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You are on page 1of 19

FATE AND TRANSPORT OF CONTAMINANTS

FIRST SEMESTER 2018

Rueda Mónica

Rincón Estefanía

Gutiérrez Katherine

Grupo 02

Consider a wide straight section of a river with discharge Q=45 m3 /s. The width of the river is

W=35m, the depth in the river section is H=2.5m and the channel slope is S=10 -4 . A diffuser is

discharging an effluent into this river section at a rate Q=10 m3/s, and after the initial dilution effects

the concentration in the river is about Co=100 kg/m3 . Determine and plot the concentrations in the

river at distances of 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0km. Assume that the effluent is non-conservative and degrading

with a half-life of 0.01 day (key: use a surface water model in ACTS)

𝑚3

𝑄 = 45

𝑠

𝑊 = 35 𝑚

𝐻 = 2.5 𝑚

𝑆 = 10−4

𝑚3

𝑄𝑡 = 10

𝑠

𝑘𝑔

𝐶0 = 100 3

𝑚

𝑡1/2 = 0.01 𝑑

Initially, the necessary input data that the ACTS program requires, such as the dispersion coefficient

(Dx) and the degradation constant (k), are calculated. The procedure to obtain this data is shown

below:

Speed

𝑄

𝑣=

𝐴

Where:

Replacing:

𝑚3 𝑚3

𝑄 45 𝑠 + 10 𝑠

𝑣= = = 0.63 𝑚/𝑠

𝐴 35𝑚 ∙ 2.5𝑚

0.011 ∙ 𝑈 2 ∙ 𝑊 2

𝐷𝑥 =

𝐻𝑢∗

Where:

𝑈 = 𝑆𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑 (𝑚/𝑠)

𝑢∗ = √𝑔𝐻𝑆

𝐷𝑥 = = 43.2 𝑚2 /𝑠

𝑚

(2.5𝑚)√9.81 2 ∙ 2.5𝑚 ∙ 10−4

𝑠

To calculate the degradation constant (k) the following formula was used that relates the average

life time and the constant k:

0.693

𝑡1/2 =

𝑘

So

0.693

𝑘=

𝑡1/2

Replacing:

0.693 1𝑑 1ℎ

𝑘= = 69.3 𝑑−1 ∗ ∗ = 0.0008 𝑠 −1

0.01 𝑑 24ℎ 3600𝑠

To calculate the concentration in the software river use the following equation:

The model when choosing the option of Longitudinal Advection and Dispersion uses the following

expression of full concentration for a steady state version:

Where x is the downstream distance from the reléase point (m), KL is the longitudinal dispersion

coefficient (m2/s).

For an instantaneous accidental release of a chemical mass M0, the time- and space dependent

concentration distribution can be given as,

Initially, a surface water model was chosen in the ACTS program as shown in the following image:

The program directs us to the following image:

The following image shows the choice of the body of water, in this case a river was chosen and the

option Longitudinal Advection and Dispersion was marked:

Then the data requested by the program is added, in this case for a distance of 0.5 km as shown

below:

Below is the graph that was obtained in the ACTS program:

The graph for this length is the following:

The graph obtained was the following:

Analysis of Results

In the graphs it can be observed that as the distance increases the concentration in the river

decreases approaching a value close to zero, in the 5 km graph this behavior is observed in the range

of distances from 3500m to 5000m. Below is a table that summarizes the results obtained in this

exercise:

0.5 8.6812

1 4.8239

5 0.04385

Conclusions

1. In the option executed in this problem (Longitudinal Advection and Dispersion) once the

effluent is mixed laterally, its transport in steady state conditions is mainly carried out by

simple advection due to the flow regime of the river.

2. To enter the data into the program, it was necessary to establish the value of the

degradation constant and thus avoid errors in the simulation of the ACTS program.

3. According to the surface water model chapter, rivers are typically wide and shallow water

bodies with strong advective and turbulent flows. After the initial mixing process, the

effluent is usually mixed over the shallow depth, is advected downstream by the river flow,

and is diffused laterally across the river. After sufficient distance, the effluent becomes fully

mixed across the entire width. In this case the problem was analyzed in the longitudinal

Advection and Dispersion stage.

The TCA mass spilled into an aquifer is (M) 1740 g/m2. The pore water velocity in the aquifer is (vx)

5 m/day in the x-direction, and the porosity (n) of the soil layer is 0.40. The dispersion coefficient in

the x-direction (Dx) is 0.8 m2/day, and the retardation factor (R) has been estimated as 8.0. The TCA

degradation is described by a first order rate constant (k) of 0.0004 day-1. Based on these data

estimate the TCA concentration C, at a distance x=200m and time t=365 days and plot x vs C and t

vs C for x [0, 1000m] and t [0, 730 days] (key: use a groundwater model with variable dispersion

coefficient and instantaneous contaminant source line in ACTS).

Data Specifications:

𝒈 𝒈 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎𝒎𝒈 𝒎𝒈

TCA (M)=𝟏𝟕𝟒𝟎 MTCA=1740 x = 𝟏𝟕𝟒𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎

𝒎𝟐 𝒎𝟐 𝟏𝒈 𝒎𝟐

𝒎

V(x) = 5𝒅𝒂𝒚

n = 0.4

𝒎𝟐

D(x) = 0.8 𝒅𝒂𝒚

R= 8.0

K= 0.0004 𝒅𝒂𝒚−𝟏

X= 200m (0.1000 m)

t= 365 days (0.730 days)

C= ?

Mathematical model

Analytical solution for continuous release transport in 1 dimension; is done by the following

equation

𝑀𝑎 (𝑥−𝑣𝑡)2

C(x,t)= x exp-[ 4𝐷𝐿 𝑡

]

2𝑛√𝜋𝑡𝐷𝐿

2. Time varying dispersion coefficients

3. The data is entered according to the dispersion variables taking into account those coordinated at

a distance (x), filling the following data in the Software.

Coordinates (x=200 m,t=365days) 𝒎𝟐

Field and Chemical Constants

It can be seen that for the parameters established in the relationship at a distance of 200 m in a

time of 365 days, the concentration obtained when running is 0 mg / m3

The graph was made for the concentration data at 0 mg / m3provided, with a specification of 7

numbers of curves to be constructed:

In the graph the dispersion of the pollutant according to distance Vs concentration is observed

𝑚𝑔

concordant with the data obtained for a distance of 200 m the concentration was obtained in 0 𝑚3

Analysis of results

The dispersion of the pollutant in the aquifer can be observed in the graph, in relation to the

concentration versus the distance in different time ranges (5,55,105, 205,305,405,725 represented

𝑚𝑔

in days), obtaining a higher concentration on day 405 with a concentration of 2755 𝑚3 . This may be

due to the rocky material, the porosity or the hydraulic conductivity that allows the concentration

peaks.

It can also be observed that there is a relationship in which, as there is an increase in time,

concentration increases

Conclusions

- This software allows the evaluation of the specific conditions of an aquifer as is the case of

exercise by means of a model with variable dispersion coefficients analyzing what factors

can affect the concentration of the pollutant at a specific distance and time.

concentration in different distances that could be due to the hydrogeological conditions of

the place, either by porosity of the environment.

cyanide leaches into a groundwater system that behaves as a one-dimensional aquifer with a pore

velocity (vx) of 0.4 m/day. The initial concentration of cyanide (Co) is 42 mg/l with a dispersion

coefficient in the x-direction (Dx) of 2.1 m2 /day. The retardation factor (R) is 14.2 and soil catalyzed

oxidation reactions are occurring at a rate described by a firstorder k of 0.000014 day-1 . Estimate

the concentration at a well of 1km away and t=29.000 days and plot x vs C and t vs C for x [0, 1000m]

and t [0, 730 days] (key: use a groundwater model with constant dispersion coefficient and

continuous contaminant source line in ACTS).

Data Specifications

𝑚

𝑽𝒙 = 𝟎. 𝟒

𝑑𝑎𝑦

𝑚𝑔 1000𝐿 𝑚𝑔

𝐶𝑜 = 42 × ×= 42000

𝐿 1𝑚3 𝑚3

𝑚2

𝐷𝑥 = 2.1

𝑑𝑎𝑦

𝑅 = 14.2

0.000014

𝑘=

𝑑𝑎𝑦

𝐶 =?

𝑥 = 1𝑘𝑚 [0, 1000𝑚] 𝑡 = 29 𝑑𝑎𝑦𝑠 [0, 730 𝑑𝑎𝑦𝑠 ]

Mathematical model

The analytical equation is as follows

𝑥−𝑣𝑡 𝑥+𝑣𝑡

𝑐𝑜 (_ 𝑣𝑥

𝑐(𝑥, 𝑡) = ((𝑒 2√𝐷𝑙𝑡 ) + (𝑒 ∗ 𝑒

𝐷𝑙 2√𝐷𝑙 𝑡 ))

2

The first thing that was done was to look for the surface water model as shown in figure , and

place the clues given by the exercise.

The value of mass injection rate calculated above was entered

𝑚𝑔 𝑚 𝑚𝑔

𝑀 = 42000 3

× 0.4 = 16800 2

𝑚 𝑑𝑎𝑦 𝑚 𝑑𝑎𝑦

The porosity value was not given by the exercise, but it was assumed the same value of the

previous exercises

The exercise asks us to estimate the concentration 1km away and in a time of 29 days

When the software run, shows us the value of concentration

also it is necessary to find the concentration in a distance of 1000m an in a time of 730 days

Finally the concentration was calculated for a distance of 1000 meters and a time of 365 days

To obtain a graph C vs x, we must use five time values to construct the curve with the function C =

C (x).

Analysis of results

With respect to the behavior of the concentration with respect to time, it can be analyzed that

according to the graph made at a longer time the concentration increases, however when estimating

the concentrations in the times given by the problem, they present a value equal to 0. This increase

in concentration with respect to time allows to analyze that there must be a type of shedding in this

water after a certain number of days.

Conclusions

- This program allows to estimate the concentration, however, it must be taken into account

that certain values are important to have an accurate concentration as in the case of

porosity, it must be taken into account that this value was estimated but not the problem.

- You also have to take into account that the more values you have of this place, the better

you will be able to represent the respective situation.

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