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GRAVITY DAMS

By Gregory Fenves, 1 A. M. ASCE, and Anil K. Chopra, 2 M. ASCE

ABSTRACT: A two-stage procedure was proposed in 1978 for the analysis phase

of elastic design and safety evaluation of concrete gravity dams: (1) A simplified

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analysis procedure in which the response due only to the fundamental vibra-

tion mode is estimated directly from the earthquake design spectrum; and (2)

a refined response history analysis procedure for finite element idealizations of

the dam monolith. The former was recommended for the preliminary design

and safety evaluation of dams, and the latter for accurately computing the dy-

namic response and checking the adequacy of the preliminary evaluation. In

this paper, the simplified analysis procedure has been extended to include the

effects of dam-foundation rock interaction and of reservoir bottom sediments,

in addition to the effects of dam-water interaction and water compressibility

included in the earlier procedure. Also included now in the simplified proce-

dure is a "static correction" method to consider the response contributions of

the higher vibration modes. Thus, the design procedure proposed in 1978, which

is still conceptually valid, should utilize the new simplified analysis procedure.

INTRODUCTION

way, progressing from traditional "static" methods for computing de-

sign forces to dynamic analysis procedures. With the aid of dynamic

response analysis, considering the effects of interaction between the dam

and impounded water and of water compressibility, it has been dem-

onstrated that the traditional design procedures have serious limitations

because they are based on unrealistic assumptions: rigid dam and in-

compressible water (3). In order to improve dam design procedures, a

simplified version of the general dynamic analysis procedure was de-

veloped (3).

A two-stage procedure was proposed for the analysis phase of elastic

design and safety evaluation of dams: (1) The simplified analysis pro-

cedure in which the maximum response is estimated directly from the

earthquake design spectrum; and (2) a refined response history analysis

procedure for finite element idealizations of the dam monolith. The for-

mer is recommended for the preliminary phase of design and safety

evaluation of dams and the latter for accurately computing the dynamic

response and checking the adequacy of the preliminary evaluation (3).

Both procedures have been utilized in practical applications. At the time

(1978), the design procedure was presented, both of these analysis pro-

cedures included the effects of dam-water interaction and compressibil-

ity of water.

More recently, the response history analysis procedure for two-di-

mensional finite element idealizations of gravity-dam monoliths has been

'Asst. Prof, of Civ. Engrg., Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX 78712.

2

Prof. of Civ. Engrg., Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA 94720.

Note.—Discussion open until January 1, 1988. To extend the closing date one

month, a written request must be filed with the ASCE Manager of Journals. The

manuscript for this paper was submitted for review and possible publication on

October 17, 1986. This paper is part of the Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol.

113, No. 8, August, 1987. ©ASCE, ISSN 0733-9445/87/Ou08-1688/$01.00. Paper

No. 21717.

1688

extended to also consider the absorption of hydrodvnamir pressure waves

into the alluvium and sediments deposited at the bottom of reservoirs

and the interaction between the d a m a n d underlying flexible foundation

rock. With the aid of response analysis utilizing EAGD-84 (5), the com-

puter program that implements the extended procedure, these effects

have been demonstrated to be significant (7,9). T h u s , this procedure and

computer program supersede the earlier procedure for the final design

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The objective of this paper is to extend the simplified analysis pro-

cedure (3) to include the effects of dam-foundation rock interaction and

reservoir bottom materials so that these important effects can be con-

sidered also in the preliminary design p h a s e . The simplified procedure

involves computation of the lateral earthquake forces associated with the

fundamental vibration m o d e of the dam. Utilizing the analytical devel-

opment underlying the procedure (11,12), this paper is concerned with

implementation of the procedure. Recognizing that the cross-section ge-

ometry of concrete gravity dams does not vary widely, standard data

for the vibration properties of dams and the quantities that d e p e n d on

them are presented to minimize the computations. Also included n o w

in the simplified procedure is a "static correction" m e t h o d to consider

the response contributions of the higher vibration m o d e s , a n d a rule for

combining the modal responses. The use of the simplified procedure is

illustrated by examples and is s h o w n to be sufficiently accurate for the

preliminary phase of design and safety evaluation of d a m s .

concrete gravity dams, to earthquake ground motion is primarily d u e to

the fundamental mode of vibration. Thus, this is the most important

vibration mode that need b e considered in a simplified analysis proce-

dure. The d a m response to the vertical ground motion is less significant

relative to the horizontal ground motion (9), a n d is therefore not in-

cluded in the simplified procedure.

Even the analysis of the fundamental m o d e response of a d a m is very

complicated because d a m water-foundation rock interaction introduces

frequency-dependent, complex-valued hydrodynamic a n d foundation

terms in the governing equations. However, frequency-independent val-

ues for these terms can be defined and a n equivalent single-degree-of-

freedom (SDF) system developed to represent approximately the fun-

damental mode response of concrete gravity d a m s (11).

For computing the response of the d a m to intense earthquake g r o u n d

motion, it is appropriate to consider the two-dimensional vibration of

individual monoliths. Each monolith is a s s u m e d to be s u p p o r t e d on a

viscoelastic half plane and i m p o u n d i n g a reservoir of water, possibly

with alluvium and sediments at the bottom. Although the equivalent

SDF system representation is valid for dams of any cross section, the

upstream face of the d a m was assumed to be vertical (11,12) only for

the purpose of evaluating the hydrodynamic terms in the governing

equations. The standard data presented in this paper a n d in the com-

plete report (10) is also based on this assumption, which is reasonable

1689

for actual concrete gravity dams because the upstream face is vertical or

almost vertical for most of the height, and the hydrodynamic pressure

on the dam face is insensitive to small departures of the face slope from

vertical, especially if these departures are near the base of the dam, which

is usually the case. The dynamic effects of the tail water are neglected

because it is usually too shallow to influence dam response. A complete

description of the dam-water-foundation rock system is presented in Refs.

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6 and 12.

Equivalent Lateral Forces.—Considering only the fundamental mode

of vibration of the dam, the maximum effects of the horizontal earth-

quake ground motion can be represented by equivalent lateral forces

acting on the upstream face of the dam (10,11):

Mi g

In Eq. 1, the y-coordinate is measured from the base of the dam along

its height, ws(y) = the weight of the dam per unit height, and

Mj = Mi + Re pi(y,fr)$(y)dy (2a)

LJO

1 I""'

Mi = - ws(y)tf(y)dy (2b)

8 Jo

r

Li = Li+ pi(y, Tr)dy (3a)

Jo

1 [Hs

U =- ws(y)$(y)dy (3b)

S Jo

Mi = the generalized mass; Li = the generalized earthquake force coef-

ficient; ij>(y) = the horizontal component of displacement at the upstream

face of the dam in the fundamental vibration mode shape of the dam

supported on rigid foundation rock with empty reservoir; pi(y,Tr) = the

complex-valued function representing the hydrodynamic pressure on the

upstream face due to harmonic acceleration of period Tr (defined later)

in the fundamental vibration mode; H = the depth of the impounded

water; Hs = the height of the dam; g = the acceleration due to gravity;

and S„ (Tt, |i) = the psuedoacceleration ordinate of the earthquake de-

sign spectrum evaluated at the vibration period T-i and damping ratio

ii of the equivalent SDF system representing the dam-water-foundation

rock system. Eq. 1 is an extension of Eq. 9 in Ref. 3, to include the effects

of dam-foundation rock interaction and reservoir bottom materials on

the lateral forces.

The natural vibration period of the equivalent SDF system represent-

ing the fundamental mode response of the dam on rigid foundation rock

with impounded water is (12)

fr = RrT1 , (4a)

in which Tt = the fundamental vibration period of the dam on rigid

1690

foundation rock with empty reservoir. Because of the frequency-depen-

dent, added hydrodynamic mass arising from dam-water interaction, the

factor Rr> 1. It depends on the properties of the dam, the depth of the

water, and the absorptiveness of the reservoir bottom materials. The nat-

ural vibration period of the equivalent SDF system representing the fun-

damental mode response of the dam on flexible foundation rock with

empty reservoir is (12)

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fl = RfT1 (4b)

Because of the frequency-dependent, added foundation-rock flexibility

arising from dam-foundation rock interaction, the factor Rf > 1. It de-

pends on the properties of the dam and foundation rock.

The natural vibration period of the equivalent SDF system represent-

ing the fundamental mode response of the dam on flexible foundation

rock with impounded water is approximately given by (11)

fi = RrRfT, (4c)

The damping ratio of this equivalent SDF system is (11)

*=iU^fc+t+* (5)

in which ^ = the damping ratio of the dam on rigid foundation rock

with empty reservoir; £r = the added damping due to dam-water inter-

action and reservoir bottom absorption; and ^ = the added radiation and

material damping due to dam-foundation rock interaction. Considering

that Rr and Rf > 1, Eq. 5 shows that dam-water interaction and dam-

foundation rock interaction reduce the effectiveness of structural damp-

ing. However, usually this reduction is more than compensated by the

added damping due to reservoir bottom absorption and due to dam-

foundation rock interaction, which leads to an increase in the overall

damping of the dam.

The quantities Rr, Rf, %r, £/, piiy, fr), L x , and Mi, which are required

to evaluate the equivalent lateral forces, Eq. 1, contain all the modifi-

cations of the vibration properties of the equivalent SDF system and of

the generalized earthquake force coefficient necessary to account for the

effects of dam-water interaction, reservoir bottom absorption, and dam-

foundation rock interaction. Even after the considerable simplification

necessary to arrive at Eq. 1, its evaluation is still too complicated for

practical applications because the aforementioned quantities are com-

plicated functions of the hydrodynamic and foundation-rock flexibility

terms (11). Fortunately, as will be seen in a later section, the compu-

tation of lateral forces can be considerably simplified by recognizing that

the cross-sectional geometry of concrete gravity dams does not vary

widely.

Approximation of Hydrodynamic Pressure.—The hydrodynamic

pressure function pi(y, Tr) and therefore lateral forces are real-valued at

the period Tr for nonabsorptive reservoir bottom materials, i.e., a = 1

(3), but complex-valued if the hydrodynamic wave absorption in the al-

luvium and sediments at the bottom of a reservoir is considered (a <

1). However, the imaginary-valued component of lateral forces is small

1691

relative to the real-valued component, increasing near the base of the

dam (10), where, because of the large stiffness of the dam, it will have

little influence on the stresses in the dam. Consequently, the imaginary-

valued component of px (y, Tr) may be neglected in the evaluation of the

lateral forces f\ (y), and Eq. 1 becomes

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Mi g

where p(y,fr) = Re[pi(y,fr)]. It is only in Eq. 6 that the imaginary-val-

ued component of px(y,fr) has been dropped, but its more important

effect, the contribution to added hydrodynamic damping £r in Eq. 5, is

still considered.

The generalized mass Mi of the equivalent SDF system, Eq. 2a, only

depends on the real-valued component of hydrodynamic pressure:

Mi = Mi +

fJo

Jo

p(y,Tr)4>(y)dy

(7a)

force coefficient L\, Eq. 3a, contains both real-valued and imaginary-val-

ued components of the hydrodynamic pressure. Again, dropping the

imaginary-valued component gives

Li = Li +

f'

Jo

p(y,Tr)dy

(7b)

of several quantities: p(y, Tr) from an infinite series expression; the pe-

riod lengthening ratios Rr and Rf due to dam-water and dam-foundation

rock interactions by iterative solution of equations involving frequency-

dependent terms; damping ratios fy and £r from expressions involving

complicated foundation-rock flexibility and hydrodynamic terms; the in-

tegrals in Eq. 7; and the fundamental vibration period and mode shape

of the dam (11,12). The required computations would be excessive for

purposes of the preliminary design of dams. Recognizing that the cross-

section geometry of concrete gravity dams does not vary widely, stan-

dard values for the vibration properties of dams and all quantities that

depend on them and enter into Eq. 6 are developed in this section. A

complete set of standard tables and curves is presented in Ref. 10, avail-

able from the University of California at Berkeley.

Vibration Properties of Dam.—Computed by the finite element method,

the fundamental vibration period, in sec, of a "standard" cross section

for nonoverflow monoliths of concrete gravity dams on rigid foundation

rock with empty reservoir is (3)

T = L 4

' ^ <8>

1692

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(b)

\fl Hi Dai.

'•

IMS

*t,l

09P I l «

0S5 ,1,0

"™

H , . n . , m » n , £ - ( s a t * ™ a ^ i m p»

FIG. 1.—Fundamental Period and Mode Shape of Vibration for Concrete Gravity

Dams: (a) Standard Period and Mode Shape; (b) Comparison of Standard Values

with Properties of Six Dams

FIG. 2.—Standard Values for Period Lengthening Ratio R, and Added Damping

Ratio .& due to Hydrodynamics Effects; Es = 3,000,000 psi

in which Hs = the height of the dam, in ft; and Es is the Young's mod-

ulus of elasticity of concrete, in psi. The fundamental vibration mode

shape 4>(y) of the standard cross section is shown in Fig. 1(a), which is

compared in Fig. 1(b) with the mode shape for four idealized cross sec-

tions and two actual dams. Because the fundamental vibration periods

and mode shapes for these cross sections are similar, it is appropriate

to use the standard vibration period and mode shape presented in Fig.

1(a) for the preliminary design and safety evaluation of concrete gravity

dams. The ordinates of the standard vibration mode shape are tabulated

in Ref. 10 for the user's convenience.

Modification of Period and Damping: Dam-Water Interaction.—Dam-

water interaction and reservoir bottom adsorption modify the natural

vibration period (Eq. 4a) and the damping ratio (Eq. 5) of the equivalent

SDF system representing the fundamental vibration mode response of

1693

the dam. For the standard dam cross section, the period lengthening

ratio Rr and added damping £r depend on several parameters, the more

significant of which are: Young's modulus Es of the dam concrete, ratio

H/Hs of water depth to dam height, and wave reflection coefficient a.

This coefficient a is the ratio of the amplitude of the reflected hydro-

dynamic pressure wave to the amplitude of a vertically propagating

pressure wave incident on the reservoir bottom (6,8,12,14); a = 1 indi-

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cates that pressure waves are completely reflected, and smaller values

of a indicate increasingly absorptive materials.

The results of many analyses of the "standard" dam cross section,

using the procedures developed in Ref. 12 and modified in Ref. 10 for

dams with larger elastic modulus E s , are summarized in Ref. 10. The

period lengthening ratio Rr and added damping £r are presented as a

function of H/Hs for several values of Es and a; the data for one selected

value of Es is shown in Fig. 2. Whereas the dependence of Rr and £r on

E s , H/Hs, and a, and the underlying mechanics of dam-water interac-

tion and reservoir bottom absorption are discussed elsewhere in detail

(10-12), it is useful to note that Rr increases and £r generally, but not

always, increases with increasing water depth, absorptiveness of res-

ervoir bottom materials, and concrete modulus. The effects of dam-water

interaction reservoir bottom absorption may be neglected, and the dam

analyzed as if there is no impounded water, if the reservoir depth is not

large, H/Hs < 0.5; in particular Rr ~ 1 and | r = 0.

Modification of Period and Damping: Dam-Foundation Rock Inter-

action.—Dam-foundation rock interaction modifies the natural vibration

period (Eq. 4b) and added damping ratio (Eq. 5) of the equivalent SDF

system representing the fundamental vibration mode response of the

dam. For the "standard" dam cross section, the period lengthening ratio

Rf and the added damping fy due to dam-foundation rock interaction

depend on several parameters, the more significant of which are: moduli

ratio E;/E s , where Es and Ef = the Young's moduli of the dam concrete

and foundation rock, respectively; and the constant hysteretic damping

factor r\f for the foundation rock. The period ratio Rf is, however, insen-

sitive to tif.

The results of many analyses of the "standard" dam cross-section, us-

ing the procedures developed in Ref. 12 are summarized in Fig. 3 and

tabulated in Ref. 10. The period lengthening ratio Rf and added damping

{•; are presented for many values of Ef/Es between 0.2 and 5.0, and i\f =

0.01, 0.10, 0.25, and 0.50. Whereas the dependence of Rf and % on Ef/

Es and r\f, and the underlying mechanics of dam-foundation rock inter-

action are discussed elsewhere in detail (11,12), it is useful to note that

the period ratio Rf is essentially independent of r\f, but increases as the

moduli ratio Ef/Es decreases, which for a fixed value of Es implies an

increasingly flexible foundation rock. The added damping fy increases

with decreasing Ef/Es and increasing hysteretic damping factor i\f. The

foundation rock may be considered rigid in the simplified analysis if Ef/

Es > 4 because then the effects of dam-foundation rock interaction are

negligible.

Hydrodynamic Pressure.—In order to provide a convenient means for

determining p(x/, Tr) in Eqs. 6 and 7, a nondimensional form of this func-

tion, gp($)/wH, where y = y/H, and zv = the unit weight of water, has

1694

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FIQ. 3.—Standard Values for Period Lengthening Ratio Rf and Added Damping

Ratio if due to Dam-Foundation Rock Interaction

FIG. 4.—Standard Values for Hydrodynamic Pressure Function p(t/) 'or Full Res-

ervoir, i.e., H/Hs = 1; a = 0.75 and 0.50

been computed from the equations presented in Ref. 12 for a = 1.0, 0.90,

0.75, 0.5, 0.25, and 0, and the necessary range of values of

R* = (9)

T[ = 4H/C, where C = the velocity of pressure waves in water. Results

are presented in Ref. 10 for several values of a in the form of charts

similar to Fig. 4 and also in tables for the user's convenience. All these

data are for full reservoir, H/Hs = 1. The function gp{y)/wH for any

other value of H/Hs is approximately equal to (H/Hs)2 times the function

for H/Hs = 1 (3).

Generalized Mass and Earthquake Force Coefficient.—The general-

ized mass Mi (Eq. 7a) of the equivalent SDF system representing the

dam, including hydrodynamic effects, can be conveniently computed from

(12)

Mi = (Rr)2 Mi (10a)

1695

TABLE 1.—Standard Values for Hydrodynamic Force Coefficient Ap In U

K, Value of Ap for a = 1

(1) (2)

0.99 1.242

0.98 0.893

0.97 0.739

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0.96 0.647

0.95 0.585

0.94 0.539

0.93 0.503

0.92 0.474

0.90 0.431

0.85 0.364

0.80 0.324

0.70 0.279

<0.50 0.237

0.90, 0.75, 0.50, 0.25, and 0

Value of Av

Ru, a = 0.90 a = 0.75 a = 0.5 a = 0.25 a = 0

d) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)

1.20 0.071 0.111 0.159 0.178 0.181

1.10 0.110 0.177 0.204 0.197 0.186

1.05 0.194 0.249 0.229 0.205 0.189

1.00 0.515 0.340 0.252 0.213 0.191

0.95 0.518 0.378 0.267 0.219 0.193

0.90 0.417 0.361 0.274 0.224 0.195

0.80 0.322 0.309 0.269 0.229 0.198

0.70 0.278 0.274 0.256 0.228 0.201

£0.50 0.237 0.236 0.231 0.222 0.206

to compute the generalized earthquake force coefficient Lx, Eq. 7b is ex-

pressed as:

1

U = U + - Fsl A„ (10b)

where Fsl = wH2/2 = the total hydrostatic force on the dam; and Ap =

the integral of the function 2gp(y )/wH over the depth of the impounded

water, for H/Hs = 1. The hydrodynamic force coefficient Av is tabulated

in Tables 1 and 2 for a range of values for the period ratio Rw and the

wave reflection coefficient a.

such as concrete gravity dams, is primarily due to the fundamental mode

1696

of vibration, the response contributions of the higher vibration modes

have, so far, been neglected in the simplified analysis procedure pre-

sented in the preceding sections. However, the height-wise mass dis-

tribution of concrete gravity dams is such that the effective mass (2) in

the fundamental vibration mode is small, e.g., it is 35% of the total mass

for the standard dam section mentioned earlier. Thus, the contributions

of the higher vibration modes to the earthquake forces may not be neg-

ligible, and a simple method to consider them is summarized in this

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section.

This simple method utilizes three concepts. Firstly, because the pe-

riods of the higher vibration modes of concrete gravity dams are very

short, the higher vibration modes respond to earthquake ground motion

with little dynamic amplification in essentially a static manner, leading

to the "static correction" concept (1,13). Secondly, just as in the case of

multistory buildings (15), soil-structure interaction effects may be ne-

glected in computing the contributions of the higher vibration modes to

the earthquake response of dams. Thirdly, the effects of dam-water in-

teraction and water compressibility may be neglected in computing the

higher mode responses (10). The maximum earthquake effects associ-

ated with the higher vibration modes can then be represented by the

equivalent lateral forces (10):

/*(y) = -\w,(y) 1

T7 *&) + SPo(y)

~ Mi h. «>s(y)<l>(y) (ii)

8I Mi

In Eq. 11, ag - the maximum ground acceleration; p0(y) = a real-valued,

frequency-independent function for hydrodynamic pressure on a rigid

dam undergoing unit acceleration, with water compressibility neglected,

both assumptions being consistent with the "static correction" concept;

and Bi provides a measure of the portion of p0(y) that acts in the fun-

-|x

1697

damental vibration mode. Standard values for p0(y) are shown graphi-

cally in Fig. 5 and tabulated in Ref. 10 for the user's convenience. Using

the fundamental mode vibration properties of the standard dam:

B

- = °-°52j{$ ' •(12)

where Fs, = the total hydrostatic force on the dam. The shape of only

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the fundamental vibration mode enters into Eq. 11 and the higher mode

shapes are not required, thus simplifying the analysis considerably.

RESPONSE COMBINATION

maximum effects of earthquake ground motion in the fundamental vi-

bration mode of the dam have been represented by equivalent lateral

forces/^) and those due to all the higher modes by fsc(y). Static analysis

of the dam for these two sets of forces provide the values ra and rsc for

any response quantity, r, e.g., the shear force or bending moment at

any horizontal section, or the shear or bending stresses at any point.

Because the maximum responses r1 and rsc do not occur at the same time

during the earthquake, they should be combined to obtain an estimate

of the dynamic response rA according to the well-known modal combi-

nation rule: square-root-of-the-sum-of-squares (SRSS) of modal maxima

leading to

Because the natural frequencies of lateral vibration of a concrete dam are

well separated, it is not necessary to include the correlation of modal

responses in Eq. 13. In Ref. 10, the SRSS combination rule is shown to

be preferable to the sum-of-absolute-values (ABSUM), which provides

an overly conservative result.

The SRSS and ABSUM combination rules are applicable to the com-

putation of any response quantity that is proportional to the generalized

modal coordinate responses. Thus, these combination rules are gener-

ally inappropriate to determine the principal stresses. However, as shown

in Ref. 10, the principal stresses at the faces of a dam monolith may be

determined by the SRSS method if the upstream face is nearly vertical

and the effects of tail water at the downstream face are small.

Total Response.—In order to obtain the total value of any response

quantity r, the SRSS estimate of dynamic response rd should be com-

bined with the static effects rst. The latter may be determined by stan-

dard analysis procedures to compute the initial stresses in a dam prior

to the earthquake, including effects of the self-weight of the dam, hy-

drostatic pressures, and temperature changes. In order to recognize that

the direction of lateral earthquake forces is reversible, combinations of

static and dynamic stresses should allow for the worst case, leading to

the maximum value of total response:

1698

This combination of static and dynamic responses is appropriate if rsl,

f'i, and rsc are oriented similarly. Such is the case for the shearing force

or bending m o m e n t at any horizontal section, for the shear a n d b e n d i n g

stresses at any point, but generally not for principal stresses except un-

der the restricted conditions previously mentioned.

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represented by equivalent lateral forces in the simplified analysis pro-

cedure. The lateral forces associated with the fundamental vibration mode

are computed to include the effects of dam-water interaction, water com-

pressibility, reservoir bottom absorption, a n d dam-foundation rock in-

teraction. The response contributions of the higher vibration m o d e s are

computed u n d e r the assumption that the dynamic amplification of the

modes is negligible, the interaction effects between the d a m , i m p o u n d e d

water, and foundation rock are not significant, a n d that the effects of

water compressibility can be neglected. These approximations provide a

practical method for including the most important factors that affect the

earthquake response of concrete gravity dams.

Selection of System Paremeters.—The simplified analysis procedure

requires only a few parameters to describe the dam-water-foundation

rock system: Es, £1, Hs, Es, nf, H, and a. The complete data necessary

to implement this procedure are presented as both figures a n d tables in

Ref. 10, available from the University of California at Berkeley; for brev-

ity, only a small portion of the data is s h o w n here in Figs. 2 - 5 .

The Young's modulus of elasticity Es for the d a m concrete should be

based on the design strength of the concrete or suitable test data, if avail-

able. The value of Es may be modified to recognize the strain rates rep-

resentative of those the concrete m a y experience during earthquake m o -

tions of the d a m (3). In using the figures and tables mentioned earlier

to conservatively include dam-water interaction effects in the compu-

tation of earthquake forces (Eq. 6), the Es value should be r o u n d e d d o w n

to the nearest value for which data are available in Ref. 10: Es = 1,000,000;

2,000,000; 2,500,000; 3,000,000; 3,500,000; 4,000,000; 4,500,000; or 5,000,000

psi. Forced vibration tests on dams indicate that the viscous d a m p i n g

ratio £i for concrete dams is in the range of 1-3%. H o w e v e r , for the large

motions and high stresses expected in a d a m during intense earth-

quakes, Sjx = 5% is recommended. The height Hs of the d a m is m e a s u r e d

from the base to the crest.

The Young's modulus of elasticity Ef and constant hysteretic d a m p i n g

coefficient ttf of the foundation rock should be determined from a site

investigation and appropriate tests. To be conservative, the value of r\f

should be r o u n d e d d o w n to the nearest value for which data are avail-

able: -n; = 0.01, 0.10, 0.25, or 0.50, and the value of Ef/Es should be

rounded u p to the nearest value for which data are available. In the

absence of information on damping properties of the foundation rock,

a value of r\f = 0.10 is recommended.

The depth H of the i m p o u n d e d water is measured from the free sur-

face to the reservoir bottom. It is not necessary for the reservoir bottom

and d a m base to be at the same elevation. The standard values for unit

1699

weight of water and velocity of pressure waves in water are w = 62.4

pcf and C = 4,720 fps, respectively.

It may be impractical to reliably determine the wave reflection coef-

ficient a because the reservoir bottom material may consist of highly

variable layers of exposed bedrock, alluvium, silt, and other sediments,

and appropriate site investigation techniques have not been developed.

However, to be conservative, the estimated value of a should be rounded

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up to the nearest value for which the figures and tables are presented:

a = 1.0, 0.90, 0.75, 0.50, 0.25, and 0.00. For proposed new dams or

recent dams where sediment deposits are meager, a = 0.90 or 1.0 is

recommended and, lacking data, a = 0.75 or 0.90 is recommended for

older dams where sediment deposits are substantial. In each case, the

larger a value will generally give conservative results, which is appro-

priate at the preliminary design stage.

Design Earthquake Spectrum.—The horizontal earthquake ground

motion is specified by a pseudo-acceleration response spectrum in the

simplified analysis procedure. This should be a smooth response spec-

trum—without the irregularities inherent in response spectra of individ-

ual ground motions—representative of the intensity and frequency char-

acteristics of the design earthquakes which should be established after

a thorough seismological and geological investigation; see Ref. 3 for more

detail.

COMPUTATIONAL STEPS

three parts.

Part I.—The earthquake forces and stresses due to the fundamental

vibration mode can be determined approximately for purposes of pre-

liminary design by the following computational steps:

on rigid foundation rock with an empty reservoir from Eq. 8 in which

Hs = height of the dam in ft, and Es = design value for Young's modulus

of elasticity of concrete, in psi.

2. Compute Tr, the fundamental vibration period of the dam, in sec,

including the influence of impounded water from Eq. 4a in which Tj was

computed in step 1; Rr = period ratio determined from Table 2 of Ref.

10, which contains a complete set of data such as Fig. 2 presented here,

for the design values of E s , the wave reflection coefficient a, and the

depth ratio H/Hs, where H = the depth of the impounded water, in ft.

If H/Hs < 0.5, computation of Rr may be avoided by using Rr ~ 1.

3. Compute the period ratio Rw from Eq. 9 in which Tr was computed

in step 2, and T\ = 4H/C where C = 4,720 ft/sec.

4. Compute Tt, the fundamental vibration period of the dam in sec,

including the influence of foundation flexibility and of impounded water,

from Eq. 4c in which Rr was determined in step 2; Rf = period ratio

determined from Fig. 3 presented here, or Table 3 of Ref. 10, for the

design value of Ef/Es. If Ef/Es > 4,_use Rf « 1.

5. Compute the damping ratio ^ of the dam from Eq. 5 using the

period ratios R, and Rf determined in steps 2 and 4, respectively; ^ =

1700

viscous damping ratio for the dam on rigid foundation rock with empty

reservoir; £r = added damping ratio d u e to dam-water interaction and

reservoir bottom absorption, obtained from Table 2 of Ref. 10, which

contains a complete set of data such as Fig. 2 presented here, for the

selected values of Es, a, and H/Hs; and fy = a d d e d d a m p i n g ratio due

to dam-foundation rock interaction, obtained from Fig. 3 presented here,

or Table 3 of Ref. 10, for the design values of Ef/Es a n d r\f. If H/Hs <

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li < ^ , use ii = gi . .

6. Determine gp(y,Tr) from Table 4 of Ref. 10, which contains a com-

plete set of data such as Fig. 4 presented here, corresponding to the

value of Rw computed in step 3—[rounded to one of the two nearest

available values, the one giving the larger p(y)], the design value of a,

and for H/Hs = 1; the result is multiplied by (H/Hs)\ If H/Hs < 0.5,

computation of p(x/,Tr) may be avoided by using p(y,Tr) ~ 0.

7. Compute the generalized mass Mj from Eq. 10a: in which Rr was

computed in step 2, and Mj is computed from Eq. 2b, in which ios(y) =

the weight of the d a m / u n i t height; the fundamental vibration mode shape

4>(i/) is given in Fig. 1 presented here, or Table 1 of Ref. 10; a n d g = 32.2

ft/sec 2 . Evaluation of Eq. 2b may be avoided by obtaining an approxi-

mate value from Mx = 0.043 Ws/g, w h e r e Ws = the total weight of the

dam monolith.

8. Compute the effective earthquake force coefficient Lt from Eq. 10t>

in which Lx is computed from Eq. 3b; Fst = ivH2/2; a n d Ap is given in

Table 1 for the values of Rw and a used in step 6. If H/Hs < 0.5, com-

putation of Lx may be avoided by using Li ~ Lt . Evaluation of Eq. 3b

may be avoided by obtaining an approximate value from Lj = 0.13 Ws/

g. (It may be noted that computation of steps 7 and 8 m a y be avoided

by using conservative values: Lj / M a = 4 for dams with i m p o u n d e d water,

and Li/Mi = 3 for dams with empty reservoirs.)

9. Compute f\{y), the equivalent lateral earthquake forces associated

with the fundamental vibration mode from Eq. 6 in which S a (T 1 ,^ 1 ) =

the pseudo-acceleration ordinate of the earthquake design spectrum in

ft/sec 2 at period fi determined in step 4 and d a m p i n g ratio gi deter-

mined in step 5; ws(y) = w e i g h t / u n i t height or the dam; $(y) = fun-

damental vibration mode shape of the dam from Fig. 1(a) presented here,

or Table 1 of Ref. 10; Mt and Lt = generalized mass a n d earthquake force

coefficient determined in steps 7 and 8, respectively; a n d the hydrody-

namic pressure term gp(y,Tr) was determined in step 6.

10. Determine by static analysis of the d a m subjected to equivalent

lateral forces fi(y), from step 9, applied to the u p s t r e a m face of the dam,

all the response quantities of interest, in particular the stresses through-

out the dam. Traditional procedures for design calculations m a y be used

wherein the direct and bending stresses across a horizontal section are

computed by elementary formulas for stresses in beams. Alternatively,

the finite element m e t h o d may be used for a more accurate static stress

analysis.

tion modes can be determined approximately for p u r p o s e s of prelimi-

nary design by the following computational steps:

1701

11. C o m p u t e fsc(y), the lateral forces associated with the higher vibra-

tion modes from Eq. 11 in which M1 and Lx were determined in steps 7

and 8, respectively; gp0(y) is determined from Fig. 5 presented here, or

Table 6 of Ref. 10; B1 is computed from Eq. 12; a n d ag is the m a x i m u m

ground acceleration, in ft/sec 2 , of the design earthquake. If H/Hs < 0.5,

computation of p0(y) may be avoided by using p„{y) ~ 0 and thus Bl

« 0.

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lateral forces / sc (y), from step 11, applied to the upstream face of the

dam, all the response quantities of interest, in particular the stresses

throughout the dam. The stress analysis m a y be carried out by the pro-

cedures mentioned in step 10.

Part HI.—The total earthquake forces and stresses in the d a m are de-

termined by the following computational step:

13. Compute the total value of any response quantity b y Eq. 14, in

which i\ and rsc are values of the response quantity determined in steps

10 and 11 associated with the fundamental a n d higher vibration m o d e s ,

respectively, and rst is its initial value prior to the earthquake due to

various loads, including the self-weight of the d a m , hydrostatic pres-

sure, and thermal effects.

required in the simplified analysis procedure are presented in nondi-

mensional form, implementation of the procedure in metric units is

straightforward. The few expressions and data requiring conversion to

metric units are noted in Ref. 10.

approximations were introduced to develop the simplified analysis pro-

cedure, and these were individually checked to ensure that they would

lead to acceptable results. In order to provide an overall evaluation of

the simplified analysis procedure, it is used to determine the earth-

quake-induced stresses in Pine Flat Dam, and the results are compared

with those obtained from a refined response history analysis, rigorously

including dam-water-foundation rock interaction and reservoir bottom

absorption effects, in which the d a m is idealized as a finite element sys-

tem.

System and G r o u n d Motion.—The system properties for the simpli-

fied analysis are taken to be the same as those assumed for the complete

response history analysis; the tallest, nonoverflow monolith of the d a m

is shown in Ref. 3; height of the dam, Hs = 400 ft, m o d u l u s of elasticity

of concrete, Es = 3.25 x 106 psi; unit weight of concrete = 155 pcf; d a m p -

ing ratio ^ = 5%; m o d u l u s of elasticity of foundation rock Ef = 3.25 x

10 psi; constant hysteretic damping coefficient of foundation rock, r\f =

0.10; depth of water, H = 381 ft; and, at the reservoir bottom, the wave

reflection coefficient a = 0.5.

The ground motion for which the d a m is analyzed is the S69E com-

ponent of the ground motion recorded at the Taft Lincoln School Tunnel

1702

TABLE 3.-—Pine Flat Dam Analysis Cases, Simplified Procedure Parameters, and

Fundamental Mode Properties from Simplified and Refined Analysis Procedures

FUNDAMENTAL MODE PROPERTIES

Parameters from Vibration Period,

Simplified Procedure Ti (sec) Damping Ratio, | i

Founda-

tion Simplified Refined Simplified Refined s„(r,,b)

Case rock Water Rr Rf tr if procedure procedure3 procedure procedure3 in £'sb

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(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12)

1 Rigid Empty 1.0 1.0 0 0 0.311 0.317 0.050 0.050 0.429

2 Rigid Full 1.213 1.0 0.030 0 0.377 0.386 0.071 0.076 0.312

3 Flexible Empty 1.0 1.187 0 0.068 0.369 0.386 0.098 0.126 0,281

4 Flexible Full 1.213 1.187 0.030 0.068 0.448 0.482 0.123 0.144 0.327

a

From Ref. 9.

S„ value corresponding to fi and ^ from simplified procedure.

during the Kern County, California, earthquake of July 21, 1952. The

response spectrum for this ground motion is s h o w n in Ref. 10. Such an

irregular spectrum of an individual ground motion is inappropriate in

conjunction with the simplified procedure, wherein a smooth design

spectrum is recommended, but is used here to provide direct compari-

son with the results obtained from the refined analysis procedure.

Computation of Earthquake Forces.—The d a m is analyzed by the

simplified analysis procedure for the four cases listed in Table 3. Imple-

mentation of the step-by-step analysis procedure described in the pre-

ceding section is summarized next with additional details available in

Ref. 10; all computations are performed for a unit w i d t h of the monolith:

1. For Es = 3.25 X 106 psi a n d Hs = 400 ft, from Eq. 8, T, =

(1.4)(400)/V3.25 x 106 = 0.311 sec.

2. For Es = 3.0 x 106 psi (rounded d o w n from 3.25 x 106 psi), a =

0.50 and H/Hs = 381/400 = 0.95. Table 2 of Ref. 10 gives R = 1.213, so

fr = (1.213)(0.311) = 0.377 sec.

3. From Eq. 9, T\ = (4)(381)/4,720 = 0.323 sec and Rw = 0.323/0.377

= 0.86.

4. For Ef/Es = 1, Table 3 of Ref. 10 gives Rf = 1.187, so f, =

(1.187)(0.311) = 0.369 sec for Case 3, and f, = (1.187)(0.377) = 0.448 sec

for Case 4.

5. For Cases 2 and 4, £r = 0.030 from Table 2 of Ref. 10 for Es = 3.0

x 106 psi (rounded d o w n from 3.25 x 106 psi), a = 0.50, a n d H/Hs =

0.95. For Cases 3 and 4, fj, = 0.068 from Table 3 of Ref. 10 for Ef/Es =

1 and r,; = 0.10. With £, = 0.05, Eq. 5 gives: £, = (0.05)/(1.213) + 0.030

= 0.071 for Case 2; & = (0.05)/(1.187) 3 + 0.068 = 0.098 for Case 3; a n d

li = (0.05)/[(1.213)(1.187) 3 ] + 0.030 + 0.068 = 0.123 for Case 4.

6. The values of gp(y) are obtained at 11 equally spaced levels from

Table 4 of Ref. 10 for Rw = 0.90 (by rounding Rw = 0.86 from step 3)

and a = 0.50, and multiplied by (0.0624)(381)(0.95) 2 = 21.5 kips/ft.

7. Evaluating Eq. 2b in discrete form gives M, = (l/g)(500 kips). From

Eq. 10a, M, = (1.213) 2 (l/g)(500) = (736 kips)/g.

8. Eq. 3b in discrete form gives L, = (1,390 kips)/g. From Table 2 Ap

= 0.274 for Rw = 0.90 and a = 0.50. Eq. 10b then gives U = 1,390/g +

[(0.0624)(381)2/2g](0.95)2(0.274) = (2,510 kips)/#. Consequently, for Cases

1703

1 and 3, LJMi = 1,390/500 = 2.78, and for Cases 2 a n d 4, L1/Ml =

2,510/736 = 3.41.

9. For each of the four cases, Eq. 6 was evaluated to obtain the equiv-

alent lateral forces fcty) at 11 equally spaced intervals along the height

of the dam, including the top and bottom, by substituting values for the

quantities computed in the preceding steps, computing the weight of

the d a m / u n i t height ws(y) from the monolith dimensions and the unit

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10, a n d t h e S^f-i,'^) from the response spectrum corresponding to the

Ti and ^ obtained in steps 4 and 5 (Table 3).

10. The static stress analysis of the dam subjected to the equivalent

lateral forces fr (y), from step 9, applied to the u p s t r e a m face of the d a m

is described in the next subsection, leading to response value rx at a

particular location in the dam.

11. For each of the four cases, Eq. 11 was evaluated to obtain the

equivalent lateral forces fsc(y) at 11 equally spaced intervals along the

height of the dam, including the top and bottom, by substituting nu-

merical values for the quantities computed in the preceding steps; ob-

taining gp0(y) from Table 6 of Ref. 10; using Eq. 12 to compute Bj =

0.052[(0.0624)(381)2/2g](0.95)2 = (212.5 kips)/g, leading to Bl/M1 = 212.5/

500 = 0.425; and substituting ag = 0.18 g.

12. The static stress analysis of the d a m subjected to the equivalent

lateral forces fsc(y), from step 11, applied to the upstream face of the d a m

is described in the next subsection, leading to response value rsc at a

particular location in the dam.

13. Compute the maximum total value of any response quantity by

combining rx from step 10, rsc from step 12, and rsl, the initial value prior

to the earthquake, according to Eq. 14; this is described further in the

next subsection.

fi{y) and/ s c (y) representing the maximum effects of the fundamental and

higher vibration modes, respectively, were computed in steps 9 a n d 11.

Dividing the d a m into ten blocks of equal height, each of these sets of

distributed forces is replaced by statically equivalent concentrated forces

at the centroids of the blocks. Considering the d a m monolith to be a

cantilever beam, the bending stresses are computed at the bottom of

each block using elementary formulas for stresses in beams. The normal

bending stresses are then transformed to principal stresses (Ref. 4). In

this simple stress analysis, the foundation rock is implicitly assumed to

be rigid.

The principal stresses cri and asc at any location in the d a m due to the

forces fx(y) and fsc(y), respectively, may be combined using the SRSS

combination rule, Eq. 13 (10). Based on this rule, the combined values

<rd along with the fundamental m o d e values a t for the m a x i m u m prin-

cipal stresses are presented in Table 4 for the four analysis cases. These

stresses occur at the upstream face w h e n the earthquake forces act in

the downstream direction, and at the downstream face w h e n the earth-

quake forces act in the upstream direction. The maximum principal stresses

at both faces of the monolith are s h o w n in Figs. 6 a n d 7.

Comparison with Refined Analysis Procedure.—The Pine Flat d a m

1704

TABLE 4.—Maximum Principa! Stresses (in psi) in Pine Fiat Dam due to S69E

Component of Taft Ground Motion (initiai Static Stresses Are Excluded)

Upstream Face Downstream Face

Foun-

dation Fundamental Fundamental

Case rock Water mode only SRSS Exact8 mode only SRSS Exact8

d) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)

1 Rigid Empty 241 247 223 333 338 272

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3 Flexible Empty 157 167 172 218 226 181

4 Flexible Full 276 278 218 431 433 229

a

From refined procedure, Ref. 9.

the response history of the dam, idealized as a finite element system,

due to the Taft ground motion is computed considering rigorously the

effects of dam-water-foundation rock interaction a n d of reservoir bottom

absorption. The results from Ref. 9 at some intermediate steps of the

analysis, in particular the resonant period and d a m p i n g ratio of the fun-

damental resonant response, are presented in Table 3, a n d the envelope

values of the earthquake-induced m a x i m u m principal stresses are pre-

sented in Table 4 and in Figs. 6 a n d 7.

It is apparent from Table 3 that the simplified procedure leads to ex-

cellent estimates of the resonant vibration period and t h e d a m p i n g ratio

for the fundamental mode. Because the response of concrete gravity dams

is dominated by the fundamental m o d e , this comparison provides a con-

in

(in psi) in Pine Flat Dam on Rigid Foun- (in psi) in Pine Flat Dam on Flexible

dation Rock due to S69E Component of Foundation Rock due to S69E Compo-

Taft Ground Motion (Initial Static nent of Taft Ground Motion (Initial Static

Stresses Are Excluded): (a) Case 1 — Stresses Are Excluded): (a) Case 3—

Empty Reservoir; (b) Case 2—Full Res- Empty Reservoir; (b) Case 4—Full Res-

ervoir ervoir

1705

firmation that the simplified analysis procedure is able to represent the

important effects of dam-water interaction, reservoir bottom absorption,

and dam-foundation rock interaction.

As shown in Table 4, the stresses obtained by the simplified procedure

considering only the fundamental vibration mode response are about

the same as those obtained by including higher mode responses with

the SRSS combination rule. For the system parameters and excitation

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considered in this example, the higher mode responses add only 2-10

psi to the stresses, indicating that these,can be neglected, in this case

and many other cases. However, in some cases depending on the vi-

bration periods and mode shapes of the dam and on the shape of the

earthquake response spectrum, the higher mode responses may be more

significant and should be included.

Considering only the fundamental mode response or obtaining the SRSS

combination of fundamental and higher mode responses, the simplified

procedure provides estimates of the maximum stress on the upstream

face that are sufficiently accurate—in comparison with the "exact" re-

sults—to be useful in the preliminary design phase. The accuracy of these

stresses depends, in part, on how well the resonant vibration period and

damping ratio for the fundamental mode are estimated in the simplified

procedure; e.g., in Case 4, the maximum stress at the upstream face is

overestimated by the simplified procedure primarily because it under-

estimates the damping ratio by about 2% (Table 3). While the simplified

procedure provides excellent estimates of the maximum stress on the

upstream face, at the same time it overestimates by 25-50% the maxi-

mum stress on the downstream face. This large discrepancy is primarily

due to the limitations of elementary beam theory in predicting stresses

near sloped faces. Similarly, the beam theory is incapable of reproducing

the stress concentration in the heel area of dams predicted by the refined

analysis (Figs. 6 and 7), and the stresses in that area are therefore under-

estimated.

The simplified procedure gives conservative, but reasonable, maxi-

mum stresses, with the exception of the heel area of dams with full res-

ervoir. The quality of the approximation is satisfactory for the prelimi-

nary phase in the design of new dams and in the safety evaluation of

existing dams, considering the complicated effects of dam-water-foun-

dation rock interactions and reservoir bottom absorption, the number of

approximations necessary to develop the simplified analysis procedure,

and noting that the results generally err on the conservative side.

CONCLUSIONS

new concrete gravity dams and for the seismic safety evaluation of ex-

isting dams (3). The procedure was based on two performance require-

ments: firstly, dams should remain essentially within the elastic range

of behavior for the most intense ground shaking expected to occur dur-

ing the useful life of the structure; and secondly, some cracking, which

is limited enough that it does not impair the ability of the dam to contain

the impounded water and is economically repairable, may be permitted

1706

if the most intense ground shaking that the seismic environment is ca-

pable of producing were to occur.

A two-stage procedure w a s proposed for the analysis p h a s e of elastic

design and safety evaluation of dams: (1) A simplified analysis proce-

dure in which the response due only to the fundamental vibration m o d e

is estimated directly from the earthquake design spectrum; a n d (2) a re-

fined response history analysis procedure for finite element idealizations

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phase of design a n d safety evaluation of dams a n d the latter for accu-

rately computing the dynamic response a n d checking the adequacy of

the preliminary evaluation (3).

At the time (1978) the d a m design procedure w a s presented, both of

these analysis procedures included the effects of dam-water interaction

and compressibility of water, b u t assumed rigid, non-absorptive reser-

voir bottom materials and neglected the effects of dam-foundation rock

interaction. Recently (1984), the refined response history analysis pro-

cedure and computer program have been extended to also include the

absorptive effects of reservoir bottom materials a n d dam-foundation rock

interaction effects (5,6). In this paper, the simplified analysis procedure

has been extended to include these important effects so that they can

now also be considered in the preliminary p h a s e of design a n d safety

evaluation of dams. Also included n o w in the simplified procedure is a

"static correction" m e t h o d to consider the response contributions of the

higher vibration modes. Thus the design procedure p r o p o s e d in 1978

(3), which is conceptually still valid, should utilize the n e w refined a n d

simplified analysis procedures.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

CEE-8401139 from the National Science Foundation to the University of

California, Berkeley, for which the writers are grateful. This work w a s

started while Gregory Fenves was a graduate s t u d e n t at Berkeley b u t

was completed subsequent to the submission of his doctoral dissertation

in May 1984. Both writers are grateful to H a n c h e n Tan, a graduate stu-

dent at the University of California at Berkeley, for c o m p u t i n g the stan-

dard data described in this paper.

APPENDIX.—REFERENCES

tures: Evaluation of Modal Solutions," Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE,

Vol. 108, No. 10, Oct., 1982, pp. 2175-2191.

2. Chopra, A. K., Dynamics of Structures, A Primer, Earthquake Engineering Re-

search Institute, Berkeley, Calif., 1981.

3. Chopra, A. K., "Earthquake Resistant Design of Concrete Gravity Dams,"

Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, Vol. 104, No. 6, Tun., 1978, pp. 953-

971.

4. Design of Gravity Dams, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Government Print-

ing Office, Denver, Colo., 1976.

5. Fenves, G., and Chopra, A. K., "EAGD-84: A Computer Program for Earth-

quake Analysis of Concrete Gravity Dams," Report No. UCB/EERC-84/11,

Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California, Berkeley,

Calif., 1984.

1707

6. Fenves, G., and Chopra, A. K., "Earthquake Analysis of Concrete Gravity

Dams Including Reservoir Bottom Absorption and Dam-Water-Foundation

Rock Interaction," Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, Vol. 12, No.

5, Sep.-Oct., 1984, pp. 663-680.

7. Fenves, G., and Chopra, A. K., "Effects of Reservoir Bottom Absorption and

Dam-Water-Foundation Rock Interaction on Frequency Response Functions

for Concrete Gravity Dams," Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics,

Vol. 13, No. 1, Jan.-Feb„ 1985, pp. 13-31.

Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by Aliah University on 04/12/17. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved.

Earthquake Response of Concrete Gravity Dams," Earthquake Engineering and

Structural Dynamics, Vol. 11, No. 6, Nov.-Dec, 1983, pp. 809-829.

9. Fenves, G., and Chopra, A. K., "Reservoir Bottom Absorption Effects in

Earthquake Response of Concrete Gravity Dams," Journal of Structural En-

gineering, ASCE, Vol. I l l , No. 3, Mar,, 1985, pp. 545-562.

10. Fenves, G., and Chopra, A. K., "Simplified Analysis for Earthquake Resist-

ant Design of Concrete Gravity Dams," Report No. UCB/EERC-85/10, Earth-

quake Engineering Research Center, University of California, Berkeley, Calif.,

1986.

11. Fenves, G., and Chopra, A. K., "Simplified Earthquake Analysis of Concrete

Gravity Dams: Combined Hydrodynamic and Foundation Interaction Ef-

fects," Journal of Engineering Mechanics, ASCE, Vol. I l l , No. 6, Jun., 1985,

pp. 736-756.

12. Fenves, G., and Chopra, A. K., "Simplified Earthquake Analysis of Concrete

Gravity Dams: Separate Hydrodynamic and Foundation Interaction Effects,"

Journal of Engineering Mechanics, ASCE, Vol. I l l , No. 6, Jun., 1985, pp. 715-

735.

13. Hansteen, O. E., and Bell, K., "On the Accuracy of Mode Superposition

Analysis in Structural Dynamics," Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dy-

namics, Vol. 7, No. 5, Sep.-Oct., 1979, pp. 405-411.

14. Rosenblueth, E., "Presion Hidrodinamica en Presas Debida a la Aceleraci6n

Vertical con Refraccion en el Fonda," Proceedings, 2nd Congreso Nacional de

lngenierta Sismica, Vol. 3, Sociedad Mexicana de Ingeniena and Universidad

Veracruzana, Veracruz, Mexico, 1968 (in Spanish).

15. Veletsos, A. S., "Dynamics of Structure-Foundation Systems," Structural and

Geotechnical Mechanics, W. J. Hall, Ed., Prentice-Hall, Clifton, N.J., 1977.

1708

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