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Eino Tetri Efficient Lighting Management Curricula ASEAN (ELMCA) LIGHTING TECHNOLOGIES Contract No.: TH/Asia-Link/013 (141-236)
Eino Tetri Efficient Lighting Management Curricula ASEAN (ELMCA) LIGHTING TECHNOLOGIES Contract No.: TH/Asia-Link/013 (141-236)

Eino Tetri

Efficient Lighting Management Curricula ASEAN (ELMCA)

LIGHTING TECHNOLOGIES

Contract No.: TH/Asia-Link/013 (141-236)

Lighting Technologies

1.0 Light Sources

There are two sources of light; Natural and Artificial. In the absence of natural light, artificial or electrical lighting is employed.

A. Natural Sources

The sun and the sky are the ultimate sources of natural light. The ground and other surfaces provide reflected light and become secondary sources. Light from natural sources is free, bountiful, and pleasing to the eyes. It has a duration from 11 to 13 hours a day.

Natural light is physiologically and psychology necessary for man. The sun's rays provide the feeling of warmth and well being.

A. 1 Daylight

Nature of Daylight

The role of daylight in architecture comes in two perspectives: as value and spirituality, as art and science, and as emotion and intellect. Daylight promotes longevity of man's activity and provides unlimited use of indoor spaces during daytime.

In design, daylight can be classified as direct (direct sunlight and diffuse skylight) and indirect (light reflected or transmitted by other source)

Direct Daylight - Direct sunlight

Direct sunlight illuminates normal surfaces with 6,000 to 10,000 footcandles, making it too intense to be used directly for task illumination. However, direct sunlight has an efficacy of 150 lm/W, still greater than most electric counterparts, and it is free-of-charge. Occupant controls such as shades and blinds are preferable than permanent exclusion of direct sunlight.

Light Source

Efficacy (lumens/watt)

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Sun (altitude = 7.5˚)

90 lm/w

Sun (altitude > 25˚)

117 lm/w

Sun (suggested mean altitude)

100 lm/w

Sky(clear)

150 lm/w

Sky (average)

125 lm/w

Global (ave. of sky and sun)

115 lm/w

Incandescent (150 w)

16-40 lm/w

Fluorescent (40 w, CWX)

50-80 lm/w

High Pressure Sodium

40-140 lm/w

Table 1: Efficacy of various sources of light (Moore, 30)

Fig# Altittude and Azimuth of the Sun (Manila)
Fig# Altittude and Azimuth of the Sun (Manila)

Figure 1; Sun Path: Manila

Because of the importance of the contribution of direct sunlight to illumination, designers should value the method of visualizing the sun’s position in the sky. The sun's efficacy as light source is affected by its position in the sky during the source of the day and by the movement of the covering clouds. An imaginary overhead skydome, also known as a stereographic diagram, o simply sunpath, displays the path of movement of the sun across the sky at given latitude.

Fig# Altittude and Azimuth of the Sun (Manila) Figure 1; Sun Path: Manila Because of the

Fig 2 Sun Path diagram

Direct skylight

Skylight provides diffuse light resulting from the refraction and reflection of sunlight as it passes through the atmosphere. On a clear skies, the very small size of the atmospheric particles causes only the wavelengths of light in the blue portion of the spectrum to be refracted, imparting a blue color to the sky. Under such conditions, the sky is darkest 90 degrees from the sun and brightest near the sun. However, under overcast skies, the relatively larger water particles diffusely refract/reflect all wavelengths equally in all directions, resulting in a white-colored sky.

The Sky as a light source is more constant and uniform than the sun and therefore more dependable for working illumination. The light produced is a soft, non-directional, relatively shadow-free illumination. The resulting illuminance is typically 500 to 2000 footcandles.

There are three conditions for skylight:

  • 1. Clear sky characterized by the absence of the clouds and unobstructed sun

  • 2. Overcast sky characterized by the presence of heavy clouds

  • 3. Varying absence of the sun

In upper hemisphere, the skylight is 2-1/2 to 3 times as bright than the lower hemisphere. In design, a single value representing a uniform sky illumination of 500 lumens per sq. ft is accepted regardless of location and orientation

Direct skylight Skylight provides diffuse light resulting from the refraction and reflection of sunlight as it

Figure 3

Indirect Sources

When a matte reflective (i.e. flat white) surface is illuminated by a primary source, its resulting luminance makes it an indirect source of illumination. Being a distributed source, the quality of its light is virtually identical to direct sky light admitted through a similar-sized opening. If hit by directly sunlight, luminance of this white reflector can reach 5,000 up to 10,000 footlamberts, substantially more than the luminance of the skydome which is 500 to 2000 footlamberts. Translucent glazing materials can be used as indirect sunlight sources too.

B. Artificial/Electrical Light Sources

In the absence of natural light, artificial or electrical light sources are profoundly used to enable us to see and continue our activities. Different electric light sources produce different kinds of light and vary significantly in their efficacy (Schiller, 18) Electrical light sources vary in their longevity, complexity, and the spectra they generate.

There are three general categories of electrical light source with few transitional systems:

  • 1. Filament Lamps

  • 2. Discharge Lamps

  • 3. Electroluminescent / Solid State Lighting

  • 1. Filament Lamps

    • 1.1 Incandescent

An incandescent lamp lights up by heat produced by passing an electric current through a filament. It is usually tungsten alloy, although other filaments were used in early lamps. Early lamps were vacuum filled, but now they are usually gas filled. The gas in the lamp is inert, such as nitrogen, argon, or a halogen, and neither interacts with the filament nor corrodes it.

Incandescent light is rich in yellows and reds and weak in greens and blues which make it look “warmer” than sunlight or daylight, even though its color temperature is lower, usually in the range of 2300 K. Incandescent lighting is the least efficient of the different types because much of the energy is wasted in the production of heat. The heat by-product is a liability, as it must be subsequently removed by an air-conditioning system.

Tungsten-halogen lamps

Tungsten-Halogen lamps are hotter burning incandescent lamps. This requires a bulb envelope material capable of withstanding much higher temperatures and a high internal pressure. Quartz is usually used, and the bulb is much smaller. It also contains a special halogen gas, such as iodine or bromine. The evaporated tungsten from the filament combines with the iodine to form a tungsten iodide instead of depositing out on the inner surface of the quartz envelope. When the lamp cools off, the tungsten recombines with the filament, increasing lamp life. This is why tungsten-halogen lamps are sometimes called tungsten-iodide, quartz- iodine, or simply quartz lamps.

  • 1.2 Parts of the Lamp

3 principal parts of any incandescent lamp:

1) the Filament- all filament designs area compromise between lamp life and output. Lamp efficiency is directly related to the temperature of the filament.

2) the enclosing envelope or Bulb

3) the Base

3) the Base Figure 4: Parts of an Incandescent Lamp 1.2.1 The Filament - straight wire,

Figure 4: Parts of an Incandescent Lamp

1.2.1 The Filament

  • - straight wire, S; coil, C; coiled coil, CC

  • - the straight wire filament, formerly used in all types of lamps, requires supports because of its length. Each support tends to drain heat from the filament and thereby loses efficiency.

3) the Base Figure 4: Parts of an Incandescent Lamp 1.2.1 The Filament - straight wire,

Figure 5. Filament Shapes

  • - All incandescent lamp filaments are a compromise between longer life and output. Unfortunately, lamp efficiency is directly related to the temperature of the filament, and the most efficient lamps have both the highest temperature and the shortest lives. Conversely, standard lamps with extremely long lives are very inefficient. Lamp manufacturers have found that a lamp that could last from a range of 750-1000 hours is most economical for the greatest number of lighting installations

  • - Characteristics:

approximation to white light, it will appear warmer, a fact that has influenced its retention for home lighting.

  • 2. Control- TFL are compact sources, in that light is derived from the small area of heated tungsten wire. That enables close optical control to be obtained. By means of suitable reflectors, light can be directed where it is required. The strongly directional light thus produced is useful for many architectural purposes—for the production of shadows and contrast and the emphasis of texture and the nature of materials and form.

    • - where strict control is required, clear lamps are used rather than frosted ones.

    • - easy to dim

  • 3. Voltage- 6% change in voltage will produce 3% change in light output. Overvoltage increases light output, undervoltage decreases it. A 1% change in voltage will produce approximately 10% change in lamp life. Overvoltage decreases life and undervoltage increases it. Design’s aim is a combination of lamp life and light output that will be economical for a given class of service. For example, in the lighting of a baseball field, the high cost of installation and the comparatively few hours of yearly operation make it economical to operate 115-volt lamps on a 120-volt back circuit. The shorter life be an increased cost lamps and lamp replacement s but this is more than offset by the fewer number of luminaries required to produce the desired illumination.

  • 4. Temperature- not affected by surrounding air temperature

  • 1.2.2 Bulb

    • - the glass bulb protects the filament, keeps outside air away from it, and keeps the vacuum and/or filling gases next to the filament. The bulb may also serve a decorative function or form an integral reflector, lens or filter.

    • - Code- variations in bulb shape is designated by a 2-post code: the first part a letter indicating shape; the second a number indicating maximum diameter in units of 1/8 of an inch. Thus PS-30 is a pear-shaped bulb ¾” in diameter.

    • - Bulb glass- common lime glass, low-expansion, heat-resistant

    • - Bulb finishes- 3 most common— clear etched and applied silica powder. The interior silica powder treatment (called “soft white” produces the best heat diffusion, more than the acid-etched (known as “inside frosted”) finish.

    • - Bulb color coating- 4 types of color coatings are popular: sprayed lacquer, plastic coating, dichroic filters. Methods of obtaining colored light is “subtractive”. The colored lamp does not produce more radiation of other wavelengths but subtracts light at certain wavelengths—the overall efficiency is consequently reduced. A “daylight” lamp is available using a blue-green glass that casts a light at the red end of the spectrum; the efficiency of the lamp is reduced by 35%.

    1) sprayed lacquer- exterior coat, low resistance to scratches and scuffing and effects of weather; highly transparent, therefore often used in displays where the sparkle of visible filament is desired.

    2) plastic coatings- improvement of above conditions; highly resistant to weather.

    3) dichroic filters- thin coats of metallic filter to the face of lamps—passes wavelengths of one colorband and reflects others.

    - Figure 6. Common types of bulbs 1.2.3 Bases Bases for incandescent lamp vary from size
    • - Figure 6. Common types of bulbs

    1.2.3 Bases Bases for incandescent lamp vary from size and connection method. Some of the common bases are Screw, Bayonet, Prefocus, and Prong

    Screw

    Screw is the most common type of base

    Five sizes for incandescent lamp:

     

    Miniature

     

    Candelabra, which is the smallest commonly use

     

    Intermediate

     

    Medium, the most common

    Mogul, the largest for lamps of 300-500 w.

    Screw bases are occasionally skirted, which means that the metal from the base extends up around the base of the glass for a short distance

    Bayonet

    Bayonets are either single or double contact

    Prefocus

    Designed for bulbs for simply push and twist into the socket

    Commoly used for cars, flashlights, and occasionally appear in other building

    fixtures

    Similar to bayonet bases but have flange, which precisely locates the bulb in terms

    of depth Useful for critical optics but rarely used

    Prong

    Prong bases come with two-bladed prong on the end or side.

    The depth of the base is less than that of the screw

    The lamp is secured by attaching the front glass rim to the fixture

    Figure 7: Bases for Incandescent and HID 1.3 Incandescent Shape Designations A. A lamps provide light

    Figure 7: Bases for Incandescent and HID

    1.3 Incandescent Shape Designations

    • A. A lamps provide light leaving the bulb, in all directions except the base.

    They are the most common shape for residential use.

    • R. R lamps have an internal reflector that throws all of the light out the front

    of the lamp. No light is being wasted behind the bulb where it is not useful. The

    inside will never get dusty thus the reflecting surface will also remain clean. By changing the shape of the reflector, the shape of the beam can be varied. The most common beam shape is flood, which is a wide, fairly even gradient suitable for lighting areas. R lamps are usually made of the same thin glass as A shapes. \ ER. ER lamps have an elliptical reflector, with the filament position coinciding with the first focal point of the ellipse. All of the beams that are reflected pass through the second focal point, which is actually outside the lamp. PAR. PAR lamps have similar shape to R lamps but are usually made with heavier glass. They have parabolic aluminized reflectors, thus the acronym PAR. This lamp is actually two pieces of glass welded together. The reflector section is parabolic in cross section giving a more accurate beam collimation. Because of this, PAR lamps are sometimes aimed into a narrow beam designed to hit a specific object or a smaller surface area, which is designated as a spot light.

    • F. F lamps look somewhat like a flame and are typically used in decorative

    fixtures.

    • G. G lamps large globe lamps that are nearly spherical and used as

    freestanding lamps.

    • T. T lamps are either a long or short tube. The short tubes are often used in

    the same fashion as an A lamp, and the longer ones are usually used in small

    fixtures for lighting pianos, painting or photo-accent lights.

    Fig.8: Incandescent Shapes 1.4 Sizes Lamp designation begins with the wattage of the bulb, then the

    Fig.8: Incandescent Shapes

    1.4 Sizes

    Lamp designation begins with the wattage of the bulb, then the shape of the lamp followed by the diameter of the lamp express in a multiple of 1/8- in units.

    Ex.100A19

    100=100 watts A= Shape of the lamp 19 = 19/8 or 2.375 in diameter

    1.5 Characteristics: Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages

    Low initial cost

    immediate full light output/ Rapid Start

    Continuous Spectral Emission

    Simple Operation

    Ease of Dimming

    Require no ballast

    Disadvantages

    Low luminous efficacy (7-21 lm/W)

    Short lamp life (approx. 1000 h)

    life sensitive to voltage fluctuation and vibration

    2. Discharge Lamps 2.1 Low Pressure Discharge 2.1.1 Fluorescent Lamps

    A fluorescent lamp or fluorescent tube is a gas-discharge lamp that uses electricity to excite mercury vapor in argon or neon gas, resulting in a plasma that produces short-wave ultraviolet light. This light then causes a phosphor to fluoresce, producing visible light.

    Fluorescent Lamp

    • - A tube containing a mercury-supported arc, filled with an inert gas, kept at low pressure, which produces light by activating the thin film of phosphors (fluorescent material) that coat the glass tube.

    2. Discharge Lamps 2.1 Low Pressure Discharge 2.1.1 Fluorescent Lamps A fluorescent lamp or fluorescent tube

    Figure 9. Detail of a Fluorescent lamp

    2.1.1.1 Parts:

    • 1. Bulb- commonly tubular and ranges from a T5 ( 5/8” in diameter) to a T17 (2 1/8” in diameter). The T 12 is the most common bulb size and shape; it is approximately 1½“ in diameter and may range from to 2 to 3 feet in length. The bulb holds the filling gas inside and excludes the outside air.

    • 2. Base- Bi-pin base is most common (medium, mogul, miniature)

    • 3. Electrodes- resembles the filament in incandescent lights; however, instead of providing light, they serve as terminals for an electric arc and a source of electrons for lamp current.

    • 4. Mercury drops- vaporizes at very low pressure when in operation and radiates at a specific wavelength in the ultraviolet region. The mercury pressure created during lamp operation is important because higher or lower pressures tend to inhibit the production of ultraviolet energy. Since the pressure is regulated by the temperature of the bulb wall, drafts or ambient temperature from those for which the lamp is designed can alter the light output of the lamp.

    • 5. Filling gas- contains a small quantity of argon, a combination of argon and iron, or occasionally krypton. Allows current to flow and mercury drops to vaporize.

    light is determined by the chemical composition of the phosphor. A subtractive pigment is applied to the inside of the bulb for a variety of spectral mixes.

    Unlike incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps always require a ballast to regulate the flow of power through the lamp. In common tube fixtures (typically 4 ft (122 cm) or 8 ft (244 cm) in length), the ballast is enclosed in the fixture. Compact fluorescent light bulbs may have conventional ballast located in the fixture or they may have ballasts integrated in the bulbs, allowing them to be used in lamp holders normally used for incandescent lamps. The ballast serves the following functions:

    Supplying the high voltage necessary to start the arc;

    Limiting the current in the arc after it is formed.

    For the operation of some fluorescent tubes, an automatic switch known as a starter is required, in addition to the normal wall switch. The starter is self contained in a small tubular jacket which is inserted in the fixture body and is a replaceable part.

    The primary advantages of incandescent lamps are that they do not require a ballast to vary voltage, and they may be very useful because the light from the lamp may often be directed more accurately than the light from other sources. Not requiring ballast means there is little extra cost and very little extra space. The controls are also simpler and most lamps can be dimmed by simply reducing the voltage to the lamp. These lamps may be aimed more accurately because the filament can be coiled approximating a point source. This allows a lens and/or a reflector to collect and aim all the light coming from the source into a certain shape headed to a certain location. This reflector can be easily made a part of the lamp itself, thus there are different shapes and sizes of incandescent lamps, all with different characteristics.

    2.1.1.2 Typical Fluorescent Designations

    Table 2. Fluorescent Designations

    Prefixes

     
       

    FC or FLC

    Circular fluorescent, FCA w/ ballast

    FB or FLS

    Integrated plastic fixture and lamp

    PL or FxTT

    Small lamp, i.e., short double tube, where x = wattage

    SL

    Integrated screw-in ballast and lamp

       

    Suffixes

     
       

    AGRO

    Light for plants

    B

    Blue

    BL

    Black light

    CG

    Cool green

    CW

    Cool white

    CWX

    Cool white deluxe

    D

    Daylight

    EW, SS or WM

    Energy-saving lamp, also EW-II, WM-II, etc.

    G

    Green

    GO

    Gold

    HO

    High output

    IS

    Instant start

    PK

    Pink

    R

    Red

    RS

    Rapid start

    SGN

    Sign white

    SP-xx, Cxx, xxK, xxU, or xx

    approx. color temp of xx x 10 3 K

    U

    U-shaped tube

    WW

    Warm white

    WWX

    Warm white deluxe

    2.1.1.3 Classification

    Fluorescent lamps are classified as:

    • 1. According to shape

    Standard

    Slim-line – does not require a starter,

    have single-pin bases, come in diameters 3/4”, 1”, and 1-1/2” ; and come in lengths from 42” (4 ft) to 96” (8 ft). Circline

    • 2. According to method of tube operation

    Pre-heat – requires a starter which preheats the cathodes so that less voltage is required to strike an arc. There is a 2-5 seconds delay in the start of lamp after switch is on. This class is also called a ”switch-start” or “starter-start” lamp. In certain cases, the starter can be eliminated by using a device called a “trigger-start ballast”. This ballast provides both a current-limiting function and an appropriate automatic starting system.

    CWX Cool white deluxe D Daylight EW, SS or WM Energy-saving lamp, also EW-II, WM-II, etc.

    Fig.10. Fluorescent Lamps

    Instant Start – When the lamp is first switched on, a sufficient voltage is applied between the electrodes to strike the arc without preheating them. Instant-start lamps start as soon as current is turned on and eliminates the need for external starters. They have single-pin bases which are called “slim-line” lamps.

    Rapid Start – are the most recent developments and the one that is most widely used. Rapid-start lamps use low-resistance electrodes which can be heated continuously with low current loses. These are the only fluorescent lamps that can be electrically dimmed or flashed. They start as quickly as the instant-start lamps; require no external starters; and the ballasts are smaller and more efficient.

    Temperature and Efficiency

    • - The normal operating temperatures of fluorescent lamps to give maximum light output are stated between 35˚C and 50˚C, measured in the lamp wall. The ambient temperature is approximately 28˚ the figure, or 7˚ and 27˚C . Any excess in these ambient figures will produce some loss in light output, although loss will be slight up to temperatures of 32˚C. At the lamp wall, below 35˚C, a sharp fall in output results, while where 50˚C the fall is less rapid.

    ∑ Instant Start – When the lamp is first switched on, a sufficient voltage is applied

    Figure 11. Lumens percentage vs. Average wall temperature

    • 2.1.1.4 Lamp life

    The length of life varies in different countries. In America, 6,000 to 7,500 hours; in Europe, 5,000 hours. The life depends upon the number of times the lamp is switched on and off; frequent switching decreases lamp life. If a lamp is never switched off, it may remain burning for as long as 12,000 hours—called rated life.

    • 2.1.1.5 Efficiency and Color

      • - The effectiveness for various lamps vary with lamp color, the most efficient lamp having the least acceptable color rendering.

    Colour Data Table 3: Lamp Color

    Colour Data Table 3: Lamp Color 2.1.2 Low Pressure Sodium / SOX Lamps Low pressure sodium

    2.1.2 Low Pressure Sodium / SOX Lamps

    Low pressure sodium (LPS) lamps, also known as sodium oxide (SOX) lamps, have the highest efficacies but produce a monochromatic yellow light, which results in no color rendition at all. LPS are only used where there is no concern for color. It is suitable for special cases like lighting for areas installed with a monochromatic security camera. Here, everything is viewed as if it were black and yellow. Red looks black; blue looks black. White and yellow looks all yellow. Thus, it cannot be used for parking areas as it would be difficult for the owners to recognize their cars.

    The lamp is usually a tight U-shaped tube. The inner envelope contains sodium and a small amount of argon and neon at very low pressure while the outer envelope is a vacuum. The efficacy is extremely high, ranging from 100 to 190 lumens per watt. Lamp life is also high, ranging from 18,000 to 24,000 hours.

    LPS lamps ignite in stages; however the ignition takes more time than its fluorescent counterparts. There are variations in resistance at different stages, as well as need for high voltages, thus the need for ballasts. LPS have 9 to 15 minutes of strike time, the time it takes the lamp to reach operating intensity efficacy and color; and a 30-second restrike time, the time it takes the strike process to repeat. It

    means that lamps with strike and restrike time cannot be used as emergency lights. Using such in public places require another temporary light source of a different type in case of power interruption.

    2.2 High Pressure Discharge Lamps

    High pressure or high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps combined several principles of the incandescent, fluorescent and low-pressure sodium lamps. An HID lamp has an inner envelope that can tolerate a high temperature and pressure, which contains a gas or combination of gases through which there is a very short arc. The outer envelope serves to shield the temperatures experienced by the inner envelope by insulating and isolating it from air movement. In some cases the outer one also protects people from the UV rays and hot surfaces generated by the inner one.

    HID lamps also ignite in stages, first evaporating a metallic gas and then ionizing it. Mercury vapor and metal halide lamps actually have two main electrodes and a separate starter electrode, which is used to begin evaporating and ionizing the metallic gases. Ballasts are necessary and there is also a strike time for the color to stabilize. The restrike time, which is the time it takes for the lamp to cool down, the metal condenser to condense back onto the filament, and then the strike process to repeat, is even longer than the strike time.

    Compared with fluorescent and incandescent lamps, HID lamps have higher luminous efficacy since a greater proportion of their radiation is in visible light as opposed to heat. Their overall luminous efficacy is also much higher: they give a greater amount of light output per watt of electricity input.

    2.2.1 Mercury Vapor Lamps

    Mercury vapor lamps were the first HID lamps to be developed. They produce a very bright, clear, bluish light, which unfortunately is not flattering to human skin colors. The lamp life is within 24,000 hours and its efficacy is from 35 to 65 lumens per watt. Its outer envelope either uses the UV o blocks it, because the skin and cornea could suffer from excessive UV exposure. The lamps should have a safety device that shuts off the arc if the outer envelope is broken. The strike time is typically 7 minutes and the same is the restrike.

    means that lamps with strike and restrike time cannot be used as emergency lights. Using such

    Fig.12 Mercury Vapor Lamps

    2.2.2 Metal Halide

    Metal halide lamps provide improved color rendition, coming from the inclusion of a metal halide gas in the inner envelope, typically iodine. This gas shifts and broadens the spectrum while improving the efficacy to approximately 100 lm/W for the lamp or 80 lm//W for the system. The lamp life, however, is at 10,000 hours. It is necessary to have an outer glass envelope to cut off UV rays. Many consider the metal halide to have the best color rendition of the HID lamps. The strike time is around 5 minutes while the restrike time is from 10 to 15 minutes.

    2.2.3 High-Pressure Sodium

    High-pressure sodium lamps are the most efficient of the architectural HID lamps. Its inner envelope is made of a clear ceramic material because sodium is extremely corrosive. The tube is usually thin. The efficacy reaches up to 125 lm/W for the lamp or 105 lm/W for the system. Lamp life can reach 24,000 hours. The spectrum generated by the lamp is within the visible light and does not have UV rays. The strike time is about 3 minutes while the restrike time is 1 minute.

    2.3. Electroluminescent / Solid State Lighting

    2.3.1 Solid state lighting (SSL) is a type of lighting that utilizes light-emitting diodes (LEDs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLED), or polymer light-emitting diodes (PLED) as sources of illumination rather than electrical filaments or gas. The term “solid state” refers to the fact that light in a LED is emitted from a solid object – a block of semiconductor – rather than from a vacuum or gas tube, as in traditional incandescent and fluorescent lamps.

    Solid-state lighting is increasingly used in a variety of lighting applications because it offers many benefits, including:

    • 1. Long life — LEDs can provide 50,000 hours or more of life, which can reduce maintenance costs. In comparison, an incandescent light bulb lasts approximately 1,000 hours.

    • 2. Energy savings — The best commercial white LED lighting systems provide more than twice the luminous efficacy (lumens per watt) of incandescent lighting. Colored LEDs are especially advantageous for colored lighting applications because filters are not needed.

    • 3. Better quality light output — LEDs have minimum ultraviolet and infrared radiation.

    • 4. Intrinsically safe — LED systems are low voltage and are generally cool to the touch.

    • 5. Smaller flexible light fixtures — The small size of LEDs makes them useful for lighting tight spaces.

    • 6. Durable — LEDs have no filament to break and can withstand vibrations.

    2.3.1.1 Light Emitting Diodes (LED) Lamps

    Solid state lighting (SSL) is a technology that utilizes light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as a source of illumination rather than electrical filaments or gas.

    LED lamps (also called LED bars or Illuminators) are usually clusters of LEDs in a suitable housing. They come in different shapes, including the standard light bulb shape with a large E27 Edison screw and MR16 shape with a bi-pin base. Other models might have a small Edison E14 fitting, GU5.3 (bi-pin cap) or GU10 (bayonet socket). This includes low voltage (typically 12 V halogen- like) varieties and replacements for regular AC mains (120-240 V AC) lighting. Currently the latter are less widely available but this is changing rapidly.

    LED lamps (also called LED bars or Illuminators) are usually clusters of LEDs in a suitable

    Process of Emission

    Fig 13 LED Light Emission

    When sufficient voltage is applied to the chip across the leads of the LED, electrons can move easily in only one direction across the junction between the p and n regions. In the p region there are many more positive than negative charges. In the n region the electrons are more numerous than the positive electric charges. When a voltage is applied and the current starts to flow, electrons in the n region have sufficient energy to move across the junction into the p region. Once in the p region the electrons are immediately attracted to the positive charges due to the mutual Coulomb forces of attraction between opposite electric charges. When an electron moves sufficiently close to a positive charge in the p region, the two charges "re-combine".

    Each time an electron recombines with a positive charge; electric potential energy is converted into electromagnetic energy. For each recombination of a negative and a positive charge, a quantum of electromagnetic energy is emitted in the form of a photon of light with a frequency characteristic of the semi-conductor material (usually a combination of the chemical elements gallium, arsenic and phosphorus). Only photons in a very narrow frequency range can be emitted by any material. LED's that emit different colors are made of different semi-conductor materials, and require different energies to light them.

    The electric energy is proportional to the voltage needed to cause electrons to flow across the p-n junction. The different colored LED's emit predominantly light of a single color. The energy (E) of the light emitted by an LED is related to the electric charge (q) of an electron and the voltage (V) required to light the LED by the expression: E = qV Joules. This expression simply says that the voltage is proportional to the electric energy, and is a general statement which applies to any circuit, as well as to LED's. The constant q is the electric charge of a single electron, -1.6 x 10 -19 Coulomb.

    2.3.1.2 Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLED) or Light Emitting Polymer (LEP)

    An organic light-emitting diode (OLED), also light emitting polymer (LEP) and organic electro-luminescence (OEL), is any light-emitting diode (LED) whose emissive electroluminescent layer is composed of a film of organic compounds. The

    layer usually contains a polymer substance that allows suitable organic compounds to be deposited. They are deposited in rows and columns onto a flat carrier by a simple "printing" process. The resulting matrix of pixels can emit light of different colors.

    Such systems can be used in television screens, computer displays, portable system screens, advertising, information and indication. OLEDs can also be used in light sources for general space illumination, and large-area light-emitting elements. OLEDs typically emit less light per area than inorganic solid-state based LEDs which are usually designed for use as point-light sources.

    A significant benefit of OLED displays over traditional liquid crystal displays (LCDs) is that OLEDs do not require a backlight to function. Thus they draw far less power and, when powered from a battery, can operate longer on the same charge. Because there is no need to distribute the backlight, an OLED display can also be much thinner than an LCD panel. OLED-based display devices also can be more effectively manufactured than LCDs and plasma displays. However, degradation of OLED materials has limited their use.

    Table 4: Comparison of Artificial Light Sources and Significant Properties

    Source

    Efficacy

    Lamp Life (hr)

    Lamp Lumen

    Color (K)

    CRI

    (lm/W)

    Depreciation

    Incandescent

    17.5

    750-1,500

    0.79-0.89

    2,300-3,500

    100

    general

    service

    Incandescent

    20.0

    2,000

    0.96

    2,300-3,500

    100

    tungsten

    halogen

    Fluorescent

    65-80

    20,000

    0.84-0.88

    3,500-6,500

    50-85

    rapid start

    Low-pressure

    120-150

    18,00-24,000

         

    sodium

    Mercury vapor

    50

    16,000-24,000

    0.68-0.92

    3,600-7,000

     

    Metal halide

    85

    20,000

     

    4,500

     

    High-pressure

    105

    24,000

     

    2,100

     

    sodium

    LED

    8-150

    35,000-50,000

       

    around 70

    Source IES Handbook of Fundamentals: Reference Volume as referenced by Schiller and updated with LED data.

    2.4 Luminous Efficacy

    Luminous Efficacy is a property of a light source, which determines what portion of the electromagnetic radiation emitted is usable for human vision. It is the ratio of the luminous flux to radiant flux. Luminous efficiency of a light source, for instance of a lamp, is affected by the luminaire and its component.

    Lamp efficacy is calculated by dividing lamp lumens by lamp watts.

    Example:

    The efficacy of a 100-W A19 incandescent lamp that produces 1740 lumens is 17.4 lm/watt.

    1740 lm ÷ 100 W = 17.4 lm/watt

    System efficacy (for ballasted sources) is derived by multiplying rated lamp lumens by the ballast factor (BF) and dividing the result by total input watts. BF is the measured ability of a particular ballast to produce light from the lamp(s) it powers.

    Example:

    F32T8 lamps produce 2850 lm each on a 2-lamp electronic ballast. The ballast has a ballast factor (BF) of 0.95, with total input power of 62 W.

    (2850 lumens x 2 lamps x 0.95 BF) ÷ 62 W = 87.3 lm/watt

    Table 5: Lamp Luminous Efficacy and Efficiency

    Category

    Type

    Overall

    Overall

    Luminous

    Luminous

    Efficacy (lm/W)

    Efficiency

    combustion

     

    candle

    .03

    0.04%

       

    gas mantle

    2

    0.3%

    incandescent

    5 W tungsten incandescent (120 V)

    5

    0.7%

     

    40

    W tungsten incandescent (120 V)

    12.6

    1.9%

     
    • 100 W tungsten incandescent (120 V)

    16.8

    2.5%

     
    • 100 W tungsten incandescent (220 V)

    13.8

    2.0%

     
    • 100 W tungsten glass halogen (220 V)

    16.7

    2.4%

     

    2.6 W tungsten glass halogen (5.2 V)

    19.2

    2.8%

     

    quartz halogen (12–24 V)

    24

    3.5%

     

    high-temperature incandescent

    35

    5.1%

    fluorescent

    5–24 W compact fluorescent

    45-60

    6.6%–8.8%

     
    • 34 W fluorescent tube (T12)

    50

    7%

     
    • 32 W fluorescent tube (T8)

    60

    9%

     
    • 36 W fluorescent tube (T8)

    up to 93

    up to 14%

     
    • 28 W fluorescent tube (T5)

    104

    15.2%

    light-emitting

     

    white LED

    10

    to 90

    1.5

    to 13%

    diode

         
     

    white LED (unreliable prototypes)

    up to 150

    up to 22%

    arc lamp

    xenon arc lamp

    30

    to 50

    4.4% to 7.3%

     

    mercury-xenon arc lamp

    50-55

    7.3

    to 8.0%

    gas discharge

    high-pressure sodium lamp

    150

    22%

     

    low-pressure sodium lamp

    • 183 up to 200

    27%

     

    1400 W sulfur lamp

    • 100 15%

     

    theoretical

     

    683.002

    100%

    maximum

    2.0 Luminaires

    A luminaire is a complete lighting fixture consisting of a light source (lamp or bulb) integrated with other components (electrical, reflectors, diffusers) designed to position the light source and connect it to power supply and for proper distribution of light. The luminaire's function is to direct light to appropriate locations without causing obstructive glare and discomfort. A luminaire can be a precise fixture that maximizes the efficiency of the lamp by properly distributing it or enhancing its light output using diffusers.

    • A. Function of Luminaire

    Photometric Function

    The photometric functions of luminaires in lighting systems are to manipulate the direction and distribution of the luminous flux emitted by the lamp into desired orientation and to control the brightness and/or colour output of the lamp.

    • B. Components

    Generally, luminaires consists of the following components:

    Lamps and lamp holders or socket

    Control Gears; Ballast, Starter, etc.

    Reflectors to direct the light

    Shielding/diffusing components

    Housing which contains everything abovementioned and wiring system

    B.1 Lamps

    Electric light sources are lamps with their respective lamp holders or sockets. Lamps are available

    in a wide array of types, sizes, wattages, distributions, colors, phosphor coatings, starting and operating characteristics, styles and thermal characteristics.

    Effective luminaires use the most efficient light source available that exhibits the important characteristics needed to make the luminaire perform well.

    B.2 Reflectors

    Reflectors direct the light to the desired location and may be used to reduce glare and shield from the brightness of the lamp. Reflecting materials can be matte of specular, metallic or white, hammer or rigid, or combination of these. Different reflectors produce different light distribution and may be designed according to desired light distribution.

    Many advanced luminaires developed today may include high-reflectance material to improve light distribution and efficiency. These materials may include:

    Anodized, specular aluminium with total reflectivity of 85-90%

    Anodized, specular aluminium, enhanced with a multiple thin-film dielectric coating, having a total reflectivity of 88–96%

    Vacuum-deposited, specular silver, applied on the front or rear surface of a clear polyester

    film and adhered to a metal substrate, having a total reflectivity of 91–95%

    Recent advances in materials science have resulted in several higher reflectance diffuse-finish materials. These allow combining high efficiency with a uniform brightness appearance in the luminaire, and in some cases reduce the glaring appearance of the luminaire. The new diffuse reflector materials include:

    Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), having a total reflectivity of 98.5%

    High reflectance white-painted metal reflectors, having a total reflectivity of 90–92%

    There are more high-reflectance semi-specular or semi-diffuse materials on the market with reflectances as high as 85%. Although these materials are less precise than specular materials in light control, they can significantly reduce glare and are much more tolerant to installation or maintenance abuse.

    B.2.1 Reflector Systems

    1. Circular- is the simplest with the light source at center of circle the rays are reflecting back to it, greatly increasing the power of the emerging rays. If the source is ahead or behind the center, the reinforcement is lost and the emerging rays are in a jumble.

    film and adhered to a metal substrate, having a total reflectivity of 91–95% Recent advances in

    Figure 14

    2. Parabolic- most useful of all contours. When the light source is at the focal point of the parabola, the reflected rays are essentially parallel. The emerging beam is strong and subject to precise control. If the source is ahead of the focal point, the rays first converge and then spread out. If behind, the rays spread out immediately. The resulting beam can be defined accurately but is useful only for short projection distances.

    Parabolic- used in shops for display purposes

    Figure 15. 3. Ellipse - an ellipse has 2 focal points; a light source placed at

    Figure 15.

    • 3. Ellipse- an ellipse has 2 focal points; a light source placed at the middle will cause all reflected rays to pass through the other, thus a relatively large amount of light can be made to pass through a small opening. This principle is utilized in the design of “pinhole” spotlights.

    Figure 15. 3. Ellipse - an ellipse has 2 focal points; a light source placed at

    Figure 16.

    Figure 15. 3. Ellipse - an ellipse has 2 focal points; a light source placed at

    Figure 17

    • 4. Combination of reflector contours

    Figure 15. 3. Ellipse - an ellipse has 2 focal points; a light source placed at

    Figure 18

    B.3 Shielding and/or Diffusing Component

    Shielding and/or diffusing components include the lenses, diffusers, baffles, and the like which are used to shield the eye from extreme brightness of the lamp or glare. It may also be used to redirect light emission properly or as a shield against UV rays emission. Also, some may include safety protection against breaking of the lamp due to extreme temperature.

    B.3 Shielding and/or Diffusing Component Shielding and/or diffusing components include the lenses, diffusers, baffles, and the

    Figure19: Shielding/Diffusing Component

    B.3.1.Diffusing material

    A diffuser (usually acrylic or glass) differs from a lens because it does not refract light through the prism. It has a white frosted material and its main function is to hide the light source and distribute light evenly on the panel's surface. White diffusers have lower transmittance (and therefore efficiency). The transmittance of a white diffuser can only be as much as 90%.

    The character of fluorescent luminaires is strongly affected by the choice of diffuser material. Diffusers are the surface that either directs the light leaving the luminaire or spreads the light energy over a larger surface to decrease the luminance or deconcentrate the brightness.

    Original Diffusers were flat surfaces that completely covered the face of the luminaire. They were made of milk-white translucent plastic, frosted glass or plastic, pebble-surfaced clear plastic, or a plastic surface composed of prisms or small pyramids. However, the surfaces themselves are still quite bright which implies that a person seated below still sees a comparatively dark ceiling plane punctuated by bright squares or rectangles.

    Egg-crate Diffusers have grids of small vertical louvers running both axially and perpendicularly to the axis. These were first made of white plastic and then of thin aluminium fins or aluminized plastic. These were effective in cutting off the view of the lamps from the horizontal field of view while very efficient in letting light through in a vertical direction. The aluminium or silvered plastic egg crate actually had a lower luminance in the horizontal field of view than the white translucent diffuser.

    The vertical fins of the egg crate diffuser was modified to take on the shape of a half parabola in cross section, creating small parabolic reflectors, further reducing side luminance and directing light more tightly downward. The current solution is deep cell parabolic reflector, which requires a much deeper fixture, but the tube is lined up with the openings in a rather large parabolic egg crate (3- or 4-inch spaces) directing the light downward without much loss from the top surface of the fin. Such fixtures expose the lamps completely when viewed directly below but have extremely high efficiencies and very low surface luminance when seen in the normal horizontal field of view.

    As a result, they are one of the best downlight solutions to the problem of reflected glare in computer monitors and LCD displays.

    B.3.2.Shielding Material

    There are some light sources with high lumen output (such as T5, T8, CFL, and HID). The lamp is extremely bright to look at it or sit under it. To shield from the direct view on the lamp, the luminaire is protected with baffles louvers, fins, fascias, and others The shielding material, if properly design, can control direct glare from the user's normal viewing angle while allowing the luminaire to remain highly efficient.

    As a result, they are one of the best downlight solutions to the problem of reflected

    Fig 20: Diffusing Materials

    B.4 Refracting Material

    The refracting materials for luminaires can be made of glass, acrylic, or polycarbonate. They

    collect light from the lamp and refract it to more useful zones, controlling glare in the process. Glass:

     

    Durable and remains clear over life

    Heavy, fragile, and expensive

    Acrylic

     

    Remains clear and lighter than glass

    Acrylic cracks easily, however, and is not vandal resistant

    Polycarbonate Polycarbonates lenses are tougher, but many turn to yellow and become brittle when exposed to UV rays

    B.5 Housing

    A housing includes all the components of a complete luminaire including its electrical components such as wiring connection, photosensors, and control gears.

    The main function of the housing (or chassis) is to protect the lamp and its component from mechanical, physical, electrical and chemical influences caused by the environment. Outdoor

    luminaires' housing is necessary to protect the lamps and its component from exposure to extreme weather conditions or disturbances such as lightning or storm.

    C. Luminaire Characteristics

    The main characteristics of luminaires can be listed as:

    Light Distribution:

    Photometric graphs such as polar graphs show graphical representation of the light distribution of a luminaire. Different control components of the luminaire affect the light distribution.

    Light output ratio:

    is the ratio of the luminous flux emitted by a luminaire to that emitted by the lamp used in the luminaire. Some of the components of the luminaire (housing, diffusers, baffles) reduce the light output of the lamp. The luminaire is considered to be efficient if the light output ratio is close to 1.

    Utilization Factor:

    is the ratio of luminous flux incident on a work plane to the overall luminous flux emitted by luminaire lamps (all luminaires in the interior). The utilization factor for selected luminaires and their layout should be at least 0.5.

    Operating Condition:

    the degree of protection against dust and moisture is classified according to the ingress protection (IP) system. This system describes a luminaire by a two-digit number, e.g. IP42. The first digit indicates the degree of protection that the enclosure provides against access to hazardous parts (e.g., electrical conductors, moving parts) and the intrusion of solid foreign objects. The second digit indicates protection of the equipment inside the enclosure against harmful ingress of water. A higher rating would mean better protection for the luminaire.

    1 st Code Numeral

    Protection against foreign bodies and contacts

    2 nd Code Numeral

    Protection against water

    0

    No Protection

    No Protection

    1

    Protected against solid foreign bodies > 50 mm

    Protected against dripping water

    2

    Protected against solid foreign bodies > 12 mm

    Protected against dripping water when 15° tilted

    3

    Protected against solid foreign bodies > 2.5mm

    Protected against spraywater

    4

    Protected against solid foreign bodies > 1.0 mm

    Protected against splashwater

    5

    Protected against dust

    Protected against jets of water

    6

    Dustproof

    Protected against powerful jets of water

    7

    -

    Protected against temporary immersion

    8

    -

    Protected against prolong submersion

    Table 6: IP Protection Codes

    Electrical Protection

    Luminaires can be categorized as Class I, II, and III according to the type of protection imbedded against electric shock. Higher class indicates safer usage against electrical shock.

    Class I: Luminaires electrically insulated and provided with connection with earth. Any exposed metal part that could become live during insulation failure are protected by earthing

    Class II: No earth connection is provided but the electrical insulation is doubled.

    Class III: Luminaires are designed and constructed so that protection against electrical shock provided by supply at Safety Extra-Low Voltage (SELV), in which voltage higher than this are not generated.

    F Mark: Luminaires suitable for mounting on combustible surfaces whose ignition temperature is at least 200deg.celcius.

    Ta Classification: This denotes the max. ambient temperature that a luminaire is suitable for use in max. 25 deg.cel. ambient.

    shielding angle (of a luminaire):

    Is the angle between a horizontal line through the light center and the line of sight at which the bare source first becomes visible, as viewed from all lateral angles. For the purpose of this standard, a shielding angle of < 40 shall be considered as “less shielded (L),” and an angle of >40 shall be considered to be “highly shielded (H).” For the purpose of this standard, the lens of a lensed system shall be considered the “bare source.”

    Spacing Criteria

    Manufactures of luminaires provide the spacing criteria (SC) or mounting height ratio (S/MH) for specific light fixture with direct lighting distribution. These light fixtures include downlights, troffers, HID and Low-bay luminaires. The ratios are used to calculate the maximum recommended installation spacing to ensure even pattern of light on the surface below the luminaire. SC ratio ensures that a space is evenly lighted by slightly overlapping the light distribution. SC typically range from 0.9 to 1.7, but it can be as low as 0.5 or higher than 2.

    Spacing = SC x Mounting Height

    Example for recessed downlights:

    If a manufacturer's SC = 1.7, and recessed downlights are mounted in an 9 ft. recommended maximum spacing between downlights will be 1.7 x MH.

    ceiling, the

    9.0 ft. x 1,7 = 15.3 ft

    (15 ft. 4 in. )

    Photometric reports provide the spacing criteria (SC) or the mounting height ratio (S/MH). The spacing criterion value is multiplied by the vertical distance between the luminaires and the work plane to gain the maximum spacing distance. For linear or rectangular luminaires, there are two SCs, one for spacing along the length of the luminaire (called “along” or “parallel” or “||”), and one for spacing in the direction along the short side of the luminaire (called “across” or “perpendicular” or “normal” or “”).

    Fig. 21: Spacing Criteria D. BALLASTS A fluorescent fixture actually consists of the lamp and associated

    Fig. 21: Spacing Criteria

    D. BALLASTS

    A fluorescent fixture actually consists of the lamp and associated ballast which controls the voltage and the current to the lamp. There are magnetic or electromechanical ballasts and electronic or solid-state ballasts. Ballasts may use from 10% to 20% of the wattage in parasitic losses. The performance of the system and whether it can be dimmed depend upon the ballast. Ballasts make noise and are assigned a sound rating from A, the quietest, to E, the loudest. In a Class P type, if the ballast gets too hot, a thermal protector is present to switch it off. All interior ballasts should be Class P with a sound rating A preferred. Most ballasts are designed to handle two lamps, so fixtures are often designed to hold two or more lamps, or single-lamp fixtures are placed next to one another and one ballast may power two fixtures. (Schiller, 24) Ballasts are used where a load does not regulate its own current consumption well enough. These are most often used when an electrical circuit or device presents a negative (differential) resistance to the supply. If such a device were connected to a constant-voltage power supply, it would draw an increasing amount of current until it was destroyed or caused the power supply to fail. To prevent this, a ballast provides a positive resistance or reactance that limits the ultimate current to an appropriate level. In this way, the 'ballast' provides for the proper operation of the negative resistance device by appearing to be a legitimate, stable resistance in the circuit.

    MAGNETIC BALLASTS Magnetic ballasts control and transform the voltage, but the frequency of the alternating current is still 60 Hz or whatever is the line frequency. Because of the power that would be lost, resistors are not used as ballasts for lamps of more than about two watts. Instead, a reactance is used. In an ideal or theoretically perfect reactance, no power would be lost while limiting the current; realistically, losses due to resistance can only be minimized, not eliminated entirely. An inductor is very common in line-frequency ballasts to provide the proper starting and operating electrical condition to power a fluorescent lamp, neon lamp, or high intensity discharge (HID) lamp. (Because of the use of the inductor, such ballasts are usually called magnetic ballasts.) The inductor has two benefits:

    • 7. Its reactance limits the power available to the lamp with only minimal power losses in the inductor

    • 8. The voltage spike produced when current through the inductor is rapidly interrupted is used in some circuits to first strike the arc in the lamp.

    A disadvantage of the inductor is that current is shifted out of phase with the voltage, producing a poor power factor. In more expensive ballasts, a capacitor is often paired with

    the inductor to correct the power factor. In ballasts that control two or more lamps, line- frequency ballasts commonly use different phase relationships between the multiple lamps. This not only mitigates the flicker of the individual lamps, it also helps maintain a high power factor. These ballasts are often called lead-lag ballasts because the current in one lamp leads the mains phase and the current in the other lamp lags the mains phase.

    Because of the large inductors and capacitors that must be used, reactive ballasts operated at line frequency tend to be large and heavy. They commonly also produce acoustic noise (line-frequency hum).

    ELECTRONIC BALLASTS

    Electronic ballasts have the capability to transform the frequency. At very high frequencies, such as 25,000 Hz or above, efficacy is improved and noise is shifted into the range beyond human hearing. They also have a capability to dim the output of the lamp.

    Electronic lamp ballast uses solid state electronic circuitry to provide the proper starting and operating electrical condition to power one or more fluorescent lamps and more recently HID lamps. Electronic ballasts usually change the frequency of the power from the standard mains (e.g., 60 Hz in U.S.) frequency to 20,000 Hz or higher, substantially eliminating the stroboscopic effect of flicker (100 or 120 Hz, twice the line frequency) associated with fluorescent lighting (see photosensitive epilepsy). In addition, because more gas remains ionized in the arc stream, the lamps actually operate at about 9% higher efficacy above approximately 10 kHz. Lamp efficacy increases sharply at about 10 kHz and continues to improve until approximately 20 kHz. Because of the higher efficiency of the ballast itself and the improvement of lamp efficacy by operating at a higher frequency electronic ballasts offer higher system efficacy.

    Electronic ballasts have a number of other advantages over magnetic ballasts:

    Multiple lamp operation. Electronic ballasts are readily available that operate from one to four lamps.

    Lamp operation may be either in series or parallel mode by choosing the appropriate ballast type.

    The advantage of parallel mode is that a single lamp failure will not affect the operation of the remaining lamps controlled by the same ballast. Ballast losses, however, are slightly higher with parallel mode than series mode.

    They are lighter in weight.

    They are quiet.

    Lamp flicker is eliminated.

    They are directly interchangeable with magnetic ballasts.

    Models are available to operate most full-size and compact fluorescent lamps.

    E. Luminaire Classification

    General Classification

    Generally, luminaires are classified by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) according the percentage of light distribution directed upward or downward as

    Direct: 90-100% downward

    Semi-direct:60-90% downward, 10-40% upward

    Semi-indirect:10-40% downward, 60-90% upward

    Indirect lighting:90-100% upward

    General diffuse:40-60% upward, 40-60% downward

    By Optical System and shielding angle

    Luminaires are also classified according to the optical system used.

    Category O- open reflector optical system, including clear safety shield

    Category B- Baffled optical system, which is at least 75% light absorbing

    Category L- Lensed optical system

    Category V- Louvered optical system

    For shielding angle

    Category L- For shielding angle < 40

    Category H- For shielding angle >40

    Table 7: Sample Luminaire Catalogue

    Generally, luminaires are classified by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) according the percentage of light

    F. Performance Criteria

    Luminaire Efficiency Rating

    Luminaire efficiency is the ratio of the illumination level that get off a luminaire, relative to the power that went in to the luminaire. This percentage indicates how efficient the luminaire is, but says nothing about where those lumens are emitted (ALG,7-10). High luminaire efficiency is not necessarily desirable. An open lamp fluorescent light may have efficiency of up to 85% but might cause discomfort glare. However, recessed luminaire of lower efficiency rating could be a better choice in terms of visual comfort

    Coefficient of utilization

    Coefficient of Utilization (CU) is the percentage of light generated by the lamps in a luminaire that reaches the work plane in the room. It may also include combinations of ceiling and wall reflectances and room shapes. It is also an indication of a fixture's efficiency and how light is distributed using a luminaire set-up.

    Light Loss Factor

    Light Loss Factor (LLF) is one of the criteria considered in luminaire efficiency. As lamps age and luminaires are exposed to various elements, such as dust and moisture, they emit less luminous output. Luminous depreciation must be accommodated to predict and maintain lighting levels.

    Light Loss factor accounts for Lamp Lumen depreciation (LLD), Luminaire dirt depreciation (LDD), and ballast factor. It can be expressed as

    LLF= LLD + LDD+BF

    There are two types of light loss factor that lighting designers should consider: Recoverable and Non-recoverable

    Recoverable Light Loss Factor

    Recoverable light loss factors are those that can be mitigated by cleaning and relamping the luminaire and cleaning the room surfaces. These factors can be measured for a specific operating period (for example, when the installation is two years old), or for specific point in rated lamp life (typically 40%). These factors allow the designer to calculate either initial light levels (when the installation is clean and new) or maintained light levels (when the installation has aged and accumulated some dirt).

    (ALG-7-15)

    Non-recoverable Light Loss Factor

    Non-recoverable light loss factor cannot be recovered by simply cleaning a room or relamping.

    Most of these factors include the Ballast factor (BF) and thermal factor (TF).

    G. Installing the Lighting Equipment Installing the luminaire or light fixture depends on how it should be mounted, whether it is recessed, surface mounted, suspended, or free standing. Different manufacturers provide installation procedures as well as guidelines on construction and electrical safety. Electrical codes provide provision on safe installation on different luminaire set-up.

    3. LIGHTING SYSTEMS

    GENERAL CLASSIFICATION

    • 1. General Lighting – also called ambient lighting; this method strives for diffused light and uniform intensity over an entire area. The lamps are evenly spaced without regard to furniture location and are provided with reflectors, baffles or diffusing prisms to prevent glare, harsh shadows and uneven illumination

    • 2. Local Lighting – also called task lighting; this method employs lamps at definite points where light is specially needed producing pools of light mingled with areas of shadows. It is the very opposite of uniform illumination. The location of lamps in this method usually depends upon the position of furniture or the position of activity areas.

    • 3. Combined Local and General Lighting sometimes called Localized Lighting – provides sufficient general lighting to illuminate various objects in the room and at the same time furnishes additional local lamps at desks, reading tables, showcases and other equipment needing additional illumination.

    Fig. 22 Lighting System matrix CLASSIFICATION BY LIGHT DISTRIBUTION 1. DIRECT LIGHTING SYSTEM : Lighting by

    Fig. 22 Lighting System matrix

    CLASSIFICATION BY LIGHT DISTRIBUTION

    • 1. DIRECT LIGHTING SYSTEM : Lighting by Luminaire distributing/emitting 90-100% that directly reaches a surface or plane Direct, symmetrical lighting is preferred for general illumination of rooms and public spaces.

    Fig. 22 Lighting System matrix CLASSIFICATION BY LIGHT DISTRIBUTION 1. DIRECT LIGHTING SYSTEM : Lighting by

    Fig 23: Direct Lighting System

    Fig. 22 Lighting System matrix CLASSIFICATION BY LIGHT DISTRIBUTION 1. DIRECT LIGHTING SYSTEM : Lighting by

    Incandescent direct downlights are available in flush-mounted or recessed versions. they are typically known as cans because the fixture is quite simple for line voltage lamps. in recessed versions, there is a housing that keeps the heat of the fixture from setting any building material on fire. Downlights typically utilize line voltage A, R or ER lamps. The orifice of the downlight may be ribbed matte black, silver, or gold Alzak reflector.

    Fluorescent downlights are the most common fluorescent luminaires. They come in one-, two-, three- and four-lamp configurations. They typically use the most common lamp, the 4-ft nominal 40-W tube. They are available in flush mount box, flush mount wrap around, and recessed. The flush mount box is a box 4 to 8 inches deep mounted on the ceiling with a diffuser in the bottom. the wraparound is a flush mount frame and ballast that simply surrounds the

    transmitting surface up the sides of the fixture. The recessed type is a metal box with an internal reflector recessed into the ceiling with a diffuser mounted in some kind of door.

    HID Direct downlights are still the most common HID fixtures. These are simply wrapped in large diffusing plastic cylinders, sloped cylinders, or fresnel-lensed reflectors. They are usually mounted 12 to 20 ft or higher over the workplane. In exterior applications, they are used for street lighting either with 400- to 1000-W lamps in 40-ft or higher cobra head fixtures and for ordinary 12 to 20-ft lamp posts with smaller 250-W lamps. HID lamps are also used in tennis courts, baseball fields, football stadiums, and even parking lots.

    Cornice Lighting – a system where light sources are shielded by a panel parallel to the wall and attached to the ceiling to distribute light downwards over the wall.

    Track lighting- is used as direct accent lighting enhancing only a selected spot or surface. It is commonly used in galleries, jewellery shops, and artist's shop to highlight an item.

    • 2. Semi-direct – 60% to 90% of light is directed downwards; while 40% to 10% is directed upwards. A semi direct system will provide good illumination levels on horizontal surface with moderate general brightness.

    transmitting surface up the sides of the fixture. The recessed type is a metal box with
    transmitting surface up the sides of the fixture. The recessed type is a metal box with

    Fig 24: Semi-Direct Lighting System

    • 3. Indirect – 90% to 100% of the light output is directed towards the ceiling and upper walls of the room. An indirect lighting system will use the ceiling as a reflector and bounce off the light. This creates a low contrast environment and may cast shadows, however, direct glare can be minimized.

    transmitting surface up the sides of the fixture. The recessed type is a metal box with

    Fig 25: Indirect Lighting System

    transmitting surface up the sides of the fixture. The recessed type is a metal box with

    Indirect fluorescent uplights are probably the most common uplight. Ceilings that utilize these luminaire type are lit by fluorescent fixtures suspended from the ceiling at a distance of 2 or more ft. The greater the suspension distance, the more even the illuminance on the ceiling. such luminaires have little or no surface glare themselves and provide an evenly lit ceiling, which ot only provides diffuse reflected light but an even background luminance against which fixture luminance does not contrast.

    Ambient Uplight

    Ambient uplight is a freestanding light typically used in offices as an indirect uplight illuminating the office work surfaces with light reflected from ceiling.

    Torchiere

    Torchiere is a freestanding decorative fixture typically used as a theme lighting or uplighitng.

    Recessed cove is either used on the ceiling adjacent to the walls or whenever there is a change in elevation in the ceiling plane. Using such coves to light a portion of the ceiling accentuates the elevation change and often causes the ceiling segment to float independently of the walls or other ceiling plane.

    • 4. Semi-indirect – 60% to 90% of the light is directed upwards; 40% to 10% downwards. This will provide emphasis on the ceiling or wall plane.

    Indirect fluorescent uplights are probably the most common uplight. Ceilings that utilize these luminaire type are

    Fig 26: Semi-Indirect Lighting System

    Wall Washer

    Indirect fluorescent uplights are probably the most common uplight. Ceilings that utilize these luminaire type are

    Wall washer is intended to evenly and smoothly illuminate an entire vertical wall surface. This is different to downlights that cause scalloping on the wall. This is also different to adjustable downlights, which illuminate one painting or area.

    Sconce

    A sconce is a light that is attached to a wall surface, sometimes in addition to lighting a segment of a floor or ceiling. Decorative sconces provide an image or illuminate themselves in a manner that may be used as part of a design concept.

    Fig 27: General / Direct-Indirect Lighting System Valance Lighting – a system where light sources are
    Fig 27: General / Direct-Indirect Lighting System Valance Lighting – a system where light sources are
    Fig 27: General / Direct-Indirect Lighting System Valance Lighting – a system where light sources are

    Fig 27: General / Direct-Indirect Lighting System

    Valance Lighting – a system where light sources are shielded by a panel parallel to the wall usually across the top of a window. This provides light both upwards and downwards over the wall.

    Pendants- are luminaires suspended from the ceiling by a stem or cable and provide general

    diffused lighting on upper and lower horizontal planes of a room. It may come or with diffusers allowing light to pass through on all sides.

    on clear housing

    CLASSIFICATION BY MOUNTING SYSTEM

    Recessed

    Recessed housings are mounted above the finish ceiling and entirely hidden from view. Recessed mounting system is use to hide the lighting fixtures, ballasts, and electrical wiring system above the finish ceiling plane. Only an opening where the light emerges is seen.

    This type is useful for visual or aesthetic consideration in lighting system.

    Recessed units include HID downlights, incandescent downlights, and wide range of fluorescent troffers.

    Surface Mounting

    Surface mounted luminaires are attached directly onto the surface and project outward by their depth. For ceiling mounted, luminaires like fluorescent troffers of various types are commonly used. Wall mounted luminaires are commonly used for valances, cove lighting and other direct-indirect lighting system. Floor mounted luminaires are commonly used as uplights and enhances a wall or figure.

    Suspended (Troffers, Pendants, Track, Linear)

    Suspended lighting fixtures are attached directly on the ceiling surface and supported by stems, pendants, or cable. It is used to provide direct lighting on areas below or indirectly by projecting light to the ceiling surface.

    Free standing/Pole mounted o Torchieres

    Freestanding luminaire has floor-supported frame having a base adapted to rest on the floor. It has a pole connected to an overhead beam consisting of the lamp and reflector. Free standing luminaires are used for direct lighting or for ambient uplight. It also provides the flexibility on various lighting requirements.

    Table lamps and torchieres are common types of free standing luminaires. It may come as portable or fixed type. These types of luminaires may provide local lighting or general lighting system.

    OUTDOOR LIGHTING SYSTEM

    Outdoor lighting system provides the necessary illumination levels to visually evaluate the surroundings after sunset. It is necessary to aid people in their activities at night, provide security and road safety. There are two goals for outdoor lighting system: Functional and Emotional

    Functional Objective

    Provide safety on roads and public areas

    Provide security and safety measures using illumination of spaces

    Provide illumination to aid people in identification and detection

    Aid in increasing property values

    Emotional Objective

    Create identity and sense of space

    Promote well-being

    Make people comfortable and safe

    Create attractive nighttime ambience

    Considerations

    The following factors must be considered when installing or renovating outdoor lighting systems:

    • 1. In general, overhead lighting is more efficient and economical than low level lighting.

    • 2. Fixtures should provide an overlapping pattern of light at a height of about 7 ft.

    • 3. Lighting levels should respond to site hazards such as steps, ramps, and steep embankments.

    • 4. Posts and standards should be placed so that they do not create hazards for pedestrians or vehicles.

    ROADWAY LIGHTING SYSTEM

    Roadway luminaires are used to provide low-glare lighting system on roadways to help motorist in seeing the road, the pedestrian, and other vehicles and signages. Selection of roadway luminaires should take account the horizontal and vertical light distribution, pole height, spacing, equipment location and disability glare potential for the motorist.

    Fig.28 Road Lighting Roadway Luminaires are classified according to three criteria: 1. Lateral Light Distribution 2.

    Fig.28 Road Lighting

    Fig.28 Road Lighting Roadway Luminaires are classified according to three criteria: 1. Lateral Light Distribution 2.

    Roadway Luminaires are classified according to three criteria:

    • 1. Lateral Light Distribution

    • 2. Longitudinal Light Distribution

    • 3. Cutoff

    • 1. Lateral Light Distribution

    There are five types of luminaire’s transverse light distribution (perpendicular to the roadway) Type I: Long and Narrow, best used for narrow roadways Type II is wider in comparison with type I. Type III is a typical type used for two or more lanes. Type IV, a forward-throw luminaire, has a distribution that often minimizes the light behind the pole. Type V has symmetrical distribution (circular) in all direction. Some manufactures have develop a Type V which has square pattern of light distribution often called Type V-Square

    Fig.28 Road Lighting Roadway Luminaires are classified according to three criteria: 1. Lateral Light Distribution 2.
    Fig.28 Road Lighting Roadway Luminaires are classified according to three criteria: 1. Lateral Light Distribution 2.
    Fig.28 Road Lighting Roadway Luminaires are classified according to three criteria: 1. Lateral Light Distribution 2.
    Fig.28 Road Lighting Roadway Luminaires are classified according to three criteria: 1. Lateral Light Distribution 2.
    Fig.28 Road Lighting Roadway Luminaires are classified according to three criteria: 1. Lateral Light Distribution 2.
    Fig.28 Road Lighting Roadway Luminaires are classified according to three criteria: 1. Lateral Light Distribution 2.

    Fig 29: Lateral Distribution

    • 2. Longitudinal Light Distribution

    This describes how far the light reaches along the length (parallel) to the road. The most common longitudinal light distribution for roadway are short, medium, and long. Medium type of distribution is the most common because “short” type will create a tight spacing between pole while the “long” system would encourage semi-cutoff that could cause disability glare for drivers (ALG, 7-78). In most cases, high-performance roadway luminaires fall into “medium” category.

    3. Cutoff

    This third criterion describes the control of light distribution above maximum intensity. The higher the light angle, the greater the chance of disability glares to occur. The most common classification used when determining light trespass or pollution potential are:

    A non-cutoff luminaire distributes light in any direction, or may be completely uncontrolled

    A semi-cutoff luminaire provides some optical control, but still distributes a lot of light above the horizontal. The classification allows light intensities up to 5% of the lamp lumens to be emitted upward.

    A cutoff luminaire sends most of its light below the horizontal, yet could still have high angle light that could cause glare. Luminaire intensities above the horizontal are limited to 2.5% of the lamp lumens.

    A full cutoff luminaire guarantees that its light is emitted below the horizontal. This type of distribution helps to minimize light trespass and pollution and may reduce disability glare.

    2. Longitudinal Light Distribution This describes how far the light reaches along the length (parallel) to

    Figure30: Light Distribution of Full Cutoff, Cutoff, Semi-cutoff, and non-cutoff luminaire. Source: Advance Lighting Guide, New Building Institute, Inc.

    Luminaires for roadway lighting system come in different shapes and styles. The most common type is the “cobra head” luminaire, typically on a 6ft davit arm. Cobra heads use metal halide and high-pressure sodium lamps.

    There are two types of cobra head optics: dropped lens and flat lens. Dropped lens was developed when lighting system was based solely on illuminating the roadway horizontally. This type of lens provides the best means of meeting the criteria and maximizing the spacing between poles, thus minimizing the amount of equipment needed. However, this type may produce disability glare. This type is classified as semi-cutoff.

    Flat lens cobra head was developed as response to disability glare and other environmental consideration (light trespass). Flat lens replaced the dropped type to reduce glare however its light distribution was no longer as wide, so spacing between poles had to decrease. This type is classified as cutoff

    Flat lens cobra head was developed as response to disability glare and other environmental consideration (light
    Flat lens cobra head was developed as response to disability glare and other environmental consideration (light

    Figure 31: (a) Cobra Head Luminaires (b) and its photometric distribution

    PARKING LOTS AND SERVICE AREA

    Lighting system for parking lots and service area must be design to provide minimum illumination levels necessary to provide visibility, safety, and comfort without causing disability glare or spill over onto adjacent properties or roadways, or an increase in light trespass or pollution.

    Parking lot luminaires are similar in nature to roadway luminaires in terms of light distribution characteristics and styles. The additional distribution types that are widely used for parking areas are type V and V-square. When poles are mounted at the edge of parking lots (forward-thrust) optics can be used to project light toward the center of the parking lot, while minimize the amount delivered behind the luminaire (ALG,7-82). Full cutoff and cutoff are the most common type of designation used to avoid light trespass and light pollution.

    Metal halide and High pressure sodium lamps are typically used for parking lot luminaires, in wattage from 70 to 400 W. White light sources such as metal halide and induction lamps are recommended because the increased energy emitted in the blue-green part of the spectrum enhances the person’s peripheral vision under low nighttime illuminances.

    Flat lens cobra head was developed as response to disability glare and other environmental consideration (light
    Flat lens cobra head was developed as response to disability glare and other environmental consideration (light
    Flat lens cobra head was developed as response to disability glare and other environmental consideration (light

    figure 32: Parking Lot Luminaire and Typical Polar Graph

    Pedestrian Areas Lighting System

    For pedestrian areas, such as parks, lighting system should consider the user's needs and safety. Illumination levels should be adequate but not excessive so not to induce discomfort glare and probably light pollution. It should illuminate spaces such as walls, walkways, stairs, curbs,

    landscaping and aid people detect and identify their location.

    Pedestrian lighting situated along sidewalks or pathways should be similar in appearance but smaller in scale and brightness. High performance luminaires are good for lighting walkways without excessive off-site glare and present minimal environmental effects. Their weakness, however, is in the limited amount of vertical illuminances that is important for pedestrian recognition.

    Lamps used for pedestrian lighting include metal halide, HPS and CFL in wattage from 26-100 W. Fluorescent and induction lamps are recommended because the increased energy emitted in the blue-green portion of the spectrum enhances the pedestrian’s peripheral vision under low nighttime illuminances, similar to parking space lighting.

    landscaping and aid people detect and identify their location. Pedestrian lighting situated along sidewalks or pathways

    Fig 33: Pedestrian Areas Lighting System

    Decorative luminaires with shielded or well-designed optical system can also be used to illuminate directly the pathways and help people identify faces with comfortable amount of brightness. Bollards are typically and popularly used in pathway lighting. Bollards are great light indicators but don't necessarily light people's faces. The best application for bollards is to identify potential walkway hazards and as landscaping highlights. Choose bollards that direct light to the ground and are low brightness in normal viewing angles.

    landscaping and aid people detect and identify their location. Pedestrian lighting situated along sidewalks or pathways

    Fig 34: Bollards

    Landscape Luminaires

    Lighting system for landscapes involves multiple techniques, from lighting tress, shrubs, and other softscape features, to lighting hardscape features such as fountains, gazebos, bridges, and sculptures. Landscape lighting can often induce the feelings of safety and security on pathways and compliment on the identity of a place.

    Landscape lighting should be properly sited, aimed, and shielded so light is directed only on selected landscape features, i.e. trees and shrubs and not to induce discomfort glare to roadways or walkways.

    Halogen and metal halide lamps are used as accent lighting and have good color rendering on plant materials. Low-voltage MR-16 lamps provide dramatic spots and soft floods with very small housings at 50 watts or less; metal halide PAR-20, PAR-30, PAR-38, and ED-17 lamps provide the same effects for larger scale installations, using wattages of 35 to 175 . CFL luminaires can be used for low-intensity floodlighting

    Lighting techniques for landscaping include shadowing, uplighting, backlighting, and moonlighting.

    Shadowing is created by using uplights that illuminate plants and cast shadows on the background. This can help create drama and depth of space.

    Uplighting is typically used to highlight shrubs or tress. It uses lamps that light a plant or figure directly or to highlight statuary or walls

    Backlighting creates more drama in emphasizing the plants by illuminating it from behind. This creates silhouettes on the plants and creates a glow effect. Uplights are also used for this effect.

    Moonlighting recreates the moonlight effect filtering through tree branches. Light fixture is placed high in the tree and pointed directly downward.

    For uplighting system, use low wattage ground-mounted luminaires that are extremely well shielded with correct beam control and louvers

    For landscape lighted from above involving tree-mounted low-voltage halogen

    luminaires designed specifically for this application. Adjustable straps that allow for tree

    growth are available so that it would

    not damage the tree.

    Landscape Luminaires Lighting system for landscapes involves multiple techniques, from lighting tress, shrubs, and other softscape

    Fig 35: Landscape Luminaires

    Hardscape Lighting

    Hardscape lighting system is used to illuminate fountains, pools, wall, bridges, gazebos, and other similar features. Lighting for these may be done with a variety of luminaires. Recessed mounted luminaires, wall scones, uplights are commonly used to emphasize these elements. For underwater illumination, luminaires must have housing and lenses that is water and corrosion

    resistant. Halogen underwater luminaires require water covering to maintain lower temperature to operate. Some lower-wattage metal halide luminaires can operate with or without a water covering. Fibber optic lighting for water feature lighting can also be used, since the fiber optic cable can easily be mounted in the water without electric component or heat exposure. For metal halide or LED, locate it in a dry location for easy servicing

    Building Facade

    Building facades are lighted in various ways and with different types of equipment. Ground- and building-mounted uplight luminaires required to control all of the light they emit so that it falls on the building facade. This can be accomplished with precise beam spread selection, louvers and shielding, and careful locations (ALG,7-91).

    Lamping includes metal halide, PAR metal halide, HPS, CFL, and Induction or LED. Proper selection on lighting system is necessary so not to induce lighting pollution. Luminaires must be rated for outdoor use in the position they will be oriented. They should be designed to shed water and resist strong winds.

    The proper technique in lighting facades is to aim the luminaires downward and toward the facade. Luminaires may be recessed in soffits, arm-mounted, or floor mounted. Scones and valances can also be used for more dramatic effect.

    Recreational/Sports lighting

    Outdoor recreational and sport lighting are becoming popular and requires night lighting to extend playing time. Most of sports lighting equipment are mounted on poles. For high aerial sports such as baseball and softball, the luminaires have to be located high above the fields (70–100 ft) in order to safely light the field with minimal light trespass. Other aerial sports such ( tennis, football and soccer) require pole heights that will uniformly light the court or large playing fields yet will discourage high aiming angles. The lower the pole, the higher the aiming angle and the greater the light trespass potential (ALG-7-92).

    Lightig system for such condition should include equipment layouts with floodlight locations, type of distribution and aiming angles. It is discourage to use aiming angles above 60 degrees since these floodlights have the greatest light trespass and pollution potentials. Likewise, it is necessary to design an automatic controls to turn off the sport lighting equipment when the fields are not in used

    (ALG,7-92)

    4. LIGHTING CONTROL

    Daylighting Controls

    Passive daylighting control is aimed at the openings, called fenestrations, where daylight is admitted. For the purpose of illumination on a horizontal plane, the fenestration should:

    maximize light transmission per unit area of glazing

    control direct sunlight penetration onto the workplane

    control brightness contrast within the occupants visual field, especially between fenestration

    and surrounding room surfaces minimize cosine reduction of workplane illuminance resulting from low fenestration placement

    minimize veiling glare on workplane surfaces, resulting from high fenestration placement

    minimize heat gain during overheating

    These objectives are sometimes contradictory, and their individual importance varies with orientation, season, time of day, latitude, building thermal load, and occupant usage. This complexity requires that both glazing type and fenestration geometry be selected and designed specifically for each project. In particular, the objectives of direct sunlight control and solar heat gain control imply a different configuration for each orientation because of the seasonal and daily movement of the sun.

    DETAILED SITE OBSTRUCTION SURVEY

    The sunpath diagram can be used to plot a profile of all site obstructions. This provides a graphic representation of obstructions at all sun angles and forms the basis for later calculation of illuminance at window locations, shading and reflector device design, and interior illuminance due to sky component.

    OBSTRUCTION MASKS

    Using the plan projection format, it is possible to construct a diagram that defines that portion of the sky that is masked out by surrounding obstructions and those that can be exposed. When used together with the appropriate sunpath chart, the hours of direct sun penetration and shading can be determined.

    This chart can be used to construct a mask showing, for example, the portion of the skydome obscured by a long horizontal overhang from a window. The critical angle is the cut-off angle: the vertical angle between the horizon and the obstruction, measured in the vertical plane perpendicular to the glazing. None of the sky above this angle is visible from any point on the window.

    ∑ minimize veiling glare on workplane surfaces, resulting from high fenestration placement ∑ minimize heat gain

    Figure 36

    This chart can also be used to construct a mask showing the portion of the skydome obscured by a vertical side fin from a given reference location. The critical angle is visible from any point on the window. Obstruction masks can be used to assess the extent of shading on glass. They can also represent sky exposure from various building locations. The following figures below show samples of obstruction masks for various shading devices.

    While an obstruction mask is independent of orientation, it is constructed using the same coordinate system as the sun path charts. Thus, the mask can be overlaid on the appropriate sunpath to determine the times of shading or sunlight penetration. It can be rotated to orient its arrow points to the correct compass direction on the sun chart. Those times on the sun chart visible through the unshaded portions of the mask indicate sun exposure.

    SOUTH WALL

    TRANSLUCENT GLAZING & SLOPED LOUVERS

    The diffusion properties of translucent materials vary, but high diffusion materials (i.e. Materials through which the transmitted image of the sun is not visible), such as flashed opalescent glass and white acrylic, typically have relatively high reflectances and low transmittances (less than 50 percent). Thus, both reflected and transmitted luminance of such sunlit materials are very high and are a source of serious glare when it occurs within the field of view of the occupant. (Moore,

    83)

    Both sloped louvers and translucent glazing are effective in diffusing direct sunlight. However, louvers tend to direct a larger amount of sunlight toward the ceiling (due to initial reflectance off the top of the louver). Thus, the light-colored ceiling becomes an important part of the louver fenestration system. Under both sunlit and overcast conditions, high-diffusion glazing (45% transmittance) produces workplane illuminances comparable to horizontal louvers, but glare to the occupants is greater because higher luminances occur in the normal field of view.

    WALL FENESTRATION

    Different wall orientations receive different amounts of sunlight throughout the day and throughout the seasons. Thus, optimum fenestration designs for each orientation will differ.

    PROJECTED FENESTRATIONS: OVERHANGS AND AWNINGS

    Extending a solid overhang far enough horizontally to shield low winter sun angles is impractical. Sloping the overhang down reduces the required width but also reduces the view to the exterior. This results in obstruction of the skydome and hence exclusion of desirable direct sky light as well as direct sunlight. The overhang can be made to transmit diffused light in two ways. The overhang material itself can be translucent or it can be comprised of a series of parallel, opaque white louvers that provide shielding between critical solar profile angels. All sunlight and most sky light will be diffused by double reflection before reaching the glazing plane. Because the reflection is diffuse, a large amount of light will be reflected back to the exterior.

    Figure 38 VERTICAL LOUVERS Fixed vertical white louvers, angled 45 degrees toward the north with a

    Figure 38

    Figure 38 VERTICAL LOUVERS Fixed vertical white louvers, angled 45 degrees toward the north with a

    VERTICAL LOUVERS Fixed vertical white louvers, angled 45 degrees toward the north with a 90 degree cut-off angle, allow sky light to enter directly while diffusing direct sunlight by double penetration. When compared with southern exposure strategies, vertical louvers provide greater illuminance at locations near the window and shielded by the louvers at deeper locations. The nearer locations are more subject to direct glare from the bright skydome, particularly if the window is low. The vertical louvers provide a view to the north, but this advantage may be limited to perimeter locations.

    NORTH WALLS

    In Metro Manila, direct sunlight shielding for north walls is somewhat required from June to August as the sun reaches north, for example at July 01 where the sun is at 45 degrees altitude on NE at around 9 am; then rising up to 80 degrees altitude on direct North at noon; then lowering at 45 degrees on NW at 3 pm.

    SHELF REFLECTORS Illumination through all of the previously mentioned fenestration types (at all orientations) is increased with the addition of a reflective horizontal shelf below the glazing. Such a shelf has the effect of increasing the ground-reflected component. For clear glazing with no other fenestrations (as is typical of north facades), this component is most useful when directed to the ceiling only, from where it is diffusely reflected down onto the workplane.

    INTERMEDIATE LIGHT SHELVES Light shelves are often used to divide upper and lower glazing. They reflect additional light through the upper glazing, while acting as an overhang for the lower glazing, shading it from direct sun and obstructing the skydome.

    LIGHT SCOOPS Light scoop is a sloped ceiling adjacent to the window. It exposes that ceiling section to sky

    light (and potentially low-angle direct sunlight

    This becomes a significant secondary source

    _. reflector to areas directly below and onto the outside wall.

    LIGHT BAFFLES Light baffles can be used to introduce daylight into basement areas while excluding direct sunlight. All interior surfaces should be white to maximize reflections. Use a 45-degree reflector and 45-degree cut-off angles to maximize basement illuminances.

    ROOF FENESTRATION

    In addition to the wall fenestration strategies discussed above, single-story and the top of multi-storey buildings can employ skylights (horizontal and shallow-sloped glazing) and monitors (vertical and steeply-sloped glazing) to introduce daylight. This is particularly advantageous for large area floor plans with interior areas inaccessible to exterior walls and windows.

    SKYLIGHTS Because of the large amount of solar radiation on horizontal surfaces during the summer, skylights introduce considerable heat gain and are often avoided to reduce air-conditioning loads. However, there are many strategies for diffusing sunlight and skylight.

    NORTH/SOUTH ROOF MONITORS Monitors are roof structures that utilize vertical or steeply sloped glazing. This allows for the contribution of roof-reflected light and (in the case of south-oriented glazing) more direct exposure to winter sunlight. South-facing monitors must employ translucent glass or white baffles to diffuse direct sunlight.

    CEILING BAFFLES An alternative to creating sunlight diffusion in the glazing plane is the use of white baffles in the lower ceiling plane. The spacing of the baffles is adjusted to compensate for changes in the cut-off angle relative to the edge of the overhang. The resulting illuminance distribution is nearly symmetrical with a two-to-one concentration near the center. Another variation requires no overhang, with the increased shielding provided by sloping the baffles near the window. The spacing and the slope of the baffles is generated by cut-off angles from the top of the window and the depth of the center baffle. The resulting illuminance distribution is slightly more even because cut-off angles are optimized from both directions for all baffles.

    EXTERIOR VERTICAL SHIELD/REFLECTORS Using exterior white vertical shield reflectors is an alternative to interior ceiling baffles for diffusing direct sunlight. This depends on the use of sunlight diffusely reflected through the opposite clerestory, while direct sunlight is shielded from direct entry. Compared with ceiling baffles, illuminance distribution is more uniform, but the average is slightly less. Construction cost is less, and clerestory window maintenance is easier. The use of translucent exterior shields (instead of opaque white) offers a slight increase in illuminance of the center and perimeter opposite the sun.

    Electric Lighting Controls

    Active Lighting control system consists of a device, typically an embedded processor or industrial computer that controls electric lights for a building or residence. Lighting control systems usually include one or more keypads or touch panel interfaces. These interfaces allow users the ability to toggle power to lights and fans, dim lights, and program lighting levels.

    Lighting control system consists of a device, typically an embedded processor or industrial computer that controls electric lights for a building or residence. Lighting control systems usually include one or more keypads or touch panel interfaces. These interfaces allow users the ability to toggle power to lights and fans, dim lights, and program lighting levels.

    A major advantage of a lighting control system over conventional lighting is the ability to control any device from any interface. For example, a master touch panel might allow the user the ability to control all lights in a building, not just a single room. In fact, any light might be controlled from any

    location.

    In addition, lighting control systems provide the ability to automatically power a device based on programming events such as:

    • 1. Chronological time (time of day)

    • 2. Astronomical time (sunrise/sunset)

    • 3. Room occupancy

    • 4. Events

      • 1. Alarm conditions

      • 2. Program logic (any combination of events)

    Chronological time is a time of day or offset from a time. Astronomical times includes sunrise, sunset, a day, or specific days in a month or year. Room occupancy might be determined with motion detectors or RFID tags. Events might include holidays or birthdays. Alarm conditions might include a door opening or motion detected in a protected area. Program logic can tie all of the above elements together using constructs such as if-then-else statements and logical operators.

    Lighting controls offer the ability for systems to be turned ON and OFF either manually or automatically.

    Switching & Dimming

    A light switch is a switch, most commonly used to operate electric lights, permanently connected equipment, or electrical outlets. In modern homes most lights are operated using switches set in walls, usually 6-10 inches (15- 25 cm) away from a door, to operate overhead ceiling lights. In torches (flashlight) the switch is often near the bulb, but may be in the tail, or even the entire head itself may constitute the switch (rotated to turn the light on and off).

    Home light switches, being in reality a metal or plastic box with a switch in it, commonly have switch plate covers called wall plates. These are plastic, ceramic or metal, and prevent accidental contact with live terminals of the switch. Wall plates are available in different styles and colours to blend in with the style of a room.

    The standard manual, single-pole switch was the first energy conservation device. It is also the simplest device and provides the least options. The only negative thing about it is that people often forget to turn them OFF. If switches are far from the room or are difficult to find, occupants are more likely to leave lights ON when exiting the room. Once occupants get in the habit of turning

    location. In addition, lighting control systems provide the ability to automatically power a device based on
    location. In addition, lighting control systems provide the ability to automatically power a device based on

    lights OFF upon exit, more complex systems may not be necessary. Figure 39: Manual Switches

    Dimmers are devices used to vary the brightness of a light. By decreasing or increasing the RMS voltage and hence the mean power to the lamp it is possible to vary the intensity of the light output. Although variable-voltage devices are used for various purposes, the term dimmer is generally reserved for those intended to control lighting. Dimmers range in size from small units the size of a normal light switch used for domestic lighting to high power units used in large theatre or architectural lighting installations. Small domestic

    dimmers are generally directly controlled, although remote control systems (such as X10) are available. Modern professional dimmers are generally controlled by a digital control system like DMX.

    In the professional lighting industry changes in intensity are called “fades” and can be “fades up” or “fades down”. Dimmers with direct manual control had a limit on the speed they could be varied at but this issue is pretty much gone with modern digital units (although very fast changes in brightness may still be avoided for other reasons like lamp life).

    Modern dimmers are built from silicon-controlled rectifiers (SCR) instead of potentiometers or variable resistors because they have higher efficiency. A variable resistor would dissipate power by heat (efficiency as low as 0.5). By switching on and off , theoretically a silicon-controlled rectifier dimmer does not heat up (efficiency close to 1.0).

    dimmers are generally directly controlled, although remote control systems (such as X10) are available. Modern professional

    Figure 40: Dimmers

    Time Clocks

    dimmers are generally directly controlled, although remote control systems (such as X10) are available. Modern professional

    Time clocks are used to control lights when their operation is based on a fixed operating schedule. They are available in electronic or mechanical styles. However, regular check-ups are required to ensure that the time clock is controlling the system properly. After a power interruption, electronic timers without battery backups can get off the schedule – turning ON and OFF at the wrong times. It requires a great deal of time for maintenance of isolated time clocks if many are installed.

    dimmers are generally directly controlled, although remote control systems (such as X10) are available. Modern professional

    Figure 41: Time Clocks

    dimmers are generally directly controlled, although remote control systems (such as X10) are available. Modern professional
    dimmers are generally directly controlled, although remote control systems (such as X10) are available. Modern professional

    Sensors

    Occupancy Sensors

    Occupancy sensors save energy by turning off lights in spaces that are unoccupied. When the sensor detects motion, it activates a control device that turns ON a lighting system. If no motion is detected within a specified period, the lights are turned OFF until motion is sensed again. With most sensors, sensitivity (the ability to detect motion) and the time delay (difference in time between when sensor detects no motion and lights go OFF) are adjustable. Occupancy sensors are produced in two primary types: Ultrasonic (US) and Passive Infrared (PIR). Dual-Technology (DT) sensors, that have both ultrasonic and passive infrared detectors, are also available. Table 13.8 shows the estimated percent energy savings from occupancy sensor installation for values locations. US and PIR sensors are available as wall-switch sensors, or remote sensors such as ceiling mounted or outdoor commercial grade units. With remote sensors, a low-voltage wire connects each sensor to an electrical relay and control module, which operates on common voltages, with wall-switch sensors, the sensor and control module are packaged as one unit. Multiple sensors and/or lighting circuits can be linked to one control module allowing flexibility for optimum design. Wall-switch sensors can replace existing manual switches in small areas as offices, conference rooms, and some classrooms. However, in these applications a manual override switch should be available so that the lights can be turned OFF for slide presentation and other visual displays. Wall-switch sensors should have an unobstructed coverage pattern (absolutely necessary for PIR sensors) of the room it controls. Ceiling-mounted units are appropriate in corridors, rest rooms, open office areas with partitions and any space where objects obstruct the line of sight from a wall-mounted sensor location. Commercial grade outdoor units can be also be used in indoor warehouses and large aisles. Sensors designed for outdoor use are typically duty, and usually have the adjustable sensitivities and coverage patterns for maximum flexibility. Table 13.9 indicates the appropriate sensors for various applications.

    Sensors Occupancy Sensors Occupancy sensors save energy by turning off lights in spaces that are unoccupied.

    Figure 42:Sensors

    Illumination Sensors / Photocells

    Photocells, that turn the lights ON when it gets dark and OFF when sufficient daylight, are available. Unlike time clocks, photocells are seasonally self-adjusting and automatically switch ON when light levels are low, such as during rainy days. A photocell is inexpensive and can be installed on each fixture or can be installed to control multiple fixtures on one circuit. Photocells can also be effectively used indoors, if daylight is available through skylights and windows. The cheapest type of photocell uses a cadmium sulfide cell, but these cells lose sensitivity

    after being in service for a few years. To avoid this situation, they can be replaced with electronic types that do not lose sensitivity over time. These electronic photocells use solid-state, silicon phototransistors or photodiodes, which last longer as evidenced by their longer warranties – up to 6 years – and can easily pay back before that time with energy and labor savings.

    after being in service for a few years. To avoid this situation, they can be replaced

    Figure 43: Photosensors

    Photocells + Dimmers

    Daylight harvesting is a control strategy that can be applied where diffuse daylight can be used effectively to light interior spaces. Many places with over 50% cloudy days can cost- effectively use daylight controls. (Turner, 365) Daylight harvesting employs strategically located photosensors and electronic dimming ballasts. This strategy requires more knowledge than just plugging a sensor into a dimming ballast. Photosensors and dimming ballasts form a control system that controls the light level according to the daylight level. The fluorescent lighting is dimmed to maintain a band of light level when there is sufficient daylight present in the space. The output is changed gradually by a fade control so occupants are not disturbed

    after being in service for a few years. To avoid this situation, they can be replaced

    REFERENCES

    Books:

    Benya, James, et. al. Advanced Lighting Guidelines.2003 New Buildings Institute Inc, Washington D.C.

    Gordon, Gary. Interior Lighting for Designers Gary Gordon Published 2003 John Wiley and Sons

    Karwowski, Waldemar. International Encyclopedia of Ergonomics and Human Factors Vol. 1 Published 2006 CRC Press

    Moore, Fuller. Concepts and Practice of Architectural Daylighting Fuller Moore. Published 1991. Van Nostrand Reinhold

    Narisada, Kohei. Lighting Pollution Handbook. Duco Schreuder Published 2004 Springer

    Hoke, John Ray Jr. (ed.). Ramsey / Sleeper Architectural Graphic Standards John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York, Published 1996

    Schmidt , Philip. The Complete Guide to Patios: Plan, Build, and Maintain

    2007

    Creative Publishing international

    Stokes, Geoffrey. Handbook of Electrical Installation Practice Published 2003 Blackwell Publishing

    Website(s):

    Technical Guide for Effective, Energy-Efficient Lighting : Small Commercial Lighting Program.

    http://www.nyserda.org/sclp. Retrieved May 2008. The Lighting Research Center Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. New York