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By Anil K. Chopra, 1 Member, ASCE, and Liping Zhang, 2

Student Member, ASCE

fects to determine the response history of earthquake-induced sliding of a gravity

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dam monolith supported without bond on a horizontal, planar surface of rock. The

results presented indicate that the permanent sliding displacements of dams induced

by ground motions with peak acceleration of 0.5 g may range from a few inches

to a couple of feet. Also examined in this work is the possibility of estimating the

sliding displacement of a flexible dam due to ground acceleration by analyzing the

sliding response of a rigid dam due to an average (over height) acceleration com-

puted from linear analysis of the flexible dam without sliding at the base. The

results presented indicate that this approximate procedure, which has been widely

used in estimating the deformations of embankment dams, can provide an order-

of-magnitude estimate of the concrete dam sliding displacement, which is conser-

vative for most cases when this displacement is practically significant.

INTRODUCTION

very simple procedures. Based on a seismic coefficient of 0.1 or less, the

earthquake forces were treated as static forces without considering the dy-

namic response of the dam-water-foundation rock system or ground-motion

characteristics. The design criteria required that a specified factor of safety

be provided against overturning, sliding, and overstressing of the dam mon-

olith; in particular, tension was usually not permitted. It generally has been

believed that stresses are not a controlling factor in the design of dams so

that the traditional design procedures were concerned most with satisfying

the overturning and sliding stability criteria. Traditional design procedures

could impose the no-tension criteria and require large factors of safety

against overturning or sliding because the earthquake forces considered were

unrealistically small (Chopra 1978), in part because the dynamic response

of the dam was ignored.

With realistic earthquake forces arising from the dynamic response of the

dam, significant tensile stresses can be expected during intense ground shak-

ing. The most notable example is, of course, the tensile cracking of Koyna

Dam during an earthquake in 1967 (Chopra and Chakrabarti 1973). As

a result, it is now common to accept tensile stresses predicted by linear

analyses approaching and even exceeding the tensile strength of concrete

in evaluating the safety of an existing dam for the maximum credible

earthquake.

Similarly, it is not possible to satisfy the traditionally used overturning

as a Miller Res. Prof, in the Miller Inst, for Basic Res. in Sci., Univ. of California,

Berkeley, C A .

2

Grad. Student, Dept. of Civ. Engrg., Univ. of California, Berkeley, C A .

Note. Discussion open until May 1, 1992. To extend the closing date one month,

a written request must be filed with the A S C E Manager of Journals. The manuscript

for this paper was submitted for review and possible publication on December 19,

1990. This paper is part of the Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 117, No. 12,

December, 1991. © A S C E , ISSN 0733-9445/91/0012-3698/$1.00 + $.15 per page.

Paper No. 26468.

3698

and sliding stability criteria with static application of lateral earthquake

forces representative of the peak dynamic response of the dam. However,

such static analysis of sliding and overturning has little meaning because the

earthquake forces vary with time and alternate between the upstream and

downstream directions. Therefore, there is a need to investigate the dynamic

sliding and rocking response of gravity dam monoliths. Work on the sliding

problem has been reported (Shieh and Yeh 1975; Mlakar 1987; Leger and

Katsouli 1989).

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induced sliding of gravity dams. The analyses presented initially consider

the dam as rigid, an assumption that may be reasonable for short dams.

These analyses are reminiscent of earlier studies on dynamics of rigid blocks

(Ishiyama 1982). Subsequently, dam flexibility is considered to obtain more

realistic estimates of sliding, a problem that has been considered in the

context of building response (Mostaghel and Tanbakuchi 1982). Finally, we

explore whether useful estimates of sliding displacement at the base of

flexible dams can be obtained from the sliding-block analyses that are com-

monly used to determine the earthquake-induced deformations of embank-

ment dams (Makdisi and Seed 1978; Lin and Whitman 1983).

Critical Accelerations

Consider a gravity dam monolith of mass M and weight W, assumed to

be a rigid body, supported on horizontal ground that is undergoing accel-

eration a{t). In reality, the dam monolith is bonded to the rough surface of

the rock. However, consistent with the exploratory nature of this work and

with the goal of achieving conservative estimates of the sliding displacement,

the horizontal base of the dam is assumed to be resting on horizontal ground

without any mutual bond. Thus the motion of the dam relative to the ground

is resisted by friction between the base of the dam and the ground surface.

Selection of an appropriate value for the coefficient of friction \is is com-

plicated because after the bond between the dam and supporting rock is

overcome by earthquake-induced forces on the dam, the cracked surface

will be rough. The coefficient of friction for such a rough surface would be

significantly higher than for a planar dam-rock interface. Thus significantly

larger values are selected for u^ in this work compared with the range of

0.5-0.63 summarized by Mlakar (1987).

The hydrostatic force Hs acting on the dam tends to push the dam in the

downstream direction even without any ground motion. Prevention of such

sliding is, of course, one of the many requirements in the design of dams.

The inertia force associated with the mass of the dam is —Ma(t) or

— (W/g)a(t), acting opposite to the direction of the acceleration. Thus, this

force acts in the downstream direction at those time instants when the ground

acceleration a{i) is in the upstream direction. Neglecting water compressi-

bility, an appropriate assumption for this exploratory investigation, the hy-

drodynamic force Hd also acts opposite to the acceleration, i.e., in the

downstream direction [Fig. 1(a)], and is given by

where p0{y) = the hydrodynamic pressure on the upstream face of the dam

due to unit ground acceleration in the upstream direction; and Mao and

3699

tf

\ g

H.M

Id

h —'

H.

Jw \

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lO.OSl \

- r- \

——LM. -^

U

" F

1

»*i

(a) (b)>

FIG. 1. Forces Acting on Dam before Sliding: (a) Downstream Sliding; (to) Up-

stream Sliding

Wao = the added mass and weight of water, which moving with the dam

produces inertia force equal to the hydrodynamic force. An equation for

p0iy) is available (Chopra and Zhang 1991) from which the added mass Mao

is given by

TT , ^ i (111 " l)3

Consider the equilibrium of forces shown in Fig. 1(a), where the largest

friction force F that can develop before the dam begins to slide is |x.(W —

U), where U = the uplift force at the dam base. Uplift pressures are shown

in Fig. 1(a) that are representative of design practice ("Design Criteria"

1974). The dam is in a state of incipient sliding in the downstream direction

when the upstream acceleration a(t) reaches the critical (or limiting or yield)

acceleration ac, given by

Oc

[ixs(W - U) - Hs] (3a)

g w + w„,

Similarly, the dam is in a state of incipient sliding in the upstream direction

when the downstream acceleration a(t) reaches the critical acceleration ac,

given by

a, 1

[^(W - U) + Hs] (3b)

9 w + w„,

It is apparent from (3a) and (3b) that because the hydrostatic force always

acts in the downstream direction, the critical acceleration necessary to slide

the dam downstream is smaller than that required to move the dam upstream

into the reservoir. Fig. 2 shows that the ground acceleration necessary to

cause sliding in the downstream direction is much smaller than that required

to cause upstream sliding.

The dam will tip about one edge of the base if the overturning moment

exceeds the restoring moment. By considering the forces shown in Fig. 1(a),

3700

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I

1.2

h/h d =1; M. = 1.0 d/s sliding, a = 0 . 8

1.0

1 1 1 1 1 I

u/s sliding

-^0.8

u/s tipping

u

o

c -

- - - " u / s tipping ^'

o 0.6 - ^ ^ ^ ^ M . = 1.5

J) r

a> d / s tipping

o / d / s tipping :

-J

o

o < ^"^^---^^25

0.4

"5 _

o 1

d / s sliding ^~~~~^~~-----^1.0

o

0.2 - •

d / s sliding ^ — - ^ 0 8

0.0 "

i r——i r T i 1 i •

0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 0.8 0.9 1.0

Friction Coefficient, /x, Downstream Slope, a h/hd

FIG. 2. Critical Accelerations a, for Sliding and Tipping of Dams Considering Design Uplift Force; Results Are Presented for Dams

with Triangular Cross Section of Any Height With Downstream Face Slope a, for Various Values of \LS and hlhd; wd = 150 Ibs/cuft,

w = 62.5 Ib/cu ft

the ground acceleration ac necessary to initiate downstream tipping of the

dam about its toe can be determined. Similarly, the ground acceleration ac

necessary to initiate upstream tipping of the dam about its heel can be

evaluated. Determined from the equations derived by Chopra and Zhang

(1991), the tipping accelerations also are shown in Fig. 2. They are inde-

pendent of the coefficient of friction.

These results permit several observations: Over a wide range of param-

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eters, which includes the practical range of dam geometry and the friction

coefficient, downstream sliding of the dam will be initiated before tipping

or upstream sliding. Large downstream accelerations will usually cause up-

stream tipping of the dam about its heel before upstream sliding. However,

since earthquake ground acceleration is a zero-mean random process, down-

stream sliding of the dam, which requires relatively small upstream accel-

eration, is likely to be initiated before upstream tipping of the dam, which

requires much larger downstream acceleration. Even if the ground motion

contains spikes of downstream acceleration large enough to initiate tipping,

the influence of the resulting rocking of the dam on its sliding motion is

negligible (Chopra and Zhang 1991). Thus, the rocking motion may be

ignored in evaluating the sliding response.

Since downstream sliding is the most significant mode of motion of a rigid

dam, it is useful to further examine the critical acceleration ac necessary to

initiate such motion.Based on (3a) and Fig. 2, ac increases with an increasing

coefficient of friction \xs [Fig. 2(a)], with decreasing hlhd, the ratio of water

depth to dam height [Fig. 2(c)], and as the slope a of the downstream face

of the dam becomes flatter [Fig. 2(b)]. Note that for a fixed hlhd, ac is

independent of the dam height hd. For a triangular dam cross section with

a typical downstream face slope of a = 0.8, a practical range of |xs between

1.0 and 1.5, and hlhd between 0.9 and 1.0, (3a) and Fig. 2 indicate that the

critical acceleration ac is in the range 0.31-0.74 g if uplift pressures are

ignored, and 0.2-0.59 g if uplift is considered. In reality, the acceleration

necessary to initiate downstream sliding of the dam would, of course, be

much larger due to the mutual bond between the dam and the rock foun-

dation. Thus, gravity dams would not be expected to slide at the base unless

the ground motion is unusually intense.

The permanent sliding displacement at the end of the ground motion is

closely related to the critical acceleration ac necessary to initiate downstream

sliding. Therefore, the permanent sliding displacement would be expected

to increase as the coefficient of friction decreases, the slope of the down-

stream face becomes steeper, the water depth increases, or the uplift force

increases.

Governing Equations

Considering the dynamic equilibrium offerees in the horizontal direction,

the equations governing the sliding displacement s can be derived. If the

dam is sliding in the downstream direction, the governing equation is

Ms(t) = ~Ma{t) + Hs + Hd(t) - F (4a)

which for upstream sliding becomes

Ms(t) = -Ma(t) + Hs + Hd(t) + F (4b)

The two equations differ only by the algebraic sign associated with the

friction force, since it is always opposite to the sliding direction. The friction

force is

3702

F = »d(W - U) (5)

where |x(, = the coefficient of dynamic friction. The hydrodynamic force is

given by

HJt) = -Mao[a(t) + m (6)

where the added mass Mao of water has been defined earlier, and the neg-

ative sign indicates that at any instant of time the hydrodynamic force

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stituting (5) and (6) into (4) leads to

(M + Mao)s(t) = -(M + Mao)a(t) + Hs ± \id(MQ - U) (7)

where the plus and minus signs in the last term are for upstream and down-

stream sliding, respectively. Eq. (7) implies that the total acceleration during

sliding is independent of time, and thus the hydrodynamic force Hd(t) of

(6) also is constant.

Sliding is initiated in the downstream direction when the upstream ground

acceleration \a(i)\ exceeds the critical acceleration ac given by (3a). Down-

stream sliding ends when two conditions are satisfied: (1) The sliding velocity

vanishes, i.e., s(t) = 0; and (2) the ground acceleration falls below the

critical acceleration, i.e., \a(t)\ < as of (3a). Upstream sliding is initiated

when the downstream ground acceleration a(t) exceeds the critical accel-

eration ac of (3b). Upstream sliding ends when s(t) = 0 and \a(t)\ < ac of

(3b).

Computed from a step-by-step analytical solution of the governing equa-

tions (Chopra and Zhang 1991) combined with the sliding criteria presented

in the preceding section, the sliding response of a dam is shown in Fig. 3.

The dam chosen has an idealized triangular cross-section with downstream

face slope of 0.8 horizontal to 1 vertical, the ratio hlhd of water depth to

dam height is 1, and the coefficients m and u.rf of static and dynamic friction

are selected as 1.0. Hydrostatic, hydrodynamic, and uplift forces are con-

sidered in the analysis. From (3a) and (3b), the minimum accelerations ac

necessary to initiate sliding of the selected system in the downstream and

upstream directions are 0.20 g and 0.87 g, respectively. Similarly, tipping

of this system can be initiated in the downstream and upstream directions

if the acceleration exceeds 0.48 g and 0.72 g, respectively. Thus, if the peak

ground acceleration is less than 0.20 g, the dam would move with the ground

without any sliding or tipping. Such would be the case, for example, if the

excitation were the S69E component of the Taft (1952) ground motion with

peak acceleration of 0.18 g. To produce a significant sliding response, this

ground motion is amplified to a peak acceleration of 0.5 g (Fig. 3). It should

be noted that in this example, tipping of the dam is not possible because

the peak acceleration is smaller than the critical acceleration for initiating

upstream-tipping (0.72 g), and the acceleration required for starting down-

stream tipping (0.48 g) is larger than that for downstream sliding (0.2 g).

The sliding displacement of the dam is plotted as a function of time in

Fig. 3, wherein the time durations during which sliding occurs also are

identified. The results are independent of the dam height hd. Sliding is

initiated in the downstream direction when the- upstream ground accelera-

tion exceeds 0.20 g; however, the sliding motion soon stops, and the dam

moves with the ground until the next downstream sliding phase begins. The

3703

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d/s

sliding -

i: i

u/s

sliding

0.3

C 0.2 -H r

0.1 -

0.0

10 15 20

Time, Seconds

FIG. 3. Sliding Displacement of Rigid Triangular Dam Due to Taft S69E Ground

Motion, Amplified to 0.5 g, Considering Hydrostatic, Hydrodynamic, and Design

Uplift Forces; hlhd = 1, a = 0.8, (x, = (Arf = 1.0; Results Are Valid for All Dam

Heights hd

duration of each sliding phase and the distance the dam slides in the down-

stream direction depend on the amplitude and time variation of acceleration

during that sliding phase. The dam slides more in the downstream direction

during each of the sliding phases and the displacement continues to increase,

leaving a permanent displacement when the ground motion ends. The per-

manent displacement depends, of course, on the amplitudes, time variation,

and duration of the ground acceleration. However, even for this strong

ground shaking, the permanent displacement is less than 0.25 ft, suggesting

that sliding of gravity dams during most earthquakes should be limited.

Because downstream sliding of the dam is initiated when the upstream

ground acceleration exceeds the critical acceleration ac, given by (3a), and

is increased during each subsequent exceedance, ac is the key parameter

3704

r

> that controls the sliding response of the dam and its permanent displacement.

The permanent displacement generally would be larger for systems with

smaller values of ac, because of a smaller coefficient of friction, steeper

slope of the downstream face, increasing depth of impounded water, or

increasing uplift force. For a given system and time variation of ground

acceleration, the sliding displacement increases, of course, with the intensity

of the ground motion.

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and the cumulative sliding displacement. This is shown in Fig. 4 where the

sliding displacement of the previously described dam system due to the Taft

S69E and vertical components is presented; the ground motion components

are amplified by the same factor that results in a peak acceleration of 0.5

g for the horizontal component. These results were computed from a gen-

eralization of the previously described governing equations and critical ac-

celerations for horizontal ground motion to include vertical excitation (Cho-

pra and Zhang 1991). Fig. 4 shows that with vertical ground motion, the

dam also slides during most of the sliding phases that developed during

horizontal ground motion, and during most of these phases the dam slides

more than it did without vertical ground motion. A few additional sliding

phases also develop with vertical ground motion. Results of many analyses

covering a range of system properties and ground motions have demon-

strated that the sliding displacement usually increases because of vertical

ground acceleration.

The aforementioned analyses are reminiscent of the sliding analyses of

rigid blocks (Newmark 1965; Franklin and Chang 1977) that have been used

to determine the earthquake-induced deformations of embankment dams.

Upper-bound equations (Newmark 1965), as well as probabilistic results

(Lin and Whitman 1986), are available to estimate the permanent sliding

displacement of a rigid block. These results may be applied to concrete

gravity dams (Chopra and Zhang 1991).

SLIDING RESPONSE OF FLEXIBLE D A M S

Governing Equations

The response of short-vibration-period structures such as concrete gravity

dams to earthquake ground motion is primarily due to the fundamental

mode of vibration. It is therefore appropriate in this exploratory work on

the sliding of dams to consider only the contribution of the fundamental

vibration mode to the dam response. Thus, the deformations of the dam

can be expressed as

u(y, t) = 4 . ^ ) ^ ( 0 (8)

where §i(y) = the fundamental vibration mode shape; and Yx(t) = the

associated modal coordinate.

Under the approximation of (8), the equation of motion for the dam when

it is not sliding relative to the ground can be expressed as

where

flu

M, = Jo m(y)[Uy)f dy (10)

3705

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Verticol Component

o

o

< 0- Wfw**^^^^

-1-

6/s -

sliding

u/s

I I IfLIllLLJ II

sliding _

0.3

with vertical ground motion

_T

£ 0.2 -

without vertical ground motion

CL

in

5

0.1

i/i

0.0 1—i—i—i—)—r T 1 1 1 -

5 10 15 20

Time, Seconds

FIG. 4. Sliding Displacement of Rigid Triangular Dam Due to Amplified Taft Ground

Motion Considering Hydrostatic, Hydrodynamic, and Design Uplift Forces; hlhd =

1.0, a = 0.8, \s,s = (xrf = 1.0; Horizontal and Vertical Components were Amplified

by 2.79 Leading to Peak Horizontal Acceleration of 0.5 g

is the generalized mass, in which m(y) = the mass per unit height of the

dam; ^ = the fraction of critical damping; a^ = the fundamental vibration

frequency of the dam on fixed base with empty reservoir; and

•hd

Lx = I m(y)^(y) dy (11)

and p(y, t) = the hydrodynamic pressure on the upstream face of the dam.

3706

Neglecting water compressibility, an appropriate assumption for this ex-

ploratory investigation, the hydrodynamic pressurep(y, i) can be expressed

as

piy, t) = -Po(y)a(t) - PAy)%(t) (12)

where p0(y) = the hydrodynamic pressure due to unit upstream acceleration

of a rigid dam; and the pressure pi(y) results from unit upstream acceleration

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Yly i.e., acceleration $i(y) of the dam in the upstream direction. Expressions

for pa(y) andpj(v) are available (Chopra and Zhang 1991).

The substitution of (12) into (9) leads to

(M1 + M a l )?! + ^ ( ^ A ) ? ! + (wfAfOyi = -(L1 + Lal)a(t) •••• (13)

where

h

Ltti = I0 Po(y)4n(y) dy (14a)

h

Ki = 0

Pi(y)4>i(y) dy (146)

When the dam is sliding at its base relative to the supporting ground, the

acceleration at the dam base is the ground acceleration a(t) plus the accel-

eration associated with the sliding displacement s. As a result, (13) becomes

(M, + M^Y, + (L, + Lai)s + ?1(2M1o>1)i'i + {*^M1)Y1

= - ( £ , ! + Lal)a(t) (15)

The overall equilibrium of the dam is expressed by a modification of (7)

for a rigid dam to consider the additional inertia and hydrodynamic force

associated with dam flexibility

(M + Mao)s + (Lx + LJY,

= -(M + Mao)a(t) + Hs± (xrf(Mg - U) (16)

where Mao is defined earlier in (2) and

If the dam does not deform, i.e., Y1 = 0, (16) reduces to (7), derived earlier

for a rigid dam.

Sliding is initiated in the downstream direction when the forces tending

to slide the dam exceed the friction force at the base

\-{M + M,w)a(t) - (L, + L^Y, + Hs\ > ^(Mg - U) (18)

where Y± = the displacement during the nonsliding phase, which is governed

by (13). Downstream sliding ends when the sliding velocity determined by

solution of (15) and (16) becomes zero.

Sliding Responses

The response of a 400-ft-tall dam of triangular cross section is determined

by a step-by-step analytical solution of the governing equations (Chopra

and Zhang 1991), combined with the sliding criteria presented in the pre-

3707

ceding section. The fundamental vibration period of the dam on a fixed

base with an empty reservoir was computed from T1 — \AhJ\TEd, where

Ed = the elastic modulus of the concrete, and the mode shape was taken

from Chopra (1970) as ^(y) = 0.181(y/hd) + 0.8l9(y/hd)2. Fig. 5 shows

the crest displacement resulting from deformation of the dam, the sliding

displacement of the dam at its base, and the time durations during which

sliding occurs. Just as in the case of a rigid dam, the dam slides only in the

downstream direction. As mentioned earlier, a rigid dam slides in the down-

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-^<H4%JWW

o

d/s -

sliding

u/s

n n nn nun nun I N 11 i

sliding _

^ 0.5

Time, Seconds

FIG. 5. Sliding Displacement of Flexible Triangular Dam Due to Taft S69E Ground

Motion, Amplified to Peak Acceleration 0.5 g, Considering Hydrostatic, Hydrody-

namic, and Design Uplift Forces; hd = 400 ft, hlhd = 1, a = 0.8, ^ = |xrf = 1.0, Ed

= 4 x 10s psi, i = 5%

3708

termined value of critical acceleration ac, which depends on the dam ge-

ometry and the friction coefficient. In case of a flexible dam, ac depends

on the dynamic response of the dam [see (18)] and thus varies with time,

being less than or exceeding the value for rigid dam. Dam flexibility modifies

the number and duration of the sliding phases, leading to increased sliding

displacement in this case.

As is shown in Fig. 6, the permanent sliding displacement of the dam

varies with its elastic modulus in a manner that does not display obvious

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of the ordinates of the response spectrum with vibration period 7\ of the

dam. For the selected ground motion, dam flexibility has the effect of

increasing the permanent sliding displacement of dams with concrete mod-

ulus over a wide practical range. However, for unrealistically flexible dams,

the permanent sliding displacement may be smaller than that for a rigid

dam, and an extremely flexible dam would not slide at all.

The permanent sliding displacements of 400-ft- and 200-ft-tall triangular

dams are shown in Fig. 7 for several values of the elastic modulus of the

dam concrete and in Fig. 8 for a range of friction coefficient values for four

ground motions, each amplified to have a peak acceleration of 0.5 g. The

sliding displacement of a system varies with ground motion, indicating that

the responses depend on the frequency content of the ground motion. More-

over, unlike the case of rigid dams, the permanent sliding displacements of

flexible dams depend on the size of the dam because of its influence on the

vibration period T1. Comparison of permanent sliding displacements of rigid

and flexible dams indicates that dam flexibility generally increases the sliding

displacement; however, as for rigid dams, the sliding displacement decreases

monotonically with an increasing coefficient of friction.

sliding displacement of a flexible concrete dam due to ground acceleration

Rigid Dam

0.5

10

Time. Seconds

FIG. 6. Sliding Displacements of Flexible, Triangular Dams Due to Taft S69E Ground

Motion, Amplified to 0.5 g Peak Acceleration, Considering Hydrostatic, Hydrody-

namic and Design Uplift Forces; hd = 400 ft, hlhd = 1, a = 0.8, ^ = p.d = 1.0, £

= 5%

3709

h„=400 ft h„=200 ft

A El Centra SOOE, 1940

» El Centra S90W, 1940

0 o Toft S69E, 1952

p Taft S21W, 1952

Q \

X '

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1 -

V- A \

k

""~*A

I i r 0 | I | | I | I | I f I | 1

1 2 3 4 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 : 6 7 8

Ed, million psi Ed, million psi

Triangular Dams with Elastic Modulus Ed\ hlhd = 1, a = 0.8, ^ = \xd = 1.0; £ =

5%

A • e a Rigid Dam A El Centra SOOE, 1940

A 0 o P Flexible Dam 0 El Centra S90W, 1940

o Taft S69E, 1952

a Taft S21W, 1952

§ 10"

s

0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6

Coefficient of Friction; hlhd = 1, a = 0.8, £ = 5%. Results are for Flexible Dams

of Height hd as Shown and Ed = 4 x 106 psi and for Rigid Dams of All hd

ysis (Makdisi and Seed 1978). In this approximate procedure, the dam is

treated as rigid, and its sliding response to base acceleration a(t) is analyzed.

This average acceleration a(f) is determined such that the associated inertia

force of the rigid dam is equal to the total inertia force of the flexible dam

due to ground motion a(t), computed by linear analysis of this dam without

any sliding at the base. An additional factor that requires consideration in

3710

the case of gravity dams is the influence of the impounded water on dam

response.

Analysis Procedure

Consistent with the preceding sections, the deformation response of the

dam on a fixed base is represented by the fundamental mode contribution

(8), and the governing equation is given by (13), wherein the hydrodynamic

contributions appear as a generalized added mass Mal and generalized added

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the dam in its fundamental mode of vibration are completely and exactly

accounted for by considering

m

"*>-5$

as an added water mass per unit height of the dam. It can be shown that

(13) is also the equation of motion for a dam in air with mass distribution

m(y) = m(y) + ma(y) (20)

constrained to vibrate in the shape cj>j(y), with ma(y) given by (19). The

added hydrodynamic mass depends on the mode shape <$>i(y).

On the other hand, for many years, the concept of an added hydrodynamic

mass representing the inertial influence of water interacting with a structure

has been based on the assumption of a rigid structure, i.e.

ma(y) = Po(y) (21)

The additional generalized excitation term in the first mode associated with

this added mass is /ma(y)())1(y) dy, which is equal to Lai. However, the

additional generalized mass term associated with the added mass of (21),

given by Jp0(y)[<$>i(y)]2 dy, is not exactly equal to Mal. Consequently, the

added mass defined by (21), which does not depend on the vibration mode

shapes of the dam, is not an exact representation of hydrodynamic effects.

However, this approximate representation is accurate enough for practical

applications (Goyal and Chopra 1989). Thus, in an approximate sense, the

added mass of (21), which was initially introduced in (1) for rigid dams,

also applies to the deformational response of flexible dams. This will be

confirmed later by numerical results. The added mass of (21) has the ad-

vantage of permitting future analyses that consider several vibration modes

of the dam and use response spectrum procedures.

Defining the virtual mass m(y) of the dam as given by (20), wherein the

added mass ma(y) is defined by (21), the equation of motion of the dam,

constrained to deform in the fundamental mode shape, is a modified version

of (13)

Mi?! + ^1(2M1o)1)iri + (oijMi)Yi = -Li/ait) (22)

where

Ml = m(y)[^(y)f dy (23a)

L, = j m(y)^(y) dy , (236)

Eq. (22) can be rewritten as

3711

y, + 2|1di1y1 + d>?y, = - | g a(r) (24)

where the vibration frequency d>! and damping ratio | l t including hydro-

dynamic effects, are related to the corresponding properties of the dam

alone

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(25a)

li = — €1 (256)

y,(0 ^ s f t . L f ) : (26)

degree-of-freedom system with natural vibration frequency ibl and damping

ratio | x to ground acceleration a(t). Thus, the total acceleration of the dam

without any sliding at the base is

u'(y, t) = a{t) + 4>i(y)Ht) (27)

An average acceleration a(t) is defined so that the associated inertia force

of a rigid dam is equal to the inertia force of the flexible dam associated

with its accelerations defined by (27)

J

5(0 = y ^ ' ° ^ (28)

J miy) dy

where the denominator is the total mass M of the dam. Substituting (26)

and (27) into (28) leads to

The sliding displacement of the flexible dam is computed in the approx-

imate procedure by analyzing the dam, assumed as rigid, subjected to a(t).

The average acceleration a(t) of the flexible dam and the resulting sliding

displacement of the rigid dam can also be computed with hydrodynamic

effects represented exactly, i.e., without introducing the added mass ap-

proximation. In this case also, a(t) is given by (28) and ii'(y, t) by (27),

with Yx(f) obtained by solving (13) instead of (22).

The average accelerations a(t) computed by the two approaches just de-

scribed are compared in Figs. 9 and 10. The results presented are for a

triangular dam 400 ft tall with elastic modulus Ed = 2 x 106 psi. The dam

is analyzed for two excitations a(t), each scaled to a peak acceleration of

0.5 g. This comparison indicates that the added mass representation of

hydrodynamic effects may lead to smaller (Fig. 9) or larger (Fig. 10) values

of a(t) and thus of the sliding displacements. When hydrodynamic effects

are approximated by an added mass, the vibration period and damping ratio

3712

Toft S21W motion scaled to 0.5g

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10

Time, Seconds

FIG. 9. Average Acceleration a(t) of Fixed-Base Flexible Dam (Ed = 2 x 106 psi)

and Sliding Displacement s(i) of Rigid Dam Due to Base Acceleration a{i) Computed

for Two Representations of Hydrodynamic Effects; hd = 400 ft, hlhd = 1, a = 0.8,

p,s = fjLrf = 1.0, g = 5%

0.5 •

0.0 'SfM/

-0.5 •

0.81 - , - 0 . 8 6

I0'

-1-

z.o -

* 1.5-

r Hydrodynamic Effects

Exact

Added Mass

CT.0.5 -

1 1 i

oo 0.0 - 10

Time, Seconds

FIG. 10. Average Acceleration a(t) of Fixed-Base Flexible Dam (Ed = 2 x 106 psi)

and Sliding Displacement s(t) of Rigid Dam Due to Base Acceleration a(t) Computed

for Two Representations of Hydrodynamic Effects; hd = 400 ft, hlhd = 1, a = 0.8,

(JL, = fi,d = 1.0, i = 5%

of the dam would differ from their respective values with exact treatment

of hydrodynamic effects. Thus, the relative values of the response a(t) ob-

tained with the two hydrodynamic representations depend on the shape of

the response spectrum around these vibration periods.

The permanent sliding displacements of the rigid dam due to the two sets

3713

of a(t) are compared in Fig. 11 for a large number of dam systems and four

excitations a(t), chosen as four different recorded earthquake motions, each

scaled to a peak acceleration of 0.5 g. In Fig. 11, a,„ = peak value of a{t)

computed with an exact representation of hydrodynamic effects. In the

added hydrodynamic mass approach, the sliding displacement is underes-

timated for most of the systems and excitations considered; exceptions are

systems with larger values of ac/a,„, i.e., dams for which critical acceleration

is relatively large, subjected to El Centro excitation.

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An overall evaluation of the aforementioned approximate procedure that

determines the sliding displacement of a rigid dam due to acceleration a(t)

given by (29) is shown in Fig. 12, wherein the results are compared with

the exact sliding analysis of a flexible dam presented in a preceding section.

As determined by the two analyses, sliding starts at about the same time

instant, and the sliding displacements are similar in the early stage of ground

shaking, with one result being higher or lower than the other depending on

the time instant. The sliding displacements determined from the two analyses

tend to diverge at later stages of ground shaking, with the approximate

analysis overestimating the sliding displacement at the end of the ground

shaking in one case and underestimating it in the other.

These permanent sliding displacements determined by the two analyses

for a large number of dams and four ground motions, each amplified to

have a peak acceleration of 0.5 g, are compared in Fig. 13 and Table 1;

am = peak value of a(t) computed with an added mass representation of

hydrodynamic effects. The approximate procedure provides a conservative

estimate of the dam sliding displacement for systems and excitations with

smaller aclam, i.e., relatively strong motion. This conservatism is fortuitous

FIG. 11. Permanent Sliding Displacement of Rigid Dams Due to Base Acceleration

a(t) Computed for Two Representations of Hydrodynamic Effects

3714

Exact E d =2*10 6 psi

Approximate

0.5 -

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o 0.0

£ 2-0

w E d =4*10 B psi

a

en

c

'$ 1.5

_r

1.0

0.5

0.0 i—i—|—i—r

10 15 20

Time, Seconds

FIG. 12. Comparison of Exact and Approximate (Sliding Analysis of Rigid Dam

Due to Ti(i); Added Hydrodynamic Mass) Sliding Displacement of Flexible Dams

Due to Taft S69E Ground Motion (1952), Amplified to Have Peak Acceleration of

0.5 g; hd = 400 ft; hlhd = 1, a = 0.8, y,s = ^ = 1.0, £ = 5%

because these are the very cases in which the displacement can be several

feet and thus may be of practical significance. In contrast, the sliding dis-

placement estimate errs on the unconservative side when acfam is large, i.e.,

relatively weak motion. However, in these cases, this lack of conservatism

in the procedure is not of significant consequence because the sliding dis-

placement is not large; it ranges from a few inches to a foot.

The approximate procedure can provide an order-of-magnitude estimate

but not an accurate prediction of the permanent sliding displacement. Errors

of as much as 86% occur in the cases considered. These errors do not

decrease significantly by avoiding the approximation in representing hydro-

dynamic effects (Chopra and Zhang 1991). That an exact treatment of

hydrodynamic effects can lead to larger errors- in many cases (Chopra and

Zhang 1991) should not be surprising, because both variations of the ap-

3715

f 11

|H

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ii" "

A « a a

A o o a

Exact

Approximate

(ill

A El Centro S00E, 1940

0 El Centro S90W, 1940

o Taft S69E, 1952

• Taft S21W, 1952

10 -'-

a./am

FIG. 13. Comparison of Exact and Approximate (Sliding Analysis of Rigid Dam

Due to a(t); Added Hydrodynamic Mass) Values of Permanent Sliding Displacement

of Flexible Dams Due to Four Ground Motions

flexible dam.

CONCLUSIONS

gation of earthquake-induced sliding displacement of gravity dam monoliths.

Analytical procedures have been developed considering hydrodynamic

effects to determine the response history of earthquake-induced sliding of

a gravity dam monolith supported without bond on the horizontal, planar

surface of rock. The bond between the dam and supporting rock and the

roughness of the cracked interface are ignored. These are simplifying as-

sumptions consistent with the exploratory nature of this work and with the

goal of achieving conservative estimates of the sliding displacement. The

analytical procedures presented are of two types. In one case the dam is

assumed to be rigid but dam flexibility is considered; in the other case the

deformations of the dam are approximated by the contributions of only the

fundamental mode of vibration.

The dam tends to slide only in the downstream direction because much

smaller ground acceleration ac is required to initiate downstream sliding

compared with upstream sliding. The permanent displacement at the end

of the earthquake increases with the intensity of ground shaking and is

larger for systems with smaller ac, which results from a smaller coefficient

of sliding friction, steeper slope of the downstream face, increasing depth

of impounded water, or increasing uplift force.

Dam flexibility has the effect of increasing the permanent sliding dis-

placement of dams with a concrete modulus within a wide practical range.

3716

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-^

8 3 S'ffi • n a n

c o CL o o c s>

T) £ • o ' -« C (D Qj

fTg £ ? rt- O o o o o O o o m

t_n 42- U) to O NO o o Ln 42- OJ to O NO 0O Ui 42. U> to O NO 0 0 Ui 42. U) to o NO 00 3" o

Q co ft rt

!2.

c

£* ^ tt

> o

^J ft ft rt'

t r E E . ^ S. I™3

o ^ 2 ftJ O B _

CO 3 X

« P H o O o O O o o o O O o o o O o o o O o o o o c o o o o o o o o o

" n 3 P. 1 I

0) <

rt O ^ „• t/1 42. t*J N> to ^ ] ON t / 1 42- t*J t o rt- ON t/1 42- 42. t*J t o rt h^ ^1 ON t / 1 42. t*J t^J to rt

^1 o to 42. ^1 NO -rt UJ LU 42. -12. t y i t^i ON ^ 1 O U) ^1 O UJ ON NO to to 42. L n ^1 NO UI Ln

S f"" - a 1

3 a.

•o

= •<3

& ft 3 ft -•• A)

» _.

a, 3

— o

rt o =» a>

ft o ~T3 H

3

o o O O to 42. o O o o O to 42- O o O o u> Ul CZ> O o o o o UJ

3 | &S rtl IO 42. ^1 rt- on c-5 to 42. 0O 42. t / t U> O rt t*J ON o oo rt ^1 o O rt- t>J t / 1 NO ON o

(3)

to ON to 00 to

o

t>J 00 UJ LO NO U\ U\ OO 0 0 42. t_n 0O L-J ^1 ON ON ON ^ 1 U )

- » P Bl o o o

OOQ 2 W

Approximate

"" a<-*

n a. S

w 3" m

ft n>

3

E.« (°

c

ft rt o O o U) o o o o O to O o O O to 42- o o o o o o to

OJ 42- </t ^1 NO to NO t o to f*} t/1 ^1 NO |NJ ~~} ON rt to ON t / 1 to t*J |NJ

<*J ON o 1 >rt- t o 42. ^ 1

(4)

o

ON t^l ^1

Exact

CL o 3 o o 0O NO 0 0 NO

c

°

3 ".

-.

II

Sliding Displacement s,„

1 1 i 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 t 1 1

fl

^1 to IO 42- t/1 42. 0O ^ 1 ON 42. to 42. ON 1 i K> to to L*J

(5)

42. 00

to u> 1/1

5" sT era H> -la- O ^1 4^- ON UN 42. ^1 42. ^1 42. ON to 00 h-- 00 ^1 ~J to 42. L*J

o o o

Error (%)

ft « rt 2 .

a-rtg S

g O 3 S-

• P a. 3

fi

eficial effects of the bond between the dam and supporting rock and the

roughness at the cracked interface are considered.

The last part of this work examined the possibility of estimating the sliding

displacement of a flexible concrete dam due to ground acceleration a(t) by

analyzing the sliding response of a rigid dam due to an average (over height)

acceleration a(t) determined from linear analysis of the flexible dam without

sliding at the base. This approximate procedure, which has been widely

used in estimating the deformations of embankment dams, has been ex-

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of-magnitude estimate of the concrete dam sliding displacement, which is

a conservative value for most cases when this displacement may be prac-

tically significant. Even if the approximate analysis procedure were im-

proved, the results might not be more reliable because of the considerable

uncertainty in the value of the critical acceleration at which dam sliding is

initiated, a parameter that has controlling influence on the sliding displace-

ment. The critical acceleration cannot be determined accurately because of

the difficulty in considering several factors, including the bond between the

dam and supporting rock, and the roughness of the cracked surface after

the bond is overcome.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

dation under grant CES-8719296 and accomplished while A. K. Chopra was

on appointment as a Miller Research Professor in the Miller Institute of

Basic Research in Science, University of California at Berkeley.

APPENDIX. REFERENCES

Mech. Div.,ASCE, 96(4), 443-454.

Chopra, A. K., and Chakrabarti, P. (1973). "The Koyna earthquake and the damage

to Koyna Dam." Bull. Seis. Soc. Am., 63(2), 381-397.

Chopra, A. K. (1978). "Earthquake resistant design of concrete gravity dams." /.

Struct. Div., ASCE, 104(6), 953-971.

Chopra, A. K., and Zhang, L. (1991). "Base sliding response of concrete gravity

dams to earthquakes." Report No. UCB/EERC 911-, Earthquake Engineering

Research Center, University of California at Berkeley, in preparation.

"Design criteria for concrete arch and gravity dams." (1974). Engineering Monograph

No. 19, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, U.S Government Printing Office, Wash-

ington, D.C.

Franklin, A. G., and Chang, F. K. (1977). "Earthquake resistance of earth and

rock-fill dams: permanent displacement of earth embankments by newmark sliding

block analysis." Misc. Paper S-71-17, Report 5, US Army Engineer Waterways

Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Miss.

Goyal, A., and Chopra, A. K. (1989). "Earthquake response spectrum analysis of

intake-outlet towers." J. Engrg. Mech., ASCE, 115(7), 1413-1433.

Ishiyama, Y. (1982). "Motions of rigid bodies and criteria for overturning by earth-

quake excitations." Earthquake Engrg. Struct. Dyn., 10, 653-650.

Leger, P., and Katsouli, M. (1989). "Seismic stability of concrete gravity dams."

Earthquake Engrg. Struct. Dyn., 18, 889-902.

Lin, J.-S., and Whitman, R. V. (1983). "Decoupling approximation to the evaluation

of earthquake-induced plastic slip in earth dams." Earthquake Engrg. Struct. Dyn.,

11, 667-678.

Lin, J.-S., and Whitman, R. V. (1986). "Earthquake-induced displacements of sliding

blocks." J. Geotech. Engrg., ASCE, 112(1), 44-59.

3718

r

t

Makdisi, F. I., and Seed, H. B. (1978). "Simplified procedure for estimating dam

and embankment earthquake-induced deformations." /. Geotech. Engrg. Div.,

j ASCE, 104, No. GT7, 849-867.

i Mlakar, P. F. (1987). "Nonlinear response of concrete gravity dams to strong earth-

| quake-induced ground motion." Technical Report SL-87-7, U.S. Army Engineer

I Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Miss.

I Mostaghel, N., and Tanbakuchi, J. (1983). "Response of sliding structures to earth-

quake support motion." Earthquake Engrg. and Struct. Dyn., 11, 729-748.

Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by Aliah University on 04/12/17. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved.

technique, 15(2), 139-160.

' Shieh, W. Y. J., and Yeh, C. H. (1975). "Safety analysis of concrete dams under

earthquake." Criteria and assumptions for numerical analysis of dams, D. J. Naylor,

K. G. Stagg and O. C. Zienkiewicz, eds.

3719

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