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HOMEWORK 6: APPLICATION OF THE ACTS SOFTWARE

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING PROGRAM


FATE AND TRANSPORT OF CONTAMINANTS
FIRST SEMESTER 2018

Rueda Mónica
Rincón Estefanía
Gutiérrez Katherine
Grupo 02

1. Surface water pollutant transport

Consider a wide straight section of a river with discharge Q=45 m3 /s. The width of the river is
W=35m, the depth in the river section is H=2.5m and the channel slope is S=10 -4 . A diffuser is
discharging an effluent into this river section at a rate Q=10 m3/s, and after the initial dilution effects
the concentration in the river is about Co=100 kg/m3 . Determine and plot the concentrations in the
river at distances of 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0km. Assume that the effluent is non-conservative and degrading
with a half-life of 0.01 day (key: use a surface water model in ACTS)

Data of the problem

𝑚3
𝑄 = 45
𝑠
𝑊 = 35 𝑚
𝐻 = 2.5 𝑚
𝑆 = 10−4
𝑚3
𝑄𝑡 = 10
𝑠
𝑘𝑔
𝐶0 = 100 3
𝑚
𝑡1/2 = 0.01 𝑑

Initially, the necessary input data that the ACTS program requires, such as the dispersion coefficient
(Dx) and the degradation constant (k), are calculated. The procedure to obtain this data is shown
below:
Speed

The speed was calculated as follows:


𝑄
𝑣=
𝐴
Where:

𝑄 = 𝐹𝑙𝑜𝑤 (𝑚3 /𝑠)

𝐴 = 𝑅𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑟 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 (𝑚2 )

Replacing:

𝑚3 𝑚3
𝑄 45 𝑠 + 10 𝑠
𝑣= = = 0.63 𝑚/𝑠
𝐴 35𝑚 ∙ 2.5𝑚

Dispersion coefficient (Dx):

0.011 ∙ 𝑈 2 ∙ 𝑊 2
𝐷𝑥 =
𝐻𝑢∗
Where:

𝑈 = 𝑆𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑 (𝑚/𝑠)

𝑊 = 𝑅𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑟 𝑤𝑖𝑑𝑡ℎ (𝑚)

𝐻 = 𝐷𝑒𝑝𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑟𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑟

𝑢∗ = √𝑔𝐻𝑆

Replacing the following result was obtained:

0.011 ∙ (0.63𝑚/𝑠)2 ∙ (35𝑚)2


𝐷𝑥 = = 43.2 𝑚2 /𝑠
𝑚
(2.5𝑚)√9.81 2 ∙ 2.5𝑚 ∙ 10−4
𝑠

Degradation constant (k):

To calculate the degradation constant (k) the following formula was used that relates the average
life time and the constant k:
0.693
𝑡1/2 =
𝑘
So
0.693
𝑘=
𝑡1/2

Replacing:

0.693 1𝑑 1ℎ
𝑘= = 69.3 𝑑−1 ∗ ∗ = 0.0008 𝑠 −1
0.01 𝑑 24ℎ 3600𝑠

Mathematical model that the software applies:

To calculate the concentration in the software river use the following equation:

Longitudinal Advection and Dispersion

The model when choosing the option of Longitudinal Advection and Dispersion uses the following
expression of full concentration for a steady state version:

Where x is the downstream distance from the reléase point (m), KL is the longitudinal dispersion
coefficient (m2/s).

For an instantaneous accidental release of a chemical mass M0, the time- and space dependent
concentration distribution can be given as,

Initially, a surface water model was chosen in the ACTS program as shown in the following image:
The program directs us to the following image:

Below is the choice of the Far Field Mixing option:


The following image shows the choice of the body of water, in this case a river was chosen and the
option Longitudinal Advection and Dispersion was marked:

Then the data requested by the program is added, in this case for a distance of 0.5 km as shown
below:
Below is the graph that was obtained in the ACTS program:

For a length of 1 km, the following data were entered:


The graph for this length is the following:

For 5 km the data that was entered were the following:


The graph obtained was the following:

Analysis of Results

In the graphs it can be observed that as the distance increases the concentration in the river
decreases approaching a value close to zero, in the 5 km graph this behavior is observed in the range
of distances from 3500m to 5000m. Below is a table that summarizes the results obtained in this
exercise:

Distance (km) Concentration (kg/m3)

0.5 8.6812

1 4.8239

5 0.04385

Conclusions

1. In the option executed in this problem (Longitudinal Advection and Dispersion) once the
effluent is mixed laterally, its transport in steady state conditions is mainly carried out by
simple advection due to the flow regime of the river.
2. To enter the data into the program, it was necessary to establish the value of the
degradation constant and thus avoid errors in the simulation of the ACTS program.
3. According to the surface water model chapter, rivers are typically wide and shallow water
bodies with strong advective and turbulent flows. After the initial mixing process, the
effluent is usually mixed over the shallow depth, is advected downstream by the river flow,
and is diffused laterally across the river. After sufficient distance, the effluent becomes fully
mixed across the entire width. In this case the problem was analyzed in the longitudinal
Advection and Dispersion stage.

2. Groundwater pollutant transport (instantaneous release)

The TCA mass spilled into an aquifer is (M) 1740 g/m2. The pore water velocity in the aquifer is (vx)
5 m/day in the x-direction, and the porosity (n) of the soil layer is 0.40. The dispersion coefficient in
the x-direction (Dx) is 0.8 m2/day, and the retardation factor (R) has been estimated as 8.0. The TCA
degradation is described by a first order rate constant (k) of 0.0004 day-1. Based on these data
estimate the TCA concentration C, at a distance x=200m and time t=365 days and plot x vs C and t
vs C for x [0, 1000m] and t [0, 730 days] (key: use a groundwater model with variable dispersion
coefficient and instantaneous contaminant source line in ACTS).

Data Specifications:

𝒈 𝒈 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎𝒎𝒈 𝒎𝒈
 TCA (M)=𝟏𝟕𝟒𝟎 MTCA=1740 x = 𝟏𝟕𝟒𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎
𝒎𝟐 𝒎𝟐 𝟏𝒈 𝒎𝟐
𝒎
 V(x) = 5𝒅𝒂𝒚
 n = 0.4
𝒎𝟐
 D(x) = 0.8 𝒅𝒂𝒚
 R= 8.0
 K= 0.0004 𝒅𝒂𝒚−𝟏
 X= 200m (0.1000 m)
 t= 365 days (0.730 days)
 C= ?

Mathematical model

Analytical solution for continuous release transport in 1 dimension; is done by the following
equation
𝑀𝑎 (𝑥−𝑣𝑡)2
C(x,t)= x exp-[ 4𝐷𝐿 𝑡
]
2𝑛√𝜋𝑡𝐷𝐿

Visualization of the model in the Software

1. Groundwater models- saturated variable dispersion models


2. Time varying dispersion coefficients

3. The data is entered according to the dispersion variables taking into account those coordinated at
a distance (x), filling the following data in the Software.

 Boundary conditions MTCA= 𝟏𝟕𝟒𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎 𝒎𝒈


 Coordinates (x=200 m,t=365days) 𝒎𝟐
 Field and Chemical Constants

It can be seen that for the parameters established in the relationship at a distance of 200 m in a
time of 365 days, the concentration obtained when running is 0 mg / m3

The graph was made for the concentration data at 0 mg / m3provided, with a specification of 7
numbers of curves to be constructed:
In the graph the dispersion of the pollutant according to distance Vs concentration is observed
𝑚𝑔
concordant with the data obtained for a distance of 200 m the concentration was obtained in 0 𝑚3

Plot x Vs C and t Vs C for x [0, 1000m] and t [0, 730 days]


Analysis of results

The dispersion of the pollutant in the aquifer can be observed in the graph, in relation to the
concentration versus the distance in different time ranges (5,55,105, 205,305,405,725 represented
𝑚𝑔
in days), obtaining a higher concentration on day 405 with a concentration of 2755 𝑚3 . This may be
due to the rocky material, the porosity or the hydraulic conductivity that allows the concentration
peaks.

It can also be observed that there is a relationship in which, as there is an increase in time,
concentration increases

Conclusions

- This software allows the evaluation of the specific conditions of an aquifer as is the case of
exercise by means of a model with variable dispersion coefficients analyzing what factors
can affect the concentration of the pollutant at a specific distance and time.

- An important variation can be evidenced along the aquifer generating peaks of


concentration in different distances that could be due to the hydrogeological conditions of
the place, either by porosity of the environment.

3. Groundwater pollutant transport (continuous release) A surface impoundment containing


cyanide leaches into a groundwater system that behaves as a one-dimensional aquifer with a pore
velocity (vx) of 0.4 m/day. The initial concentration of cyanide (Co) is 42 mg/l with a dispersion
coefficient in the x-direction (Dx) of 2.1 m2 /day. The retardation factor (R) is 14.2 and soil catalyzed
oxidation reactions are occurring at a rate described by a firstorder k of 0.000014 day-1 . Estimate
the concentration at a well of 1km away and t=29.000 days and plot x vs C and t vs C for x [0, 1000m]
and t [0, 730 days] (key: use a groundwater model with constant dispersion coefficient and
continuous contaminant source line in ACTS).

Data Specifications

𝑚
𝑽𝒙 = 𝟎. 𝟒
𝑑𝑎𝑦
𝑚𝑔 1000𝐿 𝑚𝑔
𝐶𝑜 = 42 × ×= 42000
𝐿 1𝑚3 𝑚3
𝑚2
𝐷𝑥 = 2.1
𝑑𝑎𝑦
𝑅 = 14.2
0.000014
𝑘=
𝑑𝑎𝑦
𝐶 =?
𝑥 = 1𝑘𝑚 [0, 1000𝑚] 𝑡 = 29 𝑑𝑎𝑦𝑠 [0, 730 𝑑𝑎𝑦𝑠 ]
Mathematical model
The analytical equation is as follows

𝑥−𝑣𝑡 𝑥+𝑣𝑡
𝑐𝑜 (_ 𝑣𝑥
𝑐(𝑥, 𝑡) = ((𝑒 2√𝐷𝑙𝑡 ) + (𝑒 ∗ 𝑒
𝐷𝑙 2√𝐷𝑙 𝑡 ))
2
The first thing that was done was to look for the surface water model as shown in figure , and
place the clues given by the exercise.

Is important enter the ranges specified in the coordinates


The value of mass injection rate calculated above was entered
𝑚𝑔 𝑚 𝑚𝑔
𝑀 = 42000 3
× 0.4 = 16800 2
𝑚 𝑑𝑎𝑦 𝑚 𝑑𝑎𝑦
The porosity value was not given by the exercise, but it was assumed the same value of the
previous exercises

The exercise asks us to estimate the concentration 1km away and in a time of 29 days
When the software run, shows us the value of concentration

also it is necessary to find the concentration in a distance of 1000m an in a time of 730 days

Finally the concentration was calculated for a distance of 1000 meters and a time of 365 days
To obtain a graph C vs x, we must use five time values to construct the curve with the function C =
C (x).
Analysis of results

With respect to the behavior of the concentration with respect to time, it can be analyzed that
according to the graph made at a longer time the concentration increases, however when estimating
the concentrations in the times given by the problem, they present a value equal to 0. This increase
in concentration with respect to time allows to analyze that there must be a type of shedding in this
water after a certain number of days.

Conclusions

- This program allows to estimate the concentration, however, it must be taken into account
that certain values are important to have an accurate concentration as in the case of
porosity, it must be taken into account that this value was estimated but not the problem.
- You also have to take into account that the more values you have of this place, the better
you will be able to represent the respective situation.