs jvars,
romelic miwier cdunebaTa da codvaTa monaniebis simboloa.
golgoTis msoflio msxverplis individualuri ganmeoreba
qristes mim­dev­rebSi garda­uval aucileblobas warmoadgens.
individualu­ri satisfaqcia (RvTiuri samarTlis dakmayo-
fileba anu mona­nieba) gamomdinareobs agreTve qristesa da
morwmunes Soris ar­sebuli saidumlo erTo­bidan (svetlovi
1987: 364). qriste imyo­feba morwmuneSi, xolo mor­wmune _
qristeSi.
paul tilixis azriT, es aris kavSiri, romelsac SegviZ-
lia `gam­sWvalva~ vuwodoT. am mdgomareobis klasikuri ter-
minebia `axali dabadeba~ da `aRorZineba~. aRorZineba – es
aris Cabma axal realobaSi, romelic ieso qristeSi gacxad-
deba (tilixi 1998: 485).
morwmuneSi budobs codvis Segnebis maradi gancda, rom-
lis umaR­lesi mwvervalia kacobriuli, zogadadamianuri
codvis ga­zi­areba. am ideiT aris gamsWvaluli avgustines
`aRsareba~, andria kre­te­lis `didi kanonis~ sagaloblebi,
daviT aRmaSeneb­l­is `galobani sinanulisani~.
am konteqstSi unda gaviazroT guramiSvilis leqsi
`adamis sa­Civari~, romelSic avtori Tavs aigivebs bibliur
adamTan da mis modgmasTan.

231
individualuri satisfaqciis anu simboluri jvaris-
tvir­Tvis pirobebi da misi Sinaarsi daviT guramiSvilis suli-
eri cxov­rebisa da Sinagani wyobis safuZvelTa-safuZvelia.
es aris poetis Sinagani imperativi. es ganapirobebs misi
Se­moqmedebis erTianobasa da mTlianobas.
RvTaebasTan adamianis SeerTebisa da codvisagan gaTa-
visuf­le­bis ideas araerTi RvTismetyveli qadagebda, maT
Soris – origene, avgustine, fsevdo-dionise areopageli.
SesaZlebelia, daviT gura­miS­vili icnobda am avtorTa Sro-
mebs, magram aSkaraa, rom simbo­luri jvaristvirTvis idea mis
SemoqmedebaSi axali aRTqmidan, ker­Zod, pavle mociqulis
gavleniT Semodis.
simboluri jvaristvirTvis idea daviT guramiSvilis
pirov­nul da zogad SemoqmedebiT saxes gansazRvravs, xolo
misi mxatvruli fenomenis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani elemen-
tia meore poeturi `me~, romelic poetis originaluri mxat-
vruli warmo­saxvis mdidar SesaZleblobebs uxsnis gzas.
simbolizaciis principi erTnairad exeba rogorc obieq-
tur, ise subieqtur mxareebs. obieqturis sfe­ros ga­ne­kuT-
vneba simboluri jvaristvirTvis idea, subieq­turs – Sina­
gani `me~, poeturi alter-ego. Sinagani impulsebi warmoSobs
rTul mistikur niuansebs. upirveles yovlisa, aRsa­niSnavia
guramiSvilis poeturi mistifikaciebi daviT winaswar­
metyvelTan dakavSirebiT: igi simbolurad warmosaxavs Tavs
fsalmunTa avtorad, Tumca es gardasaxva imdenad meryevi da
amorfulia, rom bolomde TiTqmis gaurkveveli rCeba, sad
mTav­rdeba guramiSvili da sad iwyeba daviT winaswarmetyveli.
qristianuli eklesia fsalmunebs miiCnevs morwmunis
Sinaga­ni gancdebis garegnul gamovlinebad. amitomac, bune-
brivia, guramiS­vilis, rogorc lirikosis, fantazia upirate-
sad fsal­mun­Ta avto­ris simbolur-alegoriuli warmod-
genebiT sazrdo­obs. literatu­ris­mcodneobaSi aRniSnulia,
rom guramiSvilis lirikul leqsTa umravlesobas safuZ-
vlad udevs konkretuli faqti, piradi cxovre­biseuli
gamocdileba Tu raime biografi­uli SemTxveva, magram am
leqsebSi gadmocemuli poeturi sura­Tebi mTavrdeba gan-

232
zogadebiT. warmavalSi danaxulia maradi­uli, rac, rogorc
wesi, mistikur-ale­goriuli xerxiTaa Sesru­le­buli (caiS-
vili 1985: 181-182).
daviT guramiSvili zogadadamianuri codvis ideis war-
mod­ge­nas sakuTari biografiis proecirebiT axdens. leqsi
`odes daviT guramisSvili kistrinis omSi cxeniTurT liaSi
daefla, imis monasibad RvTis-mSoblis Sesxma~ dawerilia am
principiT: avtori konkretul SemTxvevas – brZolis dros
WaobSi Caf­lobas simbolurad gaiaz­rebs, raTa poeturi me-
tyvelebis gra­da­cia sarwmunoebrivi RaRadi­siT daasrulos:

zecad gesav, erTo RmerTo, qveynad erT-ufalo,


yovlad wmindav RvTis-mSobelo, dido dedofalo.
codvis lias ukuvardi, Rrmad Sig davefalo,
Tu Sen me ar aRmomiyvan, Znelad aRmovalo,
Tayvansa gcem, geajebi, viTxov Semiwynaro,
mimkvdarebuls mamaSvelo ukvdavebis wyaro;
masva, mkvdari ganmacocxlo, Sens Zes Semamyaro,
viT wesia sayvarlisa, trfials Semayvaro,
mavne-macdurs ganmaride, Zelo, qristes jvaro!
Cemi cremli zed idine, cxovrebis wylis Raro,
gaufrTxildi, cud-ubralod arcad damiRvaro,
daviTs win ZRvnad warumZRvare, RvTis ZRvenT winamZRvaro!

guramiSvilic am princips mihyveba. saxarebis analogiiT


`daviTi­ani~ agebulia oTx wignad, xolo misi Sinaarsi ara
mxo­lod bibliur wignTa reminiscenciebiTaa datvirTuli,
aramed wminda werilis mTavar motivTa uSualo gavlenac
etyoba.
mistikuri meditaciebi, Rrma introspeqtuli Ziebebi
da sxva Sinagani impulsebi, romliTac guramiSvilis liri-
ka mtkiced aris gajerebuli, saerTo sulier niadagze aR-
mocendeba, Tumca antino­mi­urobis faqtori yovelTvis iCens
Tavs, rac xSirad mcdari recef­ciebis mizezi gamxdara. er-
Tsa da imave dros, daviT guramiSvili antireligiur meambo-
xedac miuCneviaT da Tvi­nier Teistadac, ukidures re-
alistadac da pesimist misti­ko­sadac. poeti mudam gmobs
233
wuTisoflis amaoebasa da muxana­To­bas, moTqvams xorciel
wa­dilTa ver-daTmenaze, magram poeturi aRsarebani codvi-
li cxovre­bis ukufena rom ar aris, es mis mierve mowodebu-
li avtobiografi­iTac dasturdeba. aq sul sxva siRrmeebia
saZiebeli.
am tipis leqsebSi mJRavndeba daviT guramiSvilis, er-
Ti mxriv, siaxlove fsalmunebis religiur-poetur gan-
wyobilebeb­Tan, meore mxriv, misi, rogorc poetis, mxatvru-
li warmosaxvis potenciali.
aq, miuxedavad sarwmunoebrivi RaRadisisa, guramiSvi-
lis me­ore poeturi `me~ warmogvidgeba mxatvrul fenom-
enad da albaT es aris mijna, sadac poeti guramiSvili
scildeba fsalmunT­mga­lobel daviT winaswarmetyvelsa da
himnografebs.
daviT guramiSvili Tavisi subieqtur-sarwmunoebrivi
mrwam­siT enaTesaveba daviT aRmaSeneblis `galobanis~ su-
liskveTebas. iseve, rogorc daviT aRmaSenebelTan, gura-
miSvilTanac mTava­ria zogad­sakacobrio codvis simboluri
zidva – viTarca sar­wmunoebrivi da eTikuri aqti (grigolaS-
vili 1986: 147; WavWavaZe 1984: 154). magram guramiSvili Tu-
ki romelime aspeqtSi mainc scildeba Tavis Soreul wina-
pars, es aris meore poeturi `me~-s mxatvruli realizacia.
poeturi `me~-s guramiSviliseuli gancda, erTi Sexed-
viT, scil­deba medievistur msoflgancdas, magram faqtob-
rivad es aris am msoflgancdis subieqturi saxesxvaoba.
rogorc revaz siraZe SeniSnavs, guramiSvilis lirikaSi mTa-
varia ara `me~ – adamiani, an `me~ – Tavad, `me~ – codvili an
misTanani, aramed `me~ – daviT guramiSvili. `me~-s individu-
aluri SegnebiT igi Sor­deba Suasauku­neobriv msoflgancdas.
miuxedavad amisa, mTli­anad mainc ver Ralatobs sqemas: `me~
– adamiani – codvili. masTan naklebad Cans `me~ – guramiSvi-
li – codvili. amas `da­viTianSi~ sWarbobs `me~ – mo­wa­me. daviT
guramiSvili indivi­du­aluri arsebobiT ki ar aris cod­vi­li,
aramed `codvilia~ zo­gad­adamianuri codviT. individu­alu­
ri arsebobiT tanjulia da amitom misi gancda, zogadis gan­
cdac ki, pirovnul-individu­alu­ria. `daviTiani~ iwyeba da
mTavrde­ba daviT guramiSviliT. man sabolood Tavis TavSive
Seirwya Tavisi meore poeturi `me~ (siraZe 1978: 245).
234
guramiSvilis poetur fokusSi samyaro or xazad gar-
datyde­ba, ubralod rom vTqvaT, samyaro ori nawilisagan
Sedgeba. erTi aris realuri, istoriuli sibrtye; meore –
simbolur-alego­ri­uli anu mistikuri ganzogadebani.
gaorebulia poeturi subieqtic, aqac ori sawyisi moq-
medebs: 1. da­viT guramiSvili – XVIII saukuneSi mcxovrebi po-
eti da 2. da­viT gu­ramiSvili – kacobriobis warmomadgeneli,
romelic sa­ku­Tar ar­se­baSi aerTianebs dro-sivrciT daSo-
rebul pirovnebebs (daTaSvili 1998: 4).
azrovnebis binaruli, ormagi, orgvari, anu rogorc
guramiS­vi­li ityvis, orgemage stili wignis saTaurSivea
miniSnebuli: `da­viTi­ani~, rogorc daviTis, guramiSvilis,
Txzuleba da `da­viTiani~, ro­gorc `daviTni~, bibliuri da-
viTis fsalmunTa aso­ciacia (baramiZe 2005: 14).
akaki gawerelias dakvirvebiT, guramiSvilis azrovneba-
Si Se­iniSneba dualizmi, dapirispireba sikvdilsa da sicocx-
les, bnel­sa da naTels Soris (gawerelia 1962: 60).
calke unda gamoiyos guramiSvilis poeturi STagonebisa
da piradi cxovrebiseuli praqtikis fsi­qo­logiuri urTi-
erTmimarTebis sakiTxi.
cxovrebis ganmavlobaSi gancdil-nanaxi, siymawvilis
dro­idan moyolebuli Warmagobamde, lamisyanaSi datyveve-
bidan mos­ko­vamde, mirgorodidan SvedeTamde, omi prusi-
elebTan, samxed­ro tyveoba magdeburgis cixeSi: warmodgen-
ebi obieqturad gan­saxovndeba `davi­TianSi~, xorcieldeba
cxovrebiseuli praqtikis SemoqmedebiTi obieqtivacia.
dimitri uznaZis zogadi fsiqologiis kursis mixedviT
Tu vim­sjelebT, guramiSvilis poeturi azrovnebis aqtivoba
nebelobis meSve­obiT xorcieldeba. misi mxatvruli fan-
tazia Sedegs imiT aRwevs, rom iZleva emociuri gancdebis
obieqtivacias.
poeturi fantaziis muSaoba warmoadgens rTul, xang-
rZliv process, romlis mniSvnelovani nawilia nebisyofa
(uznaZe 1964: 599).
ganvlili cxovrebis, sinamdvilis xangrZlivma da mra-
val­gvarma gancdam xeli Seuwyo individualuri, origi-
naluri gan­wyobis Camo­ya­libebas, romelmac ganapiroba po-
etis Semoqme­debiTi koncefciis warmoSoba da ganviTareba.
235
amis Semdeg bu­nebrivad, nebisyofisa da inteleqtis Care-
vis gareSe, ibadeba po­eturi idea, inspiracia, mxat­vruli
STagoneba.
ispiracia, dimitri uznaZis mtkicebiT, mxatvruli Se-
moqme­de­bis meore safexuria, romelsac, rogorc zemoT iTq-
va, win us­wrebs masalis dagrovebis, energiuli dakvirvebisa
da Ziebis safexuri (uznaZe 1964: 601).
amgvarad, ganwyobis Teoriis mixedviT, guramiSvilis po-
etur Se­moqmedebas praqtikuli cxovreba udevs safuZvlad.
Semoq­me­de­ba ki xorcieldeba aracnobieri aqtis _ ganwyo-
bis meSveobiT. sinamdvile piro­vnebaze moqmedebs rogorc
mTelze da masSi iw­vevs ganwyobas, romelic Semdgom qcevas
edeba safuZvlad.
msgavs fsiqologiur reaqciaze saubrobs vladimer no-
raki­Zec, romlis azriT, `daviTianis~ ZiriTadi nawili war-
moadgens avtoris cxovrebis peripetiebSi aRmocenebuli
qcevebisa da gan­cdebis ukuxedvis gziT gaxsenebul, sakuTa-
ri gancdebisa da moRvaweobis leqsis formiT gamoxatvis
Sedegs (norakiZe 1980: 7).
vladimer norakiZis dakvirvebiT, daviT guramiSvili
Zlieri sulieri energiisa da mtkice nebelobis pirovne-
baa. cxovrebis kri­tikul pirobebSi ar kargavs saRi gansjis
unars. yovelTvis inar­Cunebs wonasworobas, emociur tole-
rantobas; ganwyobis dinamiku­robisa da warsulSi fiq-
sirebuli ganwyobilebebisagan Tavis daR­wevas, sulis saxi-
faTo gabzarvis Tavidan acilebas po­eti axerxebs iumorisa
da ironiis meSveobiT.
guramiSvilis uaRresad subieqturi Semoqmedebis siste-
maSi Tavis adgils hpovebs iseTi arasubieq­turi sakiTxebi,
rogorebicaa istoria, sazogadoeba da mora­lur-zneob­rivi
sawyisebis analizi. yovelive erTiandeba cno­bil Semoqmede-
biT meTodSi, romelsac `marTlis Tqmis~ prin­cipi ewodeba.
daviT guramiSvili istoriul movlenebs, kerZod, saqar-
Tve­loSi ganviTarebul ambebs providencialisturi Tval-
sazrisiT xsnis, so­cialur-politikur kataklizmebs RvTis
gangebulebas miawers, RvTi­ur sasjelad Tvlis da amitom
gadarCenis gzas xalxis, sazoga­doebis moralur-zneobriv ga-
236
jansaRebaSi, urTi­er­T­gagebisa da Tanacxovrebis eTosis aR-
dgenaSi xedavs.
es yvelaferi moxdeba im SemTxvevaSi, Tu dRis sinaTleze
gamo­va simarTle da sazogadoeba realurad dainaxavs Tavis
moralur-zneobriv saxes.
guramiSvilis azriT, rac unda Zneli da saxifaToc unda
iyos simarTlis Tqma, poetma unda SeZlos realobisTvis
Tvalis gas­wo­reba, erovnul xasiaTSi gamjdar ukeTure-
baTa mxileba, raTa eri gamofxizldes da WeSmaritebis gzas
daubrundes.
`marTlis Tqmis~ es koncefcia qarTul poeziaSi arCil
mefem da misma mimdevrebma daamkvidres. maTi azriT, mweral-
ma konkre­tuli istoriuli faqtebi unda aRweros da ara
gamonagoni, zRap­ruli am­be­bi. personaJebadac realuri is-
toriuli pirebi un­da gamoiyvanos.
guramiSvilma gaiziara es Teoria, oRond praqtikulad
Ses­Zi­na meti simwvave da emociuroba, rac TvalnaTliv aris
warmo­Cenili `da­viTianis~ im TavSi, romelsac pirobiTad
`qarTlis Wirs~ vuwodebT.
`marTlis Tqmis~ principi Tavisi arsiT enaTesaveba Jam-
TaaR­mwerlis bibliur ideologias. rogorc cnobilia, Jam-
TaaRmwe­re­li monRolTa Semosevas miiCnevs RvTis nebad,
RvTis sasje­lad im mo­ralur-zneobrivi danaSaulobebisaT-
vis, rac qarTve­lebma Caidines uzenaesis winaSe: `queyana
saqarTvelosa mieca gan­saryunelad, amis ZaliTa, rameTu
dauteves mefeTa da mTa­var­Ta samarTali, mowya­leba, si-
yuaruli, siwrfoeba, simSvide, si­marTle, da amis wil moipo­
ves ampartavneba, zakua, Suri, xdo­ma, siZulili, angareba...
da amis ZaliTa miscna igini RmerTman warwymedad borotad,
rameTu ganviwi­reniT RmrTisa mier~ (`qarTlis cxovreba~
1959: 178-179).
aRsaniSnavia, rom arCilis skolam `marTlis Tqmis~
principi rus­TavelTan polemikisTvisac gamoiyena. isini
`vefxistyaos­nis~ av­tors daupirispirdnen rogorc gamona-
goni, `naWori ambe­bis~ gamom­Tqmels. guramiSvili emijneba am
polemikas da uars ambobs rusTa­velTan ideur kamaTze, me-
tic, adidebs mas da uqebs imas, ramac misi mxatvruli gamo-
237
nagoni ormagi Sinaarsis nawar­moebad, RrmaSinaar­sian ale-
goriad aqcia:

odesac brZenman ritorman SoTam rgo igavT xeo da,


fesv Rrma-hyo, Srtoni uCina, zed xili moiweoda.
orgziTve nayofs miscemda, visganac moirxeoda,
leqsi rusTvlisebr naTqvami me sxvisa ver vnaxeo da.

`marTlis Tqmis~ principi mwvervalze adis daviT gu-


ramiS­vil­Tan, – wers jansuR Rvinjilia, – magram es ufro
TviTmxi­lebis principia. simarTles ganuwyvetliv, yovel-
Tvis ambobda qarTuli poezia! oRond mxilebis aseT do-
zas ar Seicavda: iyo sagrZnobi, magram ase napirmorRveuli
araferi smenoda manam qarTvel kacs. daviT guramiSvilma
gaarRvia cru moridebis saz­Rvari da mkur­nalis siTamamiT
miadga daavadebul suliskve­Tebas~ (Rvinjilia 1983: 120).
daviT guramiSvili, erTi SexedviT, pesimisturi msofl-
mxedvelobis Semoqmedia. rogorc marTl­mor­wmune qristi-
ans Seefereba, uimedobisa da gulgatexilobis ganwyo­bi­
lebebs wuTisofelTan, amqveyniur samyarosTan mimar­Te­biT
amJ­Ravnebs. misTvis wuTisofeli aris amaoebis, sicruis,
undoblobis, ERalatis, orpirobis, sibnelis gansacdelisa
da sik­vdilis sauflo. principulad rom vimsjeloT, misi
warmod­gena ama soflis Sesaxeb dualisturia, masSi ormag,
orgemage bu­nebas xedavs da swored es miaCnia wuTisoflis
tragikulobis mizezad. personificirebul wuTisofels
ase mimarTavs:

Tu xar RviZili, raRa ars Zili?!


Tu xar simaZRre, ra ars SimSili?!
Tu xar sicocxle, ra ars sikvdili?!
iyav erT-erTi, iwame RmerTi!

wuTisoflis amaoebis gancda bunebrivi movlenaa im-


denad, ram­de­nadac es aris poetis esqatologiuri mrwamsis
nawili. misTvis egreT wodebuli ordinaruli realoba anu
wuTiso­fe­li, rogorc fizikuri dro, Jami, aris sasruli da
midis dasas­rulisaken, raTa sas­ruli sicocxle gadavides
maradiulobaSi da SeuerTdes RmerTs.
238
es aris poetis TviTcnobierebis forma, romelic gan-
sazR­vravs mis SemoqmedebiT individualobas, misi ideur-
esTeTiku­ri prin­cipebis mTlianobasa da simtkices.
sawuTros gancdis emociur-esTetikuri aqcentebiT
gura­miS­vi­li garkveulwilad romantikul msoflmxedvelo-
basac uax­lovdeba. marTalia, misi Semoqmedeba sul sxva xa-
siaTisaa, mag­ram verc imas davmalavT, rom sulieri konsti-
tuciiT Sors ar dgas romantikuli sazrisisagan. yuradRebas
gavamaxvileb mis erT `arasaxasiaTo~ stri­qon­ze, romelic
asociaciurad bara­TaS­vilis `merans~ mogvago­nebs. kerZod,
leqsSi `daviT guramiS­vi­lisagan sawuTros soflis samdu-
ravi~, vkiTxulobT:

mas davnatri, vinca swored svlad sawuTros gzas gahkvalavs.

ar SeiZleba am sityvebma `meranis~ boloswina strofi ar


gagvaxsenos:

cudad xom mainc am Caivlis es ganwirulis suliskveTeba


da gza uvali, Sengan Telili, merano Cemo, mainc darCeba;
da Cems Semdgomad moZmesa Cemsa siZnele gzisa gauadvildes.

ra Tqma unda, es ar aris koncefciuri Sexvedra, magram


imas ki gviCvenebs, rom qarTul poetur azrovnebaSi, wuTi-
soflis mdur­vasTan erTad, arsebobs wuTisoflis samsaxuris
qvecnobi­eri im­pul­si, romelic aris erT-erTi gza amqveyni-
ur sinamdvi­les­Tan konfliqtis mogvarebisa, gaucxoebisa da
Sinagani ga­ore­bis daZlevisa.
gasaziarebelia givi maRularias mosazreba imis Sesaxeb,
rom daviTi bevrs cdilobda, rac SeiZleba axlos misuliyo
yofi­erebis arsTan, gaerRvia, waeSala zRvari, romelic ada-
mians gare samya­rosagan TiSavs; daeRwia Tavi gaorebisaTvis,
iseve gamTli­ane­bu­liyo, rogor mTlianobasac arsebobis
pirvel wyaroSi, samyaros SemoqmedSi xedavda (maRularia
1982: 59).
amrigad, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom guramiSvilis msoflmxed-
ve­loba mTlianad gamsWvalulia qristianuli suliT. igi
Segnebu­lad miis­wrafvis pirvelwyaroebisaken, bibliuri
239
qristianobi­sa­ken, rad­gan iqidan Rebulobs poetur STago-
nebas. amave dros, aqtiurad iyenebs im filosofiur-esTe-
tikur Teoriebsac, rom­lebic mis Semoqmede­biT principebs
enaTesaveba. guramiSvili ar iqneboda didi poeti, erTi gan-
zomilebiT rom Semofarglu­li­yo. sargis caiSvilis xato­vani
TqmiT, misi poeziis fesvebi Rrmad aris gadgmuli qarTveli
xalxis sulier cxovrebaSi, rac mdidar safanels awvdis mis
brwyin­vale poetur talants (caiSvili 1974: 232).
daviT guramiSvili, rogorc marTlmorwmune qristiani,
ga­nic­dis Suasaukuneobrivi konveciuri poeziis gavlenas,
misi pi­rov­nuli da SemoqmedebiTi buneba gamsWvalulia es-
qatologi­uri ideiT, romelic `daviTianis~ mTlianobisa da
erTianobis safuZvelia. garda amisa, igi iyenebs meTvramete
saukunis evro­puli Teoriul-literaturuli azrovnebis
elementebs, rac misi Semoqmedebis mxatvrul-esTetikur
raobas gansazRvravs.

damowmebani:

baramiZe 2005: baramiZe r. daviTianSi ganfenili zogierTi problema.


Tbilisi: 2005.
gawerelia 1962: gawerelia a. rCeuli nawerebi. t. I, Tbilisi: `sabWoTa
mwerali~, 1962.
grigolaSvili 1986: grigolaSvili l. daviT aRmaSeneblis `galobani
sinanulisanis~ mxatvruli saxisaTvis. ciskari, № 5, 1986.
daTaSvili 1988: daTaSvili l. `daviTianis~ swavlebisaTvis. Tbilisi:
1998.
TevzaZe 2009: TevzaZe g. `ganmanaTlebloba~. axali filosofiis isto-
ria. nawili I. Tbilisi: CARPE DiEM, 2009.
kanti ... 2012: kanti i., fuko m. ra aris ganmanaTlebloba? (Sesavali,
gamokvleva gigi TvzaZisa). Tbilisi: ilias saxelmwifo universiteti,
2012.
maRularia 1982: maRularia g. literaturuli portretebi. Tbilisi:
`merani~, 1982.
norakiZe 1980: norakiZe vl. daviT guramiSvili. fsiqologiuri port-
reti. Tbilisi: `sabWoTa saqarTvelo, 1980.

240
svetlovi 1987: svetlovi p. `aRsrulebul ars!~ saRvTismetyvelo kre-
buli. № #3, Tbilisi: 1987.
siraZe 1978: siraZe r. qarTuli esTetikuri azris istoriidan. Tbili-
si: 1978.
tilixi 1998: Тиллих П. Систематическое богословие, т. I, II, ,,Алетейа”, Санкт-
Петербург: 1998.
uznaZe 1964: uznaZe d. Sromebi. t. III-IV, Tbilisi: saqarTvelos mec-
nierebaTa akademiis gamomcemloba, 1964.
`qarTlis cxovreba~1959: `qarTlis cxovreba~. teqsti dadgenili yve-
la ZiriTadi xelnaweris mixedviT s. yauxCiSvilis mier. t. II, Tbilisi:
`sabWoTa saqarTvelo~, 1959.
Rvinjilia 1983: Rvinjilia j. poeturi energia. Tbilisi: `merani~,
1983.
caiSvili 1974: caiSvili s. SoTa rusTaveli – daviT guramiSvili.
Tbilisi: `mecniereba~, 1974.
caiSvili 1985: caiSvili s. werilebi da gamokvlevebi. t. II. Tbilisi:
1985.
WavWavaZe 1984: WavWavaZe z. daviT aRmaSeneblis aRsareba. ciskari, №10,
1984.

241
pirTa saZiebeli

abakumi 34
abulaZe ilia 97
adametesi 184
avaliSvili giorgi 224
avaliSvili zurab 113
avgustine 231, 232
averincevi sergei 9, 27, 53, 184, 185, 189
aTanase aleqsandrieli 9
aToneli giorgi 7, 48, 50, 53, 83
aToneli eqvTime7, 48, 50, 53, 83
aToneli ioane 7
akvineli Toma 85
aleqsiZe levan 62, 80
amirxanaSvili ivane 7, 160, 189, 227
anaqsagora 141, 142
andria kriteli 31, 53
anri IV 183
antofoni 141
anton I kaTalikosi 17, 48, 50, 53, 136, 217
anCeli ioane (ix. ioane anCeli)
aristotele 63, 64, 77, 85, 117, 133, 134, 144, 145, 146, 155, 167, 170, 177, 188, 189, 191
arsen beri 53
arsen iyalToeli 9, 50
artamanovi s. 149, 189
arCil II 107, 125, 193, 194, 195, 196, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 213,
217, 224, 237
asaTiani guram 164, 189
aRmaSenebeli daviT 31, 50, 62, 82, 83, 104, 107, 234

bagno vsevolod 122, 139


bagrat III 82
bagrationi daviT 50
bagrationi Tamar (ix. Tamar mefe)
bagrationi ioane 133, 212
bakurianisZe grigol 61
baraTaSvili mamuka 136, 193, 211, 212, 215, 217
baraTaSvili nikoloz 239
baramiZe aleqsandre 107, 200, 201, 206, 209, 212, 213, 224
baramiZe revaz 30, 43, 53, 194, 224, 235, 240
barbaqaZe Tamar 53, 193
barTaia nomadi 84, 108
basili didi 8, 73, 165
basili zarzmeli 16
basili kesarieli 7
baura moris 111, 112, 113, 121
baqraZe dimitri 97, 98
baxtini mixail 15, 114, 121
bezaraSvili qeTevan 54
beineni k. 113
bekoni frensis 148, 159, 182
beriZe p. 54
bernsi robert 152

242
bertelsi e. 96, 201, 225
bergemani 62, 80
beruli 99
biganiSvili TinaTin 54
biCkovi v. 54
blanSari a. 189
bleiki r. 54
bokaCom jovani 159
bomarSe pier 159, 182
borevi iuri 130, 131, 139
bregaZe levan 166, 189
brei rene 130, 139
bruneli p. 151, 189
brutus ufrosi 152
bualo nikola 102, 126, 127, 128, 150 199, 225
buaCiZe Tamaz 11, 12, 27
bulmaisimisZe arsen 50
burke 126, 134
burkhardti 169
bufoni 157

gabaSvili besik 50, 125, 126, 136


gabaSvili ioseb 50
gabaSvili maia 50
gaTri u.141, 180, 181, 190
ganjeli nizami 96
gariti 54
gaCeCilaZe giorgi 138, 160, 190, 194, 197
gawerelia akaki 42, 54, 195, 196, 197, 203, 225, 235, 240
gercmani 54
gvaxaria al. 225
gvaxaria v. 42, 54
gigineiSvili ivane 62, 81
giorgi III 104, 110
giorgi mTawmindeli 10, 11, 40, 46, 53
giorgi mcire 40
gobsi Tomas 182
gogiberiZe mose 85, 86, 108
goeTe iohan volfgang 132, 152, 161
goldsmiti 154, 156
gorgani 96, 97
gorgasali vaxtang 13
gorgaZe serge 41
gordeziani rismag 169, 190
gorgia 141
grakxusebi 152
grigolaSvili laura 31, 50, 54, 91, 93, 94, 108
grei 154
grigolia k. 179, 190
griSaSvili ioseb 194
gulaberisZe nikoloz 49
guramiSvili daviT 50, 126, 136, 137195, 208, 211, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231, 232, 233,
234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240
gureviCi 85, 86, 108

243
daviT imamyulixani 50
daviT winaswarmetyveli 29, 30, 31, 232, 234
d’ alamberi 153
daniel winaswarmetyveli 34, 35
daTaSvili lali 235, 240
darCia boris 107, 108, 212, 213, 217, 223, 225
dekarti rene 127, 150, 182
de la grivi robert 19
deloni m. 157, 190
demetre I 45, 50
demokrite 141
de re (kardinali) 182
defo Daniel 153, 155, 156
diagora 142
didro deni 131, 132, 152, 153, 157, 178
dodorqeli grigol 50
diadoxosi prokle (ix. prokle diadoxosi)
dodsi e. 140, 141, 142, 190
doiaSvili Teimuraz 170, 190, 195 196 198, 203, 204, 209, 210, 225
doliZe dali 41, 42, 55
dosiTeoz nekreseli 50
draideni 126, 134, 135
duka konstantine 10
dumbaZe iakob 107, 108

evripide 142, 149


ezra mTawmindeli 8, 49
ekaterine II 154
eko umberto 19, 93, 108
eTe herman 101
elbaqiZe maka 16, 27, 82, 110, 120, 121
elioz mcxeTeli 12
elioti tomas 12
emeseli nemesios 62
epifane kvipreli 9
erenbergi 169
erqvaniZe g. 42, 55
esaia winaswarmetyveli 34, 166
esqile 180
efrem asuri 7
efrem mcire 7, 9, 45, 50, 61
eqvTime mTawmindeli 9

vaxtang VI 50, 125, 193, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 225
veleSi 32, 55
vergiliusi 86, 159
vereklini 204
vesterinki 64
vilari J. 151, 190
vinkelmani 126
vitgenStaini ludvig 25, 27
volteri 130, 131, 152, 153, 157, 159

zanqani 98
zariZe xvTiso 55

244
TavaqalaSvili-mdivani mamuka 195
TavziSvili giorgi 175, 176, 190
TamaraSvili mixeil 12
Tamar mefe 50, 97, 104, 106, 107, 110, 111, 197, 198, 199
Tbileli abo 13, 17, 22, 37, 38
TevzaZe guram 62, 81, 229, 240
Teimuraz batoniSvili 97
Teimuraz I 50, 125,194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 205, 206, 207, 208, 225
Teimuraz II 50, 208, 213
Teofile xucesmonazoni 9
Tibo J. 46
Tmogveli sargis 97
Tomasi 99
Trasimaqsoni 141
Turnava rusudan 148

iakobsoni T. 191
iakob xucesi (ix. curtaveli iakob)
iaSvili m. 41, 55
iegeri v. 143, 177, 190
iezekieli 50
imedaSvili gaioz 42, 55, 93, 95 98, 99, 100, 107, 108
ingoroyva pavle 44, 55, 88, 108
ioane 166
ioane anCeli 50
ioane batoniSvili 217
ioane damaskeli 7, 9, 33, 42, 47, 53, 61, 81
ioane-zosime 8, 49, 50
ioane italosi 62, 64, 74
ioane minCxi 8, 45, 49, 51, 57
ioane mtbevari 8
ioane oqropiri 7, 9, 73
ioane petriwi (ix. petriwi ioane)
ioane qonqozisZe 8, 49
iona winaswarmetyveli 34
ioseliani platon 97
ipolite romaeli 9
iremaZe Tengiz 62, 81
iungi 154
iyalToeli arsen 83

kakabaZe manana 55
kalderoni 182, 183
kantemiri 204
kanti emanuil 229
kapelani andreas 95, 100
karbelaSvilebi 43
karbelaSvili polievqtov 46, 55
kekeliZe korneli 31, 36, 37, 38, 44, 45, 47, 48, 49, 50, 52, 53, 55 62, 81, 88, 89, 102,
105, 107, 108, 125, 178, 190, 195, 208, 210, 225
kenWoSvili irakli 138, 194, 197
kerni kipriane 35, 36, 56
kereseliZe e. 43
kerferdi g. 180, 181,190
kvirikaSvili l. 65

245
kipriane arqimandriti 53
kirile aleqsandrieli 7, 73
klavdius elianusi 184
klerki de 36
klimenti aleqsandrieli 184
klimenti romaeli 35
klisTene 144
kobiZe daviT 200, 209, 225
kozma ierusalimeli 33
koperniki nikoloz 148
korneli pier 128, 129, 149, 151, 152, 182
kretien de trua 106, 113, 114
kritiasi 141
kronosi 73
krumbaxeri k. 56
kukava Tamar 191
kurdanai 8, 49
kuWuxiZe goCa 28, 38, 43, 56, 207, 208, 225

labriueri Jan de 182


lametri JorJ 157
laraZe petre 50
laroFfuko fransua de 182
lafaieti 182
lafonteni Jan 128, 129, 159, 182
laSqaraZe daviT 194, 203, 225
le gofi 85, 86, 108
leebi h. 56
lesaJi alen 157
lesingi gothold efraim 126,131, 152, 153, 229
likurgosi 144
lillo d. 155
liseviCi 186, 190
lixaCovi dimitri 30, 56
lobJaniZe giorgi 124, 139
loki jon 158
lolaSvili ivane 56, 107
lomonosovi mixail 193, 204
longinoz karsneli 12
lope de vega 182
lui XIII 183
luka 35
luisi qlaiv sTeiflz 114, 121

mabli 157
mavlana Sirazeli 200
mate 166
makari xucesi 11
makedoneli aleqsandre 146
makrina monazoni 50
mamacaSvili m. 197, 199, 225
marei g. 140
mari niko 46, 56, 62, 81, 107, 108
marino adrian 10, 27, 96, 108, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 172, 190
maqsime aRmsarebeli 7, 9,

246
maRularia givi 239, 240
meToneli nikoloz 63, 81
meletinski eleazar 96, 97, 100, 109, 113
malinovski bronislav 13
meliqiSvili giorgi 62, 81
melodosi romanoz 33
menabde levan 57, 211, 215, 216, 226
merCule giorgi 8, 16, 17, 26, 41, 48,
mesxiSvili aleqsi 48
metreveli elene 46, 57, 107
metreveli firuz 25, 27
meunargia iona 97
miltoni jon 149, 182
mirandola piko dela 203
mirian mefe 13
miqael fselosi 62, 63, 64
miqaZe givi 210, 213, 217, 224, 226
mixailovi andrei 94, 10
modrekili miqael 8, 48, 49, 52 57
molieri Jan batist 128, 129, 151, 152
monteni 175
monteskie Sarl lui 157, 159
mRvimeli Sio (ix. Sio mRvimeli)
mWedliZe magda 61, 81,

navoi aliSer 201


nazianzeli grigol 7
naTaZe nodar 118, 121
nakudaSvili nino 8, 27, 42, 57
naWyebia maia 138, 148, 149, 190,194, 197, 226
nikolozi sionis dekanozis Svili) 48
nikoloz rusTaveli 50
nikoloz tfileli 50
nikoloz qarTvelTa mnaTobi 50
niutoni isaak 158
novalisi 161
norakiZe vladimer 236, 240
noseli grigol 7, 9, 80, 185
nucubiZe Salva 9, 27, 88, 109

oberge fon eilxart 99


ozanami frederik 35
oniani Sermadin 57, 213, 225
opizari beqa 111
opizari beSqen 111
opici martin 204, 205
orbeliani grigol 137
orbeliani dimitri 50
orbeliani sulxan-saba 211, 212, 214, 125, 126, 136, 137, 138, 140, 160, 164, 165,
166, 167, 168, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 183, 185, 186, 188, 190,
191, 228
origene 76, 232

paata batoniSvili 50, 217


pavle samoseteli 36

247
parisi gaston 106
paskali blez 132, 182
pasternaki boris 23
perikle 181
petre gelaTeli 50
petre (sionis mgalobeli) 50
petre qarTveli 11
petriwi ioane 7, 9, 40, 41 50, 57, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75,
76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 83, 85
piTagora 67
pindare 101
pitra (kardinali) 36
plavtusi 149
platoni 64, 65, 67, 68, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 85, 117,118, 142, 143, 144, 145,
146, 167, 175, 177, 180, 191, 222
plinius umcrosi 35
plutarqe 174, 191
pokoki 128, 139
polemoni 183
poupi aleqsandr 133, 134, 152, 155
prokle diadoxosi 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 73, 75, 77, 78, 80, 81
protagora 141, 142, 143, 180

Jeneti e. 151 191


Jurakovski g. 143, 191

rable fransua 158, 159


rasini Jak 128, 129, 149, 151, 152, 182
ratiani irma 86, 109, 122, 130
riSelie 129, 150, 183
riCardsoni semuel 153, 155, 156
rixteri saimon 131
roSi d. 155, 191
ruse j. 149, 191
ruso Jan Jak 132, 157, 159
rusTaveli SoTa 5, 6, 101, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 203, 205,
206, 207, 208, 218, 237

sabanisZe ioane 11, 13, 16, 17, 37


sananoisZe stefane 8, 49
safri 64
seneka 149
sen simoni 182
servantesi migel de 181
svetlovi 231, 241
svingelozi saba 50
svifti jonaTan 132, 155, 156
sidnei filip 133
silagaZe apolon 57
siraZe revaz 15, 19, 27, 57, 58, 90, 104, 109, 179, 191, 234, 241
smoleti t. 153, 155, 156
sokrate 72, 73, 79, 142, 181
soloni 144
soslani daviT 107
sterni lorens 154, 156

248
stivensoni r. 113 84, 109
strasburgeli gotfrid 99
sulava nestan 8, 27, 31, 32, 33, 37, 40, 41, 42, 43, 51, 58
surgulaZe irakli 173, 191
suxiaSvili m. 41, 42, 58

tabiZe galaktion 209


tilixi paul 231, 241
terenciusi 149, 159
trediakovski vasil 193

uaiti lesli 13, 14, 27


uznaZe dimitri 235, 236, 241
uilsoni j. 191
uruSaZe andria 58
ujmajuriZe madona 58

fancxava 62, 81
farulava griver 20, 27
filareti 58
fildingi h. 153, 155, 156
filipe 8
filipe beTlemeli 50
filoni 76
firaliSvili zaza 123
firdousi 84, 96
fircxalava nino 41, 58
foesteri gvendolin 106
fouleri a. 128, 129, 134, 139
frankforti g. 169, 191
fridrix III 154
fsevdo aristotele 183
fsevdo dionise areopageli 7, 232
fselosi miqael (ix. miqael fselosi)

qavTaria mixeil 51, 59


qaTibi 200
qeTevan dedofali 194
qvariani daTuna 50
qiqoZe b. 225
qiqoZe gabriel 43
qoriZe filimon 43
qsenofane 141
qsenofonti 175

Radua ia 59
Rvinjilia jansuR 238
Rlonti mariam 179, 185, 186, 191

yazbegi aleqsandre 137


yauxCiSvili simon 59
yaflaniSvili vaxtang 50

SavTeli ioane 49, 50, 102, 103, 107


Sampaneli mariam 95

249
Semoqmedeli iakob (ix. dumbaZe iakob)
Senie m-J 152
Sermani s. 135, 139
Sileri frodrix 126, 132, 152
Sio mRvimeli 37
SiSmariovi 88, 109
Slegeli fridrix 161
Spengleri osvald 12
Staineri georg 132, 139
Subarti k. 153

CaxruxaZe 102, 103, 207, 209, 210, 215


ColoyaSvili daviT 50
CubinaSvili daviT 97
CxikvaZe grigol 41

caiSvili sargis 33, 42, 59 107, 233, 240, 241


canava rusudan 140, 165, 187, 191
celeri e. 181192
ciceroni 146, 147, 167, 179, 192
ciciSvili nodar 195
curtaveli iakob 13, 19, 20

WavWavaZe zurab 42, 234, 241


WeliZe ediSer 59, 81
WiWinaZe konstantine 195, 226
WumburiZe zurab 105, 109

xancTeli basili 48
xanZTeli grigol 7, 13, 17, 41, 48
xaCiZe lela 8, 27, 51, 59
xevsuriani lili 59
xinTibiZe akaki 107, 108, 213, 222, 224, 226
xinTibiZe elguja 60, 83, 109, 117
xoneli mose 91
xundaZe raJden 43

javaxiSvili ivane 40, 41, 51, 60, 84, 107, 109, 124
javeliZe elizbar 175, 192
janaSvili mose 46
jonsoni ben 126, 134, 135, 139
juanSeri 175
jRamaia l. 46, 51, 60

haizinga iohan 169, 170, 192


hegeli georg vilhelm 144, 175
hekateosi 141
heraklite 141
herodote 175
hogarti 155
hiugo viqtor 132
holmsi u. 106, 109
homerosi 64, 159, 172, 177, 189,192
horaciusi 101
huperti h. 113

250