You are on page 1of 108

öbv

österreichische
bautechnik
Vereinigung

Sprayed Concrete
o
fN

GUIDELINE
rsj

E
tu
m
cu
CO
tu

:0
X APRIL 2013

tu
LT)

<D
-Q

o
LT)

X*
-Q
E

l
N

c
o
u
o
0)

tu
c
o
www.bautechnik.pro
Österreichische Bautechnik Vereinigung (ÖBV)
Über uns ...
Tunnelbau, Straßen-, Ingenieur- oder Hochbau: Ohne Bautechnik-Know-how und den Baustoff Beton sind die Erwartungen an moderne Infrastruktur
und die Wohnwelten der Zukunft nicht einzulösen. Unsere Mitglieder gestalten mit ihren Innovationen mit, wo und wie wir morgen arbeiten und
leben.

Die Österreichische Bautechnik Vereinigung (ÖBV) zählt die maßgebende Bauherrenschaft, die gesamte Bauindustrie, Ingenieurbüros, Universitäten
und Fachhochschulen sowie namhafte Produkthersteller zu ihren 200 Mitgliedsfirmen.

Die Primäraufgabe der Vereinigung ist das gemeinsame Erarbeiten des Letztstandes der Beton- und Bautechnik durch Vertreter der Mitgliedsfirmen.
Dazu werden zu den Fachthemen Arbeitskreise gebildet, die die fachlichen Inhalte für ÖBV-Richtlinien erstellen. Den so erarbeiteten Wissensstand
gibt die ÖBV in Fortbildungsveranstaltungen, Fachseminaren und Kongressen an die Mitarbeiter der Mitgliedsbetriebe weiter.
Die Österreichische Bautechnik Vereinigung bezweckt die Förderung aller Bestrebungen auf den Gebieten Wissenschaft, Technik, Wirtschaft und
Information im Betonbau und der Bautechnik.

Richtlinien - Wichtige Standards mitbestimmen


Die Richtlinien werden in den ÖBV-Arbeitskreisen zu verschiedenen Themenbereichen erarbeitet. Sie fassen den Stand der Technik zusammen und
werden so zu einem wichtigen Arbeitsmittel für die Ausschreibung, Planung, Ausführung und Bewertung von Bauprojekten. Unsere Mitglieder
bestimmen mit, welche Inhalte schließlich veröffentlicht werden. Über die ÖBV-Plattform können sie sich außerdem an Forschungsprojekten
beteiligen.

Seminare - Technisches Wissen ausbauen


Für die Aus- und Fortbildung aller für das Gelingen eines Bauwerks Verantwortlichen (Bauherr, Planer, Ausführende und Zulieferer) hat die ÖBV
gemeinsam mit dem Güteverband Transportbeton eine eigene Ausbildungsinstitution geschaffen. Die Betonakademie bietet jährlich über 100 Seminare
österreichweit an, die neben Basiswissen in der Betontechnologie ein breites Spektrum an beton- und bautechnischen Anwendungen abdeckt.
www.betonakademie.at

Kongresse - Internationales Know-how nutzen


Neben Seminaren veranstaltet die ÖBV auch Kongresse und Tagungen wie den alle zwei Jahre stattfindenden Baukongress. Die zweitägige
Veranstaltung bringt Experten aus ganz Zentraleuropa nach Wien. Sie stellen die neuesten technischen Trends vor, erläutern wichtige Projekte und
analysieren Ausführungen und Planungen im Tunnel-, Straßen-, Ingenieur- und Hochbau. Der Baukongress wird dadurch zur wichtigsten Plattform für
Bauwissen in Centropa.
www.baukongress.at

| RICHTLINIEN KONGRESSE SEMINARE RICHT

S N BAUEN AUF WISSEN BAUEN \UF WISSEN BAU


|
u
www.bautechnik.pro
o
CD
CD
Alle Rechte, insbesondere das Recht der Vervielfältigung und Verbreitung sowie der Übersetzung, vorbehalten.
V|_

4-. Kein Teil des Werks darf in irgendeiner Form (durch Fotokopie, Mikrofilm oder ein anderes Verfahren) ohne schriftliche Genehmigung
reproduziert oder unter Verwendung elektronischer Systeme gespeichert, verarbeitet, vervielfältigt oder verbreitet werden.
75 Es wird darauf verwiesen, dass alle Angaben in diesem Fachbuch trotz sorgfältigster Bearbeitung ohne Gewähr erfolgen.
o Bei Erwerb in elektronischer Form ist die Speicherung auf Datenträger im Sinne der Lizenzvereinbarung erlaubt.
1_
CD
CL
obv
österreichische
bautechnik
Vereinigung

Guideline

Sprayed Concrete

O
fN

rsj Edition April 2013


E
tu
LO
CU

ru

:0
X

tu
LT)

CU
_Q

o
LO

X*
-Q
E

N
Publisher: Österreichische Bautechnik Vereinigung
A-1040 Vienna, Karlsgas-
| Tel.: +43 (1) 504 15 95,
S Fax: +43 (1) 504 1 5 95-99
u E-Mail: office@bautechnik.pro
S http://www.bautechnik.pro

ru
c
o
Members
Obersenatsrat Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Franz DEIX
Magistratsdirektion - Stadtbaudirektion, Wien
Hofrat Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Wolfgang GOBIET
Dipl.-Ing. Walter HERMANN
Rhomberg Bau GmbH, Bregenz
Ministerialrat Dipl.-Ing. Othmar HERRMANN
Min. Rat Dipl.-Ing. R. HÖRHAN
Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Innovation und Technologie, Wien
Baurat Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Helmut Huber
Konsulent, Birgitz
Univ.-Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Hans Georg JODL
Technische Universität Wien
Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Peter KREMNITZER
Arbeitsgemeinschaft f. Baustofftechnik, Entwicklung und Prüfung, Wien
Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Wolfgang KUSTERLE
University of Applied Sciences Regensburg, Regensburg
Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Harald LAUFFER
Allg. Bauges. - A. PORR AG, Wien
Ing. Johann LEMMERER
ÖBB Infrastruktur AG, Wien
Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Wolfgang LINDLBAUER
Zivilingenieur für Bauwesen, Wien
Dipl.-Ing. Klaus MITTEREGGER
Swietelsky Tunnelbau GmbH & Co KG, Innsbruck
Dipl.-Ing. Roland MURR
Pöyry Infra GmbH, Strass
E
n3
Dipl.-Ing. Michael PAUSER
Österreichische Vereinigung für Beton- und Bautechnik, Wien
| Dipl.-Ing. Florian PETSCHARNIG
i/> Technisches Büro für Verfahrenstechnik, Brückl
Ü Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Walter PICHLER
c?
L_
Material Consult, Hart
7

"S Dipl.-Ing. Andreas RATH


$ Porr Tunnelbau GmbH, Wien
1 Dipl.-Ing. Herwig SCHÖFER
ÖBB Infrastruktur AG, Graz
Ing. Peter SCHWAB
S Östu-Stettin Hoch- und Tiefbau GmbH, Leoben
x Dipl.-Ing. Michael STEINER
E ASFINAG Autobahnen- und Schnellstraßen-Finanzierungs-AG, Wien
I—
N Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Markus TESTOR
ÖBB Infrastruktur AG, Innsbruck
§ Dipl.-Ing. Gernot TRITTHART
o Lafarge Perlmooser GmbH, Wien
"2 Dipl.-Ing. Oliver WAGNER
ÖBB Infrastruktur AG, Graz
t
0)
<S)

~iü
c
o
Preface

The 2013 edition of the Sprayed Concrete Guideline is the third revision of the Sprayed Concrete
Guideline first published by the Austrian Concrete Society in 1989 (Part I- Application) and 1992
(Part 2 - Testing).
Due to the harmonisation of European standards for sprayed concrete (EN 14487 series), national
standards were to be withdrawn by December 2007. As of May 2006, the corresponding European
standard in Austria were successively harmonised. An adjustment of this Guideline is therefore
mandatory.
The issue of 2009 of the German Guideline Sprayed Concrete should now continue the 20-year
tradition of being the basis for the production of quality-corresponding sprayed concrete under
objective contractual terms. As the ÖVBB Guideline Maintenance and Repairs of Structures made
from Concrete and Reinforced Concrete applies for repair work in Austria, the focus of this
Guideline is traditionally on use in tunnel construction.

O
fM Vienna, April 2013 Wolfgang Kusterle

E
ru

CD
CG

O
X

(U
in
cu
-Q

rs
o
LO

x"
-Q
E
(J
I—
N

c
o
u
o
CU
(J

t:
cu

ro
c
o
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

SUMMARY
0 PRELIMINARY REMARKS 1
1 SCOPE 2
2 DEFINITIONS, ABBREVIATIONS 3
2.1 Definitions 3
2.2 Abbreviations used 6
3 ENVIRONMENTAL COMPATIBILITY OF SPRAYED CONCRETE 8
4 CONSTITUENT MATERIALS FOR SPRAYED CONCRETE 10
4.1 Binders 10
4.1.1 Cement 10
4.1.2 Spray cement (SBM) 10
4.2 Additions 12
4.3 Mineral aggregates 13
4.4 Water 15
4.5 Admixtures 15
4.5.1 Accelerators (EB) 15
4.5.2 Other admixtures 17
4.6 POLYMERS 17
4.7 Fibres 17
5 MIX (BASIC MIX) 18
5.1 Mix composition and production 18
O
5. 1. 1 Dry mix - TM (dry-aggregate basic mix) 19
fN
5. 1.2 Moist mix (moist-aggregate mix) FM-L, FM-S 20
5.1.3 Wet mix - NM (fresh concrete mix) 21
<N
j= 5.2 Mix FOR PRESCRIBED SPRAYED CONCRETE (STANDARD SPRAYED CONCRETE) 21
ÿ 6 SPRAYING PROCEDURES 22
CD
CQ
6. 1 Placing of sprayed concrete 22
6.2 Dry-mix shotcreting 23
O
X 6.3 Wet-mix shotcreting 23
6.4 Metering of the accelerator 24
03 6.5 6.5 Curing 24
in
ü 7 REQUIREMENTS TO BE MET BY SPRAYED CONCRETE (CLASSIFIKATION) 25
7.1 Sprayed concrete classes 25
ÿ 7.1.1 Sprayed concrete with low requirements (SpC 1) 25
rs
o 7.1.2 Sprayed concrete with usual requirements (SpC II) 25
LO
7.1.3 Sprayed concrete with special requirements (SpC III) 26
E 7.2 Consistency 26
(J
I— 7.3 Strength of young sprayed concrete (early strength classes) 26
N
7.4 Strength classes 28
c
o
U
o
CD
(J

CD

03
C
o
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

7.5 Sprayed concrete with special properties (exposure classes) 29


7.5.1 Shotcrete with high resistance to water penetration (XC 3/XC 4) 29
7.5.2 Frost-resistant sprayed concrete (XFl/XF 3) 29
7.5.3 Sprayed concrete resistant to freeze/thaw attack (XF 2/XF 4) 29
7.5.4 Sprayed concrete with resistance against expansive chemical attack 29
7.5.5 Sprayed concrete with resistance against solvent chemical (acid) attack (XA1L/XA2L) 30
7.5.6 Sprayed concrete to be testedfor bond strength (HZ) 30
7.5. 7 Fibre-reinforced sprayed concrete (FRSpC) 30
7.6 Designation of sprayed concrete grades 32
8 STRUCTURAL REQUIREMENTS 33
8 .1 Fundamental requirements 33
8 .2 Reinforcement 33
9 SINGLE-SHELL TUNNELING METHOD 34
9. 1 Definition, prerequisites, execution variants 34
9.2 Sprayed concrete classes & design 35
9.3 Notes on execution 35
10 SPECIAL PROCEDURES 36
10.1 10.1. Sprayed concrete under compressed air 36
10.2 Fibre-reinforced sprayed concrete 36
10.2.1 Steel-fibre reinforced sprayed concrete 37
10.2.2 Polymer-fibre reinforced sprayed concrete 37
11 SPECIFICATIONS AND TESTING 39
11.1 Preconstruction test 39
11.1.1 Testing of constituent materials 40
S 11.1.2 Test of the basic mix 41
ÿ 11.1.3 Test of the sprayed concrete 42
CO
•n 11.2 Assessment of conformity (Conformity test) 42
ro 11.2.1 Constituent materials 42
11.2.2 Mix 42
to 11.2.3 Sprayed concrete 43
7i 11.3 Identity testing 54
x 11.3.1 Constituent materials 54
p 11.3.2 Mix 54
-g 11.3.3 Sprayed concrete 54
$ 11.3.4 Hardening/structural test 54
5 11.4 Inspection of mixing and metering equipment at preconstruction testing and inspection 55
CO

g 12 TESTING PROCEDURES 56

£ 12 . 1 Constituent materials for sprayed concrete 56


° 12.1.1 Sampling ofsprayed concrete constituent materials 56
Jÿ 12.1.2 Bleeding of binder pastes 57
12. 1.3 Test of the volume stability of sprayed binding agents 57
h 12.1.4 Identity verification ofAccelerator (EB) 57
« 12.1.5 Test of the storage stability of liquid accelerators 57
<2 12.1.6 Determination of the alkali content (Na20 equivalent) of sprayed cement and accelerators 57
u 12.1.7 Determination of the content ofAl203 of accelerators (EB) and spray cement (SBM) 58
12.1.8 Test of the grain size distribution of aggregates 58
f 12.1.9 Test of thefibres 58
t
TO
'to
~iü
c
o
CO
l_
CD
CL
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

12.2 Sample production and tests on constituent materials and combinations of those 58
12.2.1 Laboratory testing of binder/accelerator combinations and spray cement (SBM)for
accelerated setting times 58
12.2.2 Preparation of samples for the testing of binder/accelerator combinations and spray cement 59
12.2.3 Laboratory testing of binder/accelerator combinations and spray cementfor
strength development and loss ofstrength 61
12.2.4 Test of a possible alkali silica reactivity with spray cement or binding agent/accelerator
combination 62
12.2.5 Testing of mineral aggregate contribution to sprayed concrete strength 62
12.2.6 Testingfor early shrinkage cracking 63
12.2. 7 Test of class BBG 63
12.2.8 Test of the sulphate resistance of class XA T-C3A-free 63
12.3 Mix, base concrete (without accelerator) 63
12.3.1 Taking of mix samples 63
12.3.2 Test of the dry mix (DM) 64
12.3.3 Assessment of workability time of moist mix (FM) 64
12.3.4 Test of the fresh concrete parameters of wet mix 65
12.3.5 Fiber content of mix 65
12.3.6 Mixing ratio 65
12.3.7 Basic mix compressive strength on cubes
-
66
12.4 TESTING OF YOUNG SPRAYED CONCRETE (EARLY STRENGTH CLASS) 66
12.4.1 Penetration needle method (measuring range 0 to 1.0 MPa) 66
12.4.2 Stud-driving method 67
12.5 Testing of sprayed concrete 69
12.5. 1 Dimensions of test specimens and storage conditions 69
12.5.2 Testingfor compressive strength 70
ÿ 12.5.3 Testing ofreference sprayed concrete (sprayed concrete without accelerator) 70
S 12.5.4 Testingfor tensile splitting strength 71
ÿ 12.5.5 Testingfor high resistance to water penetration (XC3; XC4) 71
In 12.5.6 Testingforfrost resistance 71
ÿ 12.5.7 Testingfor modulus of elasticity 71
ÿ 12.5.8 Testing for sulfate resistance class XTA-C3A-free 71
ro 12.5.9 Determination of equivalent flexural strength and toughness of sprayedfibre concrete 71
tn 12.5.10 Test of the fibre content 72
_N
o 12.5.11 Test of increasedfire resistance 72
x
12.5.12 Testingfor tensile adhesive strength and bond strength 72
12.5.13 Leaching of sprayed concrete 72
12.5.14 Reduced leaching behaviour (RV) 73
12.6 Checks to be performed during sprayed concrete production 73
12.6.1 Verification of dosages ofpowder and liquid accelerator and spray cement 73
12.6.2 Determination of spraying output and rebound 74
12.6.3 Measurement offine dust concentration 75
12.6.4 Sprayed concrete thickness 75
£ 13 QUALITY MANAGEMENT 76
E
d
I—
14 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR TENDERING 77
N
14.1 General requirements 77
c 14.2 Contractual provisions (see also ÖNORM EN 14487-2, annex A (informativ)) 77
o
u
o
0)
u

t:
cu

ro
c
o
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

15 STANDARDS, GUIDELINES, BIBLIOGRAPHY 78


15.1 Standards referred to in the text 78
15.2 Guidelines and regulations 81
15.3 Additional standards, guidelines and reports to be taken into consideration 83
15.4 Bibliography 86

ANNEX 1 STANDARD EORM "DESIGNATION OF SAMPLES" 87


ANNEX 2 PENETRATION NEEDLE TEST - TEST PROTOCOL 88
ANNEX 3 / SHEET 1- STUD DRIVING METHOD - TEST PROTOCOL - EXAMPLE 89
ANNEX 3 / SHEET 2 - STUD DRIVING METHOD - TEST PROTOCOL 90
ANNEX 4 CONFORMITY CERTIFICATE -
CALCULATION OF DESIGN SPRAYED CONCRETE THICKNESS 91
ANNEX 5 / SHEET 1- STANDARD FORM „EARLY STRENGTH CLASSES OF
FRESH SPRAYED CONCRETE" 92
ANNEX 5 / SHEET 2 - STANDARD FORM „EARLY STRENGTH CLASSES OF
FRESH SPRAYED CONCRETE" - EXCEL ILLUSTRATION 93
ANNEX 6 ERRORS/CHANGES TO EN 94

O
fNJ

E
ru

CD
CG

O
X

CU
in
cu
-Q

rs
o
LO

x"
-Q
E
(J
I—
N

c
o
u
o
CU
(J

t:
cu

ro
c
o
Personalisiert für: Geoconsult ZT GmbH, 5071 Wals bei Salzburg, Hölzlstraße 5 am 23.11.2015
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

0 PRELIMINARY REMARKS

In order to eliminate barriers to trade within the European Economic Area, the following principles
have to be observed.
Products from the member states of the European Union and goods originating from EFTA
countries, which are part of the European Economic Area (EEA), which do not correspond to the
requirements of this Guideline, but fulfil the tests and monitoring carried out and recognised in the
member state, are, including these tests and monitoring, treated as equal, if in Austria the
necessary protection level as regards safety, health and usability are equally achieved permanently
and are proven to fulfil the additional requirements of this directive. The requirements of the
harmonised standards of the standard series OENORMEN EN 14487, OENORMEN EN 14488
and the Austrian standards OENORM B 3309, OENORM B 3327-1, OENORM B 4710-1 and ONR
23303, inasmuch stated below, are included in this directive. The testing laboratories involved
must offer suitable and satisfactory guarantees for technical and expert qualification and
independent (e.g. in accordance with OEVE/OENORM EN ISO/IEC 17025).
All documents on tests and monitoring as well as standards, technical guidelines and regulations
on products or original documents and verifications must be presented in German (certified
translation).
The text that is not in italics is the binding directive text. The test that is in italics is for explanation
purposes and not suitable as part of an agreement.

O
fN

E
ru

CD
CG

O
X

CU
in
cu
-Q

rs
o
LO

x"
-Q
E
(J
I—
N

c
o
u
o
QJ
(J

CU

jo= Austrian Society for Construction Technology


Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

SCOPE

This Guideline applies to the production of structural components made of plain and reinforced
concrete as well as close-textured reinforced concrete placed by the method of shotcreting.
For sprayed concrete in repair, the requirements of the ÖVBB Guideline Maintenance and Repairs
of structures made from concrete and reinforced concrete must be observed. Textile-armoured
sprayed concrete and sprayed high ductility concrete (SHCC) are not yet included in this
Guideline. In addition to the principles set out in this Guideline, they require further examinations
and determinations.
Sprayed concrete is to be mixed from the constituent materials of concrete (cement, additions,
spray cement, mineral aggregates, fibres, water and admixtures) in such a way as to permit proper
placing under the conditions to be expected at the building site and to ensure achievement of the
required properties.
For industrial hygiene reasons as well as in respect of an increase of the durability of the sprayed
concrete, only "alkali-free accelerators" (see Item 4.5. 1) are permitted under this directive.
Sprayed concrete is used in all fields of civil engineering and building construction. In particular,
sprayed concrete is suited for use under special conditions, such as:
• absence of formwork
• application in thin layers
• early strength requirements
• special construction methods.
For the purposes of construction planning and execution, sprayed concrete can be classified in
sprayed concrete classes according Item 7.1.

Currently used:
O
fM
• the dry spraying procedure with the use of spray binding agents or of cements in accordance
with Item 4.1.1 with powder or liquid accelerators,

E
• the wet spraying method with liquid accelerators.
ru
In dry-mix shotcreting, the use of mix with dry mineral aggregates (dry mix - TM) or spray cement
QJ
CQ
mixed in situ with naturally moist mineral aggregates (moist mix - FM-S) enables building sites to
be supplied with fresh mix at any time and thus ensures of a continuously high level of quality.
O
Sprayed concrete can be applied to the following types of substrate:
X
rock and soil
sprayed concrete
03
in formwork of different types
QJ
-Q structural components made of concrete, masonry and steel (casings)
frozen rock or soil, ice.
rs
sealings, geotextilesfleece, burling mat, insulating material
o
LO insulating layers, nap sheeting, geotextiles.
x"
-Q
E
(J
I—
N

sz
o
u
o
tu
(J

t
QJ

ro
c
o
Austrian Society for Construction Technology
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

2 DEFINITIONS, ABBREVIATIONS

2.1 Definitions

Accelerator (EB) Admixture in powder or liquid form according to ÖNORM EN


934-5 with additional properties of this Guidline to accelerate the
reaction of cement in placed sprayed concrete.
Additives Finely dispersed substance used in concrete and added to the
concrete during mixing in order to obtain or improve certain
properties of the concrete. USA: Mineral admixtures, CAN:
supplementary cementing materials, EFNARC: cementitious
materials EN 14487-1 additions
Admixture Substance added during production of the concrete mix in small
quantities, relative to the cement content, in order to modify the
properties of fresh or hardened concrete.
Aerosols Multi-phase systems of air and other gases with finely dispersed
solids or liquids.
Binder Cement according to OENORM EN 197-1, which comply
requirements of OENORM B 3327-1 without requirements of heat
development, to which a hydraulically effective addition can be
added.
Body approved A test, monitoring and certification body that corresponds to
Directive 89/ 106/EEA (BPR).
Cement Finely ground inorganic substance; when mixed with water, it
forms cement paste, which hardens and sets through hydration and
retains its volume stability also under water.
o
(N
Conformity verification (evaluation of conformity)
systematic examination of the extent to which a product fulfils
specified requirements
E
ru
Degree of utilisation Ratio of maximum stress level on the sprayed concrete and its
CD
CG
strength at a given age.
Dense-stream concrete conveyance
O A method of conveying the wet mix in which the concrete is
X
pumped through the delivery line without compressed air.
Double-shell construction method
if) Tunnel lining consisting of two or several shell elements designed
CD
.o
to meet different static and structural requirements (not forming a
composite structure), placed in separate operations and by different
methods (e.g. outer sprayed concrete shell, in-situ concrete arch).
o Drop-off Mixture of sprayed concrete and substrate dropping off due to lack
in
of adhesive strength of the substrate.
i"
.Q
E Dry mix (TM) Mix (master batch) for dry-mix shotcreting consisting of dry
(J
I—
mineral aggregates (0,2% max. humidity), binder, additions, and,
N
possibly fibres (0,5% max. humidity).
c
Dry-mix sprayed concrete Sprayed concrete made from dry mix or moist mix as base mixture.
o
u
o Early strength Strength of young sprayed concrete. The requirement on early
tu
(J strength is scaled in early strength classes (regions Jl, J2, J3)

t
CD

ro
c
o
Austrian Society for Construction Technology
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

Fibres Steel- or polymerfibres according to OENORM EN 14889-1 or


OENORM EN14889-2.
Leachate Liquid enriched through elution (leaching test).
Leaching Extraction of soluble components of a solid in contact with a
liquid.
External inspection Periodic inspection of a manufacturing process of a building
material and its production by an accredited inspection body (for
example the accredited laboratory for basic materials and mixture
or ÖBA for sprayed concrete).
Identification verification Possible control test as part of the receipt inspection of the user.
This inspection is carried out in order to prove the correspondence
of the product delivered as regards compliance with the declared
values of the composition or its properties.
Identity test Check test performed to identify whether a batch or lot of concrete
comes from a compliant total quantity of concrete.
Loss of strength Diminished strength of sprayed concrete with accelerator in
comparison with reference concrete without accelerator.
Mix (master batch) Basic mix prepared for the respective shotcreting procedure
consisting of mineral aggregates, binder and possibly water,
additives, admixtures and fibres.
Moist mix (FM-L, FM-S) Mix (master batch) for dry-mix shotcreting with naturally moist
mineral aggregates with max. 6% humidity, binder, admixtures,
water (process-related) and, possibly, fibres.
Inspection category Test frequency of properties that are selected in accordance with
the level of risk and design life of the construction.
o
r\i
Multi-shell construction method
See double-shell construction method.
Non-alkaline accelerator Accelerator with a pH value within a certain range (3.0 - 8.0) and
E an alkali content below a certain limit (Na20 equivalent <1.0
ro

dJ
wt.%).
CQ
Overspray Proportion of fines in the sprayed concrete which deposit on the
substrate and the reinforcing bars and diminish the adhesion of
:0
X subsequent layers.
Reference concrete Sprayed concrete without accelerator used for reference to evaluate
changes in technological properties (e.g. loss of strength).
ro
in Preconstruction test (qualification test)
CD
.O
Test or tests performed prior to the beginning of sprayed concrete
production to establish the composition required for new sprayed
concrete to meet the specifications in fresh and hardened condition.
o
in Ready-mix concrete plant Plant in accordance with the requirements of OENORM B 4710-1
x~
JD
with micro-processor control, in which the constituents required
E for concrete production are batched, as a rule, by weight (in case of
(J
I—
N
liquids by weight or volume) and mixed into concrete (ready-mix)
ready for use.
c
o
Ready mix Plant-mixed, oven-dry mix with defined properties for the sprayed
u concrete thereby created. Processing using the wet or dry spraying
o
cu
(J method

t
CU

ro
c
o
Austrian Society for Construction Technology
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

Rebound Proportion of the mix rebounding from the substrate during placing
of the sprayed concrete. Rebound consists mainly of mineral
aggregate and, to a lesser extent - binder and water.
Single-shell construction method
All static and structural requirements to be met by the tunnel lining
are fulfilled by a single-shell lining consisting of one or several
layers forming a composite structure.
Spray cement (SBM) General term used to designate fast-setting binders which ensure
the required rate of setting and fast strength development in young
sprayed concrete without addition of admixtures (EB).
Sprayed concrete (SpC) Concrete composed of Master batch and as necessary water and/or
accelerator projected into place at high velocity and compacted by
its own momentum. Also called shotcrete
Sprayed concrete layer Two-dimensional structural component of a defined minimum
thickness consisting of one or several spraying layers (e.g. sealing
layer).
Sprayed concrete shell Thin three-dimensional structural component consisting of one or
several layers of sprayed concrete with a temporary or permanent
supporting and/or load-bearing function (e.g. outer sprayed
concrete shell, arch).
Spraying layer Sprayed concrete placed in a single operation without interruption.
Spraying mix The mixture discharged through the (spraying) nozzle.
(Spraying) nozzle A pipe with a mixing unit for the addition of liquid and/or air
through which the mix is discharged from the delivery line. In dry-
mix shotcreting, water and - if required - powder or liquid
o admixtures and additions are added; in wet-mix shotcreting by the
(N
dense-stream method, air and, possibly, admixtures are added.
Standard sprayed concrete
E
ru
Sprayed concrete without special properties (maximum strength
class SpC 12/15) of predetermined composition, not subject to
CD
CG preconstruction testing (according to Item 5.2).
Substrate Surface onto which sprayed concrete is sprayed.
O
X Test lot A locally defined section of the structure, to which the test
frequencies refe.
Thin-stream concrete conveyance, thin flow conveying
CU
in A method of pneumatic conveyance of the base mix to the location
CD
.Q of placement; the loosened dry or wet mix is conveyed from the
spraying machine to the nozzle by compressed air.
rs
Vehicle-mixed concrete (mixed in truck concrete)
o Mix that is created in accordance with the rules of OENORM
LO

x" B 4710-1 Item 9.6.2.3.2 with a vehicle mixer.


-Q
E Water-binder ratio Mass ratio of effective water to eligible binder content in mix.
(J
i—
N Wet mix (NM) Mix (master batch) for wet-mix shotcreting (usually pumped
concrete) prepared from mineral aggregates, binders, water and,
c
o
possibly, additions and fibres.
U
o
CD
Wet-mix sprayed concrete Sprayed concrete made from wet mix (in dense-stream processes:
usually pumped concrete) as master batch.

CD

ro
c
o
Austrian Society for Construction Technology
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

Workability time Time between the first contact of naturally moist aggregate with
cement and/or production of wet mix and application of sprayed
concrete, or time between the first contact of naturally moist
mineral aggregates with spray cement (SBM) and discharge from
the nozzle.
Young sprayed concrete Sprayed concrete up to an age of 24 hours.

2.2 Abbreviations used

AAR alkali-aggregate reaction


AHWZ prepared hydraulically effective additions
AM spread for determination of fresh concrete consistency
ASTM American Society for Testing Materials
BBG with enhanced fire-resistant tested on large panels
BPR Building Products Guideline
BV plasticiser
BZ bending tensile strength
CEM cement type according to standard series OENORM EN 197-1
CEN European Committee for Standardisation
D density of accelerator
D, compressive strength of cement at the age of one day
DAfStb German Reinforced Concrete Committee
DBV German Concrete and Structural Engineering Association
o DIN German Industrial Standard
r\i
EB accelerator
EN European Standard
E EV500 energy absorption class
ro

<D F category of resistance to frost and thaw cycles of mineral aggregates


CQ

f category of fines content of mineral aggregates


:0 FSV Association for Research on Road - Rail - Transport
X
FM plasticiser
FM-L moist mix, storable
ro
if) FM-S moist mix, for immediate application
CD
n FRSpC fibre-reinforced sprayed concrete
FS fibre concrete range for prohibiting formation of early shrinkage crack
G fibre concrete range for serviceability limit states
o
in
GK maximum grain size of the mineral aggregate
x~ tensile adhesive strength
JD HZ
E
(J
I—
ISO International Standards Organisation
N
J young sprayed concrete strength class
c K factor for consideration of additive type IIeffect k-value
o
u
o
tu
LP air-entraining agent
(J
LV bill of quantities
MAK maximum permissible concentration at the workplace
t
QJ

ro
c
o
Austrian Society for Construction Technology
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

MS silica fume
NAD national application document
NM wet mix
ON Austrian Standard
PB pumped concrete
ÖBV Austrian Society for Construction Technology
ÖVBB Austrian Association for Concrete and Structural Engineering
ÖBA site supervision
R correlation coefficient
R4 statically relevant (constructive supporting) to guideline maintenance and
repair of buildings of concrete and reinforced concrete
RVS Guidelines for Transport and Road Engineering
AV sprayed concrete with reduced fusion potential
SBM spray cement for sprayed concrete
ST shape index, category of grain shape parameter
STA Swiss Association of Engineers and Architects
SpC sprayed concrete
T fibre concrete range for ultimate limit state
TM dry mix
UEK category of inspection
VOEZ Association of the Austrian Cement Industry
W water content

o
WA bleeding of binder
r\i
XAL exposure class: solvent chemical attack
XAT exposure class: expansive chemical attack
E
ro
XC1 and XC2 exposure classes: corrosion caused by carbonation
<D
XC3 and XC4 exposure classes: dense structure
CQ
XF exposure class: frost attack, with or without thawing agent

O
X

(U
in
cv
-Q

Ds
o
LO

x"
-Q
E
(J
I—
N

c
o
u
o
0)
(J

CD

ro
c
o
Austrian Society for Construction Technology
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

ENVIRONMENTAL COMPATIBILITY OF SPRAYED CONCRETE

A reduction of the environmental impact and improved occupational health and safety have been
among the priority objectives in the further development of sprayed concrete technology. Sprayed
concrete with non-alkaline acceleration has no negative influence on the environment and offers
considerable advantages in terms of occupational health and safety.
The following environmental influences have to be considered:
• Impact on air quality
In general, shotcreting operations do not have a negative impact on air quality. The presence
of aerosols has to be assessed in terms of occupational health and safety.
• Impact on excavated material
Experience available to date does not suggest that the use of non-alkaline acceleration in
sprayed concrete has any negative influence on the leaching behaviour of excavated material,
provided the rate of rebound in the excavated material is less than 5.0 wt.%. (Possible test
methods: lysimeter [3])
• Impact on mountain and groundwater
When used in tunnelling, sprayed concrete may be exposed to rock and ground water.
The leachability of concrete being very low even after a short period of hardening, a negative
impact on water quality has not been observed. Thus, concrete qualifies as an environmentally
safe construction material. The same applies to sprayed concrete with non-alkaline
acceleration. To optimize the recipe of cement-based materials in terms of reduced fusion
potential see ÖVBB guideline of "tunnel drainage".
Besides the use of non-alkaline accelerators, careful working and a low water-binder ratio
(< 0.60) also contribute towards ensuring a leaching behaviour in sprayed concrete similar to
that of in-situ concrete. The admixture of silica fume may also have a favourable influence on
o
r\i leaching. For sprayed concrete leachate, the limits according to Table 3-1 apply:

E
Table 3-1 Limits for leachate concentrations from sprayed concrete aged 28 days according to
ru Item 12.5.13
CD
CG Parameter Unit Limit
pH < 12
O
X Electric conductivity mS/m < 100
Calcium mg/1 < 25
CU Potassium mg/1 <40
in
CD Sodium mg/1 < 10
.Q

Aluminium mg/1 < 1.0

Ds
O
LO • Impact on occupational health and safety
x"
-Q During sprayed concrete production, the building-site crew is at risk due to dust formation
E and the alkalinity of suspended particles in the air. The amount of aerosols has to be
(J
I—
N
minimised through suitable measures. Dust as well as smoke and mist are classified as
aerosols.
c
o
Depending on the location and the time, the concentration of dust during the placing of sprayed
U
o concrete is subject to major fluctuations, which have to be considered in the interpretation of the
CD
(J
results obtained. The fine dust concentration is assessed on the basis of the maximum permissible
concentration of contaminants at the workplace measured according to Item 12.6.3 [4, 5].
CD

ro
c
o
Austrian Society for Construction Technology
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

Fine dust is defined as dust likely to penetrate into the alveoli of the lungs. Fine dust is deemed to
be quartzitic, if its quartz content is 1.0 wt. % or more.
The maximum permissible contaminant concentration at the workplace according to Table 3-2 is
equal to the maximum permissible concentration of dust which, in general, does not adversely
affect the health of workers in the case of repeated and long-term exposure, usually for eight
hours, but for no more than 40 hours a week, without use of personal protective equipment (fine-
dust masks).

Table 3-2 Permissible dust concentration based on maximum permissible contaminant


concentration at the workplace according to [4, 5]
C[mg/m3] Type of dust Assessment period Pollutant load
15 total dust annual average inert
30 total dust hourly average inert
6 fine dust annual average inert
12 fine dust hourly average inert
4 quartzitic fine dust silicogenic
0.15 fine quartz dust silicogenic

Given the fact that a range of activities are performed during tunnelling which produce varying
amounts of dust, the assessment has to be based on the entire working cycle. The short term value
may be reached twice per 8 hours, but not consecutively, provided the daily average of 10 mg/m3
(total dust) and 5 mg/m3 (fine dust) is not exceeded. If personal protective equipment is used,
higher limits are permissible, depending on the protective effect of the equipment
(ÖNORM EN 149).
To diminish the dust load over the entire working cycle, the following measures are recommended:
O
fM • dry-mix shotcreting: use of moist mineral aggregates or pre-moistering of the dry mix,
machine enclosure, favourable nozzle design, nozzle distance, water content

E
• wet-mix shotcreting with non-alkaline accelerators
ru
• use of spraying robots (manipulators)
QJ
CQ • sufficient ventilation.

O
X
The impact of spraying mist on the building-site crew has not yet been clearly established. In
subjective terms, workers report that non-alkaline accelerators, compared with alkaline
accelerators, are considerably less irritating.
03
in
Health hazards for building-site personnel, above all the risk of skin and eye lesions, can be
QJ
-Q
prevented through the elimination of highly alkaline and strongly irritating admixtures, therefore
the pH of the setting accelerator is limited in Austria with 3.0 to 8.0.

rs
o
LO

x"
-Q
E
(J
i—
N

c
o
u
o
tu
(J

t
QJ

03
C
o
Austrian Society for Construction Technology
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

CONSTITUENT MATERIALS FOR SPRAYED CONCRETE

Only constitutive materials with a proven suitability for the requirements of this guideline for the
production of sprayed concrete may be used. The quality-relevant documents described in this
guideline (e.g. preconstruction tets, own production control and third-party monitoring) must be
submitted on the preconstruction test of the sprayed concrete and during the construction.
The selection of the constitutive materials must be coordinated with the requirements of the
relevant situation of use and the associated requirements.
The directive plans for the addition of the following basic materials in accordance with items 4. 1
to 4.7.

4.1 Binders

4.1.1 Cement
Cement grades bearing a CE mark and usually also a ÜA mark and therefore standard-compliant
according to ÖNORM EN 197-1 or ÖNORM B 3327-1 are to be used.
Cement grades with CE mark but not subject to external inspection according to ÖNORM B 3327-
1 (e.g. CEM I52.5) have to meet the requirements of Table 4-1. Inspection frequency on self-
monitoring has to be performed according to ÖNORM B 3327-1. In addition, for such cements, in
respect of the above documents samples must be taken every other month on the site and (e.g. on
the mixing system) and checked by an accredited testing body Table 4-1.

Table 4-1 Permissible parameters of cement grades according to ÖNORM B 3327-1 for
sprayed concrete
Sprayed concrete -
Requirement Sprayed concrete
o Sulfate attack
r\i
C3A content - 0 % according to Bogue

E
Initial setting > 90 min
" > 90 min
"
ro Dl 8 Dl 8
Compressive strength after 1
dJ (Dill for requirements of (Dill for requirements of
CQ
day
fresh SpC) fresh SpC)
:0 Fineness according to Blaine Deviation < 5 % Deviation < 5 %
X
Bleeding
WA 20 WA 20
after 120 minutes
ro
in Cement temperature max. 80 °C max. 80 °C
CD
n
" If high early strength, e.g. J3, is required, this value may be lower.

4.1.2 Spray cement (SBM)


o
in
Use of spray cement permits the production of dry-mix sprayed concrete with specified fresh
x~ sprayed concrete characteristics without addition of an accelerator. Both dry and moist mineral
JD
E aggregates can be used. Spray cement reacts very fast upon contact with water and has a
(J
I—
permissible workability time of a few minutes. If moist mineral aggregates are used, the
N
processing technology has to be adjusted accordingly on account of the limited workability time.
The spray cement is mixed with the moist aggregate in a suitable in-situ plant for immediate
c
o
u
placing.
o
cu
(J
In accordance with ÖNORM EN 14487-1, Item 5.1, the following determinations are made in
these national regulations for the use of sprayed binding agents for the production of sprayed
t
CD

ro
c
o
10 Austrian Society for Construction Technology
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

concrete. ÖNORM EN 197-1 with the deviations and supplements in accordance with Table 4/2
must be observed:

Table 4-2 For spray cement the following parameters and/or requirements have to be
established on the basis of the results of preconstruction testing1 '
Additional requirement
Requirement Spray cement SBM
in case of sulfate attack
Initial setting
>60"
(Test see It 12.1.3)
Constancy of volume
passed
(ÖNORM EN 196-3)
S03 < 4.5 wt.% in the presence of water with S04"2
(ÖNORM EN 196-2) <7.5 wt.%3) content above 600 mg/1 <3.5 wt.%
CI
max. 0.1 wt.%
(ÖNORM EN 196-2)
MgO in clinker
max. 5.0 wt.%
(ÖNORM EN 196-2)
C3A-free (C3A content of clinker
0 wt.-%, C3A content of cement
C3A < 1.0 wt.%. If C3 A content is
higher, test according to Item 0
required.)
ai2o3 < 6.5 wt.%
< 5.0 wt.%
(ÖNORM EN 196-2) <9.0 wt.%3)
1h >0.5 N/mm2
6h >1.5 N/mm2 and
O
fN
> 70 % of preconstr. test
Strength 21 24 h >12 N/mm2 and
> 70 % of preconstr. test
E
ru 28 d > 32.5 N/mm2 and
CD > 80 % of preconstr. test
CG
Specific surface
Coefficient of variation < 5 %
according to Blaine
O
X Alkali content
(ÖNORM EN 196-2) Na20 equivalents 1.5 wt.%
Spray cement
(U
in temperature on <70 °C
cu
-Q
discharge from plant
)
Agreement between the test results of the inspection body and those reported by the manufacturer has to be
established through comparative testing before the commencement of delivery.
2)
rs For method of determination, see It. 12.2.3. The water/binder ratio to be used for test purposes is determined on the
o
LO
basis of preconstruction testing (as a rule 0.35 — 0.45).
x"
-Q
2)
Only applies to binder containing Ci2A7. Presence of Ci2A7 in the binder to be demonstrated by XRD.
E
(J
i—
N A data sheet containing information on permissible reaction times, aggregate moisture, aggregate
temperature, working temperature (air, mix) and the requirements regarding air humidity during
c
o pneumatic conveyance from the mill has to be provided for each spray cement grade.
u
o Preconstruction testing and external inspection of the spray cement are to be performed by an
0)
(J
accredited testing and inspection body on the basis of an inspection agreement. The test frequency
for own and third-party monitoring must comply with the requirements of ÖNORM EN 197-1 and
t:
cu

ro
c
o
Austrian Society for Construction Technology 11
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

ÖNORM B 3327-1. The test frequency as part of own monitoring for parameters Na20 equivalent,
MgO and A1203 is one week.

4.2 Additions

The addition of hydraulically active substances serves to improve the properties of the sprayed
concrete, such as workability, stickiness, dust formation, rebound, strength and density of the
sprayed concrete texture.
A qualification test has to be performed to establish the most favourable cement/additive ratio.
• AHWZ in accordance with ÖNORM B 3309 has been tried and tested as an additive on the
basis of equal product quality. For use in sprayed concrete of the XAT/C3Afree type,
verification in accordance with ÖNORM B 3309, Item 4.12.1. must be provided.
• Fly ash in accordance with ÖNORM EN 450-1 may be used in accordance with category A
only. For the application cases of XF1, XF2, XF3 or XF4, the additional verifications listed
in 5.3.2 for fly ash in accordance with ÖNORM EN 450 (all parts) must be provided. For
use in sprayed concrete of the XAT/C3Afree type, verification in accordance with ÖNORM B
3309, Item 4.12.1. must be provided.
• Slag sand in accordance with use in ÖNORM EN 15167-1 and ÖNORM EN 15167-2. For
use in sprayed concrete of the XAT/C3Afree type, verification in accordance with ÖNORM B
3309, Item 4.12.1. must be provided.
• Silica fume must meet the requirements of ÖNORM EN 13263-1 and ÖNORM EN 13263-2.
Silica can be added as slurry or in powder form (but not as precompacted powder for dry-
mix shotcreting) in dosages up to 11,0 wt.% of the solid components of the binder mass.
• In the case of dry-mix sprayed concrete, compatibility of the suspension with liquid
accelerators has to be checked (preferably, the suspension should be added to the material
flow at the spray nozzle). As regards storage of the suspension, the specifications for liquid
accelerators apply.
o
r\i
• Mineral filler (filler) in accordance with ÖNORM EN 12620 may not be used for the sprayed
concrete sorts of XAT and XAL if the proportion of lime stone (CaC03) exceeds 10%.

E
ro
• Pigments in accordance with ÖNORM EN 12878. The use of pigments requires special
measures.
<D
CQ

In the case of cement grades with more than 20 % of additives (e.g. CEM II/B, CEM III), note the
:0
X
effect of additives on early strength development. In case of using spray cement specific
compatibility tests have to be made.
The additions have to be metered as individual components and mixed homogeneously with the
ro
in
other constituent materials.
CD
n The k-value approach governed by ÖNORM B 4710-1, It. 5.2.5.2 is only to be used in relation to
corrosion resistance of the reinforcement for XC2.

o
in

x~
JD
E
(J
I—
N

c
o
u
o
tu
(J

t
QJ

j=
O
12 Austrian Society for Construction Technology
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

4.3 Mineral aggregates

Aggregate must be selected in such a way that the strength capacity (petrography, adhesion, shape,
composition) allows fulfilling observing the hardenedset sprayed concrete strength class solidity.
The mineral aggregates used must at least meet the national requirements of ÖNORM B 3131
according to ÖNORM EN 12620. Currently, the basic requirements are also laid down in ÖNORM
B 4710-1, It. 5.2.3.

Table 4-3 Requirement for aggregates as a function of exposure class


X0, XC, XD XA2L XF, XAT
Grain composition > 4 mm Gc 85/20, for GK 11 Gc 90/15
Grain composition < 4 mm Gf85
Grain shape si40
Shell content sc10
Content of fine particles - f 1,5
aggregates > 4 mm
Content of fine particles -
aggregates < 4 mm
fs*
Freeze-thaw resistance > 4 Fl
f2
mm
Freeze-thaw resistance < 4 Fl
Fnr
mm
Alkali-silica reactivity according ÖNORM B 3100
O
water-soluble chloride <0,01%
fN
acid-soluble sulfate ASo,8
no adverse effects impairment in accordance
Setting times ÖNORM EN 12620
E
ru
CO2 content at < 4 mm no requirement < 15% no requirement
CD
CG
In crushed mineral aggregates, the maximum permissible percentage of settleable solids or fines (grain size
< 0.063 mm) may exceed the figure given in Table 4/3 by 5 wt.%, if the aggregate is purely carbonate and the
O
X
fraction smaller than 0.02 mm (determined by sedimentation test) does not exceed 3.0 wt.%.
The grain size distribution has to be such as to ensure compliance with the standard range of the
aggregate grading line according to Table 4-4 (with maximum deviations of grading line class SK2
03
in from the value established in the preconstruction test) and/or the category required in
cu
-Q
ÖNORM B 3 13 1. As a rule, segregation by grain size should be in 4 mm fractions.

o
LO

x"
-Q
E
(J
I—
N

c
o
u
o
CU
(J

t:
cu

ro
c
o
Austrian Society for Construction Technology 13
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

Table 4-4 Favourable range of the aggregate grading line for grain sizes 0/8 and 0/1 1
Max. discrepancy from wt.%
Maximum grain size (mm) Passing the screen in wt.%
value of preconstruction test
11 95-100 5
8 85-95 5
4 65-75 5
2 45-55 5
1 30-40 4
0.5 18-25 4
0.25 8-15 3
0.063 2-6 1,5
In crushed mineral aggregates, the maximum permissible percentage of settleable solids or fines (grain size < 0.063 mm)
may exceed the figure given in Table 4-3 by 5 wt.%, if the aggregate is purely carbonate and the fraction smaller than
0.02 mm (determined by sedimentation test) does not exceed 3.0 wt.%.

Favorable range of the total grading curve 0/8, 0/11

100 100
— upper limit of favorable range 95

80
—•— lower limit of favorable range
16/ s>rÿ5
O
fM

o 55/ÿ / fo5
00
CO
60
(O
E ri
ru C«
&
40xÿ\ f45
C4—t
CD
CG
O 40
U
03
oi
25/\r*3o
O
20 15
X

**8
CU
in
cu 0,063 0,25 0,5 1 2 11
-Q
Nominal width in mm

rs
o
Figure 4-1 Favorable range of the total grading curve to Table 4-4
LO

x"
-Q
E The maximum grain size must be chosen between 4 mm and 1 1 mm depending on use. For wet
(J
i—
sprayed concrete, the grain composition of the aggregate must be aligned with the ability to pump
N
the concrete in particular.
c
If de-mixing during storage and transport is negligible, plant-mixed grain mixtures (prepared grain
o mixture) can also be used for the production of sprayed concrete mix. In pre-mixed dry mix,
u
o
CU
(J special attention has to be paid to the strong de-mixing tendency (special bin design, storage and

t:
cu

ro
c
o
14 Austrian Society for Construction Technology
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

transport units, limitation of maximum grain size). For individual particle groups see
requirements according to Table 4-3.
If spray cement is used, the water content of the mineral aggregates should be between 2 wt.% and
4 wt.% so as to guarantee correct mixing and working of the dry mix.
If the aggregate does not correspond to class F! in accordance with ÖNORM EN 12620, the
corresponding solidity must be verified using a "comparison concrete" (see Item 12.2.5).

4.4 Water

As regards water, ÖNORM B 4710-1 applies. The characteristics of the water added must be
within the limits of ÖNORM EN 1008.

4.5 Admixtures

Admixtures for sprayed concrete must comply with ÖNORM EN 934-2, ÖNORM EN 934-5 and
ÖNORM EN 934-6 (CE-Marking)
4.5.1 Accelerators (EB)
Accelerators (EB) are used in combination with suitable binders, according to Item 4.1 and
possibly additions, according to Item 4.2. The maximum permissible accelerator dose for the
application in question has to be established in the preconstruction test.
The initial test must determine the maximum permissible dosage of the accelerator for the
application. The initial product test must be carried out by an accredited testing body and must not
be older than three years.
The requirements according to Table 4-5 apply. For reasons of occupational health and safety, the
pH value of the accelerator solution or suspension has to be within a range of 3.0 to 8.0. As a rule,
the dosage should be between 4.0 and 8.0 wt.% (in liquid accelerators a solid content < 5.0 % of
the binder mass is recommended).
o
(N

E
ru

CD
CG

O
X

fU
cn
CD
.Q

rs
o
LO

x"
-Q
E
(J
i—
N

c
o
U
o
CD

CD

j=
O
Austrian Society for Construction Technology 15
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

Table 4-5 Requirements to be met by admixtures and accelerators according to ÖNORM EN


934-5 (Table 1) for sprayed concrete (including additional requirements)
Properties Test method Requirements
Homogeneity Visual inspection. Item 12.1.5 No segregation
Uniform and according to manufacturer's
Colour Visual inspection
description
Composition No difference found in comparison of infrared
ÖNORM EN 480-6
(active constituents) spectra with manufacturer's specifications
D + 0.03 at D> 1.10
Relative density ISO 758 D + 0.02 at D < 1.10
D = density as indicated by manufacturer
0.95 T < X < 1 .05 T, if T > 20 wt.%
0.90 T<X< 1.10 T, if T < 20 wt.%
Solid content ÖNORM EN 480-8
T = solid content according to manufacturer, X =

test result
Manufacturer's indication ± 0.2,
pH value ISO 43 16
additionally 3.0<pH<8.0
Chloride ÖNORM EN ISO 1158 <0.1 wt.%
Water-soluble chloride ÖNORM EN 480-10 <0.1 wt.%
Na20 equivalent ÖNORM EN 480-12 < 1.0 wt.%
ÖNORM EN 480-14 (use of CEM Iwith
Corrosion behaviour No initiation of corrosion in reinforcement steel
C3 A concentration < 5 M-%)
Additional requirements to be met by accelerators:
reference mortar ÖNORM EN 480-1 Initial set < 10 min
Setting times" with w/c < 0,50 and according to test Final set < 60 min
procedure based on ÖNORM EN 480-2 (average value for 3 tests)
O
f\l
reference mortar ÖNORM EN 480-1 and
After 28 d > 80 % of compression strength from
compression strength2' according to test procedure based on
control mix
ÖNORM EN 196-1
E Requirements to be met in addition to ÖNORM EN 934-5:
ru
based on ÖNORM EN 196-1 according
CD
CG Loss of strength3' < 20.0 %
to Item 12.2.3 (mix temperature 20±2°C)
Sulfate content as S034' based on ÖNORM EN 196-2 < 4.8 wt.% as sum total of cement and accelerator
O
X A1203 (water soluble)
According to Item 12.1.7 or proof of
for sulfate-resistant
sulfate resistance in reference sprayed A1203 in wt.% x accelerator dose in wt.% of
sprayed concrete (water
concrete or sprayed-concrete structure binder <115
(U with S042" content of
in according to It. 12.2.8
cu more than 600 mg/1)4'
_Q
Visual inspection with 1000 ml cylinder by storing according to producers specifications
Homogeneity
according ÖNORM B 4412 over usage time no sediments5'
n In deviation from ÖNORM EN 480-1, the accelerator is added cement mortar with normal consistency only shortly
rs
o
LO before the end of the mixing time. In deviation from ÖNORM EN 480-2, the total mass of the movable parts of the
x"
-Q VICAT device is 300 ± 2 g.
E 2)
W/Z < 0.50, mortar temperature 5 °C ± 1 °C, storage temperature 20 °C ± 2 °C and accelerator addition shortly
(J
i—
N
before the end of the mixing time
3)
Standard cement must be obtained from VÖZ
4)
c The test frequency as part of the own monitoring is once a month for the solidity reduction and once every three
o
u
o
months for SO3 and A1203
0) ÿ

1 The expiry date of the usability must be stated by the manufacturer


(J

cu

ro
c
o
16 Austrian Society for Construction Technology
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

4.5.2 Other admixtures


Further for sprayed concrete used admixtures are listed in Table 4-6.
The supplier has to provide evidence of the permissible chloride content of < 0.1 wt.% at intervals
of two years.
Hydration control admixture (Long-term retarders) prevent the hydration reaction of cement for a
certain period of time, usually for a longer period (between a few hours and a maximum of three
days). Thus, FM-L moist mix and NM wet mix (fresh concrete) can be stored without loss of
quality and without essential change in consistence. Possible influences on the further setting
process and the properties of the hardened concrete (adjustment between consistency regulator and
accelerator) have to be taken into consideration. The additional requirements specified in Table
4-7 have to be met.

Table 4-6 Other admixtures


Admixture Abbreviation Standard

Plasticiser BY ÖNORM EN 934-2

Superplasticiser FM ÖNORM EN 934-2

Air entraining agent LP ÖNORM EN 934-2

Retarder VZ ÖNORM EN 934-2

Hydration control admixture - ÖNORM EN 934-2

Table 4-7 Additional requirements to be met by hydration control admixture (long-term


retarders) according to ÖNORM EN 934-5
O
fN
Property Reference concrete Test method Requirement
Maintenance of ÖNORM EN 934-5 Spread after mixing 48-55 cm,
E ÖNORM EN 12350-5
ru consistency Annex B after 6 hours > 80 %
CD
CG Compressive ÖNORM EN 934-5 After 28 days equal to or
ÖNORM EN 12390-3
strength Annex B higher than reference mix
O
X

4.6 Polymers
(U
in Polymer-modified sprayed concrete has to comply ÖNORM EN 1504-3.
cu
-Q

4.7 Fibres

hs
Steel fibres have to meet the requirements of ÖNORM EN 14889-1 and plastic fibres those of
o
LO ÖNORM EN 14889-2. The production of fibres is subject to external inspection.
x"
-Q
E
(J
I—
N

c
o
u
o
CU
(J

cu

ro
c
o
Austrian Society for Construction Technology 17
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

5 MIX (BASIC MIX)

5.1 Mix composition and production

Mix as a base product for dry-mix sprayed concrete and wet-mix sprayed concrete is classified
according to Table 5-1. For indicative values of mix composition, see Table 5-2.

Table 5-1 Mix classification (of basic mix)


Dr y-mix sprayed concrete Wet-mix sprayed concrete
Water content of
Standard W = 2.0 - 4.0 wt.%
mineral W< 0,2 M-% W < 6,0 M-%
Scatter W = 1.5 - 5.0 wt.%
aggregates

Dry mix (mixed in situ)


Dry-mix (mixed in wet-mix wet mix
Designation wet-mix
plant) with immediate (fresh concrete mix)
fit for storage
application
Designation TM FM-L FM-S NM
Cement and Cement and
Binder SBM Cement and additions
additions or SBM additions
in mixing plant, if At the nozzle, if
Addition of EB at nozzle At the nozzle
necessary necessary
plant or site continuous mixing
Production plant mixing plant or site mixing
mixing during working
Closed
Storage sheltered - sheltered
(e.g. bin, bag)
O
Availability no restrictions limited availability no restrictions limited availability
fM
Produced in
Storage time advance, to be Produced in advance, to be used
storage according Produced for
(without long- used within within storage time (max.
E to requirements immediate use
ru term retarder) storage time 105 min.)
CD (max. 105 min.)
CG

Table 5-2 Indicative values for mix composition for sprayed concrete classes SpC II and
O
X SpC III
Ol
!_
=5
Dry-mix sprayed
_Q Wet-mix sprayed concrete
concrete
03
in Cement, SBM 310 -360 kg/m3 380 - 450 kg/m3
cu
-Q additions (e.g. fly ash) 50 - 30 kg/m3 70- 0 kg/m3
Binder dose (cement, SMB and additions) 340 - 400 kg/m3 n 400 - 500 kg/m3
Water-binder ratio 21 < 0.50 for strength requirements J2 and/or J3
rs
o Favourable range:
LO

x" Dense flow conveying:


-Q
E Consistency (spread) AM = 60 ± 5 cm 3)
(J
Thin flow conveying:
i—
N 3)
AM = 65 ± 5 cm
Mineral aggregates: standard ranges see Tab. 4/4 GK 8, GK 11 GK 8, max. GK 1 1
c !)
o
u
With binder doses of less than 340 kg/m3 adhesion of the sprayed concrete to the substrate is noticeably diminished.
o 2)
0) Based on mix. For dry-mix water -binder ratio normally between 0.35 to 0.50.
(J
3)
See It. 7.2.

CU

03
c
o
18 Austrian Society for Construction Technology
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

5.1.1 Dry mix - TM (dry-aggregate basic mix)

• Silica fume must meet the requirements of ÖNORM EN 13263-1 and ÖNORM EN 13263-2.
Silica can be added as slurry or in powder form (but not as precompacted powder for dry-mix
shotcreting) in dosages up to 11,0 wt.% of the solid components of the binder mass.
Dry mix can be plant-mixed from dry mineral aggregates (w < 0.2 wt.%) with cement, with a
combination of cement and accelerators, if necessary either with additions or with spray
cement (SBM).
The mixing plant has to meet the following requirements according ÖNORM B4710-1:
Storing according 9.6.2.1
Metering equipment according 9.6.2.2
o Weighing equipment for all concrete constituent materials with a weighing accuracy
according Table 21.
o Batching accuracy Table NAD 15.
Mixing plant with microprocessor control meeting the requirements of It. 9.6.2.3 .1.

Extent of documentation according to Item 12.3.6 of this Guideline.


• Working temperature
The temperatures indicated in Table 5-3 have to be observed.

Table 5-3 limit of temperature [°C] for dry-mix and mixing water
Working temperature min. max.
mix +5 + 40
Mixing water +5 + 60
o
r\i
The most favourable temperature range for the mix is between 13 °C and 25 °C. Temperatures
below 13 °C impair early strength, whereas temperatures above 25 °C shorten the workability
time.
E
ro

cu
• Natural moisture
CQ Maximum natural moisture: 0.2 wt.% or according to specifications of spray cement
manufacturer.
:0
X • Storage and transport
Dry mix has to be stored under cover and must not deteriorate during transport. Measures have
to be taken to avoid segregation (e.g. central pipe in the bin, bin never completely empty,
ro
in
discharge by means of vibrating floor). Air humidity in the conveyor line may lead to early
CD
n
setting reactions in spray cement.
Mix spilled during handling or ejected from the spraying machine must not be re-used without
prior treatment.
o
in
• Storability of the mix
x~
JD
Dry mix can be stored for a period of up to several months according to the manufacturer's
E expiration date specifications.
(J

c
o
u
o
tu
(J

t
QJ

ro
c
o
Austrian Society for Construction Technology 19
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

5.1.2 Moist mix (moist-aggregate mix) FM-L, FM-S

• Production
FM-L moist mix can be ready-mixed or site-mixed from moist mineral aggregates, cement and
additions and transported to the placing site. Requirements on mixing plant and documentation
have to be in accordance with Item 5.1.1. The mixing plant is to be set up in the vicinity of the
placing site, so that the maximum permissible workability time of 105 minutes is not exceeded
without additional measures.
If SMB is used, the short reaction time of a few minutes necessitates continuous (steady)
mixing of the FM-S moist mix in a special mixing plant set up next to the sprayed concrete
delivery machine. Use of a mixing plant for continuous mixing is permitted. Batching and
mixing of the constituent materials has to be such as to guarantee the placing of homogeneous
sprayed concrete on the substrate. Metering may be performed by rotary vane batchers on a
volumetric basis or, preferably, by weighing conveyors. The batching process (metering) has
to be adjusted so as to achieve the required mixing ratio according to Table NAD 15 ÖNORM
B 4710-1 (calibration according to It. 12.6.1), which has to be documented accordingly. For
dry-mix shotcreting a tolerance range of ±5% for all constituent materials is permissible, since
the final composition of the mix is obtained during placing.
• Working temperature
The temperatures according to Table 5-4 have to be observed.

Table 5-4 limit of temperature [°C] for moist-mix and mixing water
working temperature min. max.
mix +5 + 30
mixing water +5 + 60

O
fN Temperatures under +13°C reduces the early strength and over +25°C reduces the
workability time.
Measures to reach a favourable working temperature:
E
ru
at low ambient temperatures: heating (direct steaming is to be avoided), covered and/or
CD
CG
enclosed storage of mineral aggregates, heating of water addedfor mixing;
at high ambient temperatures: sprinkling of grain size fractions 4/8 and/or 4/11, covered
O
and/or enclosed storage of mineral aggregates, cooling of constituent materials in specicd
X
cases.

rt3
in
• Natural moisture of mineral aggregates
cu
-Q
The natural moisture of the total quantity of mineral aggregates has to be between 1.5 wt.%
and 5 wt.% (standard range; 2 wt.% - 4 wt.%).
If SBM is used, a moisture content within the standard range is essential to ensure correct
rs mixing and working of the mix. As a rule, the mix has to be covered for protection against
o
LO
climatic influences during both transport and storage. If the natural moisture is insufficient, the
x"
-Q mix has to be moistened immediately before further use.
E
(J
I—
N
• Storage and transport
Prior to placing, the FM-L mix has to be protected against external influences during transport
and storage. Any mix spilled during handling or ejected from the spraying machine must not
c
o
u be re-used without prior treatment.
o
CU
(J

t:
cu

ro
c
o
20 Austrian Society for Construction Technology
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

• Workability time
The length of time for which FM-L mix remains workable depends largely on external
influences, the type and dosage of the binder, the water content of the mineral aggregate and
the temperatures.
To guarantee first-rate quality of the sprayed concrete, the time taken to spray a mix made
from cement according to Item 4.1.1 must not exceed 105 minutes. Long-term retarders can be
used to keep the mix workable for a longer time.
If SBM is used, the workability time of the FM-S mix is product-specific (workability time of
a few minutes).

5.1.3 Wet mix - NM (fresh concrete mix)

• Production of pumped concrete and wet mix for thin-stream conveying


The mixing equipment has to be in accordance with ÖNORM B 4710-1 It. 9.6.2.3. The use of
microprocessor-controlled equipment is required. Ready-mixed concrete may be used.
• Working temperature
Table 5-5 limit of temperature [°C] for wet-mix
working temperature Min. Max.
addition water + 5 (summer 1° C) + 60
aggregates +5 -
mix for J2 + 10 (winter + 15) + 30
mix for J3 + 15 (winter + 20) + 30

Mineral aggregates andfresh concrete should have a temperature of more than + 15° C.

o
If the fresh concrete temperature is above +25 °C, pre-hydration of the binder may lead to
r\i excessive stiffening of the wet-mix, which results in an unfavourable setting behaviour.
Temperatures under + 13°C reduces the early strength and over +25°C reduces the
workability time.
E
ro
• Workability time
<D
CQ As a rule, working must not take more than 105 minutes. The workability time can be
prolonged through the addition of retarders, coordinated with accelerator, or hydration control
admixtures (long-term retarders).
:0
X
5.2 Mix for prescribed sprayed concrete (standard sprayed concrete)

fU Sprayed concrete without special requirements up to strength class SpC 12/15 and for exposure
in
cv
classes X0 and XC1 can be produced without preconstruction testing according to Table 5-6 with
-Q
the following mix composition:

o
Table 5-6 Prescribed sprayed concrete (standard sprayed concrete)
LO

X* FM-L Mineral aggregates GK 8 to GK 16 5 parts by weight


-Q
E Grading line range AC
(J
I—
N Cement CEM I, CEM II 1 part by weight
Strength class 42.5
c
o
u
(350 kg corresponding to 1 m3 of sprayed concrete)
o
QJ
(J
NM C 16/20/XC 1/PB/GK 8 and/or GK 11/F66, site-mixed

t
0)

ro
c
o
Austrian Society for Construction Technology 21
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

6 SPRAYING PROCEDURES

6.1 Placing of sprayed concrete

The application of the sprayed concrete has to be performed by qualified personal.


The application area has to be cleaned with an air-water mixture for underground constructions
and slope stabilization (Exception: water-sensitive surfaces and loose rock).
If bond strength between sprayed concrete and old concrete is required the surface has to
be pretreated (cleaning, roughing, pre-wetting).
Reinforcements and steel components have to be adequately secured. Dust Overspray, loose rock
or loose shotcrate behind the reinforcement (wire mesh) have to be removed before shotcreting. If
a two-layer reinforcement is provided for, the second layer wire mesh (facing the tunnel clearance)
should not be placed before the first one (facing the rock) is covered with sprayed concrete. In the
presence of steel components, such as steel arches, steel girders, laggings, pipes, etc., small
cavities in the lining cannot be excluded, but the effect can be diminished through proper
positioning and control of the nozzle. Core samples should not be taken from such places.
The amount of rebound is strongly influenced not only by the nozzle angle, but also by the
composition of the mix, the amount of water, the material velocity at the nozzle, as well as the
thickness of the sprayed concrete layer and the surface of the wall. Rebound and sprayed concrete
residues must not be reused for shotcreting without prior treatment [8],
The reference spray cement and/or accelerator dose determined during preconstruction testing may
be modified slightly according to local conditions. Such modifications may be required due to the
location and condition of the substrate, seasonal temperature fluctuations, moisture, water ingress
and geological conditions.
Ifconditions turn out to be particularly unfavourablefor a limitedperiod of time, i.e. strong water
o
ingress, the admixture of additional accelerator, adjusted to the overall system, or an increase of
fNJ
the spray cement dose may be necessary
If sprayed concrete is to be worked at air and underground temperatures of less than +5 °C,
E additional measures have to be taken. A minimum mix temperature of +13 °C is recommended. If
ru
the substrate temperature is low, particularly in the case of frozen rock and soil or ice, the
CD
CG
thickness of the sprayed concrete layer has to be increased by 2 - 3 cm.
When placing the sprayed concrete, care has to be taken to produce a homogeneous, dense sprayed
O
concrete texture and a closed, even surface. Therefor is a quantity output of compressed air with
X
sufficent pressure necessary. Only oil free compressed air has to be used.
The distance between the nozzle and the substrate should be adjusted to the rate of delivery and
03
theimpact velocity. Depending on the operating air volume, it is between 0.5 m and 2.0 m. The
in
CD
spraying angle, i.e. the angle between the nozzle and the wall to be shotcreted, should be as close
-Q
to 90° as possible. Nozzle distances and angles other than those recommended diminish the
sprayed concrete quality and result in increased rebound.
For thick sprayed concrete linings, sprayed concrete is to be applied in two or more layers to
o
K prevent separation. This applies, in particular, to sprayed concrete placed overhead. Rebound and
i overspray has to removed and not incorporated into the lining.
(§ If the individual layers required to achieve the ultimate sprayed concrete thickness are placed at
jq longer intervals, the previous sprayed concrete layer has be to cleaned and/or wetted by means of a
re mixture of compressed air and water.
g If sprayed concrete is to be placed consecutively on sections of the substrate and/or joined to
o existing sprayed concrete structures or protruding steel reinforcements, proper jointing to the
existing sprayed concrete surface is essential. Tapering sprayed concrete edges and dirty jointing
°
g surfaces in the case of overlapping reinforcements are to be avoided.
t
0)
\n

g 22 Austrian Society for Construction Technology


Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

6.2 Dry-mix shotcreting

The mix is delivered to the nozzle in a pressurized airstream by means of compressed air, wetted
with water in the nozzle ring and sprayed onto the substrate.
• Mix
For dry-mix sprayed concrete, dry mix (TM) or moist mix (FM-L, FM-S) according to Item 5
can be used.
• Mix conveyor, shotcrete gun, shotcreting machine
Mix for dry-mix sprayed concrete is delivered into the air stream by means of a rotary
spraying machine, a double-chamber spraying machine or other equipment (batching screw).
The mix conveyor has to ensure a uniform flow of material at the nozzle. The mechanical
equipment has to be absolutely tight (dust formation, sprayed concrete quality).
Unused mix residues and deposits have to be removed continuously.
• Conveyor pipework, material delivery hoses
The conveyor hoses or pipelines should be installed in straight lines or wide bends. Couplings
have to be absolutely tight.
• Spraying nozzle
The spraying nozzle has to be designed in such a way as to ensure thorough mixing of the mix,
water and, if necessary, the accelerator and the additions (e.g. micro-silica slurry).

• Addition of water
Water has to be conveyed to the nozzle under sufficient pressure through hoses or pipelines.
The temperatures indicated in Table 5-3 and Table 5-4 should be observed.
Ifsprayed concrete is delivered at a constant rate, the amount of water requiredfor optimum
workability of the sprayed concrete varies within narrow limits. Observance of these limits
ensures a water-binder ratio of the sprayed concrete of < 0.50. As a rule, measurements are not
o
fN
required.
6.3 Wet-mix shotcreting

I
ru • Wet-mix device
CD Piston pumps are used to convey wet mix in a dense stream (worm pumps are suitedfor use in

concrete repair work only). To minimise the interruption of delivery during switching, a long
stroke, fast switch control and an accelerated piston speed (compensation) in the unfilled
O
X piston range are recommended.
Modified dry-mix shotcreting machines or pressure vessels with screw discharge are used for
thin-stream conveying.
fU
in Delivery pipework
CD
-Q The delivery pipework is similar to that usedfor normalpumped concrete. The lines should be
as straight as possible. The number of couplings is to be minimised.

rs
(Discharge) nozzle
o
LO In thin-stream conveying, the nozzle only has a guiding function and therefore consists of a
x single steel pipe, possibly cone-shaped.
-Q

o In dense-stream conveying, the dense stream has to be loosened and accelerated through the
n injection of air.
3 Special care must be taken to allow the continuous addition of accelerator to the concrete
o stream.
U
o
0)
u
L_
o
4—

0)
IJ)

g Austrian Society for Construction Technology 23


Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

6.4 Metering of the accelerator

The metering device has to ensure constant batching of the accelerator at a quantity specified
relative to the cement mass and/or proportional to the conveyor output. The amount of accelerator
to be added to the material stream can be adjusted at the metering device. The capacity of the
metering pump has to be recorded for a calibration (calibration curves, with due consideration
given to water pressure in the case of liquid accelerator). At the same time, the actual capacity of
the machine is to be determined. To ensure delivery of a constant dose throughout the period of
operation at the building site, the metering device has to be maintained, cleaned and calibrated at
regular intervals. The accelerator has to be kept at a temperature of above 10° C or
as manufacturer's instruction.
The accelerator dose has to be accurate to less than 1.0 % of the binder dose (e.g. 6.0 % ± 1 % of
binder).
• Metering devices for liquid accelerators
As a rule, liquid accelerator is added continuously to the water or to the mixture, providing
they are proportioned to the delivery rate of the mixture through the material hose coupled to
the set delivery rate of the spray machine. During aspiration of the accelerator from the storage
tank, care has to be taken to avoid air bubbles and contamination. During storage, the liquid
accelerator has to be stirred and maintained in stable condition (no flocculation or changes in
viscosity, e.g. under extreme weather conditions). For the wet spraying method, pumps
integrated in the hydraulic system of the concrete pump are state of the art (are commonly
used) . The dosage pump must also pause during the switching process of the concrete pump.
Changes to the capacity of the pump occur in the wet spraying method on the basis of
authoritative relevant consistency changes to the mix (changes to the filling level of the
cylinder of the pump) and in the dry spraying method due to fluctuations in the humidity level
of the mix or due to deposits in the machine or in the conveyor hose.
ÿ
O
• Metering devices for powder accelerators
™ During dry-mix shotcreting, accelerator in powder form is usually added by means of
y metering devices immediately upstream of the shotcreting machine.
™ - Manual metering into the spraying hopper is permitted in special cases only.
ÿ - Batching screws and rotary vane batchers are only permitted if the required dosage is
cS achieved and documented.

6.5 Curing
ÿo
x
Sprayed concreted with special properties has to be cured in order to limit shrinkage to a minimum
and to ensure sufficient durability and adhesion between the concrete layers or the surface. Curing
must be carried out immediately after application, unless another sprayed concrete layer is applied
in
CD
within a period of 2 hours. As a rale, ÖNORM B 4710-1, Item 14.5 and NAD 17 apply. Thin
n
sprayed concrete layers (< 7 cm) in the concrete repair require double the time stated in Table
| NAD 17.
In tunnel driving, curing of the sprayed concrete SpC I, SpC II and SpC III/XAT is not required
° due to the favourable climatic conditions, with the exception of special circumstances (e.g. strong
J drying out) being given. In such cases, the sprayed concrete surfaces must be kept humid for 7
*= days or sprayed sufficiently with a post-treatment agent in accordance with RVS 11.06.42.
N

c
o
u
o
cu
(J

t
CD

j=
O
24 Austrian Society for Construction Technology
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

1 REQUIREMENTS TO BE MET BY SPRAYED CONCRETE (CLASSIFIKATION)


The properties of sprayed concrete are defined in sprayed concrete classes, early strength classes,
strength classes and exposure classes.
The properties have to be indicated in the schedule of specifications contract specifications and/or
implementation schedules plan through reference to the corresponding short designations.

7.1 Sprayed concrete classes

The classification in sprayed concrete classes takes into account the intended use of the sprayed
concrete, the relevant structural tasks, the risk level and the durability requirements, including the
design operating life.
The inspection category is assigned to the sprayed concrete classes in accordance with Table 7-1.
Structures or structure parts are assigned by design. The sprayed concrete class must be stated with
the type name of the sprayed concrete.

Table 7-1 Sprayed concrete classes and monitoring categories


Requirements for the
Sprayed inspectioning
quality properties and Exposure classes
concrete class category
durability
Covered:
SpC .../I 1 low
XC1
Covered:

usual XC2, XF1


SpC .../II 2 Other exposure classes,
(standard case)
O
verification in accordance with
fM
Item 7.5
Covered:
E XC3, XF1, XA1L
ru
SpC .../III 3 special Other exposure classes,
CD
CG
verification in accordance with
Item 7.5
O
X

7.1.1 Sprayed concrete with low requirements (SpC I)


(U
in
Only low requirements are made on the quality properties (strength class, durability), and a small
CD risk level exists. The application is carried out, for instance, for sealing supports, subordinate
.Q
supporting measures to the maximum permitted strength class SpC 20/25.
7.1.2 Sprayed concrete with usual requirements (SpC II)
Ps
o
LO Usual requirements are made for the quality properties, and there is a normal risk level. The task of
x"
-Q
the sprayed concrete in tunnel construction is the primary lining,g securing and supporting the
E
(J
surrounding rock, which remains in place permanently if executed correctly and used in
I— combination with inner shells or other facing shells. With these measures and with alkali-free
N
accelerator, a high risk level and special durability requirements (SpC III) are also covered. The
c
application is carried out for primary tunnel linings, for the support of the working face in
o tunnelling as well as for face, excavation put and slope reinforcements, for instance.
U
o
CD
(J

CD

ro
c
o
Austrian Society for Construction Technology 25
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

Special requirements must be determined for the early strength classes in accordance with
Item 7.3. For sprayed concrete for primary lining in tunnel construction, to determine the early
strength class (J, , J2 or J3) the degree of utalisation in the relevant age must be taken into account.
7.1.3 Sprayed concrete with special requirements (SpC III)
This sprayed concrete is intended for constructions with a high risk level and/or special durability
requirements. It is applied for primary and secondary linings of tunnel structures in soft rock under
construction and low overlapping, for composite shell tunnel linings, for free-standing structures
and permanent slope and face reinforcements.
Sprayed concrete for the repair of structures made from concrete, reinforced concrete and
brickwork - not regulated this way in the ÖVBB guideline Maintenance and repairs of structures
made from concrete and reinforced concrete - must be assigned to the sprayed concrete class SpC
III. The production of a homogeneous and dense concrete structure must be ensured in particular.
For SpC III, exposition class XC3 is required as a minimum.
When determining the early strength classes (Jd or J2; J3 only in special cases), the
permissibledegree of utilisation must be taken into account at the relevant age. The strength
requirements must be adjusted to the time progress of use.
The direct application of SpC III on surfaces with a strong water ingress without precaution
measures is not permissible (precaution measures: e.g. flash coat, drainage systems).

7.2 Consistency

Assessment of consistency of wet-mix material by means of test methods according to ÖNORM


EN 12350-5 (spread). The consistency classes according to ÖNORM B 4710-1 do not apply.
The time of use of the concrete planned must be detennined before the initial testing. A minimum
spread of 52 cm must be observed at the final time of use. As a rule, for a time of use of 105
minutes an decreaseof approx. 8 cm must be taken into account. The maximum spread permitted,
o established during the initial test, must not be exceeded. The assessment of the permissible spread
(N

must be carried out in respect of the segregation tendency, observance of the water content and
dosage of high range water reducing admixture.
E When placing wet-mix sprayed concrete in a dense stream, a spread of AM (spread) = 600 mm ±
ru

cu
50 mm is favourable.
CG
When placing wet-mix concrete in a thin stream, a spread of AM = 650 ± 50 mm is desirable.
Limits for the processing have to be defined within the initial test.
O
X If a longer workability time (VV) is agreed according to ÖNORM B 4710-1, It. 4.2.6 and It. 5.4.9.,
maintenance of the required consistency is checked at the end of placing.
Consistency classes are of no relevancefor dry-mix sprayed concrete.
fU
in
a;
.Q
7.3 Strength of young sprayed concrete (early strength classes)

g Fresh sprayed concrete is defined as sprayed concrete not older than 24 hours.
If the fresh concrete has to meet certain requirements in terms of strength development, these are
1/1 specified according to early strength classes J3 , J2, J3 (see Figure 7-1).
5 An adequate development of strength during the firstfew minutes is a precondition for overhead
u placing (strength after 2 minutes 0.1 - 0.2 MPa). Test according to It. 12.4.1.
N The development of strength during the firstfew minutes also has a major influence on the extent
"5 of dust formation and rebound. If strength builds up too fast, the sprayed concrete will harden
§ instantly after being shot onto the receiving surface, which prevents proper embedding of the
g coarse-grainedparticles of the subsequent shot. Hence, to keep dust formation and rebound within
acceptable limits, the strength measured after 2 minutes under normal conditions should not
exceed 0.2 MPa.
t
0)
\n

j= 26 Austrian Society for Construction Technology


Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

In the presence of strong water ingress or on a unfavourable substrate, a higher strength should be
reached after a few minutes, which, however, implies a greater amount of dust and rebound.

50

20
16.0
10


8,0
5 5.0

Ötl c ' 2,8

——
r*
Ö 2 J3
2,0
1)

00 1,0 1.2
<p B "t 1,0
ÿ
ÿ% J2
0,5 ft f 1

CO
d> 04
J1 A
I
o
0.2 0.2 <
0.2

° 0,1 ft 1
U, 1 1
'

6 10 30 9 12 24
minutes hours

between A and B class J t


o between B and C class J2
r\i
above C class J 3
Figure 7-1 Early strength requirements to be met by fresh sprayed concrete
E
ro

<D
The development of strength in fresh sprayed concrete is determined by the test method specified
C£2
under Item 12.4. Testing and measuring have to be timed, between two minutes to three hours, in
accordance with the strength development of the sprayed concrete so as to obtain as continuous a
:0
X
picture of strength development as possible (the timing shown in the diagram serving as a
guideline). It should be noted, though, that strength values of between 1.0 and 2.0 MPa cannot be
measured on account of the test methods required according to Fig. 12/3. Inspection times must be
ro
if)
agreed on a project-specific basis in relation to the results of the initial test in such a way that the
CD measurement times do not fall between the range of 1.0 and 2.0 N/mm2. In all cases, verification of
n
the passing of 6 minutes until reaching 1.0 MPa, and at least a value after 4 to 9 hours (in the
measurement range of process B) and after 24 hours must be provided. The verification of the
strength between 9 and 24 hours is only to be verified after stating additional test times (e.g. J2 and
o
in after 12 h: 5.0 MPa).
x~
JD Jisprayed concrete is suitedfor the placing of thin layers on a dry substrate without special load-
E
(J bearing requirements and offers the advantage of low dust formation and rebound.
I—
N If sprayed concrete is to be placed in thick layers (including overhead) at a high delivery rate,
strength development according to J2 is required. The same applies to locations with water
c
o seepage and applications involving immediate loading due to subsequent operations (e.g. drilling
u
o
tu of anchor holes, driving of steel lagging, vibrations due to blasting).
(J
J2 requirements also have to be met in the case of rapid load build-up due to rock pressure, earth
pressure or gravity loads. The specification of the range required also depends on the degree of
t
QJ

ro
c
o
Austrian Society for Construction Technology 27
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

utilisation of the fresh sprayed concrete. Examinations have shown that a linear creep behaviour
is to be expected in young sprayed concrete with a degree of utilisation of up to 40 "%>, whereas a
strongly progressive creep behaviour with a disruptive effect on the concrete texture is to be
expected at a degree of utilisation of more than 80 % [9].
For reasons of increased dust formation and rebound, ./, sprayed concrete should only be
specified under special circumstances (e.g. strong ingress of water, load-bearing requirements,
fast rate of advance).
7.4 Strength classes

Compressive strength is specified according to ÖNORM EN 206. Strength testing is performed


after not more than 28 days (or later at an agreed point in time, e.g. after 56 or 90 days, to be
indicated in brackets after the strength class) on drilled cores from sprayed concrete structures
according to ÖNORM EN 12504-1 or, subject to special agreement and for preconstruction
testing, from test panels according to ÖNORM EN 14488-1.

Table 7-2 Sprayed concrete compressive strength classes - Test age according to
specifications
Sprayed concrete compressive strength Minimum characteristic compressive strength
classes of cores with h/d = 1in MPa
SpC 8/10 10
SpC 12/15 15
SpC 16/20 20
SpC 20/25 25
SpC 25/30 30
SpC 30/37 40
SpC 35/45 45
O
fM

Preferably, strength testing is performed on cores with a length/diameter ratio of 1, if the result is
to be compared with cube compressive strength (cores with a length/diameter ratio of 2 are used
E for comparison of the result with cylinder compressive strength). Cores have to be obtained
ru

cu according to ONR 23303, It. 6.2., and stored according to Table 12-1.
CG
Conformityof the compressive strength of sprayed concrete is determined according to Table 7-3
for:
O
X
• groups of n consecutive individual test results xn (criterion 1)
• each individual test result x; (criterion 2)
(U Each individual test result has to be tested according to 12.5.2 (arithmetic average of at least
if)

CD
five drilled cores).
-Q

Table 7-3 Conformity criteria for results of compressive strength testing in cores from
o
structures or test panels
LO

x" Criterion 1 Criterion 2


-Q
E Number ,,n" results Mean value ,,n" any individual test result x,
u
i— in group results xn in MPa in MPa
N
>3 AI 44 + T7l- AI T7f 1

CO > 15 > fck + 1,48 a AI tH 44 ÿf-


i

with:
o
cu
(J fck being the characteristic compressive strength
a being the standard deviation of at least 15 test results

QJ

ro
c
o
28 Austrian Society for Construction Technology
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

In addition to the strength class according to Table 7-2, strength requirements may be specified for
certain points in time, e.g. strength after 24 hours or after 3 days.

7.5 Sprayed concrete with special properties (exposure classes)

The special requirements refer to the material properties of the concrete, but not to the properties
of the structure. The special properties only have to be demonstrated in the sprayed concrete
texture.
For sprayed concrete with special properties, without exposition classes XO, XC1-XC3, only
mineral aggregates class Fl according to ÖNORM 12620 may be used. The sprayed concrete must
correspond at least to strength class SpC 20/25.
Without different definition in chapter 7.5 ÖNORM B 4710-1, NAD 10 is to be used for detection
of exposition classes.
In general:
• a w/b value of 0.50 is assumed for dry shotcrete without testing,
• use of binders specified under Item 4. 1 of this Guideline is permitted,
• the mix-composition is determined in the mix (base mix), the air content normally assumed to
be 3%.
7.5.1 Shotcrete with high resistance to water penetration (XC 3/XC 4)
Remark: XC 1and XC 2 are used in Austria for corrosion induced by carbonation, XC 3 and
XC3 are used to specify resistance to water ingress
Conformity of exposition class XC3 with a penetration depth < 50mm or XC4, differently to
ÖNORM B 4710-1, with penetration depth < 35mm has to be performed in hardened concrete
(drilled core) according to Item 12.5.5 according to ONR 23303.
7.5.2 Frost-resistant sprayed concrete (XF1/XF 3)
o
N Conformity for XF1 has to be performed at the mix accordance ÖNORM B 4710-1.
Testing for frost resistance XF3 is performed in hardened concrete (drilled cores) according to It.
12.5.6. Contrary to the provisions of ONR 23303, frost resistance is to be demonstrated on the
E
™ basis of the reduction of the static modulus of elasticity, which must not exceed 25% after 56
<u freeze-thaw cycles.
03

tä 7.5.3 Sprayed concrete resistant to freeze/thaw attack (XF 2/XF 4)


N

x As a rule, this type of sprayed concrete can only be produced by wet-mix or by dry-mix processes
ai from ready-mix products filled in bags. The requirements of the ÖNORM EN 1504-3 (requirement
.a of R3 or R4 has to indicate by planner) and test procedures has to be performed according to
«j ÖNORM EN 13687-1. In the case of sulfate-containing thawing agents a separate investigation is
jj required.

J 7.5.4 Sprayed concrete with resistance against expansive chemical attack


Given the fact that sprayed concrete placed in contact with the substrate cannot be protected
£
° against expansive attack from mountain water through subsequent measures, preventive measures
.Q
must be taken (e.g. ongoing review of the sulfate content of the resulting mountain water with
E indicator strips) if such attack is suspected. As the sulfate concentration in mountain water may
u
N
vary strongly, the risk of sulfate attack must be assessed in at least three samples obtained at
different points in time. The verification of the sulphate resistance is carried out via the suitability
of the basic materials and the verification of XC3 or XC4. As regards the danger of a thaumasite
O
formation, the share of carbonate fine materials in the aggregate is limited (see Table 4-3) and the
$ use of additive limestone powder and cement with a main component of limestone powder is not
u permitted.
it—
t
0)
tJ)

g Austrian Society for Construction Technology 29


Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

Sulfate contents (S042) 200 - 600 mg/1 (XAT):


Sprayed concrete must have a dense texture, i.e. meeting the requirements at least of SpC II and
XC3 (penetration depth < 50 mm).
Sulfate contents (S042) 600 - 1500 mg/1 (XAT-C3A-free):
Suitable constituent materials according to Item 4, in particular a C3A-free binder, must be used.
Sprayed concrete must have a dense matrix, i.e. meeting the requirements at least of SpC II and
XC4 (penetration depth <35 mm). Testing for sulfate resistance class XA2T is performed
according to It. 12.5.8.
Sulfate contents (S042") > 1500mg/l:
Sprayed concrete must match XTA-C3A-free. Sprayed concrete in such an attack isn't to be used
as a permanent support measure.
7.5.5 Sprayed concrete with resistance against solvent chemical (acid) attack (XA1L/XA2L)
For applications subject to mild solvent attack (XA1L), a dense texture must be ensured through
class XC 3 (penetration depth < 50 mm). Sprayed concrete has to meet the requirements at least of
SpC II.
For applications subject to moderate solvent attack (XA2L), a dense texture must be ensured
through class XC 4 (penetration depth <35 mm). For applications subject to moderate solvent
attack (XA2L), non-carbonated mineral aggregates with a C02 content < 15% must be used for the
grain size fraction < 4 mm (except in cases of solvent attack in which renewal of the attacking
liquid is insignificant to nil; mineral aggregates containing limestone or dolomite have to be used
in such cases to neutralise the attacking liquid). Sprayed concrete has to meet the requirements at
least of SpC II.
Applications subject to strong solvent attack (XA3L) require special measures. As a rule, sprayed
concrete must not be used as a permanent support measure for such applications.

o 7.5.6 Sprayed concrete to be tested for bond strength (HZ)


(N

For special procedures, a tensile adhesive strength (bond strength) value, e.g. HZ 1.5 (tolerance in
initial testing: 0.5 MPa) has to be specified by the design engineer on a project-specific basis.
E
ru
Testing is to be performed on drilled cores or on the structure (in case of thin layers) according to
Item 12.5.12.
QJ

As a rule, preparation is required. To demonstrate the sufficiency of substrate
of the substrate
t/> preparation, the adhesive strength and the surface roughness of the substrate are established.
N

x 7.5.7 Fibre-reinforced sprayed concrete (FRSpC)


cn
3 The assessment of fibre-reinforced sprayed concrete (FRSpC) is performed in accordance with
fU
ÖNORM EN 14487-1 (Residual strength classes up to thickness of 7.5 cm
in
QJ
or alternatively energy absorption capacity) and the ÖVBB Guideline on fibre-reinforced concrete
-Q
(Residual strength classes for component for thicknesses greater than 7.5 cm or alternatively on the
energy absorption capacity, as well as the bending tension first-crack strength). Fibre-reinforced
concrete is classified according to its specific properties.
rs
o
LO
7.5.7.1 First crack strength - bending tensile strength classes BZ (ÖVBB Guideline on fibre-reinforced
-Q concrete)
E
(J
i—
For classification in to bending strength classes ÖVBB Guideline on fibre-reinforced concrete
N
It. 6. 1.2 has to be used.

c 7.5. 7.2 Residual strength - fibre-reinforced concrete classes T and G(ÖVBB Guideline on fibre-reinforced
o
u
o concrete)
QJ
(J
For applications subject to bending forces (e.g. in combination with normal force) with thicknesses
2 greater than 7.5 cm, fibre-reinforced concrete is classified T1-T5 in terms of ultimate strength or
t
0)
tJ)

j= 30 Austrian Society for Construction Technology


Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

G1-G5 in terms of service state for design purpose. The classes specify values based on the mean
equivalent flexural tensile strength measured at the beam test. Fibre-reinforced concrete classes
higher than T3 or G5 can only be obtained through special measures.
7.5. 7.3 Residual strength - residual tensile strength classes D and S (ÖNORM EN 14487-1)
For thicknesses less than 7.5 cm division hast to be done according ÖNORM EN 14487-1 into
classes D1 to D3/S1 to S4.
7. 5. 7. 4 Residual strength - energy absorption capacity (ÖNORM EN 14487-1)
For sprayed concrete, there is the option to defines the post crack properties next to the fibre
concrete classes T, G or D/S alternatively with the sprayed concrete classes EV500, EV700 and
EV1000. In deviation from the ÖNORM EN 14487-1 (E classes), in tunnel construction the
assessment is carried out at the age of 7 days on 3 panels (EV classes). EV500 means an energy
absorption in J for a deflection of up to 25 mm in panel tests.
For sprayed concrete as a primary lining, the breakdown is carried out in accordance with the
guide values of the work capacity as per Table 7-4 in panel test (see Item 0).

Table 7-4 Definitions energy capacity (energy absorption capacity) for use in tunnel
construction
Energy absorption capacity after
Application/function
7 days
Sealing for stable ground 500 - 700 J
Primary lining in soft rock and in hard rock with small
700- 1,000 J
volume outbursts with small initial deformation speed
Primary lining injointed hard rock with large volume
outbursts
800- 1,200 J
large initial deformation speed
O
fM final linings

E 7. 5. 7. 5 Increasedfire-resistant BBG
ru

CD
The increase in fire resistance by reducing the spalling of the near surface layers is described via
CG
the fibre concrete classes BBG. To verify the fire resistance, the sprayed concrete must containa
fibre quantity (Item 12.5.10) with a fibre type when installed, for which the principle test exists in
O
X
accordance with ÖVBB technical bulletin Protection layers for increased fire protection for
underground traffic structures.
7. 5. 7. 6 Early shrinkage crackformation (FS)
03
in
cv
For the fibre concrete class FS, the ÖVBB directive Fibre concrete, Item 6.3, applies.
-Q

7. 5. 7. 7 Reduced leaching behaviour (R V)


For sprayed concrete recipes, with which an optimised conduct regarding the precipitations of
rs
o
LO
drainages is to be achieved, the calcium release must be additionally verified during the initial test
x" in the leaching experiment in accordance with Item 12.5.14, as well the verification of the
-Q
E structural density CX4 on the hardened concrete. Thresholds for calcium release must be
(J
I— determined on a project-specific basis. For identification, the short name RV stating the threshold
N
value in kg/t SpC (sprayed concrete with reduced leaching behaviour) must be used.
c
o
u
o
CU

cu

ro
c
o
Austrian Society for Construction Technology 31
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

7.6 Designation of sprayed concrete grades

The properties required in sprayed concrete, to be demonstrated through testing, are specified by
reference to sprayed concrete grades according to Table 7-5. To indicate the sprayed concrete
grades, the abbreviations given in Item 7.1 are to be used. The concrete grades to be used must be
indicated in the projectspecifications and/or planning and tender documents (for examples of
sprayed concrete grades, see Table 7-5).
Table 7-5 Examples of sprayed concrete grades
Application and requirements Concrete grade
Sprayed concrete for primary lining oftraffic tunnel SpC 20/25(56)/II/J2/XCl/GK8
Water-impermeable sprayed concretefor primary
SpC 20/25(56)/II/J2/XC3/GK8
lining oftraffic tunnel (moderate water pressure)
Fibre-reinforced sprayed concrete for primary lining FRSpC 20/25/II/J2/XCl/EV3/GK8
Sprayed concrete for permanent penstock lining SpC 20/25(56)/III/J,/XC3/GK8
Fibre-reinforced concrete (thickness 20 cm) for FRSpC 25/30/111/JfXC3/T3/ BBG/GK8
permanent lining of cross passages in traffic tunnels
Sprayed concreteforprimaryr lining exposed to sulfate SpC 25/30(56)/II/J2/XC4/
attack over 600 mg/l XAT-C3A-frei/GK8
Sprayed concrete as substratefor sealing material SpC 12/15/I/GK4
Sprayed concretefor bridge repair work, gunite (for
SpC 25/30/III/XC4/XF4/R4/HZ1, 5/GK4
structural purpose) according to Ö VBB Guideline
Sprayed concrete for temporary slope support
''
SpC 20/25/II/J1/XF3AGK8
Spray concrete with reduced leaching behaviourfor
SpC 20/25/II/J2/XC4/R VO, 4/GK8
primary lining
o
r\i
ÖVBB Guideline "Maintenance and Repair of Concrete and Reinforced-Concrete Structures"

Additional properties established through quality testing as properties offresh sprayed concrete
E and hardened sprayed concrete are not defined in this Guideline, but may be of relevance under
ru

D
special conditions, e.g. compressive strength of sprayed concrete between 1and 28 days after
CQ
placing, tensile splitting strength, shear strength, creep behaviour, modulus of elasticity
(development over time), and adhesion of sprayed concrete to the substrate as well as the
:0
X
procedures indicated in the ÖVBB-Guideline "Maintenance and Repair of Concrete and
Reinforced-Concrete structures
fU
in
CD
.Q

rs
o
LO

X*
-Q
E
(J
I—
N

c
o
U
o
CD
(J

CD

ro
c
o
32 Austrian Society for Construction Technology
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

8 STRUCTURAL REQUIREMENTS

Given the method by which sprayed concrete is worked and placed, special requirements have to
be met in terms of structural design to ensure the required quality of execution.

8.1 Fundamental requirements

• In terms of structural design, preference should be given - as far as possible - to increased


sprayed concrete thickness instead of additional reinforcement.
• Joints in the sprayed concrete lining should be reduced to the absolute minimum and, if
possible, located outside areas of flexural loading.
• Sprayed concrete SpC III should be designed to a minimum thickness of 10 cm (except for
structural reinforcement and repair works).
• In the case of longitudinal construction joints, the use of formwork is recommended, with due
consideration given to the possible transmission of shear forces.
• In case of double-layered reinforcement, by planning have to be taken that the second layer is
to be placed after first layer has been embedded with sprayed concrete.

8.2 Reinforcement

Reinforcing bars have to comply the requirements of ÖNORM B 4200-7. For the execution
ÖNORM EN 13670 applies. The choice of a ductility classes has to be made project specific.
For initial support and for temporary slope support reinforcing steel mesh with a mesh width
of > 100 mm and a diameter of no more than 10 mm is to be used.
Secondary reinforcing bars required for static reasons are to be placed, if possible, in eveiy
other field of the steel mesh only (e.g. mesh width 150/150 mm - min, distance = 30 cm).
O
As a rule, the diameter of secondary reinforcing bars should not exceed 14 mm.
fM
Concrete cover: The minimum concrete cover must be observed in every location. In planning,
a nominal dimension of the concrete cover enlarged by the offset must be planned; for frost
E and de-icing salt loads and/or increased fire protection, special determinations must be made.
ru
In tunnelling and for slope reinforcements, the requirements of Table 8-1 apply; for permanent
QJ
CQ inner shells, RVS 09.01.44 must be observed additionally. The roughness of the surface must
be taken into account when measuring the concrete cover.
O
X
Table 8-1 Concrete cover required
ZJ
_Q
N
Minimum thickness Tolerance Minimum design thickness
ru
Lfi SpC I 15 mm 15 mm 30 mm
'03 SpC II 25 mm 15 mm 40 mm
_Q
U)

fU SpC III 35 mm 15 mm 50 mm

o
LO Cross-shaped joints of reinforcing steel mesh are to be avoided, if possible (longitudinal and
x"
-Q
transverse direction). Overlap of additional reinforcing bars should also be avoided. If
E reinforcement overlaps circumferentially, local no longitudinal overlap is required.
u>
I—
N Lap reinforcements to be bent backwards on site must not be more than 12 mm in diameter.
The total cross-sectional area of the steel reinforcement may be utilised up to 80 % in the
c finished structure.
o
u
o
aj
Encroachments of the mesh reinforcement in supporting direction must be designed with 3
mesh widths and diagonally with 2 mesh widths (RVS 09.01.42).

t
QJ

ro
c
o
Austrian Society for Construction Technology 33
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

9 SINGLE-SHELL TUNNELING METHOD

9.1 Definition, prerequisites, execution variants

The single-shell construction method is characterised by the fact that all static and structural
requirements are fulfilled by a single shell structure, which also can consist of several layers which
work as a monolithic shell. This shell can be produced in one or several (multi-layered) operations.
The shell structure has to be designed not only to meet the need for support during tunnel driving,
but also to fulfil the requirements of the finished structure. If the sprayed concrete shell fulfils a
support function during tunnel driving and is to be subsequently strengthened by another sprayed
concrete layer or cast in-situ concrete, the structural effectiveness of the composite structure has to
be guaranteed through shear bonding.
If single-shell structures are made exclusively from sprayed concrete, local water penetration due
to cracks, construction joints and defects cannot be excluded; hence, this method is best suited to
areas with little or no water ingress, ground that has been sealed by pre-injection and/or the
possibility of sufficient drainage.
If there is an ingress of water, the amount of water leakage pennissible should be established
before deciding in favour of or against a single-shell structure. Possible measures, for injection or
of water drainage and, if necessary, subsequent sealing, should also be considered.
In order to minimise crack formation and to keep the amount of reinforcement low throughout the
structure, the bending stress on the tunnel shell should be as low as possible. Under appropriate
geological conditions, this can be achieved through an adequate geometry of the tunnel cross
section and in case of structurally favourable loading behaviour (symmetrical loading).
Form of execution
Basically, there are two variants based on the exclusive use of sprayed concrete.
• Single-layer sprayed concrete (one pass)
The sprayed concrete tunnel shell is placed in the course of tunnel driving, its thickness and
reinforcement being sufficient to meet the requirements of both tunnelling and the finished
state of the structure.
Example: 25 cm sprayed concrete shell applied in the course of tunnel driving, with an outer
(facing the rock) and inner (facing the tunnel clearance) layer ofreinforcement.
• Sprayed concrete shell fonned by a composite multi-layered structure
The outer sprayed concrete layer is applied during tunnel driving as a support for tunnelling.
ÿo
x In a subsequent operation, one or more additional sprayed concrete layers are applied to
achieve the shell thickness required for the finished state in static and structural terms, with
shear bonding between the sprayed concrete layers being ensured by adequate measures (see
Item 9.3).
The use of fibre-reinforced sprayed concrete is preferable for the inner layer, as a higher
density of the concrete may be achieved when steel bar or mesh reinforcement is eliminated.
Application of a sprayable waterproofing membrane, capable of bridging cracks to a limited
extent, is also possible.
Example: Outer layer of sprayed concrete shell, min. 15 cm, applied on a reinforcement
E mesh, with due consideration given to rock support by means of anchors, arches,
etc., in the course of tunnel driving. After tunnelling, the second sprayed concrete
layer is applied to and bonded with the existing outer layer with as few
construction joints as possible, 15 cm thick, either with another reinforcement
mesh or madefromfibre-reinforced sprayed concrete.

0)

jo= 34 Austrian Society for Construction Technology


Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

9.2 Sprayed concrete classes & design

Sprayed concrete class


Considering the requirements to be met by fresh sprayed concrete, the minimum strength class
required is SpC 25/30. As special properties, exposure class XC4 is essential. Further special
properties are set for each specific project (see Item 7.5).
Example of outer shell: SpC 25/30(56)/III/XC4/GK8/J, or J2
Example of inner shell: SpC 25/30(56)/III/XC4/XF3/HZl. 0/GK8
Structural design considerations
In addition to Item 8 of this Guideline, the following applies:
The structural safety of the sprayed concrete shell under all load conditions during construction
shall be ensured for single-shell structures in the same manner as for double-shell structures.
In the case of a multi-layer execution, the structural safety in its final state shall be ensured for the
composite structure, with due consideration given to load transfers between the layers. Checks for
stability of the structure under construction, in its final state and in borderline cases (in soil or soft
ground) can be performed, for instance, in accordance with the Guidelines for Traffic and Road
Engineering, RVS 09.01.42.
Bonding (shear bonding) between the sprayed concrete layers, ifproperly executed, is ensured by
their surface roughness. Shear strength and bond strength at joints have to be proven by
preconstruction testing.
In view of the desire to avoid inhomogeneities and/or defects in the sprayed concrete, the amount
of reinforcement used should be kept to a minimum; the reinforcement should be easy to place and
evenly distributed.
In order to avoid additional inhomogeneities in the inner sprayed concrete layer, shear
reinforcement should not be used. Reinforcement bars (mandrels, etc.) must not be allowed to
o penetrate the sprayed concrete shell to avoid the ingress of water.
fN

9.3 Notes on execution

E To ensure bonding of the sprayed concrete layers, the outer sprayed concrete layer has to be
ru
cleaned with a mixture of compressed air and water, before the inner sprayed concrete layer is
tS placed. If tensile bond strength is required, the substrate is usually pre-treated with high pressure
water jet.

H
X
The reinforcement is to be kept in the required position through adequate measures, with overlaps
of reinforcing mesh being arranged in such a way as to avoid the superposition of four mesh
layers.
ro
in
Breaking of construction joints in the individual sprayed concrete layers is essential.
After completion of the sprayed concrete shell, a thin smoothing layer may be required in view of
the use of the tunnel and/or as an additional seal against the ingress of water.
Single-layer sprayed concrete shells have to be executed with special care. Hence, appropriate
instruction of the construction-site staff and intensive construction supervision and quality control
are essential.
x
-Q
E
(J
i—
N

c
o
u
o
tu
(J

t
QJ

j=
O
Austrian Society for Construction Technology 35
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

10 SPECIAL PROCEDURES

10.1 Sprayed concrete under compressed air

Sprayed concrete under compressed air [10] differs from sprayed concrete under atmospheric
conditions in the risk of flow through the sprayed concrete with air. Moreover, the higher
temperature and humidity should be noted in application area.
Impact on quality
The equipment set-up and the organisation of mix delivery under compressed air from the lock
to the nozzle has to be such as to keep the exposure of the dry mix to compressed air as short
as possible.
The more permeable the subjacent rock and the higher the pressure above atmospheric, the
more easily will the sprayed concrete be permeated by compressed air.
As a result of air permeation, the sprayed concrete loses moisture immediately after placing,
which in turn leads to rapid drying and early shrinkage. Therefore, if sprayed concrete is to be
placed on highly air-permeable soil or soft ground, the quality of the sprayed concrete (e.g.
strength) will presumably be lower than that of sprayed concrete placed under atmospheric
conditions as a result of fast drying and removal of fines. This is true, above all, of fresh
sprayed concrete.
If the substrate is largely impermeable, the climate in the working chamber (high humidity)
has a favourable influence on sprayed concrete quality.
• Additional measures
Repeated moistening of the fresh sprayed concrete (curing by spraying of water).
Use of suitable additions to increase the density of the sprayed concrete texture.
Application of a sealing coat (sealing mortar) on the sprayed concrete surface as soon as
O
fM
possible after placing.
f! The latter measures also help to diminish the total loss of air in the pressurised section.
m
ÿ
• Air pressure fluctuations
™ Air pressure fluctuations (due to normal tunnel driving or special incidents) have no particular
CD
CQ
influence on the build-up of strength in fresh sprayed concrete and subsequent strength
development, provided the pressure does not drop below 0.6 bar.

£ 10.2 Fibre-reinforced sprayed concrete

Steel fibres according ÖNORM EN 14889-1or polymer fibres according ÖNORM EN 14889-2
can be used for the production of fibre sprayed concrete. It is important to note, however, that use
CU
in of such fibres requires a different working method. ÖVBB Guideline "fiber reinforced concrete" is
CD
-Q to be observed.
The amount of fibres contained in the placed sprayed concrete is lower than in the base mix.
Therefore, the fibre content has to be checked at regular intervals (see Item 12.3.5 or 12.5.10). The
o maximum grain size of the mineral aggregate should not exceed 8 mm.
LO

-Q
To ensure the necessary bonding of the fibres to the matrix, the strength class must not be less than
E SpC 20/25.
(J
I—
N • Production of the mix
Steady addition of the fibres is essential for the quality of the placed fibre reinforced concrete.
c
o
CJ
o
• Structural considerations
CD
(J

CD

jo= 36 Austrian Society for Construction Technology


Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

An "overlap" of fibres at construction joints is not possible. It is therefore necessary to determine


the location of construction joints already in the planning stage and to provide for additional
overlapping reinforcement.
10.2.1 Steel-fibre reinforced sprayed concrete

• Applications and functions


Steel-fibre reinforced sprayed concrete contains, in basic mix, at least 30 kg of steel fibres per
m3 fibres are added to obtain special properties in both fresh and hardened concrete.
The following sprayed concrete properties can be influenced through the addition of steel
fibres:
Improvement of post-crack properties or energy absorption capacity (Items 7.5.7.2 to
7.5.7.4).
Reduction of the early shrinkage formation (Item 7.5.7.6)
replacement for reinforcement for thin and/or irregular sprayed concrete layers at not
constructive reinforced components.
improved homogeneity through the avoidance of voids due to the omittance of
reinforcement (e.g. single-shell construction).
• Production of the mix
The steel fibres need to be straightened out before being added to the mix. Collated fibres
require contact with moisture to dissolve the bonding.
Steel fibres can be added to the mix in the mixing plant, the truck mixer or on the conveyor
belt upstream of the shotcreting gun. By means of a suitable batching device, steels fibres can
be fed into the shotcreting machine or directly into the delivery stream in a well-targeted and
controlled manner.
• Requirements to be met by steel-fibre reinforced sprayed concrete
An essential property of steel-fibre reinforced sprayed concrete is its increased toughness.
Toughness is determined through classification according to flexural tensile strength BZ and
post-cracking behaviour into the classes T1 to T5, TS and/or Gl to G5, GS, tested on the
E
ru
bending test beams, or according to energy absorption class EV500 to EV1000, tested by
loading panels.
10.2.2 Polymer-fibre reinforced sprayed concrete

• Applications and functions


Added to the polymer fibre sprayed concrete are suitable polymer fibres with a minimum
dosage in the base mix of 1.5 kg/m3 or 4.0 kg/m3 (macro fibres) to achieve special properties.
ro By adding polymer fibres, the following properties of the sprayed concrete can be influenced:
in
Improvement of the fire resistance (Item 7.5.7.5)
Improvement of post-crack properties or energy absorption capacity (items 7.5.7.2 to
7.5.7.4).
Reduction of the early shrinkage crack formation (Item 7.5.7.6)
• Production of the mix
Adding to the humid mix is only possible at the mixing plant. For micro fibres, an extended
mixing time must be observed.
• Requirements to be met by polymer fibre reinforced sprayed concrete
A key property of the polymer fibre sprayed concrete with macro fibres is its increased energy
g absoiption capacity. The energy absorption capacity is determined by the classification in
flexural tensile strength classes BZ and post-cracking behaviour classes T1 to T5, TS or Gl to
G5, GS, verified by the beam test or in energy absorption classes EV500 to EV1000, verified
0)
<S)

g Austrian Society for Construction Technology 37


Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

by the plate test. The creep characteristics and the durability of sprayed concrete with polymer
macro fibres must be taken into account in accordance with the ÖVBB guideline Fibre
reinforced concrete. The main properties of polymer fibre reinforced sprayed concrete with
micro fibres are the increase of fire resistance (classification in fibre concrete class BBG) and
reduction of the early shrinkage crack formation (fibre concrete class FS).

O
fM

E
ru

CD
CG

O
X

CU
in
cu
-Q

rs
o
LO

x"
-Q
E
(J
I—
N

c
o
u
o
CU
(J

t:
cu

c
o
38 Austrian Society for Construction Technology
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

11 SPECIFICATIONS AND TESTING

The specifications for sprayed concrete production refer either to designed concrete approach
(specification of properties by the author, e.g. design engineer, as a rule), to prescribed concrete, or
to standardized prescribed concrete (standardized prescribed concrete, Item 5.2).
Requirements and conformity control in the context of the sprayed concrete production must be
defined according to Table 13-1 and Table 13-2. These specifications and quality control measures
consist of:
• Assignment to sprayed concrete classes
• Specification of properties
• Preconstruction test
• Production control and inspection, including conformity tests (constituent materials, mix)
• Additional conformity tests of the mix to be performed by the sprayed concrete user, if not
identical with concrete manufacturer
• Identity test
• „Certification" of production control
• Measures to be taken in the event of non-compliance with conformity criteria
Production control and inspection of sprayed concrete consists of testing the constituent materials,
the mix, the sprayed concrete, and the equipment for the production and intermediate storage of
the mix.
If tests are subsequently carried out by a non-accredited testing body, the laboratories dealing with
the tests must prove that they have experience with sprayed concrete tests. The test devices used
must be subjected to a regular calibration and this must be documented.
The constituent materials have to be subjected to both self-inspection and external inspection.
The preconstruction test is carried out in the following steps:
• Verification of the suitability of constituent materials (see Item 11.1.1)
• Verification of the suitability of the mixing and dosage device (see Item 11.4)
j= • Verification of the mix (see Item 11.1.2)
• Verification of sprayed concrete (see Item 11.1.3)
For mix and sprayed concrete conformity and identity testing have be carried out.
The frequency of conformity testing (monitoring categories according Table 11-2 to Table 11-4)
depends on the spray concrete class (Table 7-1), which is defined in the Sprayed concrete grades
(for examples, see Item 7.6).
The identity test is performed on behalf of the owner/client by an accredited inspection body;
testing for sprayed concrete thickness and early strength is performed by an experienced
representative of the owner/client.
The manufacturer and the user have to agree in unmistakable terms on who is to perform which
tests. If the manufacturer and the user are identical, double testing is not required. The scope of
testing according to Tables 11 is to be observed.
Sprayed concrete tests in tables 11, for which the designation "where required" or "(x)" is stated,
must be carried out when the special property is required in the sprayed concrete grades or is
N required separately (e.g. in the construction contract).
11.1 Preconstruction test
c
o
g The testing laboratory in charge must create a test report on the initial test of the constituent
ÿ materials, the mix and the sprayed concrete as well as on the verification of the mixing and dosage
g devices. The scope of the tests can be found in the following items 11.1.1 to 11.1.3 and 11.4.
t
0)
<S)

j= Austrian Society for Construction Technology 39


Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

For sprayed concrete, which is used as initial lining in tunnelling, additional tests regarding the
properties of the constituent materials and their interaction at the time of the preconstruction test
are required.
The execution of the preconstruction test must be clear taking into account the properties of the
constituent materials, the composition and the production of the concrete, the sample preperation
and the sample transport as well as the test. A representative of the accredited testing body must be
present during the preconstruction test of the sprayed concrete. The tests of hardened sprayed
concrete must be carried out by an accredited testing body. An overall report must be created on
the preconstruction test, which must be verified for plausibility by an accredited testing and
inspection body experienced with sprayed concrete.
An overall report must be created by the testing body in charge, which must contain the following:
Suitability verifications of the constituent materials
Test of the constituent materials as well as their combination
Composition of the mix (with relation to l m3 with 3 % air)
Test of the mix
Identification of the maximum spread permitted (for NM only)
Spraying device used and settings
Environmental conditions during spraying and storage conditions of the samples
Time and place of the spraying tests
Accelerator dosage
Test place (panels or other application surfaces)
Sampling, labelling and transport
Early strength development
Flardened concrete tests
o
(N The test reports must contain the information on test procedure and results required in the relevant
testing regulations.

E 11.1.1 Testing of constituent materials


ru
The constutuent materials of sprayed concrete (cement, spray cement (SBM), additives, aggregate,
cu
CG
admixtures, fibres) must be tested in accordance with Table 11-2 and Table 11-4. Products
monitored by third parties must be used in accordance with the requirements of the corresponding
O product norms. The tests required in accordance with Item 4 must be verified regularly. The
X
admixtures used must be selected in good time before the work on the cement used in accordance
with the accelerated setting, early strength and strength development in late age as well as (where
fU
required) sulphate resistance.
in
a; As sprayed concrete is only to be produced after starting construction with the final site facilities
.Q
and the preconstruction test can only then be carried out, a timely quality preview is
recommended by the following tests:
rs
o
LO
• Test of the cement or spray cement in accordance with items 4. 1.1or 4. 1.2
x" • Test of the cement/accellevator combination in accordance with items 12.2.1 and 12.2.3 (for
-Q
spray cement, the results of the own and third-party monitoring are available)
E
(J
I—
As a rule, the requirements of the relevant product norms apply for sprayed concrete without early
N
strength class or for small quantities (total mix good up to 1000 m3). It is not necessary for an
accredited body to conduct the prconstruction test in this case.
c
o For sprayed concrete, which is used as initial lining in tunnelling, additional verifications
u
o
aj
U
regarding the properties of the constituent materials and their interaction at the time of the
preconstruction test are required. The tests are included in the following Table 11-1.

0)

ro
c
o
40 Austrian Society for Construction Technology
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

The tests of cement without external inspection in accordance with ÖNORM B 3327-1 must be
carried out in accordance with Item 4.1.1.

Table 11-1 Scope of the evidence for the constituent materials for sprayed concrete of the early
strength class J2 and J3 and a total mix quantity of more than 1000 m3
Tests as part of the preconstruction
Product/
Suitability verification test of the sprayed concrete
Test level
by an accredited body_
Current test report of ÿ

1 d compression strength
Cement the third-party ÿ

Blaine value
monitor of the i)
Addition production plant - Specific surface
- Setting times2'
- Density
Accelerator
- pH value
(EB)
- Solid material content
Certificate of
- Storage stability_
the plant's
production Producer declaration Verification as part of the mix test
ÿ

Superplastic
control, inch (consistency and air void content via
iser (FM) Initial verification3'
annex the processing time)_
- Grading curve of the individual grain
fraction
Aggregates ÿ

Fines content
ÿ

Freeze/thaw resistance4'
O

C02 content51
fM
ÿ

Initial test of the ÿ


Dimensions of the fibres
E Fibres product by ÿ
Humidity6'
ru
accredited body
'' For fly ash, AFTWZ
CD
CG in accordance with ÖNORM EN 196-6 and for silicafume in accordance with ISO 9277
21 with cement used with and without HRWR agent
31
O
inch the additional requirements of this directive for the product standard
X 41
only in the event of frost or freeze/thaw-resistant sprayed concrete without valid test verification
51
only in the event of the XA2L requirement for the sprayed concrete without valid test verification
61
only in the event of polymer micro fibres
03
in
cd 11.1.2 Test of the basic mix
-Q

For the calculation of the mix design, a maximum air void content of 3.0 % must be used.
When producing the mix, the composition must be stated and presented to the monitoring body on
rs
o
LO
request.
x"
-Q
For sprayed concrete, which is used as an initial lining in tunnelling, the verifications must be
E
(J
carried out by an accredited body. The scope of the tests is guided by the type of the mix and the
i— requirements for sprayed concrete (Table 11-5 to Table 11-8).
N
The maximum permissible spread must be established during the preconstruction test. The
c maximum permissible spread is the spread that is reached with maximum permissible water
o
u
o
content and Superplasticiser dosage without any segregation effects.
CD
(J

t
CD

ro
c
o
Austrian Society for Construction Technology 41
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

11.1.3 Test of the sprayed concrete


Laboratory tests provide a good guide on the behaviour on the site, but cannot include all site
impacts and can therefore not replace the preconstruction test with the final site equipment.
The effectiveness of the concrete admixtures and their intercompatibility (in the event of several
admixtures ) must be verified in the preconstruction test of the sprayed concrete.
During the preconstruction test of sprayed concrete with extended processing time (VV), the early
strength development of an immediately sprayed mix and a mix sprayed at the end of the planned
processing time must be tested. The consistency of the mix at the end of the planned processing
time must be verified.
When using accelerator (EB) together with the mix FM-L, preliminary tests are required to
determine the sprayed concrete composition (required dosage of binder and accelerator (EB)) (at
least two mixes) with different binder content and the accordingly changed admixture dosage.
When using wet mix, at least two dosages must be tested per accelerator. The two dosages
represent the thresholds of the application range. The total test scope must be carried out with the
higher dosage. Only the early strength can be verified with the lower dosage.
After completing the preliminary tests and selection of a mix composition, an preconstruction test
must be carried out, during which all properties of the young sprayed concrete and sprayed
concrete are proven for the design (Table 11-5 to Table 11-8). The preconstruction test must be
carried out under the relevant site conditions and with the planned constituent materials. The
assessment is carried out in steps on the existence of individual test results.
The dosage of the accelerator and the mix design is to be calculated for a theoretical air void
content of the sprayed mix of 3.0 %.
For sprayed concrete with a set strength class, a sufficient offset must be observed (guide value: 25
% of the characteristic strength of the corresponding strength class, but no less than 6 N/mm2). For
the offsets of the other test values, a 20 % offset must be observed.
O Key changes to the constituent sprayed concrete materials (manufacturer change of the binder,
™ admixture additions, binder content of more than + 20 kg/m3, -10 kg/m3) in the sprayed concrete
J"; mix design require a new preconstruction test for the relevant parameters taking into account the
E
existing tests.
ru
For standardized prescribed sprayed concrete up to the strength class of SpC 12/15, an
cu preconstruction test is not required.
CG

11.2 Assessment of conformity (Conformity test)


O
X
11.2.1 Constituent materials
Testing bodies, which conduct tests as part of the conformity tests of the user, must not carry out
(U
in the own monitoring of the manufacturer. Identification verifications must not be carried out by the
cv
-Q
product manufacturer. Test scope and frequency of the tests see Table 11-2 to Table 11-4. The test
of cement without external inspection in accordance with ÖNORM B 3327-1 must be carried out
in accordance with Item 4.1.1. For identification verifications of accelerators, the initial set must
o
not differ any more than 20 seconds and the final set any more than 60 seconds from the value of
LO
the initial test with the cement used. To assess the identification verification of the EB, a
x
-Q corresponding plant certificate with the parameters set out in Item 12.1.4 must be presented by the
admixture manufacturer on preconstruction testing and during the deliveries to the site every two
N months as a minimum.
11.2.2 Mix
g The mix must be subjected to a conformity control for use on site. If the user is not identical with
5 the manufacturer, the conformity test of the user must be carried out separately from the
£
it—
manufacturer. The user can recognise the conformity test of the manufacturer, if it carries out the
0)
<S)

g 42 Austrian Society for Construction Technology


Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

tests at the place of installation (spraying machine). Test scope and frequency see Table 11-5 to
Table 11-8.

11.2.3 Sprayed concrete


Conformity testing in the course of execution of the structure serves to demonstrate that the
sprayed concrete composition is such as to guarantee the required properties at the specified age of
28 (or 56) days, assuming proper production, curing and storage according to It. 12.5.1. The
specified testing age may be exceeded by a maximum of 10 %. The testing frequency is specified
in Table 1 1-5 to Table 1 1-8.
If the results of conformity testing are inadequate, performance of a second test on twice the
original number of samples from the same test batch and/or a theoretical calculation according to
Annex 5 is permissible. The conformity criteria for compressive strength are summarised in Table
7/2, and for other properties in Table 1 1-9.

Table 11-2 Test of the constituent materials in the process of the preconstruction and
conformity tes
User of the constituent materials
Evidence to be provided by the Preconst¬ Assessment of conformity
Constituent material and
manufacturer of the constituent ruction
requirement Inspection categories (UEK)
materials test

UEK I UEK II UEK III

CEMENT and SBM


Inspection of the delivery tickets Plant monitoring2' in accordance
X X every delivery,
and taking of retained samples with ÖNORM EN 197-1 and
Retained samples weekly
Delivery temperature ÖNORM B 3327-1 incl. the points X X
O
fM Blaine value stated in Table 4-1 of this x" X 1 x month
Guideline or ÖNORM EN 197-1
1 d compressive strength and incl. Table 4-2 (SBM) of this x" X 1 x month
E Guideline
ru
ADDITIONS type IIin accordance with ÖNORM B 4710-1
CD
CG
Plant monitoring2' in accordance
with series ÖNORM EN 450,
Fly ash, slag sand AHWZ
O series ÖNORM EN 15167 or
X
ÖNORM B 3309
X - -

Plant monitoring2' in accordance


Silicafume
(U with series ÖNORM EN 13263
in
cu Inspection of the delivery tickets every delivery
-Q - X X
and taking of retained samples Retained samples weekly
Average value from own
specific surface x" X 1 x month
rs monitoring
o
LO Sulphate resistance
ÖNORM B 3309, Item 4. 12.1 (X) - -
x"
-Q
(not for silicafume)
E MIXING WATER
(J
I—
N
Chemical composition ÖNORM Verification in accordance
X X
EN 1008 with ÖNORM B 4710-1
c X Test
o (X) Test where required
u
o 1)
0)
(J
Test for sprayed concrete for initial lining in tunnelling in accordance with Table 11-1 by a body in accordance
with Item 11.1.1
Plant monitoring: Confirmation of correct third-party monitoring and current report of third-party monitoring
cu

ro
c
o
Austrian Society for Construction Technology 43
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

Table 11-3 Test of the constituent materials in the process of the preconstruction and
conformity tests
User of the constituent materials
Evidence to be provided by the Preconst¬ Assessment of conformity
Constituent material and
manufacturer of the constituent ruction
requirement Inspection categories (UEK)
materials test
UEK I UEK II UEK III
AGGREGATES
Inspection of delivery ticket,
every delivery, retained
optical assessment X X
samples weekly
and retained sample
Grain composition (grading
curve) of the individual grain Initial test and plant monitoring2' in x" X
1X 2x 4x
fractions accordance with
month month month
Content of fines or elutriable ÖNORM EN 12620 taking into
x" X
material account the ÖNORM B 3 13 1
1X 2x
Water content X X
weekly weekly
Freeze/thaw resistance (X«) - - - -
C02 content (x") - - - -
ACCELLERATOR (EB)
Inspection of delivery ticket, Initial test and plant monitoring2' in
optical assessment accordance with ÖNORM EN 934- X X every delivery
and retained sample 5 and Table 4-5
Density, solids content Initial test by accredited testing x" X all 2 all 2
months
pH value body and regular verification in x" X months months
O Setting times and storage stability accordance with Item 12.1.4 x" X 2 x months
f\l
OTHER ADMIXTURES
Inspection of delivery ticket, Initial test and plant monitoring2' in
E optical assessment accordance with ÖNORM EN 934- X X every delivery
ru
and retained sample 2 and Table 4-7
CD
CG Test
(X) (x) Test where required
I)
Test for sprayed concrete for initial lining in tunnelling in accordance with Table 11-1 by a body in accordance
O
X with Item 11.1.1
Plant monitoring: Confirmation of correct third-party monitoring and current report of third-party monitoring

U)

cu
.o

o
in

i"
.Q
E
I—
N

c
o
u
o
0)

t:
cu

ro
c
o
44 Austrian Society for Construction Technology
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

Table 11-4 Test of the constituent materials in the process of the preconstruction and
conformity tests
User of the constituent materials
Evidence to be provided by the Preconst¬ Assessment of conformity
Constituent material and
manufacturer of the constituent ruction
requirement Inspection categories (UEK)
materials test

all UEK

FIBRES
Inspection of delivery ticket, Initial test and plant monitoring11
optical assessment and retained in accordance with X X

sample ÖNORM EN 14889-1 and every delivery


Dimensions of the fibres ÖNORM EN 14889-2 X11 (x2))
Humidity of the polymer fibres X1 (X21)
Principle test according ÖVBB
guideline "enhanced fire resistance
with concrete for underground
Fibre concrete class BBG traffic buildings" and / or ÖVBB (X) (X) -
leaflet "protective layers for
enhanced fire protection for
underground traffic buildings"
Principle test according ÖVBB
Fibre concrete class FS guideline "fibre reinforced (X) - -
concete"
x Test
(x) (x) Test where required
])
Test for sprayed concrete for initial lining in tunnelling in accordance with Table 11-1 by a body in accordance
O
fN with Item 11.1.1
2)
Plant monitoring: Confirmation of correct third-party monitoring and current report of third-party monitoring

E
ru

CD
CG

O
X

fU
in
cu
-Q

rs
o
LO

x"
-Q
E
(J
i—
N

c
o
u
o
0)
(J

t:
cu

jo= Austrian Society for Construction Technology 45


Ob Table 11-5 Test of mix and sprayed concrete from dry mix (TM or ready mix) •q

Carrying out the test Manufacturer of the mix User of the sprayed concrete
Precon- Assessment of conformity Identity
Own Third-party
Test parameters / test level Initial test struction Inspection categories (UEK) verification
monitoring monitoring
test UEK I UEK II UEK III
Mix temperature X X on dispatch X X X
laufend (mind.l x täglich)
Evenness X X continuous X X X

Mean density X - X - X
Mix 2/month every 2 months month month
Humidity of the mix X X X - -
or every or every or every
Grading curve (mix) X X weekly Plant X X X
5,000 nr 2,500 m2 1,250 m2
Mixing ratio - X X continuous inspection (X) (X) (X)
6)
Total water content (x) (X) month 2x X X - daily
annually every 2 months month 2/month nr
x5»
Early strength class X X
every 1000 to,
max. monthly
8)
System 2+
(dry mix
X or every
5,000 m2
or every
2,500 m2
or every
1,250 m2
X

20, 0
Compressive strength at
agreed age
x X
with
additional
X x5'
1/1000 rrfor
1/5,000 m2
1/500 m3or
1/2,500 m2
1/250 m3 or
1/1,250 m2
x9» every
reference concrete without
every 2000 to,
requirement nr
accelerator (in case of
(X) (X) max. every other
BBG
X x5)
1/2000 ni3 or 1/1,000 m3 or 1/500 m3 or
-
100
accelerator (EB) addition system 1)7) 1/10,000 m2 1/5,000 m2 1/2,500 m2 of
only)
Dosage (EB)
Thickness concrete
Sprayed
concrete -
month81
(X) (x) daily (X) excs
in

surface
- X every 500 m2 x9)
thickness
Water impermeability
(X) (X) (X)5) 1X
XC3/XC4 bi-annually8)
X
for
4) 1X every 6 months
Frost resistance XF (X) (X) (X) (X)5»
Module of elasticity 28 d (X) - (X) (X)
-
Eluting behaviour (X) - (X) (X) every 12 months
bond strength (X) (X) biannuallysi (X) (X)5' - 1/2,500 nr - (X)
reduced leaching (X) - (X) - 1X every 6 months 1X
Sulphate resistance XAT (X) (X) (X) - (X)
every 2 years
Solvent attack XAL (X) (X) (X) - (X)

(U
]<J)
"rü
c
o
CD
CL
c"
w
x Test
ST. (x) Test where required
ÿ 2)
Mixing system in accordance with Item 5.1.1 or transport concrete system in accordance with ÖNORM B 4710-1 with microprocessor control
§ For site mixing systems, third-party monitoring can be carried out by a specialist representative of the builder
31
If the user is simultaneously the manufacturer of the mix, no double executions of tests (manufacturer/user) are required
4)
S1 XF1 must be proven in accordance with ÖNORM B 4710-1 on the fresh concrete
O 51 In the event of repairs and free-standing constructions, ÖNORM EN 14487-1, Tab. 12
io 61
applies for sprayed concrete only without requirement for early resistance
cf
o
7)
For repairs, an agreement must be made with the third-party monitoring body in accordance with ÖVBB Guideline Maintenance and repairs of structures made from concrete and reinforced
§ concrete.
8)
Jl Can also be assumed by the conformity test of the user
o
ÿ §• 9)
Can also be carried out by the qualified representative of the builder
o
m o
Psl SQ

CL>
CD
to

_N
:0
I

TO
LO
0)
_Q

f\
O
LD

I*
-Q
E
(J
I—
N

c
o
u
o
<D

l\5
O
V CO
IS) "Nl
"to
c
o
U1
i_
a;
CL
CO Table 11-6 Test of the mix and sprayed concrete from moist mix (FM-L and FM-S)
Carrying out the test Manufacturer of the mix User of the sprayed concrete
Precon- Assessment of conformity Identity
Initial Own Third-party
Test parameters / test level struction Inspection categories (UEK) verification
test monitoring monitoring
test UEK I UEK II UEK III
Mix temperature X X X X X
continuous
Evenness X X X X X
continuous (at least once a day)
Mixing ratio, concrete statistics X - according X - X
daily
Humidity of the aggregates Mix X X ÖNORM B X - -
Grading curve (grain 4710-12' Month or Month or
X X weekly X X every 2 months or (X)
categories) every 2,500 every 1,250
every 5,000 m-
Processing time (FM-L only (X) (X) 2/month (X) (X) m2 m2 (X) m2
Total water content 6) X X

every 2 months or
-
Month or
daily
Month or
(X)
20, 0
Early solidity class X x5»
every 5,000 m2
every 2,500
m2
every 1,250
m2
X9'
ev ry
Compressive strength at agreed
X x5»
1/1,000 m3 or 1/500 m3 or 1/250 m3 or
X
m
age 1/5,000 m2 1/2,500 m2 1/1,250 m2 100
Zero concrete sprayed of
(for FM-L only)
Dosage EB
Sprayed concrete thickness
Sprayed
-
X

-
X

X
daily
every 500 m2
-
X
x9)
excs
in

Water impermeability
XC3/XC4
Frost resistance XF 4)
concrete
X

(X)
x5)

X5»
1x every 6 month
(X)

(X)
surface
for
E-Module 28 d (X) (X) -
Eluting behaviour (X) (X) - every 12 month -
Adhesive tensile strength (X) x5) - 1/2,500 m2 1/1,250 m2 (X)
Reduced leaching behaviour (X) - 1X every 6 month (X)
Sulphate resistance XAT (X) - (X)
Solvent attack XAL (X) - (X)
o
o
<D
51
o
ÿr

o
(U
o
]<J) S3
15
c
o
a>
CL
c"
w
x Test
St (x) Test where required
ÿ !)

2)
Mixing system in accordance with Item 5.1.1 or transport concrete system in accordance with ÖNORM B 4710-1 with microprocessor control
§ For site mixing systems, third-party monitoring can be carried out by a specialist representative of the builder
31
If the user is simultaneously the manufacturer of the mix, no double executions of tests (manufacturer/user) are required
4)
S1 XF1 must be proven in accordance with ÖNORM B 4710-1 on the fresh concrete
O 51 In the event of repairs and free-standing constructions, ÖNORM EN 14487-1, Tab. 12
io 61
applies for sprayed concrete only without requirement for early resistance
5
o
9)
Can also be carried out by the qualified representative of the builder
o

o 51
O
fN 5-
T-1
2
2,
fNl

CL>
CD
to

_N
:0
I

TO
LO
q;
_o

f\
o
LD

x"
-O
E
(J
I—
N

c
o
u
o
CD

l\5
O
V CO
W Co
"to
c
o
IS)
1_
a;
cL
Ol
o Table 11-7 Test of the mix and sprayed concrete from wet mix (WM)
11
Carrying out the test Manufacturer of the mix User of the sprayed concrete
Precon- Assessment of conformity Identity
Initial Own Third-party
Test parameters / test level struction Inspection categories (UEK) verification
test monitoring monitoring
test UEK I UEK II UEK III
Fresh concrete temperature X X continuous X X X

spread X X X X X

Consistency progress X - X -
according
Processing time X X according X - continuous (at least once a day)
ÖNORM B 4710-
Air content, gross density Mix X X ÖNORM B X (X) X
1 2)
Total water content X X 47 10- 1 X (X) X

Mixing ratio, concrete statistics X X X X X


m2
Cube compressive strength
(28d)
X X 1/400 m3 X X 20, 0
Dosage EB
Early strength class
X X - weekly daily
Month or
X ev ry
X x5»
every 2 months Month or every
every 1,250 x9) m2
or every 5,000 m2 2,500 m2
m2 100
of
Compressive strength at agreed
age
Sprayed concrete thickness
X

-
x5)

X
1/1.000 m3 or
1/5.000 m2
1/500 m3 or
1/2,500 m2
every 500 m2
1/250 m3 or
1/1,250 m2
X

x9)
excs
in
Water impermeability
XC3/XC4
Frost resistance XF
4)
Sprayed
concrete
X

(X)
x5)

x5)
1X every 6 month2
(X)

(X)
surface
for
E-Module 28 d (X) (X) -
Eluting behaviour (X) (X) - every 12 month -
Adhesive tensile strength (X) x5) - 1/2,500 m2 1/1,250 m2 (X)
Reduced leaching (X) - (X)
Sulphate resistance XAT (X) - (X)
Solvent attack XAL (X) - (X)
c:
c o
•—»-
o
o o'
o
<D
51
O
ÿr

o
(U
o
]<J) S3
"rü
c
o
CD
CL
c"
w
x Test
St (x) Test where required
ÿ !)

2)
Mixing system in accordance with Item 5.1.3 or transport concrete system in accordance with ÖNORM B 4710-1 with microprocessor control
§ For site mixing systems, third-party monitoring can be carried out by a specialist representative of the builder
31
If the user is simultaneously the manufacturer of the mix, no double executions of tests (manufacturer/user) are required
4)
S1 XF1 must be proven in accordance with ÖNORM B 4710-1 on the fresh concrete
O 51 In the event of repairs and free-standing constructions, ÖNORM EN 14487-1, Tab. 12
io 91
Can also be carried out by the qualified representative of the builder
3
o
o
33

o 51
O
fN 5-
T-1
2
2,
fNl

CL>
CD
to

_N
:0
I

TO
LO
a;
_Q

f\
o
LD

I*
-Q
E
(J
I—
N

c
O
u
o
<D

l\3
O
Ol CO
<S) -4,

"to
c
o
IS)
1_
a;
cL
Ol
l\D Table 11-8 Additional tests fibre reinforced sprayed concrete
11
Carrying out the test Manufacturer of the mix User of the sprayed concrete N)
o
Precon- Assessment of conformity Identity CO
Initial Own Third-party
Test parameters / test level struction Inspection categories (UEK) verification
test monitoring monitoring
test UEK I UEK II UEK III
l/200m3 or 1/100 m3 or
Fibre concrete class BBG

Fibre concrete class BZ


Mix X 1/500 nT
" X X x" at least 1x

Proof of principle test of fibre and fibre content


1/1.000 m2 1/500 m2
(x)
ev ry
m2
Fibre concrete class T (X) (X) (x)
00
1
Fibre concrete class G (x) (X) (X)
of m2
O
fN

n
fM
Fibre concrete class EV
Fibre content hardened
concrete, if fresh concrete is not
(x)

(X)
(X)

(X)
1/2.000 m3 or
1/10.000 m2
1/400 m3 or
1/2.000 m2
1/100 m3 or
1/500 m2
(X)

(X)
excs 20,0
in

CD
CD
ro
practical
Fibre content hardened
concrete, if fresh concrete is not (X) (X) (X)
surface
for
practical
_N
:0 x Test
I
(x) Test where required
!)
If the user is simultaneously the manufacturer of the mix, no double executions of tests (manufacturer/user) are required
2)
In the event of repairs and free-standing constructions, ÖNORM EN 14487-1, Tab. 12
03
LO
CD
_Q

c
CO

0)'
=3
rv 00
o
LD o
o
x"
-Q
CD'
E
(J
I— O
N o
CO

c
5
O
o •—t-
o o'
o
(D

51
O
ÿ3
o
CD
o
\/)
"rö
c
o
CD
CL
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

Table 11-9 Conformity and identity criteria for other properties in relation to the target values
Maximum permissible deviation of
Property Test method individual test results from limits or
tolerances
Moisture of mineral Weighing and drying test or
Smallest agreed value
aggregates (FM-L)+ equivalent method
Spread (AM) ONR 23303 No value outside the specified range
ÖNORMB 4710-1, Individual values +10 1/m3, arithmetic
Total water content
It. 5.4.2 average +0 1/m3 value of the initial test.
Fresh concrete
temperature and mix <+2 ° to the specified maximum value
temperature
According to ÖNORM B
binder content - 10 kg/m3
4710-1, It. 5.4.2
Bulk density ÖNORM EN 459-2 ± 0,05 kg/dm3
Compliance with required J class over
Early strength class Item 12.4
entire period
It. 12.4.4 according ONR XC3 < 50 mm,
XC3/XC4
23303 XC4 < 35 mm
It. 12.4.5 according to ONR
23303 and assessment of the
XF3 < 25% after 56 FTW
waste of the static modulus
of elasticity
Elution behaviour Item 12.5.13 Compliance with the values of Table 3/1
O
(N Reduced leaching Compliance with the contractually
Item 12.5.14
behaviour specified values
Modulus of elasticity Item 12.5.7 ± 15%
E
ru
Bond strength Item 12.5.12 > prescribed limit of class HT
CD
CG ± 1 cm (repairs)
Thickness of sprayed
Item 12.6.4 Compliance with minimum value (tunnel-
concrete layer
O jacking), ± 2 cm or Annex 4 (tunneling)
X
ÖVBB- guideline Single value - 30%,
Fiber content of mix
„Faserbeton" arithmetic average - 10%
(U
in Fiber content ÖVBB- guideline Single value - 30%,
cu of sprayed concrete „Faserbeton" arithmetic average - 10%
_Q

Fiber reinforced ÖVBB- guideline Single value - 25%,


concrete class BZ „Faserbeton" arithmetic mean required minimum value
rs
o
LO Fiber reinforced ÖVBB- guideline Single value - 10%,
x"
-Q
concrete class T „Faserbeton" arithmetic mean required minimum value
E Single value - 30%,
(J Fiber reinforced ÖVBB- guideline
i—
N concrete class G „Faserbeton" arithmetic average - 15%
Fiber reinforced ÖVBB- guideline
c 2 of 3 samples at least the required value
o
u
concrete class EV „Faserbeton"
o
0)
(J Sulfate resistance Item 12.5.8 bzw. 12.2.8.2 to be specified by expert
The minimum number of samples is specified in Table 11/2.
t:
cu

ro
c
o
Austrian Society for Construction Technology 53
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

11.3 Identity testing

The identity verification must be carried out by an accredited testing body. The manufacturer
and user must be informed of the carrying out of an identity verification in good time (at least
one hour before test start).
In the event of a negative result of the identity verification for fresh concrete parameters and
early strength development, a verification of the measurement values, the quality assurance
system and any change to the recipe and production must be made.
In the event of a negative result of the strength class and of special properties, the results of the
conformity test of this property are regarded as not verified within the period until the last
identity verification. Verification of the structure samples (core) for the relevant area must
therefore take place. As the assessment of the sprayed concrete is carried out on the basis of
statically calculated values, randomly distributed cores must be taken from the relevant test
batch. If this also provides no positive verification, an expert planner must assess the effects and
determine the measures required.
11.3.1 Constituent materials
No identity verifications are planned by standard. In special events, identity verifications must be
carried out as required.
11.3.2 Mix
The identity verifications of the mix must be carried out in accordance with Table 11-5 to Table
11-8. In the event of negative results of the mix test, a repeat test must be carried out on the new
batch (this does not apply for the verification of the cube compression strength).
11.3.3 Sprayed concrete
Sprayed concrete of a given strength class is deemed to originate from a compliant total
o
r\i
population, if it meets the two criteria of Table 1 1-10 for "n" results of strength testing of samples
obtained from the defined concrete volume. Sprayed concrete is deemed to originate from a
compliant total population, if the properties specified are met within the permissible maximum
E deviations of Table 11-9.
ro

CU
CQ
Table 11-10 Identity criteria for the results of compressive strength testing on the load-bearing
structure or, if specifically agreed, in test panels
O
X Criterion 1 Criterion 2
Number ,,n" results for Mean value of
Each of the individual test
compressive strength of ,,n" results
fU resultsfd in MPa
in defined concrete volume /cm in MPa
cv
-Q 5-6 > fck + 2 AI CfH A4
1

2-4 IV 7~ + AI CfH A4 ÿ1"


i

1 not applicable AI A4 ÿJ-


i

rs
o
LO
in which: fck .... characteristic compressive strength
x"
-Q
E
(J 11.3.4 Hardening/structural test
I—
N
The hardening test serves to establish the structural strength and the special properties of the
sprayed concrete in the finished structure at a specified point in time. Hardening tests (except for
c
o
u tests of the young sprayed concrete) are performed to establish matters of principle only and do not
o
QJ
(J
form part of the normal conformity testing procedure. For this purpose, tests are to be performed
on young sprayed concrete (see Item 7.3) or on core samples (It. 12.5.1).

t
0)

ro
c
o
54 Austrian Society for Construction Technology
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

11.4 Inspection of mixing and metering equipment at preconstruction testing and inspection

In the course of commissioning, mixing plants have to be inspected by an by an approved body or


a knowledgeable representative of the awarding authority to establish compliance with the
requirements according to It. 5 of this Guideline at the frequency indicated in Table 11-11. The
same applies to metering equipment for liquid and powder accelerators. The results have to be
recorded in an inspection protocol.

Table 11-11 Inspection of mixing and metering equipment


Preconstruction
Mix Type of test Self-inspection
test
Dry mix TM n Inspection of
weighing X monthly during
equipment the first three
Batching months
Mixing Moist mix
accuracy of X of operation,
equipment FM-L and FM-S2)
metering devices subsequently
Wet mix NM Mixing efficiency X every three
Bin3» months
X
(segregation)
Moist mix
FM-L moisture probe X weekly
Wet mix NM
Metering device Maintenance and
Batching
for accelerator - X inspection at least
accuracy
(powder, liquid) once a month
O Metering device Batching
fM all X weekly
for fibers accuracy
1)
Inspections as part of external inspection
2)
E Inspection of other equipment, if any
ru 3)
for dry mix (TM) only
CD
CG

O
X

fU
in
cu
-Q

o
LO

x"
-Q
E
(J
i—
N

c
o
u
o
0)
(J

cu

ro
c
o
Austrian Society for Construction Technology 55
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

12 TESTING PROCEDURES

The testing methods outlined below are laboratory and building-site tests which provide an
indication of the behaviour of spray cement and the interaction of binders and accelerators in
sprayed concrete production.
To ensure due consideration of building-site influences, adjustments have to be made to local
conditions (e.g. temperature, effectiveness of mixing, material flow, type and condition of
substrate). The use of special testing methods, optimised for certain procedures or products, if
necessary may be agreed upon between the parties concerned.

12.1 Constituent materials for sprayed concrete

The constituent materials to be used for sprayed concrete production have to be subjected to a
preconstruction test (see Table 11-1) to establish the properties essential for sprayed concrete
production, well before the beginning of building-site operation.
Also recommended is examination of early strength development and strength development in
laboratory tests according 12.2. This applies, in particular, to binders (cement, spray cement) and
materials to be added (additions, admixtures), possibly also to mineral aggregates and water.
12.1.1 Sampling of sprayed concrete constituent materials
Samples of constituent materials are taken for the verification of material properties. Depending on
individual arrangements, these tests are either carried out continuously for identification tests or at
a later point in time, when necessaiy, on the basis of retained samples with observing limited
storage times depending on product and manufacturers.
Availability of samples in sufficient quantities and of a quality as delivered and/or used for
working has to be ensured. The product-specific regulations in accordance with Table 12-1 for the
sampling must be observed.
O
fM

Table 12-1 Rules for sampling


E
ru
constituent guidelines Minimum quantity of sample after
materials constriction
CD
CG
cement, ÖNORM EN 196-7 5 kg
spray-cement
O
X additives ÖNORM EN 196-7 0,5 kg
admixture ÖNORM EN 934-6 0,5 1
cu aggregates ÖNORM EN 932-1 10 kg of each grain fraction
in
CD
-Q
water ÖNORM EN 1008 51
fibers ÖNORM EN 14889-1, ÖNORM 500 gr. steel fiber
EN 14889-2 und ÖVBB- 300 gr. polymer fiber
rs
o guideline „Faserbeton"
LO

x" Frequency of sampling see Table 11-2 to Table 11-4


-Q
E
(J
I—
N The sampling must be done at site or in concrete plant. The equipment used for sampling and
storage of samples must be clean and dry and, if possible, should serve for no other purpose.
c There should be used clean, dry, and tight-shutting containers. Powders are first filled into
o
U
o
CD
PE bags, which then have to be closed tight without air cushions (shrink-wrapped, if possible) and
(J
stored in sheet-metal or plastic boxes. Containers for liquids shall be filled as completely as
possible.
CD

ro
c
o
56 Austrian Society for Construction Technology
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

All samples have to be labelled as follows (see enclosed specimen sheet "Sample Labelling"):
type and designation of the product
manufacturer (and/or supplier)
delivery day and, if possible, day of manufacturing
quantity delivered
mode of delivery (silo, bag, barrel, etc.)
place and date of sampling
name of person taking the sample
Samples to be retained for later testing are to be stored in a cool, frost-free and dry place. Samples
for subsequent testing on the building site are to be stored until the required sprayed concrete
properties have been demonstrated.
12.1.2 Bleeding of binder pastes
Test to be performed according to ONR 23303, It. 10.4.
12.1.3 Test of the volume stability of sprayed binding agents
The test is carried out on the basis of ÖNORM EN 196-3.
12.1.4 Identity verification of Accellerator (EB)
An identification check of accelerators (EB) is used as verification of the evenness of an EB
chosen on initial test and delivered to the site. It is carried out on request (e.g. fluctuating
accelerators).
To assess the identity verification, the results of the own monitoring with the following parameters
must be presented by the additive manufacturer on initial test and during the deliveries to the site
every 2 months as a minimum:
o pH value (ISO 43 16)
r\i
Density (where applicable bulk density, verification of homogeneity, ISO 758)
Infrared anaalysis (ÖNORM EN 480-6)
E Solid materials content (ÖNORM EN 480-8)
ro

<D Content of A1203 under Item 12.1.7.2


CQ

Content of S03 (on the basis of ÖNORM EN 196-2)


:0
Content of alkali (Na20 equivalent in accordance with ÖNORM EN 480-12)
X
Content of Cf (in accordance with ÖNORM EN 480-10)
Accelerated setting times with a cement agreed before delivery (in accordance with
ro
if)
Item 12.2.1)
CD
.o Compressive strength reduction (with EB) in accordance with Item 12.2.3
Verification of sulphate resistance (where required presentation on preconstruction test) in
accordance with Item 0
o
in 12.1.5 Test of the storage stability of liquid accelerators
x~
.Q Taking of an average sample from accelerator (EB) delivery. Filling of a 1000 ml stand cylinder
E
(J (glass, diameter 50 mm) up to the 1000 ml level, covering the cylinder with plastic film. Storage at
I—
N 20 °C ± 3 °C protected from sun light. Assessment until the time of storage stability guaranteed by
the manufacturer stated: no sedimentation and no flocculation.
c
o 12.1.6 Determination of the alkali content (Na20 equivalent) of sprayed cement and accelerators
u
o
tu
(J 12.1.6.1 Determination of the alkali content (Na20 equivalent) for sprayed binding agents
Test in accordance with ÖNORM EN 196-2
t
QJ

ro
c
o
Austrian Society for Construction Technology 57
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

12.1.6.2 Determination of the alkali content (Na20 equivalent) for accelerators


Test in accordance with ÖNORM EN 480-12
12.1.7 Determination of the content of A1203 of accelerators (EB) and spray cement (SBM)
12.1. 7. 1 Determination of the alkali content (Na20 equivalent) for spray cement
Test in accordance with ÖNORM EN 196-2
12.1.7.2 Content of water-soluble Al203 for accelerators (EB)
The determination is carried out through complex metric titration using titriplex III and
xylenolorange as indicators, as a rule.
Conducting the test:
it
1 ml sample is diluted with double distilled water to 100 ml. This solution is briefly boiled with
50 ml 0.1 m (molar) titriplex III solution and 2 ml 1 n (normal) hydrochloric acid and held over the
boiling water for ten minutes. After cooling down, sodium acetate is used to establish a pH value
of about 5 to 6 and after adding xylenolorange indicator rubber separation with 0.1 m of zinc
sulphate solution titrated to the sharp switch from yellow to red.
Xylenolorange indicator internal rubber: 1g Xylenolorange
Potassium nitrate
99 g
In the same way, a comparison sample is titrated to check the titration solution.
Calculation:
1. (50 - V) x 5.098 = mg [A1203]
V = consumption in ml 0. 1 m zinc sulphate solution

2.
p* 10
%[A12
L z 03\
m
l—i

™ p = density at +20 °C in g/cm3


l-H
l—l
ÿ 12.1.8 Test of the grain size distribution of aggregates
fN

| Test in accordance with ÖNORM EN 933-1


oj
CO
12.1.9 Test of the fibres
Test in accordance with ÖNORM EN 14889-1 (steel fibres) and ÖNORM EN 14889-2 (polymer
o fibres)

12.2 Sample production and tests on constituent materials and combinations of those
JO
N
12.2.1 Laboratory testing of binder/accelerator combinations and spray cement (SBM) for
jj accelerated setting times
ro The testing methods used to assess the acceleration of setting are based on the principle of
ÿ penetration tests. The manual Vicat needle method described below basically serves to test and
o assess the suitability of spray cement and binder/accelerator combinations as regards the
- acceleration of setting.
£ The test report has to contain at least: the chosen method, the used constituent materials and
(J
i_ dosages, chosen w/b -value and initial and final set.
N
.w • Manual testing by means of the Vicat needle apparatus
C
o
u
o
CD

For powder EB, a dissolution in the ratio of 1:1 must be carried out.
t:
CD

jo= 58 Austrian Society for Construction Technology


Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

This method of establishing the setting time of the binder/accelerator combination or the spray
cement is modelled on the test provided for in ÖNORM EN 196-3. At a given water-binder
ratio, the beginning and end of setting are established for a given binder/accelerator
combination or spray cement.
• Instructions for testing
a. Laboratory temperature +20 °C ± 2 °C. Temperature of binder (spray cement) and water:
+20 °C ± 2 °C, in special cases +8 °C + 2 °C.
b. Prepare 250 g binder (spray cement) and water.
w/b- value according to initial test
(Normal values: spray cement: w / b = 0.35
accelerator-binder combinations: w/b = 0.45)
Note: don't use the k-value approach for sample weight and w/b
c. Add liquid accelerator to water, normally at a rate of 3 - 5 wt.% of binder. The moisture
content of the accelerator is counted to the water quantity added.
d. When using powder accelerators, pre-mix thoroughly with binder.
e. Fill the dry components into a conical hard-rubber ring (h = 40 mm, dui = 65 mm,
d0i = 74 mm) placed on a glass or plastic plate and topped with a cylindrical structure (ring)
(h > 62 mm).
f. Form a dent in the binder.
g. Quickly add the liquid components and mix the binder/accelerator paste or spray cement
paste thoroughly within 15 seconds by means of a spatula or, preferably, an automatic
stirring device (see Fig. 12/1) adapted to the shape of the "pot". After mixing, compact the
paste by repeated jolting. Remove the ring and level the paste by means of the spatula. These
operations have to be completed within 25 seconds after the initial addition of water or - in
the case of wet-mix shotcreting - the addition of accelerator. If the binder paste is not easily
o
(N
workable, repeat the trial with a lower dose. The ring is not to be placed in a water bath.
h. Use Vicat needle apparatus to determine the beginning and end of setting. Calculate the
times from the first addition of water. The initial set is defined as the point in time when the
E
ru needle remains stuck in the paste at 3 to 5 mm above the plate (glass or plastic plate); the
CD
CG
final set is defined as the point in time when the needle penetrates no more than 1 mm into
the paste.
Alternatively, the needle method according to ÖNORM EN 934-5 (modelled on ÖNORM EN 480-
O
X 2 with w/b < 0.5 and Vicat needle apparatus 300 g) can be used.
12.2.2 Preparation of samples for the testing of binder/accelerator combinations and spray cement
fU
in 12.2.2.1 Preparation of cylindrical samples from binder paste
CD
.Q
The method is suited for spray cement or binder/accelerator combinations with a setting time
> 15 seconds for tests of early strength. The samples are prepared according to the following
instructions:
rs
o
LO Materials and equipment required:
x"
-Q
E
• metal cylinder with an inner diameter of 60 ± 1 mm, 60 ± mm high (cut up longitudinally). For
(J volume stability testing, a suitable insert for the required height of 10 mm has to be used.
i—
N ring top
base and cover plate
c
o basket stirrer (see Fig. 12/1)
U
o
CD
hand-drill (1200 rev/min)
water tank
CD

ro
c
o
Austrian Society for Construction Technology 59
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

stop watch
weighing device, 0.1 g accuracy
amount of binder used: 320 g
amount of water - depending on the water-cement ratio established for setting between
15 seconds and 3 minutes (water-cement ratio 0.35 - 0.45)
The temperature of the water and the binder must be 20 °C ± 2 °C.

192
60
m in
110

ID

m IS
,sh t
— diameter 2mm

Figure 12-1 Suitable basket stirrers (dimensions in mm)


o
r\i

• Sample preparation:
E
Place the cut cylinder (with top) on the base plate.
to
Pour the binder into the cylinder.
aj
CQ Pour water quickly into the cylinder and start the stop watch.
Use hand-drill with attached basket stirrer to mix the binder with water for 10 seconds by
:0
X
circular and vertical movements.
Remove the cylinder top and press the cover plate onto the cylinder.
Operations 4 to 5 have to be completed within 15 seconds after the start of the stop watch.
if) The glass plate may have to be turned to remove the binder paste from between the plate
tu
.o and the cylinder rim.
Remove the cover and base plates after approx. 10 minutes.
Insert a screwdriver into the longitudinal gap of the mould and tum it to strip the sample.
o
in If the surface of the sample is not smooth, use fine-grained sand (e.g. quartz powder 0 <
x~
ZD
0.16 mm) and water to rework it on a glass plate.
E
(J Keep the sample at an air temperature of 20 ° C ± 2 ° C and a humidity of 90% RH for one
I—
N day after stripping, then store it in a water bath at 20 °C ± 2 °C until testing.

sz
o
u
o
tu
(J

t
QJ

ro
c
o
60 Austrian Society for Construction Technology
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

12.2.2.2 Preparation of samples 4 cm x 4 cm - 16 cm, in analogy to ÖNORM EN 196 - 1, at water-binder


ratio = 0. 75 for tests of compressive strength and loss of strength
Preferably, a water-binder ratio of 0.75 is to be observed. Test mortar (with accelerator) and
reference mortar (without accelerator) must have the same water-binder ratio. If loss of strength
cannot be measured at laboratory, spraying tests have to be done according Item 12.4.2.
• Mortar consisting of binder/accelerator combinations (M) and mortar without accelerator (0)
Temperature (cement, standard sand and water): +20 °C ± 2 °C.
Mixer according to ÖNORM EN 196-1
1350g ISO standard sand (humidity < 0,2 M-%) and 450g binder are homogenized by slow
stir for 3 minutes.
Addition of Accelerator:
o Powder accelerators are added dry, by hand with a spoon during the first 30 seconds of
homogenization.
o Liquid accelerators are mixed to mixing water. Liquid content of accelerator has to be
noted in total quantity of water
Transferring mixture into a rectangular opened hand shovel
Pour 3 15 ml total quantity of water into the dry dish
Transfer the homogenized binder/accelerator mixture into the mixing dish within five
seconds and immediately under slow stir, i.e. without interruption; switch the mortar mixer
to high speed for 15 seconds.
Place the mortar in the 4 cm x 4 cm x 16 cm prism moulds within 30 seconds and compact
well.
Level the mortar in the mould immediately after compacting. This operation has to be
completed before stiffening begins.
Determine the bulk density of the mortar to verily proper compacting (maximum
permissible deviation of prisms prepared with admixtures to them without: ± 3 %).
After storage in a moist atmosphere for one day, the prisms arc stripped and subsequently
E
ru
stored in a water bath at 20 °C ± 2 °C until testing.
1/1
• Mortar made from spray cement
2 - The water-binder ratio depends on the product and has to be specified during
-i—>

-jq preconstruction testing. The samples are produced in analogy to the above procedure, with
ig the quantities being modified in accordance with the water-binder ratio.
12.2.2.3 Production of prisms at low temperatures (compression strength in accordance with
ÖNORM EN934-5, Tab. 2)
fU
if)

CD The production is carried out with reference mortar in accordance with ÖNORM EN 480-1 and in
-Q
accordance with ÖNORM EN 196-1 with the following changes:
w/c < 0.50, fresh mortar temperature 5 °C ± 1 °C, storage temperature 20 °C ± 2°C and accelerator
rs
o
addition shortly before the end of the mixing time.
LO
12.2.3 Laboratory testing of binder/accelerator combinations and spray cement for strength
£ development and loss of strength
(J
I—
N
Strength development and the loss of strength (binder/accelerator combinations) can be established
by means of the test methods described below. The most suitable method has to be chosen on the
c
o
U
o
CD
(J
i) . . ....
A water-binder ratio of 0.75, higher than that provided for in ONORM EN 196 - 1, is due to practical conditions.
Comparative tests have shown that the loss of strength in this laboratory test largely corresponds to that of sprayed
concrete in practice. If sample preparation is not possible, the test can be performed on sprayed concrete.
CD

jo= Austrian Society for Construction Technology 61


Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

basis of the spray cement characteristics and/or the binder/accelerator combination used. A
combination of different methods is possible.
• Laboratory testing for compressive strength development on cylindrical samples according to
It. 12.2.2.1.
The strength development of spray cement as well as binder/accelerator combinations is
established through tests performed on cylindrical samples, 60 mm in diameter, 60 mm high,
prepared and stored in accordance with It. 12.2.2.1.
At least class 2 test presses according to ÖNORM EN ISO 7500-1 are permissible for
compressive strength testing. Class 3 presses are permissible for the measuring range from 1 to
4 kN (determination of one-hour strength). Using a Strain cylinder test machines according
DIN 51302-2 is recommended.
Compressive strength testing is performed on 3 samples each after 1, 6 and 24 hours
(evaluation of spray cement with regard to early strength) and after 28 days. Compressive
strength is expressed as a mean value to an accuracy of 0.1 N/mm2. Individual values deviating
from the mean by more than 15 % are not considered for averaging. At least two useful
samples are required for averaging.
• Laboratory testing for compressive strength development and loss of strength in 4 x 4 x 16 cm
test samples according to It. 12.2.2.2.
Testing for compressive strength is performed after 28 days, or agreed dates.

The loss of strength is calculated on the basis of the mean compressive strength of samples aged
28 days without accelerator (0) and with accelerator (M) according to the following equation:

EB(0)- EB(M)
Loss of strength
& (%)7 x |qq
EB(0)

O
12.2.4 Test of a possible alkali silica reactivity with spray cement or binding agent/accelerator
fN
combination
The aggregates must have a verification in accordance with ÖNORM B 3 100.
E
ru 12.2.5 Testing of mineral aggregate contribution to sprayed concrete strength
CD
CQ If mineral aggregates other than those corresponding to Fl according to ÖNORM EN 12620 are
used, the following concrete without accelerator has to be tested at the age of 28 days:
O
X
• Specified mineral aggregates for sprayed concrete
(aggregate grading line - according to Table 4/4, maximum grain size - depending on
application - between 8 mm and 11 mm, for structural tasks 8 mm).
03
if) • OEM 142.5 R/WT 38/C3A-free, dosage 400 kg/m3
CD
-Q • Water-binder ratio 0.50 ±0.01:
The water-binder ratio is to be chosen within the range specified for C2 concrete consistency
class. If this is not the case or if another consistency is more appropriate for the working
rs
o
LO
method in question (wet-mix shotcreting), this has to be indicated separately.
x"
-Q • Sample preparation and testing according to ONR 23203. Compressive strength is to be
E
(J
indicated as the mean value of 3 cube tests.
I—
N
The compressive strength to be reached by this concrete has to be at least 1.3 times the
strength of the required sprayed concrete strength class.
c
o
Example:
U
o
CD
(J
Reference concretefcm with sprayed concreteformula 46. 0 MPa
Loss of strength due to accelerator, e.g. 20% 9.2 MPa

CD

ro
c
o
62 Austrian Society for Construction Technology
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

36.8 MPa
Influence of compacting 10% 3.7 MPa
Allowance (6 N/mm3) 6.0 MPa
27.1 MPa
requiredflufor SpC 20/25 25. 0 MPa
12.2.6 Testing for early shrinkage cracking
Fibre-reinforced concrete is tested according to the ÖVBB Guideline on fibre-reinforced concrete,
It. 10.4.
12.2.7 Test of class BBG
The test is carried out for fibre concretes in accordance with ÖVBB data sheet Protection layers
for increased fire protection for underground traffic structures, Annex 1 as principle test.
12.2.8 Test of the sulphate resistance of class XAT-C3A-free
12.2.8.1 Determination of the sulphate resistance via basic materials
The sulphate resistance of the sprayed concrete can be regarded as given if it is produced in
accordance with SpC II with XC4 (with maximum penetration depth of 35 mm) and the basic
materials meet the following requirements:
Spray cement C3A of the SBM (ÖNORM EN 196-2) < 1 M-% as per Bogue
SO 3 (ÖNORM EN 196-2) <4.8 M-%
A1203 (ÖNORM EN 196-2) < 4 M-%
Cement C3A of the clinker (ÖNORM EN 196-2) 0 M-% as per Bogue
C3A of the cement (ÖNORM EN 196-2) < 1 M-% as per Bogue
Ln Accelerator (EB) Sulphate content as S03 on the basis of ÖNORM EN 196-2 < 4.8 M-% in
° total with the cement or SBM used
A1203 (water soluble) in accordance with Item 12.1.7.2 in M-% times
<n accelerator dosage (in relation to binding agent) <115 M-%
E
™ 12.2.8.2 Test of the sulphate resistance on the sprayed concrete or on binding agent lime samples
CD
to There is currently no standard test procedure for the assessment of the sulphate resistance of
T sprayed concrete on cores or separately produced sample bodies.
N

£ If such tests are necessary in individual cases, the test


P can be carried out
n »on binding agent lime samples or sprayed concrete cores in accordance with the ÖVBB
m guideline Sprayed concrete, part 2, issue June 1991, Item 5,
aj

»on core samples in accordance with OVBB guideline Sprayed concrete, issue 2004,
™ Item 12.4.7.2. However, there are no thresholds for this procedure.

o 12.3 Mix, base concrete (without accelerator)


in

i" 12.3.1 Taking of mix samples


JD
E
ÿ The taking of samples of the dry mix (TM) is used to verify the material properties. Depending on
N the agreement, these tests must be carried out as identification tests or at a later time, where
3 required, with retained samples, while the limited storage times must be observed depending on
o product and manufacturer. The sample taking must be carried out in accordance with
g ÖNORM EN 1504-8 with a minimum sample quantity of 20 kg.
u>
L The sample taking must be carried out at the building site. For sample taking and filling, use only
ÿ
clean, dry devices, which are used for this purpose only, inasmuch possible.
V
\n

| Austrian Society for Construction Technology 63


Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

The mix must be filled into air-tight plastic containers. The sample labelling and storage must be
carried out in accordance with Item 12.1.1.
The sample taking of wet mix is carried out in accordance with ÖNORM EN 12350-1.
12.3.2 Test of the dry mix (DM)
The evenness of the dry and wet mix is assessed optically. In doing so, ensure an even distribution
of the coarse grain. The assessment must be carried out in relation to the grain distribution at the
levels of "too fine" and "too coarse".
To assess the evenness of the dry mix (e.g. premixed mix), the following parameters can be used
additionally:
• Mean density ( ÖNORM EN 1097-3, better ÖNORM EN 459-2)
• Grain composition up to 0.125 mm complete, with wet grading on the basis of
ÖNORM EN 933-1 . As rinsing liquid, spirit must be used in the washing out process.
• Binding agent in the dry mix
For the determination, a clarification on the procedure used is required (e.g. chemical
determination via trace elements).
The binding agent content can be determined as a maximum at ± 10 kg/to of TM

12.3.3 Assessment of workability time of moist mix (FM)


The workability time of moist mix depends on the cement grade, the temperature and the natural
moisture of the mineral aggregates. To assess the workability time, the temperature development
of a moist mixture is measured in analogy to ONR 23303, It.7.9 (Figure 12-2). Test has to be
performed on actually occurring moisture in moist mix.

O Evaluation:
fN
The time elapsed between the preparation of the moist mix and the point in time by which the
temperature has risen by +2 °C over the initial temperature provides the basis for the assessment of
E workability time. At any rate, the permissible workability time is limited to a maximum of 3 hours.
n3
Building-site influences (temperature, natural moisture of mineral aggregates, cement temperature)
m have to considered when assessing the actual workability time.

O
X

03
in
CD
-Q

Ds
O
LO

x"
-Q
E
(J
I—
N

c
o
U
o
CD
(J

CD

jo= 64 Austrian Society for Construction Technology


Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

cement 1

cement 2

u
a. 22

1.0 3.0 [h]


maximum
processing time time after production
cement 1
S- E=>-|
maximum processing time cement 2

Figure 12-2 Assessment of workability time of moist mix

12.3.4 Test of the fresh concrete parameters of wet mix


The test of the fresh concrete parameters (fresh concrete bulk density, spread, air content, w/b
o
r\i value and fresh concrete temperature) is carried out in accordance with ONR 23303, Item 7, the
sample taking in accordance with EN 14488-1 (corresponds to ONR 23303, Item 4 or ÖNORM
EN 12350-1).
E
ro
12.3.4.1 Testing of extended workability time when using hydration control admixture
<D
CQ
For hydration control admixture a proof according to EN 934-5 in accordance with ÖNORM EN
12350-5 is needed.
:0
X
The extended workability time (VV) of wet mix is to be determined in terms of maintenance of
consistency 15 minutes before the end of working according to ÖNORM 3303ONR 23303, It.
7.2/EN 12350-5 on the basis of spread table test. If not different agreed test has to be carried out at
ro
if)
27 ± 2 ° C.
CD
.o 12.3.5 Fiber content of mix
The fibre content can be determined in accordance with ÖVBB guideline fibre reinforced concrete,
r-- Item 10.3. The fibre content must be stated with a detail of 0,1 M-%.
o
in
12.3.6 Mixing ratio
x~
ÿQ

E The mixing ratio is controlled via the evaluation of the concrete statistics or the batch records. The
(J
I— evaluation must be carried out such that min, max, average value and standard deviation of the dry
N
aggregates, the total water content and the further constitutive materials, furthermore mixing time,
number of faulty batches (manual switching) per concrete type for a selectable period of time (e.g.
c
o
u day, week or month) are visible. The access to further batch records per delivery ticket number
o
tu
(J
must be possible for up to 3 years after production.

t
QJ

ro
c
o
Austrian Society for Construction Technology 65
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

12.3.7 Basic mix - compressive strength on cubes


The cube compression strength of the casted wet mix at the age of 28 days (unless another specific
time was agreed) is verified as with normal concrete in accordance with ONR 23303, Item 8.2.

12.4 Testing of young sprayed concrete (early strength class)

Depending on the measuring range, procedures (see Figure 12-3) according to Item 12.4.1 and
12.4.2 can be used for strength testing [12].

100
S
|20
Z
10
on
13 5
«J

2
o
> 1 A) Penetration needle methode
tri
Needle d = 3mm
0,5 B) Bolt-setting method
a.
Ö
0,2 Hilti DX 450L (green cartridge)
o
0,1 C) Drill Core

Figure 12-3 Standard method for examination of young shotcrete


o 12.4.1 Penetration needle method (measuring range 0 to 1.0 MPa)
r\i

This method is used to measure the force required for a needle of specified dimensions (different
from ÖNORM EN14488-2) to penetrate into sprayed concrete to a depth of 15 mm ± 3 mm. A
E
ro
Proctor penetrometer 1 according to ASTM C 403-08 with a measuring range of at least 700 N is
used for this purpose. The device indicates the resisting force through compression of a calibrated
<D
CQ spring [12]. Alternatively penetrometer with electronic power absorption can be used.
Description of equipment and test procedure:
:0
X a) Needle with a diameter of 3 mm and a tip with a taper angle of 60° ± 5° for compressive
strength determination up to 1.0 N/mirf.
The procedure has been calibrated for commonly used sprayed concrete, at Austrian tunnelling
ro
if) with maximum aggregate size of 8 mm resp. 11 mm, at grades according to this Guideline (see
CD
n Fig. 12/4). Also identical calibration curves of Annex A of ÖNORM EN 14488-2 with the y-
axis division of a particular manufacturer can be used.
In case of deviations, special calibration curves have to be established as follows:
o b) Instructionsfor testing and evaluation (Annex 2, Sheets 1):
in

x~
JD
Apply device and impress to a depth of 15 mm in one go.
E
(J Read scale and record resisting force.
I—
N Perform at least 10 individual tests for each test sequence - take care not to impress the
needle on a large aggregate grain.
c
o
u
Record testing time and location.
o
tu
(J

) List of suppliers available from ÖVBB


t
(U

ro
c
o
66 Austrian Society for Construction Technology
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

Use the average of the measurements performed according to b) to derive the cube compressive
strength from the calibration curve (Figure 12-4). Extrapolations are not permissible.

INI
700

600

I
-;n
u
500
I-.
S 400
G range of results-
I
300

a 200

—_ —
~CO

0
0.2

-i—!—1—i. LL
0.4 0j6 OjÖ 10
4
\2
I I L.
W U6 [N/rrm2]
compressive strength of sprayed concrete
Figure 12-4 Calibration curve for penetration needle device

c) Calibration
In the event of deviating maximum grain size, non-calcite or dolomite petrography as well as
recipes deviating from the suggestions of this directive, a project-specific regression curve is
required.
Non-accelerated sprayed concrete base mixes are used for the calibration, for the recipe of
which the rebound losses are taken into account (higher binding agent content, finer grading
curve). The mix is placed into the test moulds, compacted and stored protected from
evaporation. On cubes (or cylinder samples) the compression strengths are detennined after
certain periods in accordance with the valid regulations (for the calibration (Fig. 12/4)
sample cubes of 20 cm x 20 cm x 20 cm and plates 30 cm x 30 cm x 10 cm were produced).
Removal of the specimen formwork is done shortly before the test. To this end, suitable test
machines must be used for this low load area. At separately produced plates with
approximately the same volume but a thickness of 10 cm, the tests are carried out with the
penetration procedure in accordance with the relevant test regulation. The temperature
development in the cubes and plates should correspond inasmuch possible in order to test the
samples at the same hydration level, possibly at the same maturity number. The plates
remain in the form during the test and must be supported firmly. The test must be carried out
promptly with the reference cube tests. With the results of both tests, the linear regression
calculation of a calibration graph is created. The correlation coefficient should be R > 0.85.
Extrapolations via the curve are not permissible.
12.4.2 Stud-driving method
— 12.4.2.1 Measuring range 2 to 16 N/mm2 [13]
(/)

o Threaded stud-bolts are driven into the concrete and the depth of penetration is detennined.
S Subsequently the studs are pulled out from the concrete with measurement of the pullout force.
L
The ratio of pull-out force to penetration depth is the parameter used to detennine the compressive
2 strength. The powder-actuated tool needs to to drive the studs with defined constant energy at

j=
O
Austrian Society for Construction Technology 67
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

least 20 mm into the young concrete. E.g. a HILTI DX 450-SCT (same as L) piston tool
equipment unit with green cartridges is used to drive the stud-bolts into the concrete (see Annex 3,
Sheets 1 and 2). Setting power of this equipment is E = 96 ± 8 Joule with L140 piston guide and
pin diameter 3.7 mm.
The pull-out force (maximum force) is determined by means of a pull-out device (e.g. Hilti Tester
4 (note calibration of this device) or Hilti Mark 5 with a precision in accordance with ÖNORM EN
14488-2 of < 5%). The procedure has been calibrated for commonly used sprayed concrete in
tunnel grades (Fig. 12 / 5, for maximum aggregate size of 16 mm and for Diabase in ÖNORM EN
14488-2). In case of deviations - particularly as regards Mohs' hardness of aggregates - calibration
has to be performed according to It. 12.4.I.e.

calibration curve I®U DX450"L"= Atting "1"


green cartridge
wy GK S5 GK 11
Extractor: fflLTI
g,
i-j
V = l£9x-2J
R- 0.95

O
fM
\ > -t i I i—i—t—V
i
I
«>
F Ii i 1—t-
15
—I—2«1
-i

cube compressive strength [X-'mm2)


E Figure 12-5 Calibration curve for stud-driving method - measuring range 2 N/mm2 to
ru

QJ
16 N/mm2, HILTI unit. Also calibration curves of Annex B of ÖNORM EN 14488-

2 can be used.
Instructions for testing and evaluation (Annex 3 and ÖNORM EN 14488-2, It. 5.2)
O
X Taking note of the safety rules for the setting device.
Load threaded stud and set the unit to power setting position 1, Annex 3, Sheet 1.
fU
Apply the unit and drive the studs into the concrete, 10 individual tests for each test sequence
in
QJ
with > 80 mm distance from each other and >100 mm to edge.
-Q
Measure and record the standoffs of stud-bolts above the concrete surface.
Determine penetration depth, minimum penetration depth 20 mm.
rs Fasten threaded button and pull out the stud-bolts in the same order as driven. Apply load
o
LO

x"
centrically with the stud.
-Q
E Record pull-out force, time and place of testing, correct force by means of calibration curve.
(J
i— Determine the ratio of pull-out force (P) to penetration depth (L).
N
Establish individual P/L values.
c
o
Read cube compressive strength on the basis of the mean P/L derived from the calibration
u
o
aj
curve according to Fig. 12/5. Extrapolations are not permissible.
(J

t:
QJ

ro
c
o
68 Austrian Society for Construction Technology
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

The procedure can be used for measurements at any location without advance preparations.
Hence, the method is well suited for quality control measurements. With measuring points
distributed over larger surfaces, fluctuations in concrete strength can be detected.
12.4.2.2 Other measurement ranges
The measurement range of 1 to 8 N/mm2 is set out in the ÖVBB directive Sprayed concrete, issue
1998, the measurement range of 17 to 56 N/mm2 in the issue 2004.

12.5 Testing of sprayed concrete

12.5.1 Dimensions of test specimens and storage conditions


Cores of suitable dimensions (see Table 12-2) obtained either from placed sprayed concrete
(sampling areas, structure) or from test panels are used as test specimens for sprayed concrete
testing. Preference should be given to samples from placed sprayed concrete. Cores as part of
conformity tests must be taken out of the areas that have no system-related local faulty positions or
inhomogeneities. For the determination of the bending tensile strength, beams must be cut from
sprayed panels; for the determination of the energy absorption capacity, panels must be sprayed.
The tolerances must in accordance with ONR 23303, It. 6.2.

Table 12-2 Sample dimensions and storage conditions


Core sa mples
Storage conditions
Diameter Height
Compressive strength 100 mm 100 mm"
Tensile splitting strength 100 mm 50 mm
Water storage according
Water impermeability 150 mm min. 120 mm
ÖNORM EN 12390-2
Frost resistance 100 mm 250 mm
Storage in water after drilling
Modulus of elasticity 100 mm 250 mm
O
fM
until testing
Bond strength /Adhesive
50 mm 100 mm
tensile strength
Dry storage after drilling
E Leaching 50 mm 100 mm
ru until testing
CD Reduced leaching To pack in plastic film after
CG 50 mm 100 mm
behaviour (RV) drilling 2)
O
Prisms
X
Sulfate resistance According test regulatin
Fibre-reinforced concrete 150 x 150 x 500 mm beams
Storage in water according
fU class T or TG (125 x 75 x 500 mm beams)
in ÖNORM EN 12390-2
cu Fibre-reinforced concrete
-Q
600 x 600 x 100 mm panel
class EV
11
200 mm if compressive strength result is compared with cylinder compression strength (Item 7.4)
2)
r» the core taking must start 7 days before starting the test
o
LO

x"
-Q
E Depending on the method of preparation and storage, the cores can be used for preconstruction,
(J
conformity, identity or hardening tests.
I—
N
Samples taken from placed sprayed concrete with steel reinforcements may be unsuitable for
testing (e.g. too high a percentage of reinforcing mesh, shading). Therefore, samples should be
c
o
u
taken from different locations in the testing lot.
o
QJ
(J For sprayed concrete testing, sprayed concrete is produced in firmly secured panels in analogy to
ÖNORM EN 14488-1 (ca. 50 cm x 50 cm, 15-20 cm deep, open at the side facing downward).

CU

ro
c
o
Austrian Society for Construction Technology 69
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

Cores can be taken from these panels, though not from near the bottom edge (rebound), provided
the strength of the concrete is sufficient for core drilling (at least 10 N/mm2). Prior to sampling, the
panels should remain undisturbed in a humid atmosphere at a temperature of between +5°C and
+25°C. Panels have not to be moved for a period of 18 hours, or until evidence of a compressive
strength of at least 2.0 N / mm2.
Test cores from separately prepared specimens (sprayed panels) for preconstruction and
conformity testing have to be drilled not later than 5 days after shotcreting. Cores have to be
drilled in time and as close to the intended time of testing as possible. As a rule, the direction of
drilling is the same as the direction of spraying.
Cores from the building can be also taken at a later date.
Testing for water impermeability (XC3/XC4) and frost resistance (XF3) is performed after 56
days.
12.5.2 Testing for compressive strength
Compressive strength testing is performed according to ONR 23303, It. 8.2. Contrary to the
provisions of the standard, five samples have to be tested and combined into a single result. For
sprayed concrete testing, individual values deviating from the mean by more than 20 % are not
considered for averaging. At least three useful samples are required for averaging.
In the case of sprayed concrete (sprayed mortar) with a maximum grain size of < 4 mm, cores with
a diameter of 50 mm can also be used.
Density of hardened concrete has to be determined according to EN 12390-7.
12.5.3 Testing of reference sprayed concrete (sprayed concrete without accelerator)
The sprayed basic mix without accelerator is sprayed into test panels by means of the installed
shotcreting equipment with the amount of water used for sprayed concrete production. Production
of test panels, sampling and compressive strength testing according to Item 12.5.1 and 12.5.2.
O
(N
The compressive strength determined at agreed age serves as:
• baseline value for the determination of the loss of strength due to the use of accelerators:
EB(°)~EB(M)
E Loss of strength
& (%)
v : x 10o
EB(0)

L_
EB (0) = compressive strength of sprayed concrete without accelerator
H EB (M) = compressive strength of sprayed concrete with accelerator
x • evidence of the correct mix design of the concrete without accelerator.
21 If the user and the manufacturer are not identical, testing of the reference sprayed concrete is
n obligatory.
fU
f To simplify subsequent conformity testing of wet basic mix, the compressive strength of sprayed
concrete without accelerator tested on drilled cores can be compared with the cube compressive
CO
rö strength of the wet basic mix. The cubes are to be produced according to ONR 23303 It. 6.
This test is recommended, in particular, if moist mix is supplied from a ready-mix plant. In
addition, the overall amount of water needs to be determined, e.g. through kiln-drying.
The strength of reference sprayed concrete established in the conformity test must at least be equal
to the required strength class plus the accelerator-related loss of strength.
n A comparison of sprayed concrete made with spray cement or pre-mixed dry mix with reference
3 sprayed concrete is not possible.
c
o
u
o
0)

t:
cu

j=
O
70 Austrian Society for Construction Technology
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

12.5.4 Testing for tensile splitting strength


Testing for tensile splitting strength is performed on cores according to ONR 23303, It. 8.4. Five
core samples have to be taken. Samples with obvious spraying defects have to be excluded. At
least three samples must be subjected to testing.
12.5.5 Testing for high resistance to water penetration (XC3; XC4)
Testing for high resistance to water penetration is performed according to ONR23303, It. 8.8.. Five
core samples have to be taken. Samples with obvious spraying defects have to be excluded. At
least three samples must be subjected to testing.
12.5.6 T esting for frost resistance
Fife cores, stored under the conditions specified in ONR 23303, It. 8.10, are tested for frost
resistance. Samples with obvious spraying defects have to be excluded. At least three samples
must be subjected to testing. Prior to frost storage and after 25 and 56 freeze-thaw cycles, the
modulus of elasticity is determined according to ONR 23303, It. 8.7, under the following
conditions other than those specified in the standard: au=0.5MPa, ct0 at 0.2 ± 0.03 %o
compressive strain. The drop in modulus is expressed in whole percentage points.
12.5.7 Testing for modulus of elasticity
Testing for modulus of elasticity is performed according to ONR23303, It. 8.7. Five core samples
have to be taken. Samples with obvious spraying defects have to be excluded. At least three
samples must be subjected to testing.
For sprayed concrete (sprayed mortar for repairs) with a maximum grain size < 4 mm, the test
according ÖVBB - guideline "Conservation and restoration of buildings made of concrete and
reinforced concrete" has to take place (ÖNORM EN 13 412).
12.5.8 Testing for sulfate resistance class XTA-C3A-free
S
rsi
Determination of sulfate resistance based on the constituent materials see Item 0.
12.5.9 Determination of equivalent flexural strength and toughness of sprayed fibre concrete
£ The special properties of fibre-reinforced sprayed concrete - high impact resistance, increased
n3
energy absorption capacity - are characterised through their performance in the bending test, in
particular after the maximum flexural strength has been exceeded.
The test is performed on sprayed bending beams according ÖVBB guideline "fiber reinforced
;§ concrete" for construction elements thicker than 7.5 cm, for bending beams with components < 7.5
X
cm according to EN 14488-3 or for panels in accordance with ÖNORM EN 14488-5.
12.5.9.1 First crack behaviour - bending tensile strength classes BZ (ÖVBB Guideline Fibre reinforced
concrete)
CD
-Q The determination of the bending strength is carried out in accordance with the ÖVBB Guideline
Fibre-reinforced concrete, Item 10.6
rs 12.5.9.2 Post crack behaviour — fibre-reinforced concrete classes T and G (ÖVBB guideline Fibre-
o
LO
reinforced concrete)
x"
-Q
E
The bending tensile strength is not a matter constant, but linked to the framework conditions of the
f basic test. The ÖVBB - guideline Fibre-reinforced concrete sets out under Item 10.5 a test on the
N bending beam, which fulfils the requirements in practical application for layer thicknesses around
15 cm and a relatively simple test conducting.
c
o 12.5.9.3 Post crack behaviour - residual tensile strength classes D and S (ÖNORMEN 14487-1)
o
CD
To determine the residual tensile strength classes (for components of a thickness of up to 7.5 cm),
°
o 6 beams are tested in accordance with ÖNORM EN 14488-3.
t
CD
\n

j= Austrian Society for Construction Technology 71


Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

With the residual strengthfrI, fr2, andfr} the assignment to the residual strength classes is carried
out for the deformation range D1 to D3 and the strength level SI to S4 in accordance with Table 2
of ÖNORM EN 14487-1. (explanations in Annex A to ÖNORM EN 14487-1)
As such, an assignment to the classes in Section 7.5.7.3 can be earned out.
12.5. 9. 4 Post crack behaviour - energy absorption capacity (ÖNORM EN 14487-5)
The determination of the energy absorption capacity must be determined in the panel test in
accordance with ÖNORM EN 14488-5 on 3 panels. The energy absorption capacity, which
corresponds to the area below the load bending curve in the area of bending 0 to 25 mm, must be
stated in J. In deviation from this, the test for the tunnel construction is carried out with a sample
age of 7 days. The class breakdown is carried out in accordance with Table 12-3.

Table 12-3 Energy absorption classes for tunnel driving work


Class Energy absorption [J] in the sample age of 7 days
EV500 500 - 700
EV700 701 - 1000
EVI000 >1000

12.5.10 Test of the fibre content


12.5.10.1 Fibre content ofsteelfibre-reinforced sprayed concrete
The fibre content in the sprayed concrete is established in accordance with ÖNORM EN 14488-7.
It is possible to take samples from the freshly applied sprayed concrete or cores. The fibre content
must be stated with a detail of 0,1 M-%.

O
12.5.10.2 Fibre content on the plasticfibre-reinforced sprayed concrete
fN
The fibre content in the sprayed concrete and in the sprayed concrete as a protection layer is
established in accordance with the ÖVBB guideline Fibre-reinforced concrete Item 10.3.2, Item
E
ru
10.3.3 or Item 10.3.4.2. It is possible to take samples from the freshly applied sprayed concrete or
cores. The fibre content must be stated with a detail of 0,1 M-%.
QJ
CQ
12.5.11 Test of increased fire resistance

O
For sprayed concrete and sprayed concrete as a protection layer, the ÖVBB bulletin Protective
X
layers for increased fire protection for underground traffic structures applies as the principle test
for verification of fire resistance BBG.
03
For verification of fire resistance as part of the conformity or identity test (Table 11-8), the fibre
in
content in the mix in accordance with Item 12.3.5 and in the sprayed concrete in accordance with
QJ
-Q
Item 12.5.10.2 must be tested. The permissible thresholds can be found in the ÖVBB guideline
Fibre-reinforced concrete Item 11.2.1 (conformity test) or 11.3 (identity test).
rs
o
12.5.12 Testing for tensile adhesive strength and bond strength
LO

x" Testing for bond strength is performed according to ÖNORM EN 1542 for layers of newly placed
-Q
E sprayed concrete of up to 50 mm in thickness, and according to ÖNORM EN 14488-4 for layers
(J
I—
more of than 50 mm in thickness. The quality of the substrate prior to placing of sprayed concrete
N
can be assessed on the basis of its adhesive strength according to ONR 23303, It. 8.5.

c 12.5.13 Leaching of sprayed concrete


o
g Leaching tests of sprayed concrete is to be performed on cores aged 28 days, 50 mm in diameter
u
and 100 mm high [1, 2, 3]. The cores have to be obtained from sprayed concrete aged 7 to 14 days
O
u—

0)
\n

g 72 Austrian Society for Construction Technology


Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

through wet drilling. The cores thus obtained are to be stored dry and at room temperature until
testing.
The test specimen is to be placed in a leaching vessel and eluted in a leaching agent, which is
continuously agitated by a magnetic stirrer (rate of agitation = 200 to 300 rev/min), for 24 hours.
The eluant used is de-ionised water, the mass ratio of test specimen to eluant being 1:10, with the
test specimen completely wetted. The leachate is to be examined for the following parameters: pH
value, electric conductivity, calcium, potassium, sodium and aluminium.
12.5.14 Reduced leaching behaviour (RV)
Remark: See more detailed description in the ÖBV Bulletin „Festlegung des Reduzierten
Versinterungspotentials July 2012
For the leaching test, 2 cores with a diameter of 50 mm must be taken from sprayed panels
produced at an age of 49 days. The cores must then be sealed in plastic bags and stored. The test
body dimensions are 50 mm in diameter, 100 mm in sample height.
Test start at the age of 56 days.
The leaching tests are carried out at an E/F ratio of 4.0.
• E ... leaching agent quantity in kg - eluant (deionised water)
• F ... solid material mass core sprayed concrete in kg
The leaching in enclosed containers (prevention of carbonation of the dissolved calcium
hydroxide) is carried out in 3 intervals (cycles). For every interval, a fresh leaching agent must be
used. The leaching attempts take place at a temperature of 20 °C ± 2 °C:
• 1st cycle: 24 h storage
• 2nd cycle: 48 h storeage
• 3rd cycle: 5 d storeage
After ending every leaching interval, the eluate must be poured in such a way that any sediment
O
fM remains in the leaching container (permissible remaining water quantity maximum 100 ml).
The poured out eluate must be acidified with concentrated hydrochloric acid to a pH value of 3 to
In 4. In acidified eluate, the calcium concentration is carried out.
m The following parameters must be proven in the eluate:
LT)
ÿ

(U
• pH value (non-acidified eluate)
E • electric conductivity (non-acidified eluate) in mS/cm
o
X
• dissolved calcium (Ca2+) on the acidified eluate in mg/1
As a result, the sum of calcium release from the 3 leaching intervals must be stated in kg/t SpC
(sum of the leaching in mg/1 x 4 litres / 1000).
03
in
12.6 Checks to be performed during sprayed concrete production
cv
-Q

12.6.1 Verification of dosages of powder and liquid accelerator and spray cement
The dosage of the accelerator and/or the spray cement has a decisive influence on the early and
g final strength of the sprayed concrete. Compliance with the dosages determined through
E preconstruction testing has to be verified continuously during shotcreting and is to be compared to
determine total consumption. Regular maintenance of the metering equipment has to be performed
_E and recorded in a protocol. In addition, the spraying output has to be determined according to
N
It. 12.6.2.
c
o
• Inspection of the metering equipment for powder accelerators
Basically, the correct dosages are verified through weighing. Attention has to be paid to
continuous, steady conveyance and, possibly, wear and tear of the metering equipment. Bridge
i_
O
4—

0)
<S)

g Austrian Society for Construction Technology 73


Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

formation in the storage bin and strong fluctuations of filling levels are to be avoided. The
calibration intervals according to Table 11-11 have to be observed.
• Inspection of metering equipment for liquid accelerators
Dosage accuracy is checked through weighing of the accelerator bin before and after
shotcreting. If a flow meter is connected, accelerator consumption can be recorded
continuously over time. The values set at the metering pump have to be checked each time
before shotcreting is begun. The calibration intervals according to Table 11-11 have to be
observed.
• Inspection of metering equipment for spray cement SBM-FT (continuous mixing)
Calibration of dosages is performed through back-weighing over defined time intervals. Speed
and/or weighing protocols are kept to supplement the calibration test. The calibration intervals
according to Table 11-11 have to be observed.
• Inspection of metering equipment for mineral aggregates (continuous mixing)
A high degree of measuring accuracy is also required for moist mineral aggregates. Metering
can be gravity-based or volume-based. In the case of volume-based metering, possible changes
in bulk volume due to different degrees of aggregate moisture should be taken into
consideration. Hence, calibration is absolutely necessary. Any change of conditions requires
renewed determination of the moisture content. Back-weighing at regular intervals is to be
performed according to Table 11-11.
12.6.2 Determination of spraying output and rebound
Before the test is carried out, the spraying output needs to be accurately established, as it affects
the accuracy of rebound determination. The quantity of rebound is to be determined separately.
• Determination of spraying output
The total amount of sprayed concrete discharged from the nozzle during a certain period of
time (spraying time) is determined through weighing.
O
fM
0 • , ,
/i /i x maSSshotcrete [kol
Spraying output (kg/h) =-
<3 spraying time [h]

ro It is also possible to spray a weighed amount of mix and to record the time taken for spraying.
cu The amount of water consumed at the nozzle has to be added to the mass of the mix.
CQ

• Determination of rebound
O
A time-consuming, but accurate method consists in collecting the rebound on a tarp spread out
X
before shotcreting, storing it in a suitable container and weighing it. If the spraying time and
the rebound mass (converted into kg/h) are known, the percentage of rebound relative to the
initial mass can be calculated as follows:
03
Lfi
ro/.i - Massrebound [kg / h]
sprayingoutput [kg / h]

For rebound measurements to be performed on a laboratory scale, sprayed concrete is applied


to wooden formwork prepared with a layer of sealing sprayed concrete (size of formwork
depending on weighing unit); the rebound is collected on a tarp and weighed. The concrete
mass is calculated by deducting the formwork mass from the (sprayed concrete + formwork)
ÿ mass. The rebound is obtained as
N
±d MaSS rebouml\ J\ 2 1
= Rebound [%] = - x 100
c
o MaSSsholcrete[kg\ + mOSSreboimd [kg\
u
o
tu
(J

t
QJ

j=
O
74 Austrian Society for Construction Technology
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

• Process parameters
The following factors have to be considered for rebound determination:
spraying output
process technology
conveying pressure
spraying angle and distance from substrate
sprayed concrete thickness
mix temperature
spraying time
water discharge and pressure at the nozzle
water-binder ratio
spraying nozzle cross section
location of substrate (benches, roof, entire round)
building-site or laboratory measurement
12.6.3 Measurement of fine dust concentration
Gravity-based dust measuring devices as well as light-scattering instruments are best suited to
determine the concentration of fine dust. For practical purposes, a simple and safe method
(preferably ÿith direct display of results without time lag) is recommended. Light-scattering
instruments meet these requirements. Conversion of the values displayed into fine-dust
concentrations obtained by gravity-based methods (e.g. PM 4F, VC 25, PAS, etc.) is possible by
approximation through c/lreadingTM = 1.1 for sprayed concrete and 1.5 for other activities (especially
in the case of a diesel-fuelled vehicle fleet). (Accurate measurements by the Austrian Dust Control
Body [4, 5]).
12.6.4 Sprayed concrete thickness
The sprayed concrete thickness is defined by the average thickness for each structural component.
E
The sprayed concrete thickness, so not different agreed, has to be determined each over 500 m2 (at
™ defined randomly distributed points) either during shotcreting on defined structural components or
through drilling according ÖNORM 14488-6.
The agreed minimum thickness tested according ÖNORM EN 14488-6, It. 4.1 may be undershoot
in one of the 5 holes by 10 %.

if)

CD
.o

o
in

i"
JD
E
(J
I—
N

c
o
u
o
tu
(J

i)
List of suppliers available from OVBB
t
QJ

j=
o
Austrian Society for Construction Technology 75
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

13 QUALITY MANAGEMENT
Quality Management scheme for sprayed concrete production
Over and above the general, site-specific quality-management schedule, the following measures,
as listed in Table 13-1 and Table 13-2, are provided for sprayed concrete production in the course
of production control. (ÖNORM EN 14487-1, It. 7.4 Production Control, ÖNORM EN 14487-2,
It. 11 Monitoring)

Table 13-1 Quality management prior to the execution of sprayed concrete production
QM measures before shotcreting
Activity Relevant documentation
Establish requirements to be met by sprayed
Confonnity according to contract
concrete
Determine spraying method and type of mix see Table 5/1
Constituent material and preconstruction
see Tables 11/1/1 and 11/1/2
testing
Organisation chart - mailing list for documents
and records
Decide on responsibility for execution
Agreement on division of responsibilities
between producer and user
Maintenance Establish maintenance schedule
Test schedule see Tables 11/2/1 to 11/2/4
Select test equipment and decide on test Test instructions
methods Test records
O
fN

Table 13-2 Quality management at execution of sprayed concrete production


E
ru
QM measures during shotcreting
CD
Activity Relevant documentation
CG
Machine and nozzle operation Suitable staff
Process instructions by health and safety
O Ensure occupational health and safety
X officer, safety data sheets
Comparison of actual conditions with contract
Execution and acceptance testing
(U
specifications
in
cu Non-compliance with parameters specified Catalogue of measures according to contract
-Q

Further checklists for data for the project, monitoring and execution can also be found in annex A
rs of ÖNORM EN 14487-2.
o
LO

x"
-Q
E
(J
I—
N

c
o
u
o
QJ
(J

CU

ro
c
o
76 Austrian Society for Construction Technology
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

14 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR TENDERING

The relevant Austrian Standards, in particular ÖNORM B 2203 and/or ÖNORM B 2203-2 and
prior art, apply.
14.1 General requirements

The following requirements have to be included, among others, in the invitation to tender and
taken into consideration under the corresponding items of the specifications.
• Filling of unavoidable (process-related) overbreak with sprayed concrete and operational
impairment due to shotcreting of system-related steel inserts (reinforcing mesh, steel arches,
lagging plates, anchor heads, etc.).
• Sprayed concrete to fill up overbreak due to specifications or geological conditions.
• Repair of defects in sprayed concrete with structural functions (SpC III), except for system-
related local deficiencies and inhomogeneities in SpC II.

14.2 Contractual provisions (see also ÖNORM EN 14487-2, annex A (informativ))

Among others, the following items have to be included in the contract:


Early strength classes
Requirements to be met by the sprayed concrete (sprayed concrete grade, with specification of
exposure classes)
Agreement on testing frequency classes and/or exceptions
Assumption of costs of preconstruction, conformity, identity and structural testing
Sprayed concrete thickness has to be specified through minimum thickness, see It. 12.6.4.
Minimum thickness has to be specified with due consideration of the surface structure to be
expected (e.g. projecting edges of solid rock)
O
fM
Provisions regarding possible quality defects and inadequate thickness
Specification of requirements regarding the smoothness of the sprayed concrete surface 1
E
ru
Data concerning the requirements for the surface roughness of sprayed concrete1

CD
Definition of surfaces and cubatures to be used as a basis for payment
CD
Indications regarding the location of shotcreting and possible operating conditions (e.g.
working face, roof, floor, slope support, water ingress)
ÿo
X Specification of unit of measurement (m2 or m3)
Special testing procedures
fU
Tests according to Tables Table 11-5 to Table 11-8 "according to requirements"
in
CD Specification of test methods for the determination of strength classes within the framework of
-Q
quality testing (e.g. admissibility of test procedure according to Item 7.4)

o
in

x"
JD
E
(J
I—
N

C
o
u
o
CD
(J

regulated in ÖVBB guideline "tunnel sealing"


CD

ro
c
o
Austrian Society for Construction Technology 77
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

15 STANDARDS, GUIDELINES, BIBLIOGRAPHY

15.1 Standards referred to in the text

ÖNORMB 2203-1 Untertagebauarbeiten - Werkvertragsnorm - Teil 1: Zyklischer


Vortrieb; Ausgabe 12/01.
ÖNORM B 2203-2 Untertagebauarbeiten - Werkvertragsnorm - Teil 2: Kontinuierlicher
Vortrieb; Ausgabe 01/05.
ÖNORMB 3100 Beurteilung der Alkali-Kieselsäure Reaktivität im Beton, Ausgabe
08/08.
ÖNORM B 3131 Gesteinskörnungen für Beton — Regeln zur Umsetzung der ÖNORM EN
12620; Ausgabe 10/06.
ONR 23303 Prüfverfahren Beton (PVB) Nationale Anwendung der Prüfnormen für
Beton und seine Ausgangsstoffe. ON-Regel, Ausgabe 2010.
ÖNORM B 3309 Aufbereitete hydraulisch wirksamer Zusatzstoffe für die
Betonherstellung (AETWZ); Ausgabe 02/04.
ÖNORM B 3327-1 Zemente gemäß ÖNORM EN 197-1 für besondere Verwendungen - Teil
1: Zusätzliche Anforderungen; Ausgabe 07/05.
ÖNORM B 4200-7 Massivbau; Stahleinlagen, Ausgabe 04/87.
ÖNORM B 4412 Erd- und Grundbau; Untersuchung von Bodenproben;
Korngrößenverteilung; Ausgabe 07/76.
ÖNORMB 4710-1 Beton; Teil 1: Festlegung, Herstellung, Verwendung und
Konformitätsnachweis (Regeln zur Umsetzung der ÖNORM EN 206-1
für Normal- und Schwerbeton); Ausgabe 10/07.
ÖNORM EN 149 Atemschutzgeräte - Filtrierende Halbmasken zum Schutz gegen
o
r\i Partikeln - Anforderungen, Prüfung, Kennzeichnung; Ausgabe 10/01.
ÖNORM EN 196-1 Prüfverfahren für Zement - Teil 1: Bestimmung der Festigkeit; Ausgabe
04/05.
E
ro ÖNORM EN 196-2 Prüfverfahren für Zement - Teil 2: Chemische Analyse von Zement;
<D
CQ
Ausgabe 04/05.
ÖNORM EN 196-3 Prüfverfahren für Zement - Teil 3: Bestimmung der Erstarrungszeiten
:0
und der Raumbeständigkeit; Ausgabe 02/09.
X
ÖNORM EN 196-6 Prüfverfahren für Zement - Teil 6: Bestimmung der Mahlfeinheit;
Ausgabe 05/92. Normentwurf 07/08 in Ausarbeitung.
ro ÖNORM EN 196-7 Prüfverfahren für Zement - Teil 7: Verfahren für die Probenahme und
if)

CD
Probeauswahl von Zement; Ausgabe 02/08.
.o
ÖNORM EN 197-1 Zement - Teil 1: Zusammensetzung, Anforderungen und
Konformitätskriterien von Normalzement; Ausgabe 10/08.
o ÖNORM EN 206-1 Beton - Teil 1: Festlegung, Eigenschaften, Herstellung und
in
Konformität; Ausgabe 11/05.
x~
JD
E ÖNORM EN 450-1 Flugasche für Beton - Teil 1: Definitionen, Anforderungen und
(J
I—
Güteüberwachung; Ausgabe 08/05, AI Änderung Ausgabe 05/07.
N
ÖNORM EN 450-2 Flugasche für Beton - Teil 2: Konformitätsbewertung, 08/05.
c
ÖNORM EN 459-2 Baukalk - Teil 2: Prüfverfahren; Ausgabe Ausgabe 03/2002, Entwurf
o
u
o
10/2008.
tu
(J

CD

ro
c
o
78 Austrian Society for Construction Technology
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

ÖNORM EN 480-1 Zusatzmittel für Beton, Mörtel und Einpressmörtel - Prüfverfahren -


Teil 1: Referenzbeton und Referenzmörtel für Prüfungen; Ausgabe
09/07.
ÖNORM EN 480-2 Zusatzmittel für Beton, Mörtel und Einpressmörtel - Prüfverfahren -
Teil 2: Bestimmung der Erstarrungszeit; Ausgabe 10/06.
ÖNORM EN 480-6 Zusatzmittel für Beton, Mörtel und Einpressmörtel - Prüfverfahren -
Teil 6: Infrarot-Untersuchung; Ausgabe 12/05.
ÖNORM EN 480-8 Zusatzmittel für Beton, Mörtel und Einpressmörtel - Prüfverfahren -
Teil 8: Bestimmung des Feststoffgehaltes; Ausgabe 12/96.
ÖNORM EN 480-10 Zusatzmittel für Beton, Mörtel und Einpressmörtel -Prüfverfahren - T eil
10: Bestimmung des wasserlöslichen Chloridgehaltes; Ausgabe 12/96,
Normentwurf 03/09.
ÖNORM EN 480-12 Zusatzmittel für Beton, Mörtel und Einpressmörtel - Prüfverfahren -
Teil 12: Bestimmung des Alkaligehaltes von Zusatzstoffen; Ausgabe
12/05.
ÖNORM EN 480-14 Zusatzmittel für Beton, Mörtel und Einpressmörtel - Prüfverfahren -
Teil 14: Bestimmung des Korrosionsverhaltens von Stahl in Beton -
Wlektrochemische Prüfung bei gleich bleibenden Potential; Ausgabe
01/07.
ÖNORM EN 932-1 Prüfverfahren für allgemeine Eigenschaften von Gesteinskörnungen -
Teil 1: Probenahmeverfahren; Ausgabe 01/97.
ÖNORM EN 933-1 Prüfverfahren für geometrische Eigenschaften von Gesteinskörnungen -
Teill: Bestimmung der Korngrößenverteilung - Siebverfahren
(konsolidierte Fassung); Ausgabe 07/06.
ÖNORM EN 934-2 Zusatzmittel für Beton, Mörtel und Einpressmörtel - Teil
o 2:Betozusatzmittel - Definitionen und Anforderungen, Konformität,
r\i
Kennzeichnung und Beschriftung (konsolidierte Fassung); Ausgabe
03/06. Normentwurf 01/09.
E ÖNORM EN 934-5 Zusatzmittel für Beton, Mörtel und Einpressmörtel - Teil 5:
ro
Zusatzmittel für Spritzbeton - Begriffe, Anforderungen, Konformität,
<D
CQ Kennzeichnung und Beschriftung; Ausgabe 03/08.
ÖNORM EN 934-6 Zusatzmittel für Beton, Mörtel und Einpressmörtel - Teil 6:
:0 Probenahme, Konformitätskontrolle, Bewertung der Konformität,
X
Kennzeichnung und Beschriftung (konsolidierte Fassung); Ausgabe
3/06.
ro
if)
ÖNORM EN 1008 Zugabewasser für Beton - Festlegungen für die Probenahme, Prüfung
CD
und Beurteilung der Eignung von Wasser, einschließlich bei der
.o
Betonherstellung anfallendem Wasser, als Zugabewasser für Beton;
Ausgabe 10/02.
ÖNORM EN 1097-3 Prüfverfahren für mechanische und physikalische Eigenschaften von
o
in Gesteinskörnungen - Teil 3: Bestimmung von Schüttdichte und
x~
JD Hohlraumgehalt; Ausgabe 08/98.
E
(J ÖNORM EN 1504-3 Produkte und Systeme für den Schutz und die Instandsetzung von
I—
N Betontragwerken - Definitionen, Anforderungen, Qualitätsüberwachung
und Beurteilung der Konformität - Teil 3: Statisch und nicht statisch
c
o
relevante Instandsetzung; Ausgabe 02/06.
u
o ÖNORM EN 1504-8 Produkte und Systeme für den Schutz und die Instandsetzung von
tu
(J
Betontragwerken - Definitionen, Anforderungen, Qualitätsüberwachung

t
(V


c
o
Austrian Society for Construction Technology 79
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

und Beurteilung der Konformität - Teil 8: Qualitätsüberwachung und


Beurteilung der Konformität; Ausgabe 02/05.
ONORMEN 1542 Produkte und Systeme für den Schutz und die Instandsetzung von
Betontragwerken - Messung der Haftfestigkeit im Abreißversuch;
Ausgabe 09/99.
ÖNORMEN 12350-1 Prüfung von Frischbeton - Teil 1: Probenahme; Ausgabe 04/00;
Normentwurf 09/99.
ÖNORM EN 12350-5 Prüfung von Frischbeton - Teil 5: Ausbreitmaß; Ausgabe 04/00.
ÖNORM EN 12390-2 Prüfung von Festbeton - Teil 2: Herstellung und Lagerung von
Probekörpern für Festigkeitsprüfungen; Ausgabe 05/01, Normentwurf
10/08.
ÖNORM EN 12390-3 Prüfung von Festbeton - Teil 3: Druckfestigkeit von Probekörpern;
Ausgabe 05/02.
ÖNORM EN 12390-7 Prüfung von Festbeton - Teil 7: Dichte von Festbeton (konsolidierte
Fassung); Ausgabe 05/09.
ÖNORM EN 12504-1 Prüfung von Beton in Bauwerken -Teil 1: Bohrkernproben -
Herstellung, Untersuchung und Prüfung der Druckfestigkeit; Ausgabe
05/09.
ÖNORM EN 12620 Gesteinskörnungen für Beton; Ausgabe 09/08.
ÖNORM EN 12878 Pigmente zum Einfärben von zemt- und/oder kalkgebundenen
Baustoffen - Anforderungen und Prüfverfahren (konsolidierte Fassung);
Ausgabe 06/06.
ONORMEN 13263-1 Silikastaub für Beton - Teil 1: Definitionen, Anforderungen und
Konformitätsnachweis; Ausgabe 11/05; Änderung AI, Normentwurf
09/08.
o
r\i ÖNORMEN 13263-2 Silikastaub für Beton - Teil 2: Konformitätsbewertung, Ausgabe 11/05;
Änderung AI, Normentwurf 10/08.
ÖNORMEN 13412 Produkte und Systeme für den Schutz und die Instandhaltung von
E Betontragwerken - Prüfverfahren - Bestimmung des Elastizitätsmo duls
ro

<D
im Druckversuch; Ausgabe 1/06.
ex
ONORM EN 13670 Ausführung der Tragwerke in Beton; Normenentwurf, Ausgabe 06/09.
ÖNORMEN 13687-1 Produkte und Systeme für den Schutz und die Instandhaltung von
:0
X Betontragwerken - Prüfverfahren - Bestimmung der
Temperaturwechselverträglichkeit - Teil 1: Frost - Tau -
Wechselbeanspruchung mit Tausalzangriff, Ausgabe 05/02.
ro
if)
ÖNORM EN 14487-1 Spitzbeton - Teil 1: Definitionen, Anforderungen und Konformität;
CD
n Ausgabe 05/06.
ÖNORM EN 14487-2 Spritzbeton - Teil 2: Ausführung, Ausgabe 01/07.
ÖNORM EN 14488-1 Prüfung von Spritzbeton - Teil 1: Probenahme von Frisch- und
o
in Festbeton; Ausgabe 11/05.
x~
XI ÖNORMEN 14488-2 Prüfung von Spritzbeton - Teil 2: Druckfestigkeit von jungem
E
(J Spritzbeton. Ausgabe 11/06.
I—
N ÖNORM EN 14488-3 Prüfung von Spritzbeton - Teil 3: Biegefestigkeiten (Erstriss-,
Biegezug- und Restfestigkeit) von faserverstärkten balkenförmigen
c
o Betonprüfkörpern. 09/06.
u
o
tu
(J
ÖNORM EN 14488-4 Prüfung von Spritzbeton - Teil 4: Haftfestigkeit an Bohrkernen bei
zentrischem Zug. Ausgabe 08/08.

CD

ro
c
o
80 Austrian Society for Construction Technology
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

ÖNORM EN 14488-5 Prüfung von Spritzbeton - Teil 5: Bestimmung der Energieabsorption


bei faserverstärkten plattenförmigen Prüfkörpern; Ausgabe 09/06.
ONORM EN 14488-6 Prüfung von Spritzbeton - Teil 6: Schichtdicke von Beton auf einen
Untergrund; Ausgabe 11/06.
ONORM EN 14488-7 Prüfung von Spritzbeton - Teil 7: Fasergehalt von faserverstärktem
Beton. Ausgabe 09/06.
ÖNORMEN 14889-1 Fasern für Beton - Teil 1: Stahlfasern - Begriffe, Festlegungen und
Konformität. Ausgabe 10/06.
ÖNORM EN14889-2 Fasern für Beton - Teil 2: Polymerfasern - Begriffe, Festlegungen und
Konformität. Ausgabe 10/06.
ONORM EN 15167-1 Flüttensandmehl zur Verwendung in Beton, Mörtel und Einpressmörtel -
Teil 1: Definitionen, Anforderungen und Konformitätskriterien.
Ausgabe 01/07.
ÖNORMEN 15167-2 Flüttensandmehl zur Verwendung in Beton, Mörtel und Einpressmörtel -
Teil 2: Konformitätsbewertung. Ausgabe 01/07.
ONORM EN ISO 1158 Kunststoffe - Vinylchloridhomopolymere und Copolymere -
Bestimmung des Chloridgehaltes (ISO 1158:1998); Ausgabe 08/98.
ONORM EN ISO 7500-1
Metallische Werkstoffe - Prüfung von statischen einachsigen
Prüfmaschinen - Teil 1: Zug- und Druckprüfmaschinen - Prüfung und
Kalibrierung der Kraftmesseinrichtung (ISO 7500-1:2004); Ausgabe
02/05.
ÖVE/ÖNORM EN ISO/IEC 17025
Allgemeine Anforderungen an die Kompetenz von Prüf- und
Kalibrierlaboratorien; Ausgabe 01/07 (ISO/IEC 17025:205),
O (konsolidierte Fassung)
fN
ASTM C 403-08 Ermittlung der Erstarrungsgeschwindigkeit von Betonmischen durch
Prüfung des Eindringwiderstandes; Ausgabe 2008.
E
ru
DIN 18551 Spritzbeton - Herstellung und Güteüberwachung 03/92. Normentwurf:
Nationale Anwendungsregeln; Ausgabe 11/07.
CD
CG
DIN 51302-2 Werkstoffprüfmaschinen - Dehnzylinder-Priifverfahren für
Druckprüfmaschinen für Beton. Ausgabe 12/00.
O
X ISO 758 Liquid chemical products for industrial use. Determination of densitiy at
20 °C; Ausgabe 11/76.
ISO 4316 Surface active agents - Determination of pH of aqueous solutions -
(U
in Potentiometrie method; Ausgabe 08/77.
cd
_Q
15.2 Guidelines and regulations

Austrian Association for Concrete and Structural Engineering


o
in ÖVBB - Richtlinie Innenschalenbeton; Ausgabe 10/03; Neubearbeitung in Vorbereitung.
I~
JD ÖVBB - Richtlinie Faserbeton; Ausgabe 07/08.
E
u ÖVBB - Richtlinie Erhaltung und Instandsetzung von Bauten aus Beton und Stahlbeton.
i—
N Ausgabe 07/07.
ÖVBB-Richtlinie Ausbildung von Tunnelentwässerungen. Ausgabe 06/2003;
c
o
u
Bearbeitungsstand 02/2009.
o
tu
(J
ÖVBB-Richtlinie Erhöhter Brandschutz mit Beton für unterirdische Verkehrsbauwerke.
Ausgabe 07/2005.

CD

ro
c
o
Austrian Society for Construction Technology 81
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

ÖVBB-Merkblatt Schutzschichten für den erhöhten Brandschutz für unterirdische


Verkehrsbauwerke. Ausgabe 11/2006.
ÖVBB - Richtlinie Tunnelabdichtungen; in Vorbereitung.

Austrian Road and Transport Research Society


RVS 7T Leistungsbeschreibung Tunnelbau; Ausgabe 08/04.
RVS 8T Technische Vertragsbedingungen für Tunnelbau; Ausgabe 08/04.
RVS 09.01.42 Tunnel - Tunnelbau; Konstruktive Ausführung: Geschlossene Bauweise
im Lockergestein unter Bebauung; Ausgabe 05/04.
RVS 09.01.44 Tunnel - Tunnelbau; Konstruktive Ausführung: Betondeckung der
Stahleinlagen; Ausgabe 06/02.
RVS 11.06.41 Qualitätssicherung Bau: Prüfungen - Beton: Beurteilung der Wirk
samkeit von Imprägniermitteln für nicht frostsalzbeständige
Betonoberflächen; Ausgabe 09/84.
RVS 1 1 .06.42 Qualitätssicherung Bau: Prüfungen - Beton: Nachbehandlungsmittel
für Beton; Ausgabe 12/85.
RVS 11.06.43 Qualitätssicherung Bau: Prüfungen - Beton: Kunststoffzusätze für
Beschichtungen; Ausgabe 12/85.
RVS 11.06.4x Prüfverfahren - Beton Teil Ibis III; Ausgabe 09/84 bis 12/85.
RVS 11.06.44 Qualitätssicherung Bau: Beton - Prüfungen: Qualitätssicherung gemäß
ÖNORM B 47 10- 1; Ausgabe 12/01.

German Reinforced Concrete Comittee


DAfStb-Richtlinie Vorbeugende Maßnahmen gegen schädigende Alkalireaktion im Beton
O
fN (Alkali-Richtlinie); Ausgabe 07/02.
DAfStb-Richtlinie Richtlinie für hochfesten Beton (Ergänzungen zu DIN 1045/07/88 für
die Festigkeitsklassen B65 bis B115); Ausgabe 08/95.
E
ru German Association of Concrete and Structural Engineering
cd
CG
DBV-Merkblatt Bemessungsgrundlagen für Stahlfaserbeton im Tunnelbau; Ausgabe 96.
DBV-Merkblatt Technologie des Stahlfaserbetons und Stahlfaserspritzbetons; Ausgabe
O
96.
X
DBV-Merkblatt Stahlfaserbeton; Ausgabe 10/01.

CU
in Other publications
CD
-Q 89/106/EWG Richtlinie des Rates vom 21. Dezember 1988 zur Angleichung der
Rechts- und VerwaltungsVorschriften der Mitgliedstaaten über
Bauprodukte. Ml 30.8. 1993,31. 10.2003.
o
LO
EFNARC European Specification for Sprayed Concrete. Europäischer Verband
x" der Hersteller und Anwender von Spezialprodukten im Bauwesen.
-Q
E Hampshire 1996., Deutsche Version 1997.
I— JSCE-SF4 Method of Test for Flexural Strength and Flexural Toughness of Steel
N
Fibre Reinforced Concrete. Concetta Library of JSCE, Japan Society of
c
Civil Engineers, 3, 58-61. 1984.
o
U
o
CD
(J

t
CD

ro
c
o
82 Austrian Society for Construction Technology
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

15.3 Additional standards, guidelines and reports to be taken into consideration

ÖNORMEN 1992-1-1 Eurocode 2: Bemessung und Konstruktion von Stahlbeton- und


Spannbetontragwerken - Teil 1-1: Allgemeine Bemessungsregeln und
Regeln für den Hochbau; Ausgabe 11/05.
ÖNORMB 1992-1-1 Eurocode 2 - Bemessung und Konstruktion von Stahlbeton- und
Spannbetontragwerken - Teil 1-1: Grundlagen und Anwendungsregeln
für den Hochbau - Nationale Festlegungen zu ÖNORM EN 1992-1-1,
nationale Erläuterungen und nationale Ergänzungen; Ausgabe 02/07.
ÖNORM EN 1992-2 Eurocode 2: Bemessung und Konstruktion von Stahlbeton- und
Spannbetontragwerken - Teil 2: Betonbrücken - Bemessungs- und
Konstraktionsregeln; Ausgabe 09/07.
ÖNORMB 1992-2 Eurocode 2 - Bemessung und Konstraktion von Stahlbeton- und
Spannbetontragwerken - Teil 2: Betonbrücken - Bemessungs- und
Konstraktionsregeln - Nationale Festlegungen zu ÖNORM EN 1992-2,
nationale Erläuterungen und nationale Ergänzungen; Ausgabe 08/08.
ÖNORM EN 1992-3 Eurocode 2: Bemessung und Konstraktion von Stahlbeton- und
Spannbetontragwerken - Teil 3: Stütz- und Behälterbauwerke aus
Beton; Ausgabe 02/07.
ÖNORMB 1992-3 Eurocode 2 - Bemessung und Konstraktion von Stahlbeton- und
Spannbetontragwerken - Teil 3: Silos und Behälterbauwerke aus Beton -
Nationale Festlegungen zu ÖNORM EN 1992-3; Ausgabe 02/08.
ÖNORM B 3327-2 Zemente gemäß ÖNORM EN 197-1 für besondere Verwendungen -
Teil 2: Erhöht sulfatbeständige Zemente; Ausgabe 09/01.
ÖNORM B 3303 Betonprüfung; Ausgabe 09/02.
ÖNORM B 4706 Instandsetzung, Umbau und Verstärkung von Betonbauten - Allgemeine
o
r\i Regeln und nationale Umsetzung der ÖNORM EN 1504 (Berichtigung);
Ausgabe 06/09.
ÖNORM EN 196-5 Prüfverfahren für Zement - Teil 5: Prüfung der Puzzolanität von
E Puzzolanzementen, Ausgabe 04/05.
ro

<D
CQ
ÖNORM EN 197-1/A2 Zement - Teil 1: Zusammensetzung, Anforderungen und
Konformitätskriterien von Normalzement; Änderung A2 (Zement mit
hohem Sulfatwiderstand (Änderung); Ausgabe 11/06.
:0
X ONORM EN 197-2 Zement - Teil 2: Konformitätsbewertung, Ausgabe 12/00.
ÖNORM EN 206-1 Beton -Teil 1: Festlegung, Eigenschaften, Herstellung und
ro
Konformität;
if)
Ausgabe 05/01.
CD
.o
ONORM EN 933-2 Prüfverfahren für geometrische Eigenschaften von Gesteinskörnungen -
Teil 2: Bestimmung der Korngrößenverteilung - Analysensiebe;
Ausgabe 03/96.
o
in ÖNORM EN 934-1 Zusatzmittel für Beton, Mörtel und Einpressmörtel - Teil 1:
x~
JD
Gemeinsame Anforderungen; Ausgabe 05/08.
E
(J ÖNORM EN 934-3 Zusatzmittel für Beton, Mörtel und Einpressmörtel - Teil 3:
I—
N Zusatzmittel für Mauermittel - Definitionen, Anforderungen und
Konformität, Kennzeichnung und Beschriftung (konsolidierte Fassung);
c
o
Ausgabe 08/05.
u
o
tu
ÖNORM EN 934-4 Zusatzmittel für Beton, Mörtel und Einpressmörtel - Teil 4:
(J
Zusatzmittel für Einpressmörtel für Spannglieder - Definitionen,

<V

ro
c
o
Austrian Society for Construction Technology 83
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

Anforderungen und Konformität, Kennzeichnung und Beschriftung


(konsolidierte Fassung); Ausgabe 06/07.
ONORM EN 1097-1 Prüfverfahren für mechanische und physikalische Eigenschaften von
Gesteinskörnungen - Teil 1: Bestimmung des Widerstandes gegen
Verschleiß (Micro Deval); Ausgabe 02/04.
ÖNORM EN 1097-2 Prüfverfahren für mechanische und physikalische Eigenschaften von
Gesteinskörnungen - Teil 2: Verfahren zur Bestimmung des
Widerstandes gegen Zertrümmerung (konsolidierte Fassung);
Ausgabe 11/06.
ÖNORMEN 1367-1 Prüfverfahren für thermische Eigenschaften und
Verwitterungsbeständigkeit von Gesteinskörnungen - Teil 1:
Bestimmung des Widerstandes gegen Frost-Tau-Wechsel; Ausgabe
06/07.
ÖNORM EN 1504-1 Produkte und Systeme für den Schutz und die Instandsetzung von
Betontragwerken - Definitionen, Anforderungen, Güteüberwachung
und Beurteilung der Konformität - Teil 1 : Definitionen, Ausgabe 1 1/05,
Normentwurf 03/09.
ÖNORM EN 1504-2 Produkte und Systeme für den Schutz und die Instandsetzung von
Betontragwerken - Definitionen, Anforderungen, Qualitätsüberwachung
und Beurteilung der Konformität - Teil 2: Oberflächenschutzsysteme
für Beton; Ausgabe 02/05.
ÖNORM EN 12350-6 Prüfung von Frischbeton - Teil 6: Frischbeton-Rohdichte; Ausgabe
04/00.
ÖNORM EN 12350-7 Prüfung von Frischbeton - Teil 7: Luftgehalte - Druckverfahren;
Ausgabe 10/00.
o
ÖNORM EN 12390-1 Prüfung von Festbeton - Teil 1:Form Maße und andere Anforderun gen
r\i für Probeköiper und Foimen (konsolidierte Fassung); Ausgabe 05/01.
ÖNORM EN 12390-8 Prüfung von Festbeton - Teil 8: Wassereindringtiefe unter Druck;
E
Ausgabe 05/09.
ro
ÖNORM EN 12636 Produkte für den Schutz und die Instandsetzung von Betontragwerken -
<D
ex Prüfverfahren - Bestimmung der Verbundwirkung - Beton-Beton;
Ausgabe 09/99.
:0 ÖNORMEN 13501-1 Klassifizierung von Bauprodukten und Bauarten zu ihrem
X
Brandverhalten - Teil 1: Klassifizierung mit den Ergebnissen aus den
Prüfungen zum Brandverhalten von Bauprodukten; Ausgabe 05/07.
ro
if)
ÖNORMEN 13501-2 Klassifizierung von Bauprodukten und Bauarten zu ihrem
CD
Brandverhalten - Teil 2: Klassifizierung mit den Ergebnissen aus den
n
Feuerwiderstandsprüfungen, mit Ausnahme von Lüftungsanlagen;
Ausgabe 01/08.
ÖNORM EN 13687-2 Produkte und Systeme für den Schutz und die Instandhaltung von
o
in Betontragwerken - Prüfverfahren - Bestimmung der
x~
XI Temperaturwechselverträglichkeit - Teil 2:
E Gewitterregenbeanspruchung (Tempe raturschock; Ausgabe 05/02.
(J
I—
N ÖNORMEN 13687-3 Produkte und Systeme für den Schutz und die Instandhaltung von
Betontragwerken - Prüfverfahren - Bestimmung der
c
o
Temperaturwechselverträglichkeit - Teil 3:
u
o
tu
Temperaturwechselbeanspruchung ohne Tausalzangriff; Ausgabe 05/02.
(J
ÖNORMEN 13687-4 Produkte und Systeme für den Schutz und die Instandhaltung von
Betontragwerken - Prüfverfahren - Bestimmung der
t
QJ

ro
c
o
84 Austrian Society for Construction Technology
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

Temperaturwechselverträglichkeit - Teil 4:
TrockeneTemperaturwechelbeanspruchung; Ausgabe 05/02.
ONORM EN 13687-5 Produkte und Systeme für den Schutz und die Instandhaltung von
Betontragwerken - Prüfverfahren - Bestimmung der
Temperaturwechselverträglichkeit - Teil 5: Widerstand gegen
Temperaturschock; Ausgabe 05/02.
ÖNORMEN 13791 Bewertung der Druckfestigkeit von Beton in Bauwerken oder
Bauwerksteilen; Ausgabe 08/07.
ÖNORMEN 14651 Prüfverfahren für Beton mit metallischen Fasern - Bestimmung der
Biegezugfestigkeit (Proportionalitätsgrenze, residuelle
Biegezugfestigkeit); Ausgabe 12/07.
ÖNORMEN 14721 Prüfverfahren für Beton mit metallischen Fasern - Bestimmung des
Fasergehalts in Frisch- und Festbeton; Ausgabe 12/07.
ONORM EN ISO 9001 Qualitätsmanagement - Anforderungen (ISO 9001 :2008); Ausgabe
12/08.
DIN 18551 Spritzbeton; Fferstellung und Güteüberwachung; Ausgabe 03/92, ersetzt
durch DIN 18551 von 01/05. Normententwurf Spritzbeton - Nationale
Anwendungsregeln; Ausgabe 11/07.
STA 197 (505 197) Projektierung- Tunelbau: Grundlagen; Ausgabe 10/04.
SIA 197/1 (505 197/1) Projektierung -Tunnelbau: Bahntunnel; Ausgabe 10/04.
SIA 197/2 (505 197/2) Projektierung - Tunnelbau: Straßentunnel; Ausgabe 10/04.
SIA 198 (SN 531 198) Untertagebau: Ausführung; Ausgabe 10/04.

O
fM

E
tu

cd
CG

O
X

rt3
in
cd
-Q

Ds
o
LO

x"
-Q
E
I—
N

c
o
u
o
CD
(J

cu

jo= Austrian Society for Construction Technology 85


Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

15.4 Bibliography

[1] Breitenbücher, R.; Springenschmid, R., Dorner, H.W.: Verringerung der


Auslaugbarkeit von Spritzbeton im Tunnelbau durch besondere Auswahl von
Zementen und Betonzusätzen, Beton-Information 1-92, BRD.
[2] Saxer, A.; Kusterle, W; Lukas, W: Untersuchungen über das Auslaugverhalten
von Spritzbeton, 4. Internationale Fachtagung Spritzbetontechnologie 1993
- Berichtsband, Institut für Baustofflehre und Materialprüfung, Innsbruck, 1993.
[3] Saxer, .4.; Lukas, W.: Beurteilung des stofflichen Austrages aus deponiertem Tunnel¬
ausbruch, Tunnel 7 (1996), S. 48 - 54.
[4] Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt (Herausgeber): Maximale Arbeitsplatzkon¬
zentrationen gesundheitsschädlicher Arbeitsstoffe (MAK-Wert-Liste), Wien, 1995
[5] Testor, M.; Kusterle, W: Vergleichende Staubmessungen bei Spritzbetonarbeiten,
Felsbau 2/91.
[6] Lukas, W.; Huber, H.; Kusterle, W.; Pichler, W.; Testor, M.; Saxer, A:. Bewertung
von neuentwickelten Spritzbeton-Verfahrenstechniken. Österreichische Straßen¬
forschung Nr. 3.163, Bundesministerium für wirtschaftliche Angelegenheiten.
Wien 1998.
[7] Huber, H.; Pichler W.\ Die Technologie des „Umweltneutralen Spritzbetons".
Österreichischer Betonverein, Heft 30/1998.
[8] Eichler, K: Rückprallrecycling und Rückprallreduzierung von Spritzbeton beim
Trockenspritzverfahren, Dissertation Universität Innsbruck, 1996.
[9] Rohkar, R.B.; Lux, K.H.: Einfluss des Theologischen Verhaltens des Spritzbetons auf
den Ausbauwiderstand. 34. Geomechanik-Kolloquium, Salzburg, 1985.
[10] Deix, F.: Anwendung von Druckluft und Vereisung als Bauhilfsmaßnahme beim
Wiener U-Bahn-Bau. BAU 133. Jg. (1988); Heft 6.
[11] Morgan, D.R.; Chen, L.; Beaupre, D.\ Toughness of Fibre Reinforces Shotcrete.
Shotcrete for Underground Support VII. (Hrsg.: Klapperich, H.; Pöttler, R.;
E
aj
Willocq, J.)
American Society of Civil Engineers. New York 1995.
CU
to [12] Kusterle, W: Ein kombiniertes Verfahren zur Beurteilung der Frühfestigkeit von
tn Spritzbeton. Beton- und Stahlbetonbau, Heft 9/1984.
_N
ÿ [13] Testor, M.; Kusterle, W.\ Ermittlung von Spritzbetondruckfestigkeiten, Modifiziertes
p Setzbolzenverfahren und Abhängigkeit der Druckfestigkeiten von der Probekörper-
Ü
N
geometrie, Zement + Beton 3/98.
in [14] Leitner, Ch. \ Indirekte Verfahren zur Druckfestigkeitsbestimmung von
Spritzbetonen, Universität Innsbruck, Diplomarbeit, 1998.
[15] Huber, H.; Lukas, W. :Sulfatbeständiger Spritzbeton für
ÿ Straßentunnelauskleidungen, Straßenforschung, Heft 192/1982.
o
LO

-Q
E
I—
N
ÿI->

CO
c
o
u
o
0)
u
L_
o
4—

0J
<S)

g 86 Austrian Society for Construction Technology


Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

ANNEX 1 STANDARD FORM "DESIGNATION OF SAMPLES"

Standard form "Designation of samples"


construction site:
sample designation:
Name of product:
Name of product: Batch number:
Delivery number:
Manufacturer or supplier:
Date of product delivery:
Sampling date: Sampling time:
Sampling site:
Type of sampling:
Storing until:
Delivered quantity:
Type of delivery: O Silo O Bag O Tank O Barrel
Entnommen von:
Date: Signature Sampler:

Signature factory or construction site representative:

O
(N

E
ru

CD
CG

O
X

cu
in
CD
JD

Ds
O
LO

x"
-Q
E
(J
i—
N

c
o
U
o
CD
(J

CD

jo= Austrian Society for Construction Technology 87


Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

ANNEX 2 PENETRATION NEEDLE TEST - TEST PROTOCOL

Penetration needle test - Test protocol

Penetration needle test

Nr.: Date: Tunnel:


T-Air: Station:
T-Mix: Location:
Binder: Aggregate
EB: Edited:
SBM:

End of the spray job

need e0 3 mm, Top inclined at 60


power of
Time SpC-Age Average fc [N/mm2]
penetration
10 measurements from calibration
curve

O
fN

E
ru

CD
CG

O
X

cu
in
CD
.Q

o
LO

x"
-Q
E
(J

c
o
U
o
CD

CD

ro
c
o
88 Austrian Society for Construction Technology
Personalisiert für: Geoconsult ZT GmbH, 5071 Wals bei Salzburg, Hölzlstraße 5 am 23.11.2015

c
CO
3*
03'
=3

>
z
Bolzensetzverfohren: HILT1 OX 450 V , Einstellung *1", grüne Kartuschen < Z
5'
OQ H
CT* z
Nr.: © Stollen/Tunnel: Beispiel Loge: Strosse Zement: TZ 2 EB: Typ 1 r-h-
UJ

Dotum: 19.2. Station: km 3.24 Beorbeitet: Zuschlag: 0-11 Temp.: 16 'C 3 t/5
CD SS
E?1
o w
1 8 10 CL m
i H
Zeit t SpB Alter 8olzen Vorstand Eindringtiefe Ausziehkraft korr. F FA x H
CD
M [h, min] Typ/GL [mm] L [mm] F[N] w [N/mm] [N/mm] [N/mm2] U1
r-h-

1 - t„ 3 - 4 aus Eichkurve 7/5 Z8 mit 9 aus o


r-h
o
t/3
Eichkurve o H
o d
d
11:30 Feld 25 fertig gleiche Reihenfolge einholten.' ö
om 20.2. 2
um 4:30 17 Std. M6 - 8 - 52 25 35 3400 3100 ÿ = 88,57 <
NH
Z
Gl = 60 Ii 18
23
42
37
3700
3100
3400
2 B00
80.95
75,68
o
18 42 3900 3600 85,71 S
20 40 3800 3500 87,50 80,08 10,6 w
H
20 40 3500 3200 80,00 -_ii
SC
17 43 im 2800 65,12 O
12 48 4000 3700 77,08 e
i
60 abzüglich | 12 | ergibt 88,57480.95+..
8D H
t/3
I H
1
n FA -d
|
1
i
HO-TESTER 4 so
1
i O
60 1 Gl gk a-ß H
%
* / /
gk 0-n yy©- O
r8;>L 52 Vofsl ondi, o
/ /i /

-80 o
r
/
f
'
i
ÿ
X
>
10,6 N/mm2
i fc *Ö

*d ro
o
CO
CO
o "O

NO
O
CO
ANNEX 3/SHEET 2 STUD DRIVING METHOD - TEST PROTOCOL

Stud driving method - Test protocol


Bolt-setting process: HILTI DX 450 "L" with pistons 45/NKL
piston guide 45/KFL, bolt Guide 45/FL1 with stand plate 45/SL1, setting "1", green cartridge 6.8/1 1 MGR.
No.: Tunnel: location: binder: EB:
Tester (model and serial number)
o
fN
date: Station: Edited: aggregate: Temp.:
n
CM
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Pull
CL> Time t SpC-age Bolt Supernatant penetration corr. F F/L X fc
CO
ro
out strength
[h] [h, min] Type / GL [mm] L [mm] [N] [N/rnrn] [N/nim] [N/mm2]
F [N]
_N
:0 with 9
I
from calibr E8 from
1 — to 3-4 7/5
ation curve n calibration

curve
LO
0)
_o

c:
CO
S"
Q)'
rv
o Co
LT)
o
o
x"
-Q CD
E
i—
N o
o
=3
CO
»—
K

c 2
o
o >—K
u
o o'
(D

s1
o
ÿr

o
(U o
§
"rö
c
o
(/)
i_
cd
CL
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

ANNEX 4 CONFORMITY CERTIFICATE - CALCULATION OF DESIGN


SPRAYED CONCRETE THICKNESS

Conformity testing - Establishment of design sprayed concrete thickness

If the required sprayed concrete strength class is not reached in the conformity test, the strength
class requirements may be changed accordingly, provided the sprayed concrete is of adequate
thickness.

Therefore, in areas in which the required sprayed concrete strength class is not reached, the design
thickness ("d") of the sprayed concrete may be increased by "d|" - clearance permitting -
according to the following equation:

F required sprayed concrete strength class in N/mm2


M measured sprayed concrete strength in N/mm2
d design sprayed concrete thickness in cm
d| additional sprayed concrete thickness in cm

ÿ If the sprayed concrete thickness cannot be increased for reasons of insufficient clearance, the
S sprayed concrete found to be inadequate has to be removed upon the principal's request and
f! replaced at the contractor's expense.
ro
f\l

™ If the design strength is not reached, the principal is entitled to claim a discount instead of
CD
CQ
demanding an increase of the sprayed concrete thickness, with the unit price being reduced by 2%
for each percentage point by which the actual sprayed concrete strength falls short of the design
strength. The surface from which the drill core has been obtained is used as a basis for calculation
O
X of the price reduction.

CU
in
CD
.Q

o
LO

x"
-Q
E
(J
I—
N

c
o
CJ
o
CD
(J

CD

ro
c
o Austrian Construction Technology Society 91
CO CD
N> "Ö c;
a
INJ CD
O 3'
CO CD
ANNEX 5/SHEET 1 STANDARD FORM „EARLY STRENGTH CLASSES OF FRESH SPRAYED CONCRETE"
£
5
Sample sheet "early strength classes of young shotcrete" *5a
o
o
o
building project: Component, Station [m]: 5
CD

Examiner: Test date, time:


o
CN

n
100
CM (M
E
CD
E 20
CO
to
10
_N

Hi
:0
I
5
2
J3
<L>
TO
L0 C7> 1 .-B-
CD
_o
(0
0.5
c
CO
<D
3" 0.2
rv
o
LD
03"
=3
CO
O
3 0.1
ÿm*
o
o
x"
-Q CD
E
(J
I—
N O 6 10 30 3 6 9 12 24
o
=3
GO

c
•—K
2 Minuten Stunden
o o
>—+.
u
o o'
CD
CD
s1
o
ÿr

o
CD o
]<j) §
"to
c
o
(/)
i_
CD
CL
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

ANNEX 5/SHEET 2 STANDARD FORM „EARLY STRENGTH CLASSES OF


FRESH SPRAYED CONCRETE" - EXCEL ILLUSTRATION

Friihfestigkeitsentwicklungdes Jungen Spritzbetons (J-Kurven) in Excel Darstellung


(informativ)

L 24; 18,00

fe.74 ' 1

| 5.00 - 1 24:5,00
-ÿ-B 3.5
Z
c
|-ÿh83 ÿ 24; 2,00
"55
25C
0>
ifiir62
**"1751,20
to
0 * 1.20
o fl7;0.36 s""Co!El r-*ÿ05
2 0,50 - i
Q
.
ÿ*175*0,40 ÿfo.4 1
017,0.25 *
ÿ u, 1, u.ÿu
rr ri, 0.20

ttTTo 10
0.05
0, 35 0,50 5,00

Zeit in Stunden nach Auftrag

Tabele with calculated intermediate points


O
(N
of Figure 7-1
Time Early strength [N/mm2]
E A B C
ru
6 min - 0,20 0,50
CD
CG
10 min 0,10 0,25 0,66
30 min 0,153 0,40 1,20
O
X
1h 0,20 0,61 1,82
CTl
i_
=5
-Q
3h 0,41 1,20 3,50
CU
in
6h 0,64 1,83 5,29
CD
.Q 9h 0,83 2,35 6,74
12 h 1,00 2,80 8,00
Ps 24 h 2,00 5,00 16,00
o
LO

x"
-Q
E
(J
I—
N

C
O
U
o
CD
(J

CD

ro
c
o Austrian Society for Construction Technology 93
Guideline Sprayed Concrete

April 2013

ANNEX 6 ERRORS/CHANGES TO EN

EN 14487-1:
Figure 1 y-axis erroneous log scale
Table 12: Frequency of the strength of the young sprayed concrete, category 3: 1,250 instead of
250 m2
Annex A:
Residual strength classes deformations not correct:
1/250 = 1/450
1/125 = 1/225
1/56 = 1/112.5

EN 14487-2, Item 5.1:


All poor or loose rock shall be removed
Comment: applies for tunnel construction methods only, which require adhesive tensile strength
between rock and SpC

EN 14487-2, Item 9.3


In Austria, SpC in tunnel driving does not need curing as a rule, as the ambient conditions do not
make this necessary.

EN 14488-2 Annex B
6.99 instead of 6.69
O
fN

E
ru

CD
CG

O
X

CU
in
cu
-Q

rs
o
LO

x"
-Q
E
(J
I—
N

c
o
u
o
QJ
(J

CU

ro
c
o 94 Austrian Society for Construction Technology
Personalisiert für: Geoconsult ZT GmbH, 5071 Wals bei Salzburg, Hölzlstraße 5 am 23.11.2015
VERÖFFENTLICHUNGEN DER
ÖSTERREICHISCHEN BAUTECHNIK VEREINIGUNG

Richtlinien Richtlinie "Erhöhter Brandschutz mit Beton für


Guideline "Sprayed Concrete" (Edition 2013) unterirdische Verkehrsbauwerke" inkl.
Merkblatt „Schnittstelle Bau - TGA" Sachstandsbericht "Brandeinwirkungen - Straße,
(Ausgabe 2013) Eisenbahn, U-Bahn" (Ausgabe 2005)

Merkblatt „Betonspurwege" (Ausgabe 2013) Merkblatt "Unterwasserbetonsohlen (UWBS)"


(Ausgabe 2005)
Richtlinie "Innenschalenbeton" (Ausgabe 2012)
Richtlinie "Fugenausbildungen im Tunnel und
Richtlinie „Tunnelabdichtung" (Ausgabe 2012)
Konstruktionsprinzipien am Übergang
Gründruck Merkblatt "Kooperative Projektabwicklung" offene/geschlossene Bauweise" (Ausgabe 2005)
(Ausgabe 2012)
Richtlinie "Bohrpfähle" (Ausgabe 2005)
Richtlinie „Selbst- und Leichtverdichtbarer Beton (SCC und
Merkblatt "Anstriche für Tunnelinnenschalen"
ECC)" (Ausgabe 2012)
(Ausgabe 2004)
Merkblatt „Qualitätssicherung für Bodenvermörtelung"
Richtlinie "Kathodischer Korrosionsschutz von
(Ausgabe 2012)
Stahlbetonbauteilen" (Ausgabe 2003)
Merkblatt „Festlegung des Reduzierten
Richtlinie "Nachträgliche Verstärkung von
Versinterungspotentials" (Ausgabe 2012)
Betonbauwerken mit geklebter Bewehrung"
Guideline "Concrete Segmental Lining Systems" (Ausgabe 2002)
(Edition 2011)
Merkblatt "Selbstverdichtender Beton" (SCC)
Richtlinie "Befahrbare Verkehrsflächen in Garagen und (Ausgabe 2002)
Parkdecks" (Ausgabe 2010)
Richtlinie "Schmalwände" (Ausgabe 2002)
Merkblatt „Braune Wannen" (Ausgabe 2010)
Richtlinie "Dichte Schlitzwände" (Ausgabe 2002)
Richtlinie "Erhaltung und Instandsetzung von Bauten aus
Richtlinie "Bewehrungszeichnungen" (Ausgabe 2001)
Beton und Stahlbeton" (Ausgabe 2010)
Richtlinie "LPV-Beton"(Ausgabe 1999)
Richtlinie "Tunnelentwässerung" (Ausgabe 2010)
Merkblatt "Hochleistungsbeton" (Ausgabe 1999)
Richtlinie "Spritzbeton" (Ausgabe 2009)
Sachstandsbericht "Hochfester Beton" (Ausgabe 1993)
Merkblatt "Weiche Betone" (Ausgabe 2009)
Richtlinie "Frost-Tausalz-beständiger Beton"
Richtlinie „Sichtbeton - Geschalte Betonflächen" inkl.
(Ausgabe 1989)
Gütezeichen „Fachbetrieb für Sichtbeton"
(Ausgabe 2009) Richtlinie für die Herstellung von Betonfahrbahndecken
o (Ausgabe 1986)
tN
Richtlinie "Schildvortrieb" (Ausgabe 2009)
Richtlinie für Herstellung und Verarbeitung von
Richtlinie „Tübbingsysteme aus Beton"
fNl Fließbeton (Ausgabe 1977)
(Ausgabe 2009)
E Richtlinien für Leichtbeton, Teil 1-4 (Ausgabe 1974 -
ro Richtlinie "Bewertung und Behebung von
in 1978) (Teile 1 und 4a sind durch ÖNORM B 4200-1 1
D Fehlstellen bei Tunnelinnenschalen" (Ausgabe 2009)
ersetzt)
Merkblatt "Beton für Kläranlagen"
(Ausgabe 2009)
:Q Schriftenreihe
X Richtlinie "Wasserundurchlässige Betonbauwerke -Weiße
Wannen" (Ausgabe 2009) Heft 72/2012 Vorträge am Österreichischen
Betontag 2012
Merkblatt "Herstellung von faserbewehrten monolithischen
ro Betonplatten" (Ausgabe 2008) Heft 71/2012 Festrede zum Betontag 2012 -
CO
Systemische Krise am Bau?
CD
.Q
Richtlinie "Faserbeton" (Ausgabe 2008)
Heft 70/201 1 Fortbildungsveranstaltung 201 1 -
Richtlinie "Injektionstechnik - Teil 1" (Ausgabe 2008)
Sektion Spannbeton
Richtlinie "Erhaltung und Instandsetzung von Bauten aus
Heft 69/2010 Betontag 2010
o
Beton und Stahlbeton" (Ausgabe 2007)
in Heft 68/2009 5th Central European Congress on
Richtlinie "Konstruktive Stahleinbauteile in Beton und
X~ Concrete Engineering "Innovative
JD Stahlbeton" (Ausgabe 2006)
E Concrete Technology in Practice"
cd Merkblatt "Schutzschichten für den erhöhten Brandschutz (inkl. CD)
I— für unterirdische Verkehrsbauwerke" (Ausgabe 2006)
N
Heft 67/2008 Betontag 2008
Merkblatt "Kreisverkehre mit Betonfahrbahndecken"
Heft 66/2007 Österreichische Betonstraßentagung 2007
c (Ausgabe 2006)
o Heft 65/2007 Fortbildungsveranstaltung 2007 -
u
o Guideline "Inner Shell Concrete" (Edition 2006)
CD Sektion Spannbeton
CD Richtlinie "Stahl-Beton-Verbundbrücke" - inkl. Musterstatik
Heft 64/2006 Betontag 2006
(Ausgabe 2006)
Heft 63/2005 Fortbildungsveranstaltung 2005 -
Sachstandsbericht "Tübbinge" (Ausgabe 2005)
Sektion Spannbeton
ru
c
o
Hefte der Schriftenreihe und Richtlinien sind bei der Geschäftsstelle der
Österreichischen Bautechnik Vereinigung gegen Kostenersatz erhältlich.
Heft 62/2005 Internationale Fachtagung 2005 Heft 33/1998 Österreichischer Betontag 1998
"Betondecken aus volkswirtschaftlicher Sicht" Heft 32/1998 FIP 1998-Amsterdam Vorgespannter
Heft 61/2005 1st Central European Congress on Concrete Beton in Österreich
Engineering "Fibre Reinforced Concrete in Heft 31/1997 15. FB Aktuelle Fragen des Spannbetons
Practice" (inkl. CD) Heft 30/1997 14. FB Neue Betonzusatzmittel - Neuer
Heft 60/2005 Einführung in die neue Richtlinie Bohrpfähle Beton?
Heft 59/2005 Österreichische Betonstraßentagung 2005 Heft 29/1998 13. FB Gründungstechnik
Heft 58/2005 Vorgespannte Flachdecken mit Vorspannung Heft 28/1997 12. FB Eisenbahnbrücken aus Spannbeton
ohne Verbund - freie Spanngliedlage Heft 27/1997 Österreichischer Betontag 1996
Heft 57/2004 Einführung in die neue Richtlinie Kathodischer Heft 26/1996 Innbrücke Kufstein
Korrosionsschutz
Heft 25/1996 11. Fortbildungsveranstaltung
Heft 56/2004 Österreichischer Betontag 2004
Heft 24/1996 Donaubrücke Tulln
Heft 55/2003 Festvortrag Prof. Wladislaw Bartoszewski -
Heft 23/1995 10. Fortbildungsveranstaltung
Kulturelle Identität Mitteleuropas
Heft 22/1 994 Österreichischer Betontag 1994
Heft 54/2003 32. FB Erdwärmenutzung aus erdberührten
Betonteilen und in tiefliegenden Bauwerken Heft 21/1994 Eisenbahnumfahrung Innsbruck-
Inntalbrücke
Heft 53/2003 31 . FB Innovative Betonkonstruktionen für den
Heft 20/1994 FIP 1994 -Washington
modernen Verkehrswegebau
Heft 19/1994 Spannbeton - Bewehrungstechnik
Heft 52/2003 30. FB Einführung in die neue Richtlinie
Nachträgliche Verstärkung von Heft 18/1993 Die auf dem EUROCODE 2 basierenden
Betonbauwerken mit geklebter Bewehrung neuen ÖNORMEN der Reihe B 4700
Heft 51/2003 Betonstraßen Heft 17/1992 Österreichischer Betontag 1992
Heft 50/2002 Festkolloquium anlässlich der Emeritierung Heft 16/1992 Umweltschutz - Brückenbau
von O.Univ.Prof. Manfred Wicke Heft 15/1992 Vorspannung ohne Verbund
Heft 49/2002 29. FB Einführung in die neue Richtlinie Heft 14/1990 Österreichischer Betontag 1990
Faserbeton Heft 13/1990 FIP 1990 - Hamburg
Heft 48/2002 Österreichischer Betontag 2002 Heft 12/1989 Vorspannung beim Bau der Neuen Bahn
Heft 47/2001 28. FB Innovation im Betonbau Heft 11/1988 Vorstellung der Richtlinie "Spitzbeton"
o Heft 46/2001 27. FB Einführung in die RL Teil 1 - Anwendung
(N
Bewehrungszeichnungen Heft 10/1988 Verstärken von Betontragwerken durch
m Heft 45/2000 26. FB Externe Vorspannung Vorspannung
(N
Heft 44/2000 25. FB Erfahrungen mit der RVS 8S.06.32 Heft 9/1988 Vorträge am Österreichischen Betontag
Deckenarbeiten - Betondecken, Heft 8/1987 Aktuelle Fragen des Spannbetons
aj Deckenherstellung Heft 7/1987 Verbundlose Vorspannung
ro
Heft 43/2000 Österreichischer Betontag 2000 Heft 6/1986 Vortrage am Österreichischen Betontag
Heft 42/1999 24. FB Einführung in die neue Richtlinie Dichte Heft 5/1986 Flexibilität im Massivbau, Verstärken und
:0
X Schlitzwände Verbreitern von Betontragwerken
Heft 41/1999 23. FB Qualitätsmanagement - Qualität Heft 4/1986 Federation Internationale de la
D
X>
_N
miteinander? Baustellenorientiertes Precontrainte; 10. Kongress 1986, New
ItJ
w Qualitätswesen bei den Baustellen Delhi
'äj Heft 40/1 999 22. FB Neue Normen und Technologien für
XI Heft 3/1985 Vorspannung im Hochbau, Entwicklung in
Beton- und Spannbetonbauten der Ankertechnik
ro
Heft 39/1999 21 . FB Einführung in die Richtlinie Heft 2/1 984 Eisenbahnbrücken aus Spannbeton,
Qualitätssicherung für Projektsteuerung im Bauwesen
o
in Instandsetzungsfachbetriebe und -produkte
Heft 1/1984 Aktuelle Fragen des Spritzbetons
I~
XI Heft 38/1999 20. FB Einführung in die Richtlinie BETON -
E Herstellung, Transport, Einbau, Gütenachweis
(J
I— Heft 37/1999 19. FB Einführung in die Richtlinie
N
Wasserundurchlässige Betonbauwerke -
c
Weiße Wannen
o
u
o
Heft 36/1998 18. FB Einführung in die ÖNORM B 4452
aj
13 Heft 35/1998 17. FB Einführung in die neue Richtlinie
Spritzbeton
Heft 34/1998 16. FB Verbundlose Vorspannung im Hochbau
cu

ru
c
o
Hefte der Schriftenreihe und Richtlinien sind bei der Geschäftsstelle der
IS)
Österreichischen Bautechnik Vereinigung gegen Kostenersatz erhältlich.
<u
Q_
öbv österreichische
bautechnik
Vereinigung

o
fN

rsj

E
fU
LO
CU
CO
fD

:0
X

ru
LO
<D
JO

o
LO

X*
JO
E
e)

i
N

c
o
u
o
cu
U

IMPRESSUM
fü Herausgeber Österreichische Bautechnik Vereinigung, Karlsgasse 5, 1040 Wien, T +43 (1) 504 15 95, F +43 (1) 504 15 95-99,
C
o office@bautechnik.pro, www.bautechnik.pro Grafik: Starmühler Agentur & Verlag, Schellinggasse 1, 1010 Wien, www.starmuehler.at

Related Interests