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StudidErnologica Cncd i ensja

vol. 12 Knkbw2007

Al€xander VO\4N (Honolulu)

ONCE AGAIN ON THE ETyMOLOcy OF THE "IITLE qapn

Enormousarnountof ink has been spilled on the


etymology of the title
qafah 'empefo\ supremeruler, that is fa

ij,f*
[,a;i4i;',ri'f*:r;;:#*t**r#]*?r#ls
f"".'"Ti;,i:t;::r;:g*nlxtt*ni:r""..1
$i,*:iT#:,xff
;Y#:',il';:,lJUH:f"f:iT,:iil:.l"'"'usproposars'
butrarher
roIook
ffft tf :J;jj*.,;#lt"_*t*";:*:tri::#,ffi
#trr
flqtit*ffi
'; "ffi+il,H#ii.Hti,:.i:i*,$;!::Tri#T:t
:::i1lli :,ffl\"3ffi
:Ji:,i:i:H"$'i,
l,,:T"il:,b
i,a*:
fl#'#tff::q
ili.r;:j11.:;{;3'3,1#il: *,;?li!'i;lj,',:r
":;:";
il"iii:.3i:
*'.1h1:#:11t#".liJl rtr''foin'
;i ;il';il#i;
roeirowe\er.nere
*a' ouror"
il'"*t'
eo,"r,1Hf'#i##:::#r\::i,::";:i:
ffifl::.'1"ffi
:.'i#:11""!:,1', -,i:*l';'ru*"*x":
:;ililil;,:::
"li;'i!x;:r;;rur::":'w
iiij?t":il%,:lyg.1x,,K"ff
136)..Ev€non th€ basisof thesefour words'oire;;L;ti
";rt* ; ;;;"
morphological
pattem:qa-W_k,qa_n,qa_ya_ru_n, qa_tu_k,rrottlpical for a.nv

'
o,ottotophy,
see(deRachewittz
t989:289-290,
especially
foohotes
l3l 1r1"tutt"u
178 ALEXANDER VO\TN

otherInner Asiar languag€.,In orderto illustratethis point betterI presentthese


titles in a comparativechart below: sl
B
T
Chart 1: Titlesofrulers and their wives
2t
Male Female ri
Supreme rulers
Lesserrulers
is
(p
Ontbe basisofchart I aboveit is possibleto maketwo conclusions. First,
^ AI
femaletitl€s include -t -, while male titles do not. Thus,this _ra-can certainly
IE
be analyzedas a femininegendermarker.The femininesuffx (or infix) -rr_ can
be certa_inlyreminiscentof Semitic, but suggestinga Semitic origin of these
52
titles will certainlyamountto no morethan a tvild stretchof irnagina:tion.To the
P€
bestofmy knowlcdge.rhissuffix is not presentin Turkicor Mo-ngolic.
29
Second, hy
depending on \rhetherrhis -tu- is a sufr\ or infix. we mustrecog-=nize
the finj
-r?eitheras anothersumx or as a part ofan interruptedroot.
2) It is alsoSequenllyassumed
rol
LtrarrheearlieirknownusaseoT$is litle in
the form trarscribed in Chincseas nIiT &ha?1anl goes bacli to Ruan_.uan,3
who apparentlywer€the first amongInner Asian peoplesto us€this titlg for the OT
designation of thejr supremerulersofficially (Erkes 1956:96), ard I myself
previolslythe samemistake(Vovin 2004: I28). However,already
ie
:mmitt€d. nol
Pulleyblanl(1962:261) and Doerfer(196?t l4l) pointedout that Ruan-ruair
borow€d the titl€ fiom Xianbei, and Taskinpresentedov€rwhelmingphilolog_
ical evidencefor the fact that this title was usedby Xianbei, namellithat whil be
the
* themselvesqd|ar, the tirte rvasin useonthe popular
Iiib,: (Taskin
T!".9_d,r9! its
Ievel I986 214-15)Unlessde Rachewitrz s speculation
thatrheXionp_
nu title ;qT *CaGais a misspcltingfor #T .Cacar (de Rache*ittzI08i: Rui
quii
2q0.footnole.l2)is correcl.an adestarion ofrhe ritle qaTaztranscribed
as nTR ruk
,&''a?-}ar/{SShXCVI: ta) shouldbeconsidered astheoldesrreliableanestatjoo
ofthis title amongXianbei. alm
3) Before attemptingto et),nologize the title qayan, we should ask our_
- ins
s€lvesa question,what is a qalar?in relationto a gaz. Old Turkic examplesmav
Firs
' Iran
I am indebtedto Stefanceorg for drawingmy attentionto this fact. I interDreted_ya_
nere as an augmentativesufrx before (Vovin 2004: 129), which wai cenainlv
r,rong as the following discussionwill demonstrate. ,&na
.-
In relerenceto the Ruan-Iuansupremeniletg tlris title appearsfor the fiIst
tilne in
the ltar Mr lHistory oJ Wei] (AD 554).ifhers is an ota "ti.irpt toi"*""i-rfr" n"# " . 1
ruanlang agc nifi Mongolic(Boodbergt9l5 1404t). wlt;h fajt, o" rrr"Urr;.
oi t
mcorreclurlerpretauon o[ Middle Chinesephonology, anda morerccenla(emDtto
clarmfiat rl wasTungusic(Hclimskri2005:l) rhardoesnot provideany Lnguisrjc . q
e\.,rdenceat all. So far. the Ruan,ruantangua8cappearsto be an tffer fuj; hn_
Suagell4$ no apparenl conneclionslo "Altajc.{Vovrn
2004,.
c
]fIE TITIE qayan
r79

nffxlarllff
lr"#'*#::[xT;itliffij:*ffi
;,l1
xtrrylmtrf $;fti#"r*$*ildf"ffiT;:irlff
ii.1ilffi:ff"5ilif*1ifl lf-*::mf*em"",,n;:,.:*
#*
il*:'rT.n"rt#:1ii'S"'ilT;ffiilerucr"w't,
re8e:
2e6,
arso
rootnote
;:,,a
*ffi "3i'ft Ig_r
,;Hf:*#:"lf[*T;:;;";.:"il:,":*ll
ifil,#:p;,1",'"#;"1;:1"ffi
r,ffi:["iim*#**i*i
seventhcenturiesjts
a partof thetitlesof Silta,skinc. ;Jil t,y,;#;;;i;

sHi.ifrT,#,,trf
i3:r,*'*i:ifJ,l:4{;r,##i
fif#trd##;$*-%$j;rrnt"Fti!!r,];xtd#
li#lir,''*.*'mt***:-iif,,
fi:i!l,ti.,T"T
lul'l*i,fr
LffiJ1ffi[
?#.:1H
:
n nt,ll*:$i
qute apparenttbat 4arzis a lesserruler

e,f;
:; thi
;:xft;T1,il#',;.;1.j*j;:"r"nmflf.*:.::?rJff
Jj*;fl
H.ff +.f;r$j;ffi;'u#?#iit;"i"ii;rti.JT.1i:'Jll
nrr*qe;x;,i,'ffi
***;##fr
#f**$*r*
The^subtitteon the very firsl pageof tle Secret

7"f;:m 1il,,h;:,;i
^zr:i"#:;; F,l#.11#
flfisf+#*,f
ft"Y";H.T&T;
ffiffitrtr.*,,ffi1ffiJnlsr{#itff
v.
iJ
180 ALEXANDERVOVIN
s
,J tsi
attestations: O'l qayah,l<hila qa'ah,MM qa'an, andI\r' qa'an all pointto a sb
liicative /1J rathe; than a stop /-q-l in the secondcomporent We shouldnot {r1.
however,forget, that 1veare dealing with a Xianbei (or possibly even earli€r) :--
*o.d, *here ill inte*ocalic stopsmight potentiallyundergovoicing and lenition
fiom stopsto liicatives. The secord objection'gr€at'may be tied to the etymologyof G
qayan<iqaaan'gtat gar' itself, sincg *qa- is not attestedin any ofth€
;Altaic" languages.But this brings me exactlyto my startingpoinl:lhe etymol- sl
"Altaic," and it camot b€ successfullyexplained
ogy ofthe tiiie in questionis not
"Altaic" langrrage
on the basisof any
As it was mentionedabove,the title 4a7att appmrs for the first time in
refcrenceto Xianbei andthento Ruan_ruanrulers.It seemsmole than likely tiat
thc Xianbeilanguage wasPara-Mongolic (Ligeti 1970),(Janhunen 2003:393)'
not "Altaic"
Thore is also gooJ evidencethat the Ruan-ruan language was
(Vovin 2004), ; spiteofthe liequent claims to ths contmry,connectingdd 'oc
ituan-r,-rarwith Avars without any linguistic evidenc€presented(de Rachewiltz'
1989:294, note46), ad evenfurther with Tungusic(Helimskii 2005)
'great qan,' as suggestedabove,,the.ety-
lf 4ayar is indeedftom *qa-qan *q€? 'big_>
_ereatseerns
^otonr'oi *q6- to bequiteapparent: proto-Yenise'an
Kct t ?. Yu; t?, Pumpokolxa?tc.xcemOvcmer20022 58) The presence
ot theglortalitoi rn rhisYeniseran uord rs quilereminiscent of theglotlal-s!o?
of thc word al"( tIrI '4?'a?-
also fo-undin t]ri M,ddl. Chin.t",r*scription #
€r/ cited above.3The differencein vocalism also finds its good oxplanation +l {f
(Ge-
sincethere is no phonemicoppositionbetweenlq€l and [qa] in Yeniseian $
ory2001:6a-69).
of title qayan as'greal qan' is
Nevertheless,even if th€ aboveet''nology 'ruler'
accepted,we still haveto explain the word qan itself As it was demon_
stratedatove, the final -, in this word is in all probability just a suffix, since {+ l*
+t
feminine gend€rrnarker_ltr- can be insertcdin fiont of it This lgavesus with ryr+
another/qa./or /Tt to be interpreted.Beforewe can do so, it is necessaryto rc_
riew someadditronal evtdence offeredby Xiong-nu
*Gaca
Putleyblanknas the first scholarto suggestdnt Xiong-nu&f **
'cronn prince' "could be behindTurkishqayan/ tala'" (Pulleyblank1962: n
*qs? -
261), althoughhe did not analyzethe first syllableas going-,backto PY !+
*qui' 'tlg, t*t' as I propose There might be a certarndifliculty in justifying
ttri. p.op-ori "t nt.t gtunci. Namely, why doesthe Chines€traiscription ofthis
*r*
'Ava'' lrasto be
Cf. cosentdemonstration by E. Pulleyblankthatat leasttfie narne {'T
"-t"*?J*itft W-h*" <'*a-llwan< *a_hwar of dreOld Chinesesourc€s (Pulley_
loE
-nr" 1983:453).
blank
pr.r.n." of" gton t $op rn rc Earb ldiddle Cldnesehnscrip!9" jt, tjg{'
ca . becaus€ EarlyMiddlcChinesc aisohadanopionlo wnlea syllaDle /Ka/wln-
outa followingglottal
slop.e g Fl
charactet has EM C readrng 4( a/ t$ {(

l{.
TIIE TITLE qqan 181

title usecharaeersthathavereldings.h\a? (p€)or *hwah(.F) $ irh Inilial fric_


ativelabiolar],ngeal4l$J. uhile t_tre syllablcs*kr or *ga werecenajnlyavail-
ablc in OId Chrnescof Early Hanl The ansrrermay be ictually qurr€;imple
Old Chinesedid not havcany uwlar consonants, so typicalfor the yenisiian
Ianguages,and laryng€al,&,/might have been chosenas an approimation
of
ulrlar /q/ or /C/tett€r dlanvclar/ld or /g/ In an1.case.our explanarion of lhe
^rong-nutorm shoutdnot be dependcnt on OT qaph and\lM qa on tharare
arlested man-'centurieslarcr.ll is signrficant
though.that t}e earliistEMC rratr_
scnplfonsatrS.tkallanl and 6l;L4Ca?-yanirtrarpredatebolh OT and MM
formsbothuseaspjrated /<'-r andwhatts evenmoreimponanr.bothasreewirh
thefirsr character;g /hwa?/of lheXiong-nuigf rn havinea finatsl;flal sloo-
altlougha pfains)llable/kal nth pngshengronecenainlydrd exist in Earil
MrddleClinese Lablalizauonmuy ,epi.."nt a moreslgnificanlproblem,but
we shouldkeepin rnind two aspectsofth€ issue Eirs, alttroughta_biatization is
not presenrin modemyeniseiarlanguages either-it couldha; easilybeenlost
uere as a teafure.bccausetwo thousandyearsseparare Xiong_nuxnd other
Y€niseianlanguages. _;€f
Second, rvhile represents a tmnscription ofa Xons_
nu wor4 FJ* and EIif ar€tmnscriptionsofxianbei, Ruan-ru;, andOld Turk;c

As m€ntionedabove,de Rachewiltzsugg€stedthat Xiong-nu #+ *GaGa


is a comrptionof ;=$f *GaGAn(deRachewiltz1989:290,footnot€32),where
the clEmcter T (OC *hwah,reflecting foreign *Ge) can have easily beencon_
tusedfor thc character+ (OC *kan). This suggestionfacessevcraldifiiculties_
apa( from the facrtbat any argumentbasedon a graphiccorruprionrs al$ays
speculative.First, the characterf has an initial stop /V, not a fiicative /y/
None of thc variantsofthe title qal,a, has a medial voicelessstop _i-_ instead
elthera \oiced fricatrve-)'-or a gloftalstop- - ls alwayspresenr.iL ,s ofcourse
possiblcto speculatetiat -r- > -),-, but this againwill be a speculationnot con_
firmedby solid evidence.Second,as we can seeon the basisof Chart l. the
final-a in thewordqaya, is a suftjxar lea$historrcally. rhustherers no needto
replrce the actuallt ottesredXiong-nu ;e+ *GaGawfthout the final suffix _n
by a speculativei{f *Gak"nnthat is not atested. Third, and
most importantlv.
we shouldnot overlooklhe parallelism bcrweentwo Xiong-nuritles Ef +da;_
h\va'rrar-l/. thesupremerulerof Xiong-nuand;€f *CeGa-cro$nprrnce..
Both of thcmendin f thwah.rendering. as Pullelbla.nksuggesrs.loretgn*Ga.
This couldhardlybe a coincidence, as bothindicatesomekind of rule;. Hl
'shan-!u' <
EMC *dan-hwah< OC *dar-hwahe is believedto survivc in the OT
tid€ rdl4dr, which was tmnscribedin Tangtimesby the Chineseas i*+ (EMC
*dat-karL LMC itfiar-kan) or i*H (EMC *dat-kwan, LMC *tliar_kwan)

'
Somefinal EMC -, go back to OC *-r, as in thc char:acter
S: EMC *dan < OC *dar
i|q
182 ALEXANDERVOVIN IJ
e
s
fil:?rtf:i #"'i,:iJ';i.[$#[:."ti.'"* due,to
itsMongoric
pru."r
form p ,] pf

xtnru:x*":r,iil
*l%T,:f#",:-#NiJ
}",#*Ttr
SinceMM plural forms of qayan andqan p
(

;
I $

;**xjr*iirr1*"i#;iifu*5t11r;xx;Y::::& s

[ir!ffil*nllr#,,*"*;*mfx::f
l];fr"::"r.:$ I
q
artrcllationin the title of a foreignorigin as t"r" * *," f*g sr
,i."",'". ,fiilt
;"'3""::li:fl' "-':lption'and'
thererore,
can
be
fiffS#";if; ,f"i[1; a
-l

*'."+"'ffi
*:*t*,Hg#"Hi*;?n:$ilT"'ih'J:H:
'"#t#"fr-ii.itrl
p

n:::,*:::ltt"'i
;:til'ffi
ronger0eusedto trxnscrjbe
a s)llable/qa./or /Cr/
f3i[T; (i
{f
+
s(

L-ff 'S:rl.:L#l*'r"*i$;il9i;"$:ffi
*"0*,*t y.
ffi111"1.1$#* b,

i9.19T,O? The
first
syuable
ofth"xoig-, #T -;"sa'#
f(
::1'frTfioi."ii:.1;"i.'#,ll"l
"ll3:f*''r''"**uur" "'uv
ou1'ri* e!
*qa?ha.uoi""re..;l--il;;#;ffiHH1T,:1x":"#$f;Ii;:l;
S *
{f
ofinitial *G_in proto_yeniseian
reconstruction i, ArUi"*. lr.r-S*",ri", *i"
:"":ililixi
ll,,Ll'l1,iiil.i:ffi,[i
';:,ffi ffiff,:,",-:;;*,
;::ti ;jl fi
oi
{f

;ff "',Tir'#:t'i,':,Ti."i.il[ff:*l"T"1l,ii"lf,lli,il;,fil,
ll br
$
+*
{f

ilffi'fiffJ:ll*lliHf::#1il':'l:'*rv* "rr"pr'""J'
"i'i'l"i" a(
tflt

*c. {+
".::'cea rrar
appearlaln;i't;
ffi :;:l':'j?fiTlfiY fir
':,fi.;:.liJfi.1J"iii:
_o::11,1'.:4:l m

*qa?.andnor'Ca?.flTr;::l;i:1ii
Xiong-nu Unfortunately.
h#l",H,
X,ong-nu
r,["T:#* str s
{(
$l {t
aur"rt.r..tr". -iioo
fiagmentaryto provideevidencefor aay of these-two.ofu,ion". t'l
i o".*nuifi
;
#
It isnormver likely rllatrfusrirleatsoer^ ivcdas EMM .to ly:lcomel {t
datuCa_ta_ a
"",,t. cl el uirh runlerdes,rdnsof rhesemanri., fif
\i::j ,YI ih,li";il;i; l0E {+
Anoter possibility is tlut th€ characterB /krva .official,
rvasusedbecauseof its
{'1.*
+
s
r{
THE T'ITLE q6lan 183

prefer the second,sinceit doesnot multiply ur,necessary €ntitiesin violation of


_df
Ockharn'smzor. Thus, I rewrite the reconstruction ofXiong-nu as *qa?_Ga.
As I alreadymentionedabove,sinceboth Xiong-nu fff *qa?-Gd'crown
prince' and .HT +dar-Ga'supremeruler'arc somekind of rulers,the common
'ruler.' On the basis of previousdis-
elementT *Ga should be the word for
'crown
cussion,xiong-nu #+ *qa?-Ga prince' caDbe literally int€rpr€tedas
'great luler,'with exactly the samemeaningthat was establishedabove for
'ruler' shouldb€ really recon-
qa1,az.We would expectthat xiong-nu T *Ga
structedas tqa, due to tle allophonicvariation botween*_G- ard *q- that was
montionedabove. Then we lave a possiblecognat€in Yerdseianlanguages
'47'ruler,' Yug 't"i 'id.' (wemer2002.21153),.towhich Kott l?It
again:Ket
'ford, prince,' Assa hii, hu, ri lord,' Arin bikheJ,brkej'" lot{ kei 'boss.
powel be ekei'soverergn.'rt srarostinofferedh,'/oslightly difrerentrecon-
struotions on the basis ofthese data: *fje (Starostin1982:168,lE7) and'fji
(Starostin 1995: 301), while Wemer abstainedfrom reconstructinga Proto-
Yeniseianform pointing at the irregdadties in correspondences of initial con-
sonants(Wemer 2002.2: 153-54).SinceProto-Yeniseianroots normallytlnd to
be monosyllabic(Georg, p.cj, Starostin'sdisyllabic reconstructionshould be
rcjected,especiallythat the secondsyllablevowel is supportedonly by the Kott
form ,tt 'lord, prince.' The rcconstructiooof vocalism for this word seems
especiallytroubl€some,but taking Ket and Yug vocalism at Ace valu€ d la
Starostins€€msto be an unlikely solution.Wo certainly haveto take into con-
sid€rationthe data from all languages.Ket and Yug point to a ceitral high
vow6l, Kott indicatesfront high vowel, Assanpresentsa \ariation betw€enhigh
fiont and high back vowels, and Arin indicatesftont mid vowel.'' On the basis
of all forms listed above,I tentatively reconstructPY *qij or *roi.j, with mid
back unroundedvowel /i/. This recoDstructionis compaiableto Xiong_nu*qa
'ruler,' althoughthe phoneticfit is not ideal. It must also be mentionedthat in
'ruler' there is also EMM gd 'ruler,' attestedwithout a
additionto the form 4d,
final -n intf,reSecrethrJfory tbree timos (MNT I: 394 III: 504 IV: 3la) in the
'offlcial in charge'(MNT XI: 9b)
meaning'ruler' andoncein the meaning
Regardlessof the fact whethsr tlte proposedPY *q^j or *1.{j is recon-
structedcorrectly, there is anothercasewhen Ket and Yug /ii corespond to
Xiong-nu *a. This case is reprcs€ntedby Xiong-nu *dar- in E+ tdar4a
'my.'
,t- is probablythe possessiveprefix ,i-
I! is worth mentioningthat Pu eyblark suggestedlhe comparisonof Ket and Kolt
'croll'n
forms (the first cited by him erroneouslyas &, with Xong-nu +qa?-GA
princ€' as a whole (Pul€yblank 1962: 26162), and I nyself also conmitted tlle
samemistal(e(Vovin 2003: 392). This comparisonceriainly hasto b€ rejectednotp
dueto the fact that lhe Xiong-nu*ord is a compounal
Ailn -kekij in berkekej liilay be €sle.ialy tellin& becauseit call reflect the sam€
compoundasXiong-nu *qa?-Ga-
I

v-
{4
1J
184 ALEXANDERVOVIN
{4
'supremeruler,' mentionedabove.We loow that Xiong-nu
H+ idar{a means p( c
'suprcmeruler,' but in orderto establishmore exactlythe meaningofthe com- al T
ponent*dar-, we shouldrememberthat Xiong-nu HT *dar-Gii 'supremeruler' s( I
is just an abbreviationof a full title that appoarsin both Shiji andHan sh : +E
'Son of Heaven, *dar4a.' The first four chamcters, ;
4tl6H+ i4Pn[€
*trerg-ri kwal4 lit. 'HeavenSon,' cledly representa calqueftom ChineseX7 e
'Son ofHeaven.' Thus, Xiong-nu supremeirlers were calling themselves'Sons D
of Heaven' in imitation of the Chinesotradition. But since this rcsulted in t
having two 'Sons of Heaven,' one in Chin4 and the other one in the steppe, 3
there was a needfor diff€r€ntiationbetweenthe hvo, and I presum€that this is I
why the Xiong-nu word Hf *dar-Gawas addedto the title. We alreadyknow l
from the abovedrscussionthat Xiong-nu tca or *qa means'ruler.' Then what
is *dar? I believethat the simplesthlpothesis aboutthe meaningof *dar, which
is crucial for differentiatingbetweenChineseand Xiong-nu 'Sons of HeaveD,'
should takc into accountth€ir rcspectivegeographicalposition. The Chinese
cmpire was in the South, and the Xioug-nu empire was in the North. Thus, I
thinl that Xiong-nu HT *dar4a simply meansthe 'ruler of tho North,' with
*dar mesning Nonh.' Comingback !o Yeniseian.thereare Kct /D1 'lower
reachesof Yenisei, North' and Yug ttir - tti r 'id."t lt seemsthat xiong-nu
*dar 'North' may correspondto thesetwo Yeniseianwords, demonstratingthe
samevocalic corespond€nc€/a,/- /i/ as in the cas€of Xiong-nu *qa 'ruler' on
the one handand Ket 'qij 'nle\'yttg'kij 'id.' on the other.Thus,I interpret *
the full title ofxiong-nu supremerulers lll4n[6H+ +treng-dkwa-la dar-Gd tfi
as 'Son ofH€avcn,Rulerofthe North.' {t
Thus, it seemsto be quite lik€ly ftat tle ultimate sourceof both qayaz and {t
4a, can be traccd back to Xiong-nu and Yeniseian.The scenarioof the tmns-
missionofth€s€ titles in Inner Asia is probablyas follows. The original Xiong- $ **
nu terms*qa?Ca'great ruler'(? < *qa?-q,rj)and *qij'ruler'were borrowed {f
initially by Xianbei with further addition ofthe Mongolic singular -r and plural Y {+
4. Neither qal n nor qalatun arc attestedin Xanbei's usage,but they are
attestedfor Ruan-ruan,so the addition of feminizing suffix -t - must havebeen {
a Ruan-ruancreation.Almost nothing is lclown aboutthe Ruan-ruanlanguage, tfi
but the bits and piecesthat we haveallowed mepreviouslyto draw a conclusion tq {t ;
that it was an Inner Asian languag€,unrelatedto any oth€r languageofthis area
that are known to us fvovin 2004). When Turks bonowed all four titles from {t
their Ruan-ruanmasters,they borrowedthem as single units, and not as com-
*
'' Wemere\Tlainstheseformsas conlractionftom *td}) 'in the lowercouNeof dle
riv€r' + -al'(ablativema*er) (Wemer2002.2:312),but this o\Tlaial.ionnay be si
lIE
problematic because it is not quileclearhow ablativefomunt canbe functionally
panicipatingin a compoundmeaning'in lhe lowercours€'rafter than 'from the
*
+ *

g
TLIE TITLE qqan 185
pounds The same probably happened in Middle Mongolian and Jurchen
lines,
although those hvo have likely borrowed these titles directly fiom Khitan oi
some other pan-Mongolic language.

Dept. ofEast Asian Languages& Literatures


University ofHawaii ar Manoa
382 Moore Hall
I 890 Easl WestRd.
Honolulu,HI 96822,USA

Abbreviations

EMC EarlyMiddleChinese OC OldChinese


EMM EastemMiddleMongolian OK Old Korean
Jur. Jurchen OT Old Turkic
LMC LateMiddleChinese WM WrittcnMongolian
MM MiddleMongolian

References

primary sources
Chinese
SSh Songshu,AD 4E8
Korean
SKS Samkwuksaki,AD I147
SKY Sarnkwukyrsa,AD 1281
Monqolian
MNT Monggolniucatobca'an,AD 1240

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TI'E TIT'IE qalan

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