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# 4/13/2018 Working Stress Analysis for Concrete Beams | Reinforced Concrete Design Review

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## Working Stress Analysis for Concrete Beams

Consider a relatively long simply supported beam shown below. Assume the load wo to be increasing progressively until the beam fails. The beam will go into the following three stages:

1. Uncrack Concrete Stage – at this stage, the gross section of the concrete will resist the bending which means that the beam will behave like a solid beam made entirely of concrete.
2. Crack Concrete Stage – Elastic Stress range
3. Ultimate Stress Stage – Beam Failure

## Concrete Beam Crack Stages

At section 1: Uncrack stage

## 1. Actual moment, M < Cracking moment, Mcr

2. No cracking occur
3. The gross section resists bending
4. The tensile stress of concrete is below rupture

## At Section 2: Boundary between crack and uncrack stages

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## 1. Actual moment, M = Cracking moment, Mcr

2. Crack begins to form
3. The gross section resists bending
4. The tensile stress of concrete reached the rupture point

## 1. Actual moment, M > Cracking moment, Mcr

2. Elastic stress stage
3. Cracks developed at the tension fiber of the beam and spreads quickly to the neutral axis
4. The tensile stress of concrete is higher than the rupture strength
5. Ultimate stress stage can occur at failure

## Working Stress Analysis – Uncracked Stage

The beam will behave elastically and remains uncracked. The tensile stress of concrete is below rupture.

Cracking Moment
NSCP 2010, Section 409.6.2.3

− −
Modulus of rupture of concrete, f r

= 0.7√ f c  MPa

f r Ig
Cracking moment, M cr =
yt

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4/13/2018 Working Stress Analysis for Concrete Beams | Reinforced Concrete Design Review

Where
I = Moment of inertia of the gross section neglecting reinforcement
g

## Working Stress Analysis – Cracked Stage

General Requirement
Actual Stresses ≤ Allowable Stresses

## Internal Couple Method

Static equilibrium of internal forces

Factor k:

fc
k =
fs
fc +
n

Factor j:
1
j = 1 k
3

1
R = f c kj
2

## Moment capacity: Use the smallest of the two

1 2 2
Mc = C jd = f c kj bd = Rbd
2

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4/13/2018 Working Stress Analysis for Concrete Beams | Reinforced Concrete Design Review

Ms = T jd = As f s jd

## Transformed Section Method

Convert steel area to equivalent concrete area by multiplying As with modular ratio, n.

## Location of the neutral axis from extreme compression fiber

Singly reinforced: 1

2
bx
2
= nAs (d − x)

Doubly reinforced: 1

2
bx
2 ′ ′
+ (2n − 1)As (x − d ) = nAs (d − x)

## Cracked section moment of inertia (INA = Icr)

3
bx
Singly reinforced: I NA = + nAs (d − x)
2

3
bx
Doubly reinforced: I NA =
′ ′
+ (2n − 1)As (x − d )
2
+ nAs (d − x)
2

## Actual stresses (calculate using Flexure Formula)

Concrete
Mx
fc =
IN A

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4/13/2018 Working Stress Analysis for Concrete Beams | Reinforced Concrete Design Review

Tension steel
fs M (d − x)
=
n IN A

## Compression steel for doubly reinforced

′ ′
fs M (x − d )
=
2n IN A

Tags: Cracking Moment Cracked Stage of Concrete Uncracked Stage of Concrete Internal Couple Method Transformed Section Method

## Example 01: Total Compression Force at the Section of Concrete Beam

Example 02: Moment Capacity of a Concrete Beam
Example 03: Compressive Force at the Section of Concrete T-Beam
Example 04: Stress of Tension Steel, Stress of Compression Steel, and Stress of Concrete in Doubly Reinforced Beam

## ‹ Working Stress Design of Reinforced Concrete up

Example 01: Total Compression Force at the Section of Concrete Beam ›

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## Working Stress Design of Reinforced Concrete

Working Stress Analysis for Concrete Beams
Example 01: Total Compression Force at the Section of Concrete Beam
Example 02: Moment Capacity of a Concrete Beam
Example 03: Compressive Force at the Section of Concrete T-Beam
Example 04: Stress of Tension Steel, Stress of Compression Steel, and Stress of Concrete in Doubly Reinforced Beam
Design of Steel Reinforcement of Concrete Beams by WSD Method

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