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ALUMINA PLANT – REFINERY PROCESS

Introduction:
Bauxite is the raw material from which alumina is extracted by alkali
process. Invented by Austrian Scientist Karl.Josheph Bayer, in nineteenth
century, it is the only process available for commercial extraction of
Alumina hydrate. The bauxite is mixed with hot sodium hydroxide solution
to dissolve alumina present in it. Using various techniques such as cyclonic
separation, settling, and filtration separates the non-reactive part consisting
mostly iron oxide. The soda solution having dissolved alumina in it is then
precipitated out at low temperature to get alumina hydrate as intermediate
product. This is calcined at about 1000OC to get alumina.

Bauxite excavation capacity: 48lakh tones/year


Alumina production capacity: 3lines* 5.25lakhtons/year=15.75lakh
tones/year

BAUXITE
The ore for alumina is present in different form and composition. The
tropical bauxite present in the hills of Panchapatmali of Damanjodi has
following components.

• Al2O3,3H2O GIBBSITE
• Al2O3, H2O BOHEMITE
• Fe2O3 HEMATITE
• Al2O3,2SiO2,(OH)4 KAOLINITE
• SiO2 QUARZITE
• H2O FREE MOISTURE
• V2O5 VANADIUM PENTOXIDE
• TiO2 TITANIUM DIOXIDE
• Ga2O3 GALIUM OXIDE

The components are expressed in more useful terms and approximate


composition is as follows
• Al2O3 45%
• Fe2O3 25%
• SiO2® 1.7 %
• SiO2T 2.3 %
• LOI 23%
• TiO2 2%
• V2O5 1%
• P2O5 TRACES
• Ga2O3 TRACES
At mining site, after removing the overburden, holes are drilled and
trinitrotoluene is used as explosive for breaking the deposit. Then rock-
breaking machines are used to reduce the size of ore to below 800mm. The
material is then transported by dumpers to crusher house and crushed to
below 150mm size by two numbers of toothed double roll crushers also
called as primary crusher. The crushed bauxite is then transported to alumina
plant by a special conveyor called as cable belt. The specialty of cable belt is
that it not only has vertical curves like conventional belt conveyors but also
has several horizontal turnings to meet the requirement of hilly terrain. The
single flight 14.6km long conveyor is supported on a rope, which is driven
by a synchronous motor.
At alumina plant, the bauxite is stored in open yard stack piles and
reclaimed at specified rate by two numbers of bucket wheel reclaimers. The
material is then crushed by three numbers of hammer crushers to size below
30mm and stored in storage tanks called as silo.

BALL MILL
Because the process of alumina processing involves solid bauxite and liquid
sodium hydroxide reaction, fine size of solid is necessary to have better
reaction and higher yield. The bauxite from silo is extracted at measured rate
and fed to ball mill, which grinds the material to about 63micron size. The
grinding process is accelerated by addition of dilute caustic soda solution at
150gm/lit soda concentration. Each of the four ball mills has grinding
capacity of 200tons/hr. Each ball mill is loaded with about 100tons of hyper-
steel spherical balls and rotates at 15RPM. Three streams of the plant
operate with four ball mills. The ground bauxite in caustic soda solution is
called as mill slurry is pumped to subsequent process called as pre-
desilication.

IMPORTANT TERMS

Soda concentration: expressed in grams of soda present in the liquor in the


form of sodium hydroxide and sodium meta aluminate and expressed as
Na2O.
RP: this is the ratio between alumina present in sodium Meta aluminate
form, expressed as Al2O3 and the soda present in the form of sodium
hydroxide & sodium Meta aluminate expressed as Na2O.
Al2O3, 3H2O: alumina tri-hydrate
Al2O3: Alumina or calcined alumina
PRE-DESILICATION
The silica present in bauxite in the form of kaolinite is called as reactive
silica, since it reacts with sodium hydroxide easily to form sodium silicate.
This sodium silicate deposits as scale on the wall of the vessels and heat
exchangers resulting in reduced process efficiency. That’s why pre-
desilication process is designed to convert harmful reactive silica to non-
reactive sodium aluminium silicate. The mill slurry is heated with steam to
react kaolinite with sodium hydroxide to form sodium silicate. After that, the
slurry is passed in tanks where sodium silicate is converted to sodium
aluminium silicate or sodalite. Sodalite is a highly stable compound and not
reactive with sodium hydroxide any more.

Al2,2SiO2,(OH)4+NaOH---------------- NaAlO2 +Na2SiO3 + H2O

NaAlO2+ Na2SiO3+H2O-------------- Na2O, Al2O3, 2SiO2, nH2O+NaOH


Sodalite

The slurry is then mixed with concentrated caustic soda solution and
pumped to cyclones for classification. The particles having bigger size than
63micron are recycled back to ball mill for further grinding. The fine
particle slurry proceeds to digestion process.

DIGESTION

Here the fine bauxite slurry in caustic soda solution is heated in tanks to
achieve 105OC. Sodium hydroxide reacts with alumina tri-hydrate to form
sodium meta-aluminate. The non reactive components such as iron oxide,
bohemite and silicon dioxide remain in suspended form in the slurry. Supply
steam for heating the slurry is at 9bar and 210 OC.
Al2O3, 3H2O+NaOH---------------------- NaAlO2+H2O
Digestion tanks are provided with agitators to prevent settling and increase
speed of reaction. The slurry remains for about 2hrs and 30minutes in
digestion tanks and then pumped to sand separating cyclones for removal of
coarse particles called as sand.

SAND SEPARATION

Digested slurry having about 100gm/lit solid is fed tangentially to small


conical tanks called as cyclones. Due to tangential feeding, the particles
experience centrifugal force and are thrown towards periphery and collide
on the wall of the cyclone. Heavier particles then fall under gravity and get
separated from bottom. The slurry having very small particles come out
from top of the cyclone and come to a tank called as dilution tank. The
separated sand is washed with water to extract soda from it and the washed
liquor is fed to dilution tank. The slurry here also contain solid and separated
in subsequent stages and washed with water for soda recovery. The wash
liquor derived from there is partly mixed in dilution tank to get desired soda
concentration of 167gm/lit.Diluted slurry has about 60gm/lit of solid and at
102OC. Diluted slurry is pumped to post desilication tanks.

POST DESILICATION

Remaining amount of reactive silica, which could not react with soda in
Predesilication, reacts in digestion and forms sodium silicate. This sodium
silicate has to be converted to non-reactive sodalite in precipitation. For this
purpose, diluted slurry is heated in post desilication tanks up to 105 OC and
retained for about 8hrs.the slurry is slowly agitated in post desilication tanks
to just avoid settling and facilitate sodalite formation. Favorable condition is
high temperature and low concentration. Outlet of this process is pumped to
settler for solid waste separation.

SETTLER

These are big tanks having diameter of 40m and height 6m. Desilicated
slurry is fed at the centre and the mud settles down and clear liquor remains
at the top. Slow speed rake mechanism drives the settled mud from centre to
periphery. Synthetic flocculant is dosed to the settler feed to enhance rate of
settling. Settler overflow containing about 400mg/lit of solid and 165gm/lit
soda is collected in an overflow tank. The underflow of settler containing
500gm/lit of settled mud is washed in six stages with water to recover
maximum amount of soda. Part of that wash liquor is mixed with settler
overflow liquor to attain 148gm/lit of soda concentration i.e. favorable
condition for alumina precipitation. The liquor thus achieved is pumped to
security filter feed tanks for third and last stage of solid impurity removal.

SECURITY FILTRATION

Since 400mg/lit of solid impurity in the liquor will make the alumina impure
in precipitation up to unacceptable limit, further separation of solid is done
by means of filtration. For this purpose, settler overflow liquor is filtered in
security filter or Kelly filter to bring down the solid from 400mg/lit to below
30mg/lit. Kelly filters are pressure leaf filters being operated at 3ata
pressure. Quick lime solution is used as filter aid to help in filtration. The
liquor there after is called as aluminate liquor and is ready for of alumina
production by precipitation. The soda concentration here remains at 147gpl,
RP at 1.06.

PRECIPITATION

Aluminate liquor is cooled down to about 65OC in plate heat exchangers to


achieve better precipitation. As per quality demand of precipitated products
grain size is most significant and in order to achieve bigger particles, small
hydrate particles are mixed with aluminate liquor so that alumina hydrate
precipitation takes place on those particles and their size increases. At the
end of precipitation process, the particles are classified as per size and
coarse particles are taken out as final product hydrated alumina. The fine
particles are mixed with fresh aluminate liquor to allow precipitation on the
surface to make them grow further. In this manner the coarse products are
taken out and fines are recycled to precipitator after mixing with aluminate
liquor. After classification of the precipitated products, slurry containing
coarse particles is filtered in product filter to remove the mother liquor
called spent liquor. The fine particles slurry is filtered in seed filters to
separate the mother liquor called as spent liquor. The spent liquor received
from both product and seed filters is heated up in plate heat exchangers
while cooling aluminate liquor and dispatched to evaporation area.

The seed hydrate is not only put in aluminate liquor for particle growth but
also for increasing the rate of precipitation as auto precipitation rate of
aluminate liquor is very low. Low concentration of soda in aluminate liquor,
low precipitation temperature, high surface area of seed hydrate, high
amount of seed hydrate are favoring factors for better precipitation.
Aluminate liquor mixed with seed is kept in precipitators for about 40hrs to
achieve substantial production. There are 16 precipitators of 4200m3
effective volume each in each stream. The precipitators are also cooled in
between to decrease the temperature to get more yields.

The spent liquor at concentration of 150gpl soda is pumped to evaporation


area and product hydrate proceeds to calcinations area.

EVAPORATION

The spent liquor at 80OC is stored in spent liquor tanks. Part of the liquor is
pumped to ball mill to help in wet grinding and Predesilication. Major
portion of the liquor is concentrated in evaporators and used for digestion.
There are six evaporator batteries, each have six effects. Any one of the first
five effects can be bypassed for maintenance purpose. These are falling film,
backward feed evaporators. Steam is used for heating the spent liquor and
boil to get vapor, so that the liquor gets concentrated.

Required evaporation : 800tons/hr of water


Steam used : 260tons/hr

The steam condensate from these multiple effect evaporators is sent back to
steam plant. Generated vapor is condensed in different effect and the
condensate is used in different area as sodic condensate. To enhance
capacity of evaporation battery, last effect is operated under vacuum and
spraying cooling water to the generated vapor generates the vacuum. The
product of evaporation battery is called as green liquor as it is capable of
giving production; the temperature is 105OC and concentration is 225gpl.

CALCINATION

The hydrated alumina received from precipitation is washed in drum filters


to reduce impregnated soda. In order to remove bound or chemically
combined moisture i.e. 3H2O from the hydrate it is subjected to temperature
of 1000OC furnace. The temperature is achieved by burning fuel oil with air.
There are three fluid bed calciners which have rated capacity of 5500 tons
alumina /day.

The alumina is transported to silos by belt conveyors and from there by


railway wagons to Angul and Vizag.

QUALITY OF ALUMINA

• PHYSICAL QUALITY
• -45 12%max
• +125 15%max
• BET Area 60-80M2/GM
• Loss on ignition 1%MAX
•  content 10%MAX

• CHEMIICAL PROPERTY
• Al2O3 (Purity) 98.5%MIN

Impurity
• Na2O 0.5%MAX
• CaO 0.05%MAX
• SiO2 0.02%MAX
• Fe2O3 0.015%MAX

SPECIFIC CONSUMPTION OF RAW MATERIALS

• BAUXITE 2.65TON (DRY)


• CAUSTIC SODA 70KG
• POWER 275KWH
• COAL 0.75TON
• FUEL OIL 80KG
• LIME 40KG
• CYTEC 300GM
• BRAN 4KG
• CGM 1KG
• WATER 4TONS

Use of alumina:
1. Mainly for manufacture of aluminium
2. In ceramic industries for manufacture of refractory
3. For manufacture of tooth powder, tooth paste

STEAM AND POWER PLANT

Nalco is a purpose utility. The main purpose is the production of


Alumina from bauxite. In this process of conversion of bauxite into
Alumina, steam is a major prerequisite, which is used in various unit
operations.
The unit operations where steam is required are as follows:
 Digestion
 Predesilication
 Desilication
 Classification
 Evaporation
 Calcinations
 Flocculation
Keeping in view the requirements of steam in the process of the plant,
during the time of installation a boiler was set up which would boil water
using oil and coal to heat water to steam. But with time it was seen that the
plant could produce more steam then was required i.e. only a part of it was
utilized. It was only then proposed to use this steam in power generation in
addition to it’s utilization in unit processes. This led to establishment of a
steam a power plant unit (SPP) in NALCO Damanjodi. SPP is called a
cogeneration plant because it helps in the production of both steam and
power. This steam is generated from the boiler and the power is generated
using this steam in a turbo generator. A turbine and a generator set up are
used for the production of power using steam.

There are various units, which are included under the steam and power
plant at NALCO Damanjodi. All these units are interconnected and affect
each other’s performance. The units are as listed below
 DM Plant
 Fuel Oil Handling plant
 Coal Handling Plant
 Boiler
 Turbo generator
 Ash Handling Plant

All the units were studied in the above order every section has an
intricate use of programmable logic control system (PLC) making the
whole plant an automated unit. Nalco is further focusing on converting
this whole PLC system to a Distributed Control System (DCS).

DM WATER PLANT

The De-Mineralized water plant’s aim, the plant is basically designed


to demineralise the water, which is in turn fed in to the boiler for the
generation of steam. Hence the name demineralised water plant.

The purpose of the plant is to free water fro\m all kind of impurities,
including suspended particles, cations, anions, undesired gases like CO 2
hence demineralised water is free from all kinds of
impurities. Its importance arises when water is needed in the
boiler for the production of steam. Water in the boiler must
be demineralised because, mineralized water in the boiler
results formation of scales. Hence hindering the production
of steam in the boiler. Scaling has the following
disadvantages.
 Results in the formation of holes in the water tubes of
the boiler.
 Results in leakage of water in the core of the boiler
 Coal burning is left incomplete
This steam is further utilized in the processes involving
the production of alumina. Hence serving the core purpose
of the plant.

The dm plant consists of 3 streams having a flow rate of


90 m3/hr of water feeding to the three working boilers. The streams of the
DM plant are Identical and are made up of the following stages:

 Activated carbon filter: - this is the first stage to which the


stream is made to flow. It is subjected to an ACF whose main
function is the absorption of the suspended impurities.
Acceptance limit:-
Ph value 6.5-8.2
Turbidity value 5-20ntu
 Strong acid cations:- resins present in the SAC
are subjected to passage of water by common ion
effect help in removal of cations
 Degasser tank:- undesirable gases like carbon
dioxide are removed in the tank by passing through
the degasser tower which contains 2 huge air
blowers.
 Strong Basic Anion:- the water free of suspended
particles cations and undesirable gases is passed
through the SBA tank to remove anions.
 Mixed Bed:- then the water is passed thru a mixed
bed containing boot cationic and anionic resins for
further purity from ionic impurities

Fuel Oil Handling

Fuel oil is procured in oil tankers into the plant premises. This fuel oil
is fundamentally of two types light diesel oil and heavy fuel oil. There are
two separate oil tanks for storing the oil procured from the oil tankers. There
are specialized unloading oil pumps which help in unloading the oil from the
oil tankers to the oil tanks. The capacity of the HFO tank is 100 m 3 and that
of LDO tank is 25m3.All the three tanks have an earth grid resistance of
0.176 ohm.

There are specialized suction pups for drawing oil from HFO and LDO
tanks there are three LDO suction pumps and three separate HFO pumps.
These pumps are used depending on the requirement in the boilers. If the
requirement is less one of the pumps is used as a standby. These pumps
pump oil from the tank and direct it towards the strainer. These strainers are
two in number and they are aimed at filtration of the oil in order to remove
the oil sediments. The filtered oil from the strainer is sent to the oil heater.
These are also two in number, one standby and one inline. This oil heater is
used to reduce the viscosity of oil so as to make the oil suitable for boiler
operation. This oil is heated by interacting it with steam at a pressure of 11
ata and temperature of 220 degree Celsius

This oil is channelized into the oil guns where it is used for lighting up
the boiler.

Fuel oil Light density Heavy fuel oil


oil(LDO)
Standard ISI 460/1974 ISI 1593/1971
Pour point (max) 12 – 18 ºc 38 ºc
Flash point (min) 66 ºc 66 ºc
Viscosity (max) 2.5 – 15.7 C.S.T at 80 – 370 C.S.T at
30ºc 50 ºc
Carbon 1.5% by mass ----------------
dioxide( max)
Total sulphur 1.5 %by mass 3.5% - 4.5% by
(max) weight
API gravity 35 sp Gr.0.85 at 15 10 sp. Gr. 0.934 at
(typical) ºc 150 ºc
Cross heating 10 – 20% Kcal/kg 1027 Kcal/kg
valve

COAL HANDLING PLANT

Coal is used as a primary fuel in the boiler. This coal is used in the
production of steam by heating water inside the boiler. Thus coal forms a
major requirement in SPP. This steam is used for carrying out the various
unit processes. The coal is bought from Talcher coal mines, by wagons. This
coal used in the boiler is known as B- grade coal, i.e. bituminous variety of
coal. The coal is now made to undergo a series of processes before being fed
to the boiler. The processed coal is sent to the coal handling plant. And then
it is used up by the coal feeding plant.

Coal unloading system: - the coal from wagons is fed to a hopper by


means of a rotaside wagon tippler. The coal from hopper is fed to the
vibrating feeder. By means of vibrating action it is made to pass into the
techno chute by means of a conveyor and flap gate arrangement. This coal is
stocked in the techno chute.

Coal feeding system: - this system has been so designed to separate


the iron components in the coal stock. This is done because iron presence
hinders steam formation. A CBM is installed for this purpose (Cross Belt
Magnet). This magnet attracts the iron pieces and separates them. But there
is possibility of some iron particles getting missed out. So a magnetic pulley
I fitted at the end of the conveyor. Then the coal is fed into the crusher
where it is reduced to -25 mm. two crushers (1 acts as standby). From the
crushers the coal is made to pass through a series of two conveyors and a
flap gate mechanism to enter the coal bunkers. A CBM is again used along
with a magnetic pulley so that iron particles don’t enter the bunker. Coal is
conveyed to the bunkers by means of a traveling tipper. Metal detectors help
in avoiding presence of metal in the boilers.

Rota side wagon tippler: - tips the wagons so that coal is collected in
the coal hopper.

Coal mill: - the function of the coal mill is to reduce the size by
grinding the crushed pieces of coal to 200 mesh size. This reduction of size
due to grinding increases the surface area of coal to enhance combustion of
coal.

Seal air fan: - In the coal mill there is gap in the rotating and static
part of the mill. This may lead to loss of coal by flyaway, due to intense
pressure prevailing in the coal mill. To avoid this seal air fan is provided at
the outlet which sucks in cold air from the atmosphere and pumps it into the
coal mill where the gap is created. Hence the pressure of the air pumped in
is always more than pressure inside the coal mill. It avoids leakage of coal to
the atmosphere.

ASH HANDLING PLANT


Ash produced due to combustion in the boiler needs to be disposed off
safely so that it does not have an adverse effect on the environment or the
people.

This function is carried out by the ash handling plant. Out of the total
ash produced 20 %is known as bottom ash which is collected in the water
impounded furnace (bottom hopper). The rest is conveyed out by flue gas
and is collected mainly in the ESP. the fly ash is collected in three parts, the
major amount is collected in EP hoppers, small amount of fly ash is
accumulated in the economizer and air pre heater hoppers. The scrapper
conveyor located below the bottom ash hopper carries the ash falling on it
and delivers it to the clinker grinder where clinkers are flushed away by low
pressure ash water into the trenches below the grinder. The ash water from
the trenches is collected in an ash pit, from where it is pumped to the ash
pond using slurry pumps.

Electrostatic precipitator: - these are widely used for industrial


purposes of dust collection and cleaning. These are very reliable because of
the following reasons:
 High precipitation efficiency
 Operational reliable units
 Optimization in unit sizes
 Suitability for high resistively dust application
 Reduction in operation and maintenance cost

This is a set up for collection of ash particles from flue gas produced in
the boiler core. These precipitators have very high efficiency of 99.9%. The
rest 0.1% is lost to the atmosphere. There are two passes for a boiler “ Pass
A” and “Pass B”. Each pass in a boiler has seven feeders; the fourth unit has
28 feeders.
An ESP consists of a negatively charged discharge electrode, which is

HP ash water Ash slurry pump: - Drain pump: -


pump:- Speed: 825 rpm Capacity: 100 m3/hr
Capacity: 295 m3/hr motor rating: 150 kw Total head: 15 mts
Heat: 85 MWC pump capacity:635 Speed: 1040 rpm
3
Motor rating: NGEF, m /hr motor rating: 15 kw
415V,
50 Hz, 105 KW
Speed: 1500 rpm
Efficiency: 78%

hung between to earthed metal plates called collecting electrodes. When a


high dc voltage is supplied to the discharge electrode an electric field is
produced which ionizes the gas around the discharge electrode. This
phenomenon of discharge is called “Corona Discharge”. After charging the
particles start migrating towards the earthed electrodes. On reaching the
opposite collecting plates these ash particles loose their charge and get
deposited there. This deposited dust layer is removed by “rapping” at fixed
intervals. This dust then falls into hoppers and ash-handling process is
carried out.

Boiler

The boilers set up in Nalco Damanjodi at its steam and power generation
plant (spp) have the following specifications:
VU type, natural circulation
Capacity: uses 200tonnes/hours
Fuel injection type, tangential fixed corner type fuel firing,
Bidrum,
Steam pressure: 67 Kg/cm2
Steam temperature: 485 ºc

Inputs: -
There are three basic needs which a boiler requires:
 water to generate steam
 fuel to heat the water
 air to support combustion

Outputs: -
initially the steam generated by the boiler was used to meet the
requirements of the plant i.e. The process of alumina refining but gradually
it was seen that steam produced could be further utilized to generate power
as a by product. Thus the outputs of the boiler now are
 steam for the process of alumina refining
 power as a by product
 residual products (waste products)

Construction: -
Dimensions:-
Cuboidal in shape
Height – 150 ft

The inner walls of the boiler entirely comprises of vertical water tubes with
a bore diameter of 75 mm each. These vertical tubes are called as steam
generating tubes. The water tubes a re separated by thin vertical tubes of
metal called fins. To ensure safety of maintenance workers the boiler is
insulated from the outside. Further description is done taking into account
the various paths of the inputs

Water:
The water from the dm plant output is stored in the DM tank. From the
dm tank the water is taken to the make up water tank (MUWT). Water from
the MUWT is pumped to the deaerator chamber; wherein the dissolved
oxygen is removed from the dm water by using steam. This oxygen free
water is stored in the deaerator tank, which is below the deaerator chamber.
The water is now pumped to the steam drum through the boiler feed pump
arrangement.

Before being sent to the feed pump it is first set to the feed station (level
control) and then to the economizer (preheating) and then to the steam drum.
Now the water from the steam drum is fed to the mud drum by means of
bank tubes. Now from the mud drum water moves to the ring header via
down comers.
The steam generating tubes inside the boiler are connected to the ring
header. And as the water in the boiler heats up it passes in to the ring header,
resulting in natural circulation.
This saturated steam is now fed into the super heater placed inside at
the top of the boiler
Finally the super heated steam at 485 ºc is fed into the main streamline.
This is the main steam header. This header is now the input to the turbines
hence aiding in power generation.

Air path: -
Now any fuel in any form is bring injected in to the boiler chamber it
catches fire or undergoes combustion instantaneously.
Thus in order to control this combustion there are some very elaborate
arrangements
Boiler is always kept at a negative pressure, so that pressure does not
increase to an explosive value.
Producing a forced air draft does this.

Fuel path: -
The fuel used in the boiler is of two types. One is the fuel oil and the
other is the pulverized coal. Coal is used as a fuel as it is less costly
compared to fuel oil. But the fuel oil has its own significance. Since the coal
cannot be used for combustion as it will result in improper combustion. So
HFO is first used to attain a necessary temperature in the boiler of about 600
ºc and then coal dust of 200 mesh size is injected into the boiler after this
temperature is attained. Initially LDO was used to attain ignition
temperature in the boiler for firing HFO and then coal.

Various components and their functions: -


Economizer: preheats the water before sending to the boiler drum.

Steam drum: contains both steam and water pumped in there by the
boiler feed pump.
Bank tubes: connect the steam drum and the mud drum

Mud drum: It is preheated by flue gases and contains water at very


high pressure.

Deaerator chamber: - it dissolves the oxygen present in the


demineralized water coming from the DM plant
Deaerator tank: water from the deaerator chamber is stored in the
deaerator tank
Make up water tank: it is filled with condensed steam from the return
steam line received through the return steam lines. It also receives RC from
condensate extraction pumps

Wind box: contains heated air from the air pre heater. It provides air in
the proper proportion for complete combustion in the boiler.

Air pre heater: it is a heat exchanger in which air temperature is


raised by transferring heat from flue gases.

Scanner: to check whether the fireball has been established or not we


need to constantly monitor the interior of the boilers. thus scanners have
been installed in order to check the temperature and pressure

Scanner air fans: in order to keep the scanners cool and clean the
glass surface is blown by blasts of cold air continuously. Thus for cooling
and purging scanner air fans are used

Turbine

The working steam flows axially through the single casing extraction
back pressure. The emergency stop valves are arranged on the casing at the
inlet, their purpose being to shut off the total steam flow, the boiler to the
turbine in the shortest possible time. The live steam flows trough the
emergency stop valve housings, which are welded on to the side of the
turbine casing, to the hp control valve chest. The control valves regulate the
steam flow through the turbine according to the load demand.

The blading both in the high pressure and low pressure parts of the
turbine is of the impulse type with high reaction. These parts serve as
regulating stages.

After expansion through the hp part some of the steam is let off
through the two extraction steam mains. For isolating the turbine from the
mains an extraction stop valve is provided which operates in the same way
as the live steam emergency stop valves. It’s purpose is to isolate the turbine
from the extraction steam mains in the case of shutdown and thereby avoid
steam flowing back into the turbine
The pressure at the point of extraction is governed by the LP control
valves. The steam flow through the LP part is related to the extraction steam
quantity in such a way that the pressure at the extraction point is kept
constant within the design range. The hp and LP control valves are each
positioned by a hydraulically operated relay cylinder via linkage system.

The turbine outer casing is horizontally split. The hp and lp steam


chests are cast integral with the top half. These cylindrical steam chests are
arranged transversely with two side assembly openings. In the hp steam
chest these openings also connect with the emergency stop valves. Two
further top openings allow further installation of the two valve spindles.

The steam passes via the diffusers and the hp inner casing nozzle
bowls to the regulating stage. The inner casing is not horizontally split
thereby allowing optimum dimensions with approximately constant wall
thickness. Besides the nozzle ring and its locking ring for the mounting of
the diaphragms is built into the hp inner casing. These diaphragms are split
horizontally and are fixed to the locking ring by radial bolts. Thereby free
thermal expansion with exact centering is allowed. The axial steam forces on
the diaphragms are carried by the inner casing via the locking ring and its
bayonet lock. The centering of this locking ring in the inner casing is
achieved by axial keys arranged around the circumference

The steam pressure downstream of the hp inner casing is


simultaneously the pressure on the outside of the inner casing caused by
pressure difference are relatively small, no appreciable thermal stresses
occur through temp differences in the inner casing as it is surrounded by
steam coming out of the labyrinth at approximately the live steam
temperature

The hp inner casing is radially and axially located so as to follow free


thermal expansion in all directions. It is supported and located axially and
vertically in the outer casing near the horizontal joint, for sideways
displacement is prevented by top and bottom fit bolts. The connection to
inlet steam chest is achieved by steam tight flexible rings which allow
expansion

The use of the hp inner casing severely reduces the internal pressure
acting on the outer casing therefore the outer casing flanges and bolts can be
reasonably dimensioned
The lp inner casing is arranged downstream of the hp inner casing, the
lower steam conditions allowing it to be horizontally split.

A collar in the outer casing retains it in the axial direction almost


without play.
It’s centering relative to the rotor and the outer casing is achieved by
horizontal and vertical keys and centering bolts

The diffuser for the low-pressure valves which are necessary for
maintaining the extraction pressure and for controlling the lp steam flow are
screwed into and locked in the inner casing. The nozzles which are attached
to two half rings are inserted direct in the inner casing halves. The
diaphragms are located I the inner casing by radial centering bolts and
vertical bolts t horizontal joint thereby guaranteeing free thermal expansion.

In order to eliminate steam leakage between the rotor and inner casing
with closed lp control valves a labyrinth seal is provided which operates as a
shaft gland.

As the turbine rotor and outer casing are independently supported by


the bearing pedestals an exact alignment of both elements is necessary. Since
the rotor position is determined by the bearings the thermal expansion must
be taken into account when supporting the outer casing. The vertical position
of the casing is determined by paw supports, the play under the heads of the
bolts holding the paws to the bearing pedestals allows transverse expansion
of the outer casing relative to the bearing pedestals. The alignment of the
outer casing in the horizontal plane is achieved by lower casing guides
which are so constructed that the outer casing can freely move up and down

The exhaust and bearing pedestal is fixed to the sole plates since the
lower casing and the bearing pedestal do not allow for axial movements
between casings and bearing pedestals, thermal expansion of the casing
pushes the front bearing pedestal forward, sideways movement of the
bearing pedestal is prevented by axial guide keys. The bearing pedestals
cannot twist tip or lift.

The turbine rotor is manufactured from an alloy steel forging. The


formation of the blades direct from the rotor material allows for high blade
loading. The journal bearings for the rotor are located in the bearing
pedestals. With the front allocated in the bearing pedestal also contains the
thrust bearing which rotates the turbine rotor axially and absorbs axial thrust
A tooth coupling connects the turbine rotor to the driven machine and
prevents carry over of axial thrust and bending moments.

The balance piston partially compensates the axial thrust as the axial
thrust also depends on the turbine load the remaining thrust is taken by the
thrust bearing at the same time the balance piston labyrinth seals the
pressure in the wheel chamber against the gland steam pressure.

The blading consists of a hp and lp impulse stage which allows partial


arc admission fro good flow regulation, the remaining stages and impulse
stages. The radial and axial clearances are so dimensioned that add high
reliability in service with best utilization of the available heat drop is
achieved
The turbine is hydraulically governed

The over speed trip is to interrupt steam admission to the turbine as


soon as the speed becomes excessive.

Pressure measuring points on the various steam spaces are provide for
supervision, thermometers on the bearing oil return lines allow for regular
bearing checks.

Lubrication system: - the lubrication system is designed to reduce the


frictional losses and provide adequate cooling arrangement to the bearings
of the turbine and generator, coupling and gearboxes. It furnishes governor
and control oil requirement s also

The major parts governing the lubrication system are as follows:


 Main oil tank
 Main oil pump
 Auxiliary oil pump
 Emergency oil pump
 Jack oil pump
 Oil coolers
 Oil filters / centrifuge

TURBOGENERATOR
INTRODUCTION
In the recent years many basic industries could not meet their
production targets because of lack of availability of power in adequate
quantity. Non-availability of power has affected production as well as safety
of some of the core industries. Looking from this angle and based upon the
steam requirement of alumina extraction process, detailed study was
conducted for suitable selection of TURBO GENERATORS.

Cogeneration increases the cycle efficiency of the power plant.


Analyzing the steam and electrical load pattern of the entire plant, three 18.5
MW extraction (45 tph) back pressure (110 tph) TURBO GENERATORS of
backpressure type with the unique feature of controlled extraction. Design of
turbines was done so that after expansion in TG steam parameters at turbine
outlet are at compatible level as per the requirement of alumina refinery.

Superheated steam is generated in the boilers by combustion of fuel.


This superheated steam is expanded in turbines/pressure temperature and
pressure Power is co-generated by means of Extraction Back pressure
TURBO GENERATORS.

It essentially consists of two components-the turbine and the generator.

The turbine is a steam turbine and is basically an extraction


backpressure type. The steam is fed at a temperature of 485 degree
centigrade and at a pressure of 68 Kg/Sq cm and is fed to the alumina
process as well as to take care of the auxiliary consumption with in the
steam power plant. Balance quantity of steam from the HP stage is fed to
the LP stage and from the exhaust of this stage at a pressure of 6 kg/Sq cm is
fed to the alumina process as per requirement. The P-V expansion of the
steam inside the turbine determines the work done by the turbine. In turbine
the thermal energy of the steam is converted into mechanical motion of the
turbine.

The mechanical energy of the turbine is used to drive a cylindrical pole


3000-rpm generator through a gearbox of 5300/3000. The stator consists of
the stationary high voltage circuit and the rotor forms the low voltage
excitation or the field circuit.

For an EMF/voltage to be induced in a conductor as per faradays laws of


electromagnetic induction- i.e. if the flux linking with a conductor changes
an EMF is induced in the conductor and magnitude of the induced EMF
depends on the rate of change of flux linkages.
The stator consists of the windings constituting the conductor portion, a flux
has to be induced by the rotor circuit, where as the rate of change is taken
care of by the turbine motion.

For creating a flux by the rotor circuit a voltage has be applied to this
rotating winding through slip rings and carbon brushes. Hence when the
turbine is running at almost constant speed the generated voltage output is
dependant on the field/rotor input supply.

The Active power output generated is dependant on the steam input supplied
to turbine, by varying steam input the MW output generated by the generator
can be varied.

The Reactive power output generated is entirely dependent on the field


supply, by increasing the excitation the MVAR output inductive can be
increased and by decreasing the excitation the MVAR output Capacity can
be increased.

Hence to maintain constant generator output voltage it is necessary to


maintain the excitation supply constant. To take care of the excitation
requirements an Automatic voltage regulator is provided in the excitation
system. The automatic voltage regulator shall be discussed in a little while

SYSTEM DESCRIPTION:
There are three 18.5 MW extraction and back pressure turbines in
NALCO Alumina Refinery at Damanjodi. A tuning PRDS system along with
Dump Condenser and Vent system makes the generating facility capable of
island operation isolating the plant from power cuts.
Steam flow through the turbines is in axial direction. To shut off the total
steam supply from Boiler to Turbine in the shortest possible time Emergency
Stop Valve (ESV) is arranged at the turbine inlet. The live steam flows
through ESV to the valve chest of HP Control valves which regulate the
steam flow through the turbine according to the load demand.

They are bladed both in the high pressure and low pressure parts of the
turbine is of the impulse type with high reaction. The HP and LP parts serve
as regulating stages. For EG type of turbine, part of the steam is bled from
the turbine at the extraction branch behind the HP drum bladed and fed to
extraction steam. Extraction stop valve is provided in the same way as live
steam emergency stop valve to isolate the turbine from extraction mains,
thereby avoiding steam flowing back to the turbines causing over speeding
of the turbine due to reverse flow.

The LP control valve controls the backpressure at the extraction


branch. The steam rate through the LP steam is matched to the extraction
rate in such a way that the pressure is kept constant within the designed data.
A hydraulically operated relay cylinder positions the HP and LP control
valves and a labyrinth gland separates both the drum bleedings. The turbine
rotor is manufactured from an alloy steel forging. The formation of the
blades direct from the rotor material allows for high blade loading. The
Journal bearings for the rotor are located in the bearing pedestals. The front
bearing pedestal also contains the thrust bearing which locates the turbine.
A tooth coupling connects the turbine rotor to the driven machine and
prevents carry over of axial thrusts and bending moments.

TURBINE GOVERNING SYSTEM


Turbo generator is equipped with hydraulic governing system. This is
designed to control the speed of Turbo generator set at varying electrical
loads and extraction steam quantities.

For control purpose single casing backpressure turbine with one


controlled extraction has been divided internally with steam glands into two
parts high-pressure part and low-pressure part. In each part of the turbine
steam flow is regulated by a set of steam control valves. The amount of
opening of each valve is controlled by the hydraulic signal (secondary oil
pressure) generated by speed governor (back pressure controller) and
extraction pressure controller.

Speed governor generates the secondary oil pressure for control valve
actuators (servomotors) in such a way that the change in amount of steam
flow through HP and LP parts of the turbine is the same The SRV IV
governor controls the turbine speed and maintains it at a constant value in
accordance with the functional relationship represented by its characteristic
line. The pressure of the secondary oil discharged at the governor output side
forms the input signal that acts on the control piston of the servomotor.

The following mechanical protections are inbuilt into the governing system.
1. Over speed protection. – Set between 8 to 10% above the rated
speed.
2. Low lube oil pressure protection. Set at 0.7kg/cm2g.
3. High back pressure protection. – Set at 7.2 kg/cm2 g.
4. High extraction pressure protection. – Set at 12.2 kg/cm2 g.
5. Emergency hand trip device. To trip the set locally in emergency.

LUBRICATION SYSTEM
The lubrication system delivers clean, filtered Oil at the specified
pressure to the bearings of the generator, turbine, coupling and gearboxes. It
furnishes governor and control oil requirements also.
The main oil tank has a capacity of 11000 ltr. The tank is provided
with a level sight gauge glass, a low-level alarm switch. It has the facility of
a centrifuge equipped with a heater, filling, draining and venting.
During normal operation of the turbine total oil requirement is met by
Main Oil Pump(MOP) which is turbine driven. During start up Auxiliary Oil
Pump(AOP) meets the oil requirement which is powered from AC source .
In addition an Emergency Oil Pump(EOP) powered from DC source caters
to the bearing lubrication and subsequent cooling down of the set during
power failure.
Two oil coolers are provided, each serving as a standby to the other to
cool the total oil flow used for the set.
The oil after leaving the cooler goes to the filter. Paper
cartridges(disposable) are used in this(in filter unit, each serving as a
standby to the other. High differential pressure across the filter calls for a
change of cartridges.

THE CENTRIFUGE
The centrifuge is a machine, which applies centrifuge force to a liquid.
The rotor, called a bowl has an opening in the bottom to allow the fluid to
enter, and opening in the top of the bowl to allow the liquid or fluids to
discharge. The fluid entering the rotating bowl is caused to rotate with the
bowl. Centrifugal force is generated by the rapid rotation. The liquid, as it
passes from the bottom to the top of the bowl, is acted upon by the
centrifugal force generated the separation of liquids is thus effected and the
removal of solids also accomplished separating it into its various parts
according to their relative weight. The heavier parts (Such as solids and
sludges), are forced through the liquid and form a layer on the inside wall of
the bowl. The heavier liquid forms a cylindrical layer upon which floats a
cylindrical layer of the lighter liquid. The light liquid is assumed to be oil,
and the heavy liquid water.

Clarification:

The term “clarification” is used to describe a separation of solids from


a liquid. A clarifier is a centrifuge adjusted to discharge a single liquid from
which the solids have been removed by centrifugal force. If oil contains no
moisture, the use of a clarifier is all that is necessary to purify. If, however,
the oil contains some moisture, this will settle to the bottom of the gravity
through, together with the solids. As additional wet oil is flowed through the
trough, the layer of water in the bottom will build up until eventually the
trough will be full of water. If wet oil is still fed to the trough, it will merely
flow across the top of the water layer and the oil will discharge without the
water having separated from the oil.

Separation:
The term “separation” is used to describe the result of gravity or
centrifugal force acting on two liquids, such as oil and water. A centrifugal
separator is one that is adjusted to continuously separate and discharge these
liquids. Since this force is also acting on any solids present, clarification
takes place at the same time through the deposit of these solids present
clarification takes place at the same time through the deposit of these solids
against the wall of the bowl. Water is fed first when the machine (bowl)
reaches its full speed to the gravity through or to the centrifuge bowl. The
bowl will be filled up with water and the excess water will overflow through
the water drain passage. This is followed by oil entering the bowl. If,
however, oil is first fed, the trough or the bowl will fill up until water drain
port height is reached and the oil will then overflow, discharging through the
water drain. This means that the oil is delivered at the outlet normally
intended for water, because there is not water in the bowl to seal off this
outlet and thus cause the oil to overflow. In any oil and water separation,
water must first be fed to the bowl in order to create this seal. This operation
is known as “priming”.

EXCITATION SYSTEM:

The excitation transformer, connected to the generator stator terminals


through a tap off bus duct feeds to the thyristor converter. The output of
these thyristor bridges is connected to the generator field through field
breaker. The automatic voltage regulator controls the output from thyristor
converters by adjusting firing angle depending on the generator voltage. The
field flashing circuit facilitates initial build up of generator voltage from DC
power supply.
The excitation system comprises of-
- An excitation transformer fed from the generator output
terminals and its associated protections.
- A thruster converter used in 3 sections for redundancy to convert
the AC to DC for feeding the rotor circuit along with all
associated protection, cooling and control systems
- A field breaker for switching on the excitation supply on DC side
with field discharge resistor to avoid over voltages when field
breaker opens, it is a make before break contact
- A field flashing contactor to provide the initial excitation system
requirements through a station battery which automatically
switches off as soon as the generator output voltage reaches 70%
of the rated voltage.
- A series compounding transformer along with rectifier circuits to
provide 30% of the excitation requirement during normal
operation and to provide additional excitation requirements for a
few seconds in case of a fault in the system i.e. to enable the
generator to sustain if the fault is cleared instantaneously. The
magnitude of the supporting excitation in case of a fault supplied
by the SCT is proportional to the magnitude of the fault current
fed by the generator it self, it is a basic requirement in case of
isolated networks and in systems operating in island condition.
- An Automatic voltage regulator to control the excitation circuits
to maintain the output voltage constant at set reference value.

AUTOMATIC VOLTAGE REGULATOR

The automatic voltage regulator's functions are carried out by the


different modules that have been built into it circuitry. The functions of these
modules and their operation mechanisms are discussed briefly below.

The AVR is designed to control the output voltage of the generator at


set value through a closed loop control comprising of inputs from the PT, CT
of the generator
It has various limiter circuits that override the AVR signal to ensure stable
performance of the generator .
 They are rotor current limiter, limiting the rotor current to a set value if
bringing irrespective of the AVR signal exceeds the set value and AVR
can take over only when the current has come down below the set
value of the rotor current limiter.
 Stator current limiter to limit the generator output current to set value
overriding the AVR increasing error signal and AVR can take over only
when the current has come down below the set value
 Rotor Angle limiter to prevent the rotor falling out of step overriding
the AVR increasing error signal and AVR can take over only when the
current has come down below the set value
 N-2 limiter to limit the rotor current in case of failure of TWO thyristor
bridges

THE AVR IS DIVIDED INTO TWO SECTIONS ONE --AUTO


CHANNEL FOR NORMAL OPERATION AND A MANUAL CHANNEL
FOR TESTING PURPOSE AND FOR EMERGENCY OPERATION.

There is a provision for automatic changeover from AUTO to MANUAL


channel in case of any problem in the excitation circuits and in such a case
to ensure surge free operation during changeover the Manual channel
reference is made to automatically follow the auto channel reference
through a follow up circuits, pulse comparison circuits

The Manual channel functions in an open loop control through a manual


limiter and field current regulator

The Pulse generator, intermediate pulse amplifiers are duplicated one each
for AUTO & MANUAL channel

Other important cards like pulse supervision module, pulse distribution


board and necessary power supply modules, transformers, filters, Voltage
relays, Auto potentiometers and manual reference potentiometers, Matching
and feed back modules, Cards for Logic circuits and annunciations, fault
indications, timers etc are provided to ensure fool proof operation and
dynamic stability of the regulator

The pulse final stage and its power supply, thruster and its cooling
circuitry, pulse transformers etc are in 3 different and independent sections

FUNCTIONS OF AVR MODULES IN AUTO & MANUAL


CHANNELS

Matching & Feedback Module:


 It is used in both MANUAL and AUTO mode
 It is used for matching the MANUAL reference to the running
AUTO POT reference, when TG is running on AUTO mode, on a
continuous basis. This is necessary for surge free operation of TG
when a changeover takes place from AUTO to MANUAL due to
any reason.
 The input is used for matching the MANUAL reference to the
running AUTO POT reference, when TG is running on AUTO
mode, on a continuous basis, i.e. with P1 relay energized. When TG
is running in MANUAL this input is inverted and signal is fed to
AVR i.e. with P2 relay energized.
 It has an single input which is available at test point 5 of RU 05
 Output for Null balance voltmeter is available at test point 4 of RU
05.
 Zero volt reference available at test point 30 of RU 05.

Follow up control:
 It functions only when AVR is in AUTO mode
 It is employed everywhere one must influence a controlled variable with
discontinuous final control elements. Here it is utilized to give signals to
raise /lower the MANUAL reference to follow the AUTO POT reference.
And thereby ensuring surge free operation in case of change over from
Auto To manual channel
 It has an electrical interlocking so that both raise & lower signals are not
available at the outputs simultaneously.
 Output raise /lower is available at test point 25 /24 of RU 05.

Stator current limiter/ Integrator:


 It controls the AVR in AUTO mode
 Limits stator current in synchronous generators.
 It has a I sin (phi) detector circuit which distinguishes between
inductive & capacitate current. Also a voltage input is necessary for
this circuit.
 If capacitate current is exceeded immediately the stator current is
brought back to set value by immediately giving a command to AVR to
increase the excitation current, this is prevent out of step failure of
generator. Output is available at terminal 49 of RU 10.
 If inductive current is exceeded it is brought down to set value thru. An
integrator ckt. . This is necessary for ensuring the dynamic stability of
the system. Output is available at terminal 51 of RU 10
 The action is instantaneous for capacitate current by increasing field
current
 The action is time delayed for inductive current by decreasing field
current
 This unit has its power supply in built

Rotor current limiter:


 It controls the AVR in AUTO mode
 Limits rotor current in synchronous generators.
 Normally limits the current to set value, but in case of N-2 in
auto/manual it is brought down to a set value (ref) from manual limiter,
at this point rotor current limiter is ineffective.
 Only Ie1 is effective. Ie2 is not in ckt.
 This has a priority over rotor angle limiter.
 It has a provision for switching OFF the output.
 Initially this limits the current to Ie max & then it is slowly brought
down to Ie1
 Decreases field current through delay

Load Angle limiter


 It functions in both MANUAL and AUTO mode
 In AUTO its output is delivered to AVR through a contact in manual
limiter
 In MANUAL mode output is delivered to manual limiter which in turn
controls the field current, but the priority of field current is there over
this in both MANUAL and AUTO mode .
 Limits electrically the angle between the stator & rotor. It has a
provision for switching OFF the output.
 Instantaneous action and increases field current t to keep the machine
falling out of step

Manual limiter
 It is used in both MANUAL and AUTO mode
 Limits rotor current in (N-2) operation in both AUTO/MANUAL
 Takes an input from load angle limiter to control the field current
__sed on the existing load angle to prevent out of step operation of
generator, in case of changeover from AUTO to MANUAL.
 It is an open loop operation.
 Limits the rotor current to a set value in (N-2) operation in AUTO.
 Rotor angle limiter overrides the manual reference.
 Priority of N-2 over rotor current limitation.
Field current regulator
 It is used in MANUAL mode
 To limit the rotor current / regulate the field current.
 This is used to regulate current to set value especially when the
excitation system has a series compounding transformer.

Del alpha / Pulse Comparison Unit


 It is used for comparison of firing pulses Auto and Manual Channels
 Used for pulse comparison to compare the output pulses of both Auto
& manual channel in order top keep the manual channel analog output
equal to the Auto channel analog output so that surge free change over
from Auto to Manual is ensured in case of any abnormality, this is
achieved through Matching & Feedback Module and follow up
control.

Pulse supervision unit


 It is used in AUTO mode
 Picks up after set delay in case of missing pulses, asynchronous pulses
with an LED indication, and in turn blocks the pulses of the
intermediate pulse stage or and cause protective changeover to Manual
Channel
 Change over to Manual channel disables this unit

Control Amplifier / AVR


 It regulates the output voltage of the generator and keeps it constant as
per the set value if all parameters are with in limit
 Does not have any internal power supply
 Receives input from reference circuit, limiters, actual value circuit
comprising of sensed PT and CT input values and delivers an output
voltage proportional to the difference of actual value and reference
value to grid control unit after considering the inputs from limiters.
 It has a provision for reactive power compensation to take care of the
drop in the unit transformer.
 It has a frequency dependent circuit to control the output voltages
proportional to frequency when the generator is running at frequencies
lesser than the rated value.
 It has gain reducing circuitry to minimise the oscillations in output
Converter
 For the purpose of redundancy, it is split into 3 sections, each having
its own pulse out put final stage with built in power supply, pulse
transformers, thyristor, cooling fans, monitoring unit for air.
 Failure of one section leads to Alarm.
 Failure of Two sections lead to limitation in output
 Failure of all the three sections to tripping of field breaker

Limiters
 All the limiters namely - Stator current limiter, rotor current limiter,
integrator, Rotor angle limiter operates in parallel with the reference
value of the AVR at input.

Grid Control Unit & Pulse Intermediate Stage


 Converts the Analog output signal of the AVR (for Auto channel) or
the Field current regulator (of The Manual Channel) into a row of
trigger pulses of appropriate phase position for the power output stage
 It works on the principle of vertical control by intersection with the
sinusoidal voltage obtained through synchronous transformer
 It has an advantage of self-regulation of supply voltage variations
 The control characteristics is linear ensuring optimum dynamic
performance
 The intermediate pulse stage amplifies the pulses generated by the
Grid control Unit
 The intermediate pulse stage has its inbuilt DC power supply source
i.e. converts AC input Available into DC for its functioning as well as
provides the power supply for Grid control Unit
 Duplicated one for the Manual channel and one for the Auto channel
 Auto channel GCU & PIS is controlled by AVR
 Manual Channel GCU & PIS is controlled by Field current Regulator

Pulse Distribution Board


 Common to both Auto & Manual channel
 Receives the pulses from the intermediate pulse stage of the channel in
operation i.e either from Auto or Manual, the pulses of the channel not
in service are blocked electronically at the intermediate pulse stage
Channel changeover from AUTO to Manual
 It takes place automatically as a result of Protective changeover signal
due to any abnormal operation of the excitation system / the regulator
as sensed by the logic circuitry
 Change over carried out from the control desk or regulator
intentionally
 During changeover the pulses of the unused channel are blocked
electronically and for the channel coming into service the pulses are
released electronically
 In Manual channel the Rotor current limiter, Stator current limiter,
integrator are not effective
 Only the load angle limiter is effective in addition to Manual limiter
when the regulator is operating in manual channel.

Power supply
 The power supply for the electronics is obtained from the excitation
transformer through a regulation supply transformer after rectification/
regulation / stabilisation in the power supply Modules

 For Auto channel TWO power packs UN 2007 and UN2004 are
provided. UN 2001 and UN 2004 are functional upto minimum of 30
% 0f the rated supply voltage

 UN 2007 is functional upto +/- 30 % of the rated supply voltages and


supplies +/- 15 V: +5V: +24 V stabilised power supply for limiters,
Slip stabilisation circuits, Supervision modules. It is provided with an
input MCB to open in case of Over Voltage / Over Current. It has an
circuit to monitor output under voltage and indication by an LED
which does not glow in case of under voltage and in case of output
under voltage causes change over to manual channel

 For Manual Channel only power pack is provided namely UN 2004

 Each Pulse output Stage has its own power pack UN 2001
 Synchronous Voltage for pulse generation is obtained from a
Synchronous transformer/of ratio 140/380 V AC whose primary is
connected to the excitation transformer secondary a filter. A Voltage
relay supervises the synchronous voltage

 For the purpose of testing the regulator, an Auxiliary supply is


provided through a Auxiliary transformer of ratio 415 V/ 380VAC
from an external source

 The supply for cooling fans of the thyristor cubicle is obtained from
the excitation transformer through a fan supply transformer of ratio
140/380V AC

 48 Volt DC is obtained through a) 110 VDC / 48V DC DC -DC


converter Kx9171a, and b) 140 V AC / 48V DC through an AC/ DC
converter Kx9171a. All the 2 outputs are connected in parallel And
are used for UT tripping; Uc for general control circuits; Us for
signalisation

 24 Volt DC is obtained through a) 110 VDC / 24V DC DC -DC


converter Kx9170a, and b) 140 V AC / 24V DC through an AC / DC
converter Kx9171a. c) 24 V AC-DC linear power supply. All the 3
outputs are connected in parallel and are used for logic cards

Voltage Relay UN 0010


 Monitors the output generator voltage
 Gives signal for blocking the pulses of the GRID control unit if the o/p
voltage is less than 30% of the rated system voltage
 Switches OFF the field flashing equipment if the O/p voltage is more
the n 70% of the rated system voltage

Pulse final Stage UN 2001


 Has its own supply unit
 Supplies the pulses to the thyristor through pulse transformers

Series compounding transformer


 It is basically a current transformer
 The output of the secondary of this is rectified and the voltage so
obtained is used in series additive mode to the out put from the
converter to supply to the field circuitry
 It is basically designed for use with an isolated network system with
the excitation system drawing power from the generator terminals to
prevent the generator from tripping for a small period (in sec) in case
of starting of heavy motors / faults which result in under voltage of the
generator out put
 It basically supplies an additional field voltage during starting of heavy
motors / faults by using the high current drawn from the generator it
self to augment the field voltage as the excitation transformer cannot
meet the field requirements at that moment.
 If the under voltage sustains for more than few seconds the generator
under voltage protection takes care of the system and isolates the
generator
 It is best suited for networks which do not have any transformer
connected between load distribution point and the generator terminals
 It does not have any effect on the AVR controls
 It generally caters 30-40 % of the excitation requirement and the
balance is taken care of by excitation transformer.

TECH DATA:

Technical Data of Turbogenerator:

Type -TGP 224240/2 TSM Apparent output -23125kva


Active output -18500kW Rated power factor -
0.8 lag
Rated voltage -11000 volt Rated current
-1214 Amp
Rated speed -3000 rpm Rated frequency 50 Hz
Short ckt.ratio -0.574 Gener.field resistance
-0.1928 ohm
Critical speed of gen. -1940 rpm Moment of inertia of rotor -
3.282
Generator phase -star connected Carbon brushes -8 per ring
(2 rings)
Carbon brush size -32X32mm Carbon brush grade
-HM6R
Insulation:
Stator -Class B Rotor
-Class B
Excitation requirement: Amp Volt
Power
At no load- 205 40
8.2kW
At full load- 536 145
77.72kW

Technical Data of TG Auxiliaries:

AOP:
Frame -KPD OR026 MOTOR -
KW-7.5
Total head -89.56 mm. RPM -2870
RPM -2970 Voltage -415 V
Rating -75 KW Current -28 Amp

EOP:
TG-1 & 2 (Motor) KW –7.5 TG-3KW -
7.5
RPM -3000 RPM -2800
Current -103 Amp. Current -103Amp
Voltage -110, Voltage -110V
Motor brg. -SKF-6312 Brg. -
SKF63062

CTP:
MOTOR: Induction motor Pump: Tyoe-OPK-6-32-
250
KW-7.5, Voltage – 415 V. Capacity-4.5 m3/hr.
RPM-2850, Current-14.0 Amp Year – 1989, RPM-2900

JOP:
DC AC: Induction Motor
KW-3.7,RPM-1440, Voltage-415 V, Current-
7.6 Amp.
Voltage-110 V, Current –41 Amp. KW – 3.7, RPM – 1440
Brg. Ce: skf 6306Z, Connection Delta
Gland Steam Condenser
Qty. of gland steam at inlet 1448 kg/hr(max),
Pr and temp of gland steam at inlet 0.98ata / 3100c
Quantity of cooling water 150 m3/hr.
CW temp. At inlet / outlet 35/420c
Surface area 40 m2
Size of tubes (Odx Thk…….) 15x1x2500mm
No of tubes 352

Metallurgy of GSC
Tubes Ad. Brass, SB III C
44300
Shell, Channel, covers & tube plates CS, SA 516 Gr 60
Flanges Carbon steel
Support plates CS, IS 2062
Water I/L, O/L & steam I/L pipes CS, SA 106 Gr B
Impingement plate SS, SA 240 TP 304

Steam jet ejector for GSC


Working steam pr./temp 11ata/2640c
Steam consumption 156 kg/hr.
Suction pr. 0.85 ata
Suction moisture 250 kg/hr

Oil Cooler
Qty. of oil 68.12 m3/hr.
Oil I/L and O/L temp 59.9/450c
Pr. Drop in oil side 1.3 kg/cm2
Qty. of cooling water 100 m3/hr.
CW I/L and O/L temp 36/40.10c
Cooling surface 100 m2
Tube size (Odx Thk.xl.gth.) 15x1x2610 mm
No. Of water passes 4
Metallurgy of tubes Adm. Brass, SB III C-
44300

Technical Data of Turbine:

1. Type : EG 800-2 2. Speed :


5300rpm
3. Speed reduction gear :3000rpm 4. Inlet pr.
2
:68kg/cm abs.
At output shaft 5. Inlet temp :
0
485 C
6. Extrn.pres. : 11kg /cm2 abs. 7. Extrn. Temp. : 264C
8. Extrn.flow :45tph 9. Exhst.pres
2
: 7kg./cm abs.
10. Exhst temp. : 2170C 11. Exhst. Flow : 110tph

COOLING TOWER SYSTEMS:

SYSTEM DESCRIPTION:
With three TGs and dump condenser the requirement of cooling water
increased and hence Cooling Tower – III was established. It caters to the
requirement of huge amount of cooling water for dump condenser, generator
coolers, turbine lubrication oil coolers and gland steam condensers. There
are three cooling water pumps (CWP), three auxiliary cooling water pumps
(ACWP) and four induced draft cooling tower fans (CTF) in Cooling Tower
– III. Suction pipes of CWPs and ACWPs are connected to common water
sump. The sump level is made up with addition of filtered water. Discharges
of ACWPs are connected to a common to a common header and the water is
supplied to TG auxiliaries cooling system i.e., generator coolers, lubrication
oil coolers and gland steam condensers. Discharges of CWPs are connected
to a common header and the water is circulated through the dump condenser.
The CW outlet lines from TG auxiliaries and dump condenser are connected
to a common header and re-circulated back to Cooling Tower. The hot water
is sprayed in the hot basins in the form of fine spray through nozzles. Water
gets cooled by coming in contact with the air circulated due to induced draft
created by cooling tower fans. The cold water is collected in the cold-water
basin from where it flows to the cooling water sump through strainers. To
control internal corrosion and scale formation on the inner surface of the
circulating pipes, corrosion inhibitors like Zinc Sulphate and Sodium Hexa
Meta Phosphate are dosed, in the cooling water sump. Chlorine is also
added to control the growth of algae, fungi and other bacteria. Cycle of
concentration (ratio between the TDS of circulating water and the fresh
make up water) is maintained normally within 3. When it increases the
water from the cold-water basin is drained and the loss in made up with
fresh floodwater to reduce the cycle of concentration.

Conclusion

The steam and power plant was essentially commissioned to increase


the economic viability of the steam production at the refinery complex. The
power plant was commissioned later to efficiently utilize the steam being
produced at the refinery complex. It ensures an uninterrupted power supply
to the refinery.

An essential piece of equipment for the power plant is the turbo-


generator. The different departments of the power plant function to ensure
the smooth functioning of the TG.

The basic function of an Automatic Voltage Regulator and the series


compounded transformer is to increase the efficiency of the turbine and to
prevent tripping of the turbine during minor malfunctions in the grid.

SAFETY

In today’s world Safety, Health and environmental issues have become a


matter of serious concern for all societies, which no country can afford to
disregard in the process of development. As industry has evolved, significant
advances have been made in overcoming many of the challenges to the
safety, health and well being of the working people. Yet it is estimated by
ILO that more than two lakh work related death occur each year all over the
world. In addition, a large number of workers are victims of work related
accidents and occupational diseases. Estimate also indicates that the
economic consequences of accidents and diseases at work represent at least
1% of the GNP of our nation. It is therefore necessary that Safety, Health
and Environmental consciousness become intrinsic to our thinking and
development process. Preventing or minimizing accidents, ill health and
pollution, avoiding wastage and conserving no-renewable resources must
become our personal and public goals.

Observance of safety norms is of vital importance as any lapse on this


account many not only result in loss of equipments and machinery but also
loss of precious human life. Safety must therefore be given utmost priority
in every sphere of our life, be it in work place or at home.

Nalco being an integrated project involving mining, chemical processing,


smelting and power generation, a high degree of awareness regarding safety,
health and environmental is must at all levels. More so, at this particular
juncture, when we are going to commission a massive expansion almost
doubling our activities, the pressure to achieve higher efficiency on order to
remain afloat in the global market would certainly bring about increased
exposure of our people to industrial hazards.

MEASUREMENT TAKEN OUR PLANT


1. INSPECTION OF PLANT & EQUIPMENT: Safety inspection of
Plant and Equipment are carried out regularly to identify unsafe
practices and usage of safety appliance.
2. INSPAECTION OF DEFERENT AREAS: Periodic inspections of
different areas are being conducted and the defects which are noticed
during inspections are highlighted, action plan and are rectified within
the time bound plan.
3. ELIMINATION OF UNSAFE CONDITION: The systematic way
of identifying unsafe conditions and making time bound action plans
for eliminating them has been given top priority to provide a safe and
hazard free environment. A large number of various modification jobs,
rectification of unsafe conditions, safety committee recommendations
are being undertaken during this period.
4. SAFETY APPLIANCES: sincere efforts are made in different
Departments at the time of regular inspection t motivate and enhance
the use of personal protective Equipment by safety committee
Members and Safety Department.
5. DISTRIBUTION OF FIRST AID BOXES: First Aid Boxes along
with necessary contents were issued to 38 (Thirty-eight) locations
identified for the purpose inside our plant and inspection is done on a
regular basis to ensure the availability of all its contents always.
Besides, all the contractors maintain first aid box at their respective
worksites.
6. EMERGENCY EYE WASH SHOWER: Emergency Eye wash
shower-cum-Fountain is provided at various strategic locations and
regular inspection is done on a quarterly basis to ensure its proper
functioning.
7. TESTING OF HOISTS & LIFTS: the competent person as
prescribe under the Orissa factories rules including the Contractor
establishment conducts Testing of Hoists and Lifts.

NEED FOR SAFETY

Industrialization has brought within its wake several problems. One such
is industrial accident. With rapid advances in industrial processes, newer
types of dangers to life, limb and health are being increasingly
introduced. Mechanical, Electrical, Chemical and Radiation hazards be
set us on all sides. Yearly, several lakhs of employees are injured in
factories due to accidents. Annexure 1 gives the details of accidents in
India during 1978 to 1981.

These accidents represent a social loss of great magnitude in the form of


pain, loss of earning capacity and cost due to disturbance to economic
efficiency. The painted suffering of the injured as well as the emotional
loss to the victims of the fatalities and accidents causing permanent
disfigurements or disabilities are impossible to be summed, through
partially, no figures are available in terms of the total cost of accidents in
our factories. To the management, it is the direct costs for meeting
medical expenses, compensation of disablement benefits to the injured or
their families and also the various other indirect costs due to the
interference caused by accidents, which are generally taken roughly as for
items the direct costs. To the society, the economic cost is in terms of loss
of productive capacity and the cost of maintenance of the injured and
their families through social security schemes or through public or private
charities.

In the absence of date relating to total economic losses due to accidents,


making use of the figure published by the Labour Bureau can have a very
approximate idea. Simla of claims paid by the employees of State
Insurance Corporation in respect of establishments covered by the
employees sate Insurance Act. The total cost of payments for temporary,
and permanent disablements and dependants benefits paid by the
Corporation during the years 1978 to 81 in accident cases covered by the
Scheme was on an average Rs. 20 crores. This forms only one part of the
direct costs. In as much as the cost of providing medical care has not been
included. No figures are available in respect of the latter. All the same, for
our purpose., it can be indicated by using the multiplication factor
suggested by Heinrich (Indirect costs = 4 times direct costs).
CLAUSES OF ISO 9001 : 1994
4.1 MANAGEMENT RESPOSIBILITY
4.2 QUALITY SYSTEMS
4.3 CONTRACT REVIEW
4.4 DESIGN CONTROL
4.5 DOCUMENT AND DATA CONTROL
4.6 PURCHASING
4.7 CONTROL OF CUSTOMER – SUPPLIED PRODUCT
4.8 PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION AND TRACEABILITY
4.9 PROCESS CONTROL
4.10 INSPECTION AND TESTING
4.11 CONTROL OF INSPECTION, MESAURING AND TEST
EQUIPMENT
4.12 INSPECTION AND TEST STATUS
4.13 CONTROL OF NON-CONFORMING PRODUCT
4.14 CORRECTIVE AND PREVENTIVE ACTION
4.15 HANDLING, STORAGE, PACKAGING, PRESERAVTION AND
DELIVERY
4.16 CONTROL OF QUALITY RECORDS
4.17 INTERNAL QUALITY AUDITS
4.18 TRAINING
4.19 SERVICING
4.20 STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES
ISO 9001 : 2000
CLAUSES
1.0 SCOPE
1.1 NORMATIVE REFERENCES
1.2 QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
1.3 RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
1.4 PRODUCT REALISATION
1.5 MEASUREMENT, ANALYSIS AND IMPROVEMENT

ISO 9001 : 2000


QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM – REQUIREMENTS
1.6 QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
1.7 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
1.8 DOCUEMNTATION REQUIREMENTS
1.9 GENERAL
1.10 QUALITY MANUAL
1.11 CONTROL OF DOCUMENTS
1.12 CONTROL OF QUALITY RECORDS
ISO 9001 : 2000
QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM – REQUIREMENTS
1.13 MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBILITY
1.14 MANAGEMENT COMMITMENT
1.15 CUSTOMER FOCUS
1.16 QUALITY POLICY
1.17 PLANNING
1.18 QUALITY OBJECTIVES
1.19 QUAKITY MANAGEMNT SYSTEM PLANNING
1.20 RESPONSIBILITY, AUTHORITY & COMMUNICATION
1.21 RESPONSIBILITY AND AUTHORITY
1.22 MANAGEMNT REPRESENTIVE
1.23 MANAGEMENT REVIEW
1.24 GENERAL
1.25 REVIEW INPUT
1.26 REVIEW OUTPUT
ISO 9001 : 2000
QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM - REQUIREMENTS
1.27 RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
1.28 PROVISION OF RESOURCES
1.29 HUMAN RESOURCES
1.30 GENERAL
1.31 COMPETENCE, AWARENESS AND TRAINING
1.32 INFRASTRUCTURE
1.33 WORK ENVIRONMENT
ISO 9001 : 2000
QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM – REQUIREMENTS
1.34 PRODUCT REALISATION
1.35 PLANNING OF PRODUCT REALISATION
1.36 CUSTOMER RELATED PROCESSES
1.37 DETERMINATION OF REQUIREMENTS RELATED TO THE
PRODUCT
1.38 REVIEW OF REQUIREMENTS RELATED TO THE PRODUCT
1.39 CUSTOMER COMMUNICATION
1.40 DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT
1.41 PURCHASING
1.42 PURCHASING PROCESS
1.43 PURCHASING INFORMATION
1.44 VERIFICATION OF PURCHASINED PRODUCT
1.45 CONTROL OF PRODUCTION AND SERVICE PROVISION
1.46 VALIDATION OF PROCEESE FOR PRODUCTION AND SERVICE
PROVISION
1.47 IDENTIFICATION AND TRACEABILITY
1.48 CUSTOMER PROPERTY
1.49 PRESERVATION OF PRODUCT
1.50 CONTROL OF MONITORING & MEASURING DEVICES.
ISO 9001 : 2000
QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM – REQUIREMENTS

1.51 MEASUREMENT, ANALYSIS & IMPROVEMENT


1.52 GENERAL
1.53 MONITORING AND MEASUREMENT
1.54 CUSTOMER SATISFACTION
1.55 INTERNAL AUDIT
1.56 MONITORING & MEASURING OF PROCESSES
1.57 MONITORING & MEASUREMENT OF PRODUCTS
1.58 CONTROL OF NON-CONFORMING PRODUCT
1.59 ANALYSIS OF DATA
1.60 IMPROVEMENTS
1.61 CONTINUAL IMPROVEMENT
1.62 CORRECTIVE ACTION
1.63 PREVENTIVE ACTION
QUALITY MANAGEMENT PRICIPLES
(ADOPTED FOR ISO 9000 : 2000)
1.64 CUSTOMER – FOCUSED ORGANISATION
1.65 LEADERSHIP
1.66 INVOLVEMENT OF PEOPLE
1.67 PROCESS APPROACH
1.68 SYSTEM APPROACH TO MANAGEMENT
1.69 CONTINUAL IMPROVEMENT
1.70 FACTUAL APPROACH TO DECISION MAKING
1.71 MUTUAL BENEFICAL SUPPLIER RELATIONSHIP
CONTINUAL IMPROVEMENT

Improvement means setting higher standards and achieving the same.


Continual improvement refers to ongoing efforts for improvement. Usually
what is understood is improvement involving everyone in the organization.
Continual improvement is also know as kaizen.
KAI = Improvement
ZEN = Good, for the better
How can you contribute to continual improvement:- Through individual
suggestions or by group activity like quality circles.
For improvement in the following areas.

 Making the job easier i.e. Reduction in man hours.


 Removing drudgery from the job.
 Removing nuisance from the job.
 Making the job safe.
 Making the job more productive.
 Saving in time & cost.

How can continual improvement be achieved : - By setting higher standards


of work, achieving the same, maintaining it and improving standards.
Result :- Safe, Reliable processes that runs automatically or in a
standardized why without intervention by people.
OVER VIEW OF MINES
INTRODUCTION
Panchapatmali bauxite deposits have an indicated reserve of 317
million tones. It is divided into three blocks. They are north block and
central block. The present mining is concerned with sector 1 of central
block. The annual production of bauxite is 2.4 million tones per annum .A
downhill cable belt system is established to carry one to the stockpile at
alumina plant.
SALIENT FEATURES OF MINES
Length of conveyor 14.661km
Width of conveyor belt 1.137mm
Fall of conveyor belt 340mts
Rated capacity of conveyor belt 1800tph
Percentage of Alumina 42.5%
Percentage of silica 2.3%
Type of crusher Double Tooth roll crusher
Lump size before crushing 800mm
Lump size after crushing 150mm

MINING MODEL
For drawing up annual production programme, indicating the qualities
and quantities and for studying in advance the various overburden and
bauxite faces, a numerical mining model is made by transformation of
information obtained from the deposit model in the Geostatistical studies. It
consists in a breakdown of the deposit to a 100mX100m krigged grid. Each
of such panel is further divided to a block of over burden a block of bauxite
to be mined in first phase and thick block of bauxite to be mined in second
phase. After allowing for unminable areas locked up in mining infrastructure
and peripheral barriers and Appling the loss and dilution factors for each
such panel the following parameters are determined.
 Tonnage of overburden to be removed.
 Tonnage of minable ore in each phase with Al2O3 and SiO2 content
showing of minable bauxite between the two phases is done keeping in
view mass mining in firs phase (with nominal dilution) and selective
mining in the second phase.
MINING TECHNIQUE:
The morphology of the bauxite deposit, the irregular roof and floor makes it
impossible to adopt conventional ‘Benching Method’ of open pit mining at
Panchapatmali, Instead , a modified ‘Trench Method’, consisting of
development of roughly parallel trenches with staggered faces, form initial
main track has been adopted. This technique facility mining of different
zones of a deposit, featuring different thickness, independent of one another,
thereby simplifying mechanized mining within individual trenches with
minimum loss and dilution.

In the trenches, bauxite is extracted in two distinct. The first phase


consisting of a slice of around 8-12 mts. Thickness using normal drilling and
blasting procedures, while in the second phase, the bauxite is extracted in
selectively in 4 mtr thick slices. On of the large size wheel loader of
hydraulic excavators has been found suitable for loading operations in first
phase. The second phase requires backhoe hydraulic excavators for selective
mining.

Normally the width of the trenches are kept more than 40 mts for efficient
use of heavy machineries and the level differences between adjacent
trenches, is kept less than 4mts. The faces of the trenches are systematically
advanced to maintain a ‘Saw Tooth Configuration’ of work sites, which
ensure adequate flexibility in mining operations and safety to the equipment
deployed.

A 15 mt wide peripheral barrier around the deposit on the edge of plate is


left to constitute a safety barrier for the machines. This also serves to locate
the peripheral road and helps in containing most of the rainwater with in the
mine. It provide a natural curtain for the mine excavators form surrounding,
which help preserving the natural beauty of the region apart from
minimizing the possible dust storms in the mining area.
The modified trench method of mining has the following advantages:
1. Versatility – Mining faces are separated and interchangeable. They
are numerous and can be worked continently for effective grade
control of R.O.M. feed.
2. Adaptability to Geological disturbances on the deposit results in low
loss and dilution factors.
3. Convenient work site dimensions permit concentration of mining
equipment and minimized travel.
The mining area is divided into trenches in a alphabetical order from A to
Q. Rocks containing Alumina less than 35% or Silica more than 5% are
left. It is proper blending that the required percentage of 42.5% Alumina
and 2.3% silica is obtained.

CRUSHER AND CONVEYOR SYSTEM


The bauxite after mining is fed to the crusher the main purpose
is to reduce the size range from 800 mm to 150 mm. The average
moisture content of bauxite is 8.5%
PRIMARY CRUSHER
The bauxite is fed to the hopper by dumper either from the stockpile
or directly from the mines. From hopper the material is transformed to
crusher through Appron Feeder 1. It is driven by a 55kw dc motor. The
crusher is a double tooth roll crusher and it has an crushing capacity of
900 tph from 800 mm fed size to 150 mm product size. This is powered
by 2X200 KW AC motors .The tow rollers run at different speed (70 rpm
and 100 rpm) and crush the material by the process of compaction and
shearing. Low and differential peripheral speeds minimize wear and
further help taking up or more plastic part of larger size between the rolls.
The crusher is equipped with anti-clogging devices formed by series of
cleaning scrappers. Which help in complete cleaning of rolls.
Below the crusher output a feeder conveyor is present which is
driven by a 50 KW DC motor. From feeder conveyor the material goes to
another where a trip switch is present. Whenever this hopper is filled
with excess material this switch trip and apron feeder 1 stops. From
hopper material is fed to apron feeder 2 which is driven by 55 KW DC
motor. On this feeder a metal detector is present which detects any metal
present in the one. When a metal is detected it automatically switches
on the magnetic separator. The function of the magnetic separator is to
separate out any iron particle present in the material. It is now fed to an
Accelerating conveyor from which it is finally transformed to a 14,663
KM long cable conveyor belt.
CABLE BELT
The cable belt is driven by 2 X 1067 KW synchronized motor. The
cable belt system consists of 2 endless 51 mm diameter steel wire ropes. A
1137 mm wide belt with special shoe forms sits on the driving steel ropes
(cables) which carrier the material to be transported. The cable and the belt
run over specially designed pulleys which are mounted on linestands and are
supported by them. In straight zones the linestands are placed.
The alignment of the system and positioning of the pulleys are done
through computerized design calculations. The system is designed to carry
900 tph it a belt speed of 2.25 m/s and will carry 1800 tph by doubling the
belt speed.
To negotiate the sleep escarpments between the loading and discharge points
the cable belt transforms it selfs into a series of hyperbolic curves both
horizontal and vertical limited to 18 and 30 respectively. The conveyor is
covered all along the length for protection of belt from weather and sun rays.
The conveyor system is equipped with various safety devices for safe and
efficient operation.

WORLD BAUXITE RESOURCES


1. Total World Bauxite Resource – 38 Billion Ton
2. Major Distribution of Bauxite Resources
Country Bauxite Resource in Billion Ton
1. Guinea 9.4
2. Australia 6.1
3. Brazil 3.3
4. Jamaica 3.0
5. India 2.55

ALUMINA
World Capacity - 38 MT / Year
India’s Capacity - 1.47 MT / Year
Rank of India - 7th

ALUMINIUM
World Capacity - 18 MT / Year
India’s Capacity - 0.58 MT / Year
Rank of India - 7th

MAJOR BAUXITE MINES OF WORLD


SL.NO. MINE CAPACITY COMPANY CAPACITY
A5 MTY AND ABOVE
01 WEIPA (AUSTRALIA) COMALCO 11.00
02 BOKE (SOUTH GOVT 9.0
GUINEE)
03 HUNTELY (WESTER ALCOA 6.0
AUSTRALIA)
04 WATER VALLEY KEISER 6.0
(JAMAIKA)
05 JARRADLE (WEST ALCAN 5.5
AUSTRALIA)
06 LINDEN (AUSTRALIA) GUYBAN 5.5
07 GOVE (AUSTRALIA) NABALCO 5.5
B 2 MTY TO 4.99 MTY
08 MT.SADDLE REYNOLDS 3.5
BLACK(WEST
AUSTRALIA)
09 TROMBETAS (BRAZIL) MRN 3.3
10 ONVER DACHIT SURALCO 3.0
SURINAM
11 DELPARK (WEST ALCOA 3.0
AUSTRALIA) JOINT VENTURE
12 ARIA (SOUTH GUINEA) AP BA & 2.5
ALUSWISS
13 LYDEORD (JAMAIKA) REYNOLD 2.5
14 KINDIA (SOUTH GOVT 2.5
GUINEA)
15 PANCHPATMALI NALCO 2.5
(INDIA)
C 1 MT TO 1.99 MTY
16 MOENGO (SURINAM) SURALCO 1.7
17 ESSES VALLEY ALPART 1.3
(JAMAIKA)
18 BREAD NUTUALLEY ALCOA 1.3
(JAMAIKA)
19 WILLODALE (WEST ALCOA 1.23
AUSTRALIA)
20 KIRKUINE JAMAIKA ALCAN 1.4

USES, APPLICATION AND PROPERTIES OF ALUMINIUM


ALUMINIUM – THE WHITE GOLD
 Abundantly available in nature.
 8% of Earth’s crust comprises Alumimium.
 Most widely used metal in the world after steel.
 Unique properties, a versatile metal.
 Most friendly metal – technologically, economically and ecologically.
PROPERTIES OF ALUMINIUM
> Gas Resistance > Reflectivity > Strong > Anodisable
> Ductile > Printable > Emmisivity > Malleable
> Recyclable > Non-permeable > Light weight >
Hygienic
> Tasteless > Odorless >No sparking > Workability
> Capacity > Nontoxicity > Corrosion resistance
> Moisture-vapour resistance > Grease and Oil resistance
> Heat & Flame resistance > Thermal Conductivity.

APPLICATIONS OF ALUMINIUM.
 Transport – Land, Sea, air, Space
 Building
 Defence
 Power transmission
 Food processing
 Pharmaceuticals-tables, Ointments
 Milk Products-yoghurt, curd, cheese, butter, sterilized milk.
 Sweets – Chocolates bars, boxes of chocolates, ice creams, chewing
gum.
 Household aluminium foil.
 Coffee, Tea- vacuum packaging.
 Dried food : Soups, Cereals, Potato puree, baby food.
 Instant foods.
 Drinks – Refreshments, Beer, Fruit juice.
 Tobacco
 Pet Food.
 Cosmetics
 Glues, Paints, Inkcatridges.
AREAS OF USAGE OF ALUMINIUM PACKAGING
Packaging/Food Processing is an important application sector of
aluminium directly involving the human society.
 Withstands both heat and cold.
 Easy to sterilize for food and medical applications.
 Excellent barrier against liquids, vapours and light.
 Light weight, hygienic and non-contamination-longer shelf life of end
products.
 Lacquer able and printable.
 In soft temper has full dead fold properties and ease of shaping.
 Nontoxic, Odorless, tasteless, colourless and hygienic.
 Good heat reflectivity (light & UV Rays) and conductivity.
 Non-permeable
 Laminatable.
 Lightweight
 Corrosion Resistant.
 Recyclable & Biodegradable.

WHY ALUMINIUM PACKAGING


 Ever thinner Material, Ever stronger in function.
 Maximum results from minimal material investment.
 Unlike plastics totally recyclable & Biodegradable.
 High recovery rate with reduced emission of pollutants.
 Energy and material saving.
 Ensure fuel economy in transportation.
 Repeated use without loss in quality.
 Health – Safe & Eco-friendly.
ALUMINIUM IN THE HUMAN BODY
 Found naturally – approx. 35mg. - 50% in the laungs
 2.5% in the soft tissue
 2.5% in the bones.
 Impossible to avoid exposure.
 Body adjusted well to the exposure.
 Plays no physical role
 Types of exposure :
 Natural content, through diet, depending on geographical
area, (2-10)mg.
 Intentional additive-preservatives leavening agent. Etc. (2-
50)mg.
 Unintentional additives packaging & cooking in aluminium
utensils (up to 3.5)mg.
 Drugs and medicines (50 -100)mg.
 The human body strives to maintain an effective balance of all
materials. Most of the aluminium entering the human body through
whatever source is thrown out as quickly as possible.
WHY ALUMINIUM FOR COOKWARE?.
 Excellent conductor of heat.
 Transfers heat very effectively and evenly.
 Aluminium cookware is light, strong and durable.
 Easily recyclable with extremely high recovery rate (95-98%), with
small energy requirement (5% of energy required to produce virgin
metal), without loss in quality.
 Conducts heat more efficiently than stainless steel, losses only 7% heat
it receives
 Aluminium has excellent cooking characteristics.
 Aluminium cookware dose not impact any taste or odor to food.
 Aluminium is safe cookware and a good container of food.
 It is very easy to fabricate.
 It take very good surface finish.
 Aluminium is quite neutral. Does not get leached or corroded on
contact with food.
 Can be easily lacquered, anodized, plated, enameled prevent attack by
acids.
 High energy saving.
ALUMINIUM AND HEALTH
 Alzheimer’s disease is progressive, degenerative disease that attacks
the brain and results in impaired memory, thinking and behaviour.
 Extensive investigations for 60 years by reputed health agencies and
R&D establishments have clearly shown that the amount of aluminium
ingested through cooking in aluminium utensils is very small and
harmless.
 Investigations conducted directly on the human brain could not
establish that aluminium causes Alzheimer’s disease. What World
Health Organisation (WHO) say(1995).
 Aluminium has not been demonstrated to pose a health risk to healthy,
non-occupationally exposed humans.
 There is no evidence that aluminium causes any brain disorder
(Alzheimer’s disease).
 Data are inadequate to support the hypothesis that exposures to
aluminium in drinking water accelerate Alzheimer’s disease or that
exposures. Either occupationally or via drinking water, impair
cognitive function.
 There is insufficient health related evidence to justify altering existing
WHO Guidelines for aluminium exposure in healthy, non-
occupationally exposed humans.
 Ordinary environmental exposure to aluminium is safe.
 Intake of aluminium through cookware, packaging etc. is negligible
and harmless.
 The amount of aluminium ingested through cooking in aluminium
vessels is very small.
 Has not been demonstrated to pose a health risk to humans.
 Any intake of aluminium is promptly excreted.
WHAT THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION (FDA), USA SAYS
 The cause / causes of Alzheimer’s disease (Brain Disorder) is not
know.
 The biological significance of aluminium in the brain is not
understood.
 Aluminium is poorly absorbed in the body.
 Ordinary environmental exposure to alumina is safe.
Dr. Jacob Roy and his colleagues through their extensive research work on
Alzheimer’s disease have also rules out that there is not even casual
connection between aluminium and Alzheimer’s disease and that the
evidence for the linkage has never been more than circumstantial. As already
mentioned, they report that the incidence of Alzheimer’s disease could be
attributed to a number of factors, from emotional stresses to an interruption
of the brain’s blood supply and the genetic risk factors.

CONCLUSION
 Even through aluminium has a high environmental cost in the primary
stage, it is very well compensated for by its environmental and
resource friendly characteristics, during its use and reuse phases.
 Aluminium fits perfectly in to the future scenario where the parameters
will the technology, economy and ecology.
 Aluminium has the advantage of being available abundantly in our
country as opposed to tin, which is imported.
 Aluminium is tottaly recyclable with no loss in quality, hence highly
eco-friendly and safe as opposed to plastic, which is not biodegradable.
 Aluminium is safe, the most environment friendly and a highly useful
material.
 All accusation/criticisms against aluminium with respect to health are
hearsay, lacking any scientific and clinical evidence.

ENVIRONMENT MANAGENT

Since inception NALCO has taken adequate steps for pollution control
and environment management by selecting eco-technology process and
equipment on the advise of M/S Aluminum Pechiney (AP) the
consultants, who have good experience in marinating stringent pollution
control standards of Europe.
Further, the company has adopted a detailed environment
management plan (EMP), which was prepared after extensive studies on
environment impact assessment .This EMP has the approval of orissa
state pollution control Board (OSPCB) and ministry of environment and
forests (MOEF) government of India.

Implementation of adopted environment policy in all units and


constant monitoring has helped the company to achieve considerable
success in the filed of environment management. The company maintains
a track record of meeting statutory guidelines in existing plants as well as
ongoing projects.
CORPORATE ENVIRONMENT POLICY
In recognition of the interests of the society in securing
sustainable industrial growth compatible with a wholesome environment,
NALCO attmns that it assigns high importance to promotion and
maintenance of pollution tree environment in all its activities.
Objectives:
 To use non-polluting and environment friendly technology.
 To monitor regularly air, land, water, noise and other environment
parameters.
 To constantly improve upon the standards of pollution control and
previde a leadership in environment management.
 To develop employees awareness on environmental responsibilities
and encourage adherence to sound environmental practices.
 To work closely with government & local authorties to prevent or
minimize adverse consequences of the industrial activities on the
environment.
 To comply with all applicable laws governing environment protection
through appropriate mechanisms.
 To actively participate in social welfare and environmental
development activities of the locality around its units.
Commitment:
We dedicate ourselves to ensure a green and wholesome environment in
all areas of our operation for sustainable industrial growth and to set
standards in environmental management.

Measures taken:
Measures taken by the company in all its units for environment
management are as follows.
Mines
 Periphery barrier of 15m width having green cover around mines.
 Garland drains & drainage control within mines.
 Dust suppression at source and sprinkling of water
 Total overburden excavated with topsoil is used for reclamation and
rehabilitation of mines our areas with vegetation cover.
Alumina Refinery:
 Highly efficient ESP s at calciners and steam generation plant.
Multi- stage washing of red mud & lining of red mud pond to
impound highly alkaline waste.
 Use of dust collectors in alumina transport and handing areas & stack
emission control at steain generation plant.
 Recycling of waste water.
Smelter
 Hooding of pots and absorption of gas by dry scrubbing with alumina
in fume treatment plant.
 Delluoridation to reduce fluonne level of contaminated surface water
& recycling it to achieve zero discharge.
 Specially designed preservation system for spent pot lines.
 Captive power plant
 Electrostatic precipitators with advanced intelligent controllers and
effective stack emission control.
 Efficient burner management to reduce emission of carbon monoxide.
 Ash pond with zero discharge and recycling of wastewater.

Common measures taken in all units


 Treatment and recycling of process wastewater and sewage.
 Regular monitoring of air, water and noise pollution.
 Regular safety and fire audits mock drills etc.
 Occupational health surveys and periodical medical check-up of all
employees.
 Promoting and executing programmes for socio-economic
development in peripheral areas such as housing, electricity and water
supply, sanitation, road & communication, health, education,
agriculture, vocational training, sports & cultural activities.

ISO 14000
In its quest for excellence in environmental care the company crossed
a milestone when M&R complex was certified under ISO 14001. Alumina
refinery of the company is the first chemical plant in the country to be
certified under ISO 14001.
Today all the four units of the company have achieved ISO 14001
certification as detailed below.
Unit Date of certification certifying agency
Mines June 24, 1996 M/s Aspects moody
certification, Uk
Relinery February 10, 1997 -do-
Cpp December 19, 1997 M/s RWIUV, Germany
Smelter May 25, 1998 -do-
From February 2000 onwards re-certification of mines & refinery by M/s
RWTUV, Germany.

The ISO 14000 certification has not only helped to improve the
image as an eco-friendly company but has also given significant financial
benefits. These benefits have come mostly due to better house keeping
reduction in waste generation and systematic collection for disposal of
wastes and improvement in performance particularly with respect to
consumption norms.
Environment management must be an integral part of every level of
business enterprise successful management will have to expand its sphere of
influence to embrace a considerably wider concept have environment. The
growing compulsions on account of the environment awareness have forced
the industries to a provocative retrospection of their processes to ensure
compliance of specific emission standards and assure the public that their
product/process are more eco-friendly.
The Environment management system (EMS) is an emerging
environmental imperative. It is a comprehensive management tool to bring
in substantial improvements in any industry in overall environment
management. The EMS certification enables companies to acquire the label
of environmentally sound enterprise and also accrue the benefits of benefits
of improved economic performance.
Considering the importance and requirement mines & refinery
units has been certified with ISO 14000 since 1996 & 1997 respectively &
recently we have switched over to RWTUV as our certifying agency since
11.07.2000 for compatibility with ISO- 9000 system also.

COMMITMENT
We dedicate ourselves to total environmental management system for
prevention of pollution and continual improvement for achieving our
objectives.
The policy and the information on environment protection efforts shall be
shared with public and all interested parties through periodical publications,
booklets, pamphlets posters etc.
CLAUSES OF BS 7750, 1994
1. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
2. ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY
3. ORGANISATION & PERSONNEL
4. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS
5. ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES & TARGETS
6. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMT PROGRAMME
7. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMINT MANUAL &
DOCUMENTATION
8. OPERATIO CONTROL
9. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT RECORD
10. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT AUDITS
11. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT REVIEWA

ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY
While committing to the corporate environmental policy of NALCO
Alumina refinery, Damanjodi, resolves to protect and maintain a green
and clean environment while contributing to sustainable socio-economic
development of the region through its activities.

.ISO 14001 is an internationally accepted standard that lays down the


requirements for establishing implementing and operating an environment
management system. ISO 14001:2004 has been published on 15th
November 2004. It features clarification of requirements, alignment with
ISO 9001:2000 and changes to the text to make it more user-friendly. Some
changes are likely to require organizations to review or perhaps amend their
system to ensure conformance with the final version of the new standard.
For organizations using ISO 14001 for their EMS and accredited to ISO
14001:1996 a summary of the key changes is provided below.
Comparison chart
ISO 14001:1996 ISO 14001:2004
1 scope 1 Scope
2 Normative references 2 Normative References
3 Definitions 3 Terms and Definition
4.1 General Requirements 4.1 General Requirements
4.2 Environmental policy 4.2 Environmental Policy
4.3 planning 4.3 Planning
4.3.1 Environmental Aspects 4.3.1 Environmental Aspects
4.3.2 Legal & other Requirements 4.3.2 Legal and other
Requirements
4.3.3 Objectives & Targets 4.3.3 Objectives Targets &
programme(s)
4.3.4 Environmental management
Programme (s)
4.4 Implementation and operation
4.4 Implementation and operation
4.4.1 Structure & Responsibility 4.4.1 Resources Roles
Responsibility & Authority
4.4.2 Training Awareness & 4.4.2 Competence Training &
competence Awareness
4.4.3 Communication 4.4.3 Communication
4.4.4 Environmental management 4.4.4 Documentation
system
Documentation
4.4.5 Document control 4.4.5 Control of Documents
4.4.6 Operational control 4.4.6 Operational Control
4.4.7 Emergency preparedness & 4.4.7 Emergency preparedness
Response and Respones
4.5 Checking and corrective 4.5 Checking
action
4.5.1 Monitoring and 4.5.1 Monitoring and
measurement measurement
4.5.2 Nonconformance and 4.5.2 Evaluation and compliance
corrective & preventive action
4.5.3 Records 4.5.3 Nonconformity corrective
action & preventive action
4.5.4 Environmental management 4.5.4 Control of records
system audit
4.5.5 Internal Audit
4.6 Management review 4.6 Management review

Clause 1: Scope
The scope of the standard has been expanded to include new application in
the 2004 version of the standard. They include options to demonstrate
conformity by :
 Making a self-determination or self-declaration
 Seeking confirmation from parties who have an interest in the
organization, for instance, customers
 Seeking certification or registration of the EMS by an external
organization
Implication
An organization is now required to define the scope of its EMS. This
scope directly links the management system with the organization’s
activities products and services. The word and determine how it fulfils these
requirements related to requirements in ISO 14001 have been added to the
clause 4.1. Two things need to be done in this regard. Firstly, define the
scope of the organization’s EMS including what activities, operations,
services and products are included with it. The scope needs to be
documented one possibility could be in the environmental policy. Secondly,
there is a need to evaluate and document how an organization’s EMS fulfils
the requirements of ISO 14001. This could be done as part of the internal
audit or as part of management review, as long as it is traceable.
Clause 3: Terms and Definitions
ISO 14001:2001 includes some definitions not included in the 1996 version.
Some of the definitions in ISO 14001:1996 have also been revise to ensure
they are more consistent with terminology in ISO 9001:2000.
The following are the new terms and definitions introduced in ISO
14001:2004:
3.1 Auditor - person with the competence to conduct an audit
3.3 Corrective Action- Action to eliminate the cause of a detected
nonconformity
3.4 Document- Information and its supporting medium
3.14 Internal Audit-Systematic independent and documented process for
obtaining audit evidence and evaluating it objectively to determine the
extent to which the environmental management system audit criteria set
by the organization are fulfilled.
3.15 Nonconformity- Non-Fulfillment of a requirement
3.17 Preventive Action-Action to eliminate the cause of a potential
nonconformity
3.19 Procedure - Specified way to carry out an activity or a process
3.20 Record - Document stating results achieved or providing evidence
of activities performed
The following are terms and definitions that have been modified in the
new version of ISO 14001:2004:
3.2 Continual improvement - Recurring process of enhancing the
environmental management system in order to achieve improvements
in overall environmental performance consistent (“consistent” in place
of “in line”) with the organization’s environmental policy.
3.7 Environmental impact- Any change to the environment whether
adverse or beneficial wholly or partially resulting from an organization’s
environmental aspects (“environmental aspects”in place of an
organization’s activities products or services”)
3.8 Environmental management system (EMS) - Part of an
organization’s management system used to develop and implement its
environmental policy and manage its environmental aspects. (In place of
“The part of an organization’s management system that includes
organizational structure planning activities responsibilities practices
procedures processes and resources for developing implementing
achieving reviewing and maintaining the environmental policy”)
3.9 Environmental objective - overall environmental goal consistent
with the environmental policy that an organization sets itself to achieve.
In place of “overall environmental goal arising from the environmental
policy consistent with the environmental policy that an organization sets
itself to achieve and which is quantified where practicable”.
3.10 Environmental performance - Measurable results of an
organization’s management of its environmental aspects. In place of
“Measurable results of the environmental management system related to
an organization’s control of its environmental aspects based on its
environmental policy objectives and targets”
3.11 Environmental policy - Overall intentions and direction of an
organization related to its environmental performance as formally
expressed by top management. In place of “statement by the organization
of its intentions and principles in relation to its overall environmental
performance which provides a framework for action and for the setting of
its environmental objectives and targets”
3.12 Environmental Target - Detailed performance requirement
applicable to the organization or parts there of that arises from the
environmental objectives and that needs to be set and met in order to
achieve those objectives (in place of detailed performance requirement
quantified where practicable , applicable to the organization or parts there
of that arises from the environmental objectives and that needs to be set
and met in order to achieve those objectives)
3.18 Prevention of pollution - Use of processes practices techniques
material products services or energy to avoid reduce or control (separately
or in combination) the creation emission or discharge of any type of
pollutant or use of processes parcties material products that avoid reduce
or control pollution which may include recycling treatment process
changes control mechanisms ,efficient use of resources and material
substation.
Implication
There are changes to several of the definitions which impact on an
organization’s system the implication of the key changes are highlight
below.
Auditor - This definition is new and is taken from ISO 9001:2000 and links
to demonstrate that its internal auditors are competent and auditor
competence must be defined in the organization’s EMS
Internal audit - Internal audit has replaced the term environmental
management system audit partly to avoid confusion by users of the standard
with external (certification) audits. The wording of the definition has been
amended to emphasize that internal audits must be independent. The focus
of the internal audit has changed from one of determining conformance of
the EMS to determination of conformance with the EMS audit criteria.
Continual improvement - The definition of continual improvement has
been amended with an additional emphasis that the continual improvement
process is recurring and is not a one-off event. The definition also is more
definitive by linking it to environmental performance rather than
improvement of the management system. Organizations will need to ensure
that they have clearly defined audit criteria.
Environmental performance - The definition environmental performance
has changed in focus from the management system to the organization’s
management of its environmental aspects. Organizations will need to ensure
that the evidence they use to demonstrate environmental performance
improvement is in accordance with the revised definition.
Prevention of pollution - The definition of prevention of pollution has been
clarified to reflect methods and options for the prevention of pollution. An
organization will need to examine how it defines prevention of pollution
(and its scope) to ensure that it covers new concepts of creation emission or
discharge of any type of pollutant or waste.
Environmental policy - Several changes now require an organization to
review its environmental policy. The organization needs to ensure that its
policy.
 Is developed by top management
 Covers the scope of your EMS and does not imply a wider scope than
that
 Covers all activity products and services within the scope of than EMS
 Notes change to terminology related to legislative and regulatory
requirements
 Reflects other environmental requirements the organization may have
subscribed to
 Is distributed to everyone working for or on behalf of the organization
such as sub-contractors, contractors, temporary staff, and remote
workers.

Clause 4: Environmental management system


requirements

4.1 General requirements


Revision
This clause of the standard now requires the organization to establish
document implement and maintain an EMS as previously, but also
continually improve the EMS and determine how it will fulfill the ISO
14001 requirements. A sentence has been added to the revised standard
which requires the organization to define and document the scope of its
EMS.
Implication
 This addition of determine how it will fulfill these requirements to
clause 4.1 requires the organization to state how the EMS fulfill the
requirements of ISO 14001. The process will need to be traceable. It
will be insufficient to claim that the internal audit cycle covers all
clauses of the standard and therefore organization is able to
demonstrate that the EMS fulfill the requirements of ISO 14001.
 Ensure that the scope of the EMS is clearly defined and documented
including what activities; operations, services and products are
included within the scope. For organizations seeking accredited
certification, the EMS scope must agree with the requirements laid
down by accreditation rules. These preclude organizations from ‘ring
fencing’ their EMS scope to exclude difficult areas or areas that are
part of their site.
4.2 Environmental policy
Revision
The environmental policy now must be defined within the scope of the
EMS. The policy must also be communicated to all persons working for or
on behalf of the organization.
The wording under policy with regard to legal compliance has changed. The
phrase “applicable legal requirements and with other requirements to which
the organization sub-scribes which relate to its environmental aspects”
replaces the text in ISO 14001:1996, which referred to “relevant
environmental legislation…”
Implication
o To comply with requirement for the environmental policy to be
consistent with the scope of the EMS the environmental policy must
not cover issues that are wider, narrower or different from that the
EMS scope.
o To demonstrate compliance with the new requirements the
environmental policy must:
 Be developed by top management
 Cover the scope of the EMS
 Cover all activities, products and services within the scope of the
EMS
 Reflect the amended terminology with regard to applicable legal
and other requirements; and
 Be communicated to everyone working for or on behalf of the
organization. This includes contractors, subcontractors,
temporary staff and remote workers.
4.3.1 Environmental Aspects
Revision:
 The organization is required to establish and maintain a procedure to
identify environmental aspects of its activities, products and services
within the scope of the EMS.
 The requirement to take account of the environmental aspects it can
control and over which it can be expected to have an influence has
been change to take account of the environmental aspects it can control
and those that it can influence. Additionally text that used to be in
section on environmental programmes relating to “planned or new
developments, or new or modified activities, products and services”
has been move to the aspects section; hence, moving the requirements
to start earlier at the aspect identification state for new projects.
 Significant environment aspects must be considered when developing,
implementing and maintaining the EMS, rather than in setting
environmental objectives as is required in ISO 14001 : 1996.
Implication
 Activities, products, or services have been replaced with activities,
products, and services within the scope of the organization’s EMS.
 The requirement has been changed to those activities, products, and
services that it can influence. This means there is now a clear
requirement to determine those aspects that an organization can
influence in addition to those it can control. The procedure for
identifying aspects and impacts needs to be revised to ensure that it
incorporates activities, products, and services that can be influenced
within the scope of its EMS.
 The aspect identification procedure needs to cover planned or new
developments, or new or modified activities, products and services.
 Organizations are required to document the whole process of
identifying their environmental aspects and determine which are
significant.

4.3.2 Legal and other requirements


Revision:
 The first point to note is the general change from the confusing usage
of legislative, regulatory and legal requirements to ‘legal
requirements’. The world ‘legislative’ is changed to ‘legal’. This
differentiates between ‘legislative’, which refers to a law passed by
government, and ‘legal’ which is much broader and covers regulatory,
court decisions and others. This does not mean that because a piece of
legislation is not in the environmental Protection Act it is not relevant
to the EMS.
 Amendment has been made to the wording on legal and other
requirements (in line with the revised wording in environmental
Policy). The phrase “applicable legal requirements and other
requirements to which the organization subscribes related to its
environmental aspects” is included.
 An additional point has been added that specifies that the organization
needs to determine how the requirements (legal and other
requirements) apply to its environmental aspects.
 As for 4.3.1 above, legal and other requirements must be considered in
developing, implementing and maintaining the organization’s EMS.
Implication:
The changes in the wording of the requirement (in this clause and in
environmental policy) means that organizations will have take account of all
legal requirements that relate to their environmental aspects. This means that
not only the aspects related legislation. Organizations will need to determine
how the legal and other requirements apply to their environmental aspects,
ensuring that these are reflected in the EMS overall.
4.3.3 Objectives, Targets and Programmes
Revision:
Clause 4.3.3 of ISO 14001:2004 merges clause 4.3.3, “Objectives and
Targets”, and clause 4.3.4, “Environmental Management Program(s)”, of
ISO 14001:1996. revisions include an additional requirement that objectives
and targets be measurable, consistent with legal and other requirements, and
committed to continual improvement.
 Objectives and targets are required to be measurable where practicable.
 In addition to the requirements in ISO 14001:1996, objectives and
targets must be consistent with the commitment to compliance with
legal and other requirements and continual improvement.
Implication:
Organizations need to demonstrate through the EMS that the objectives are
consistent with the above.

4.4.1 Resources, Roles, Responsibility and Authority


Revision:
 Management is now tasked to ensure the availability of resources. The
list of necessary resources has been expanded to include organizational
infrastructure. There is also the requirement that the management
representative provide top management with recommendations for
improvement to the EMS.
Implication:
 The revised clause incorporates resources, roles and authority, in
addition to responsibility, which need to be reflected in the EMS and
Documented procedures.
 Organizations are now required to “ensure the availability” of
resources rather than “provide” as was in ISO 14001:1996. This will
mean. For example, that organization will need to demonstrate that
there are contingency plans in place to ensure that competent people
are able to fulfill specific EMS roles.
4.4.2 Competence, Training, and Awareness
Revision:
 The organization is required to identify training needs associated with
its environmental aspects and its EMS and the organization shall
provide training or take other action to meet establish needs.
 Organizations must establish and maintain procedure to make people
performing tasks for it, or on its behalf, aware of 4.4.2 a – d (as
required by ISO 14001:1996 but a broader scope).
 ISO 14001:2004 states that in an organization, “any person(s)
performing tasks for it or on its behalf” must be identified by the
organizations as competent if their activities have the potential to cause
a significant environmental impact. This has been changed from “all
personnel” to include contractor’s onsite and other persons not
employed by the organization who might perform an activity that
might cause a significant impact.
Implication:
 The requirement for competence, training and awareness has been
extended to incorporate all persons performing tasks for or on behalf
of the organization. The organization will need to review all people
working for or on behalf of it to ensure they are competent to fulfill
their role in the EMS. Records must be retained by the organization
that demonstrate competence (on the basis of education, training or
experience) of people performing tasks that have the potential to cause
a significant environmental impact.
 The organization will need to ensure that all people performing tasks
for or on behalf of the organization, which includes contractors, sub-
contractors, temporary staff and remote workers, have had an
appropriate assessment for their potential to cause a significant
environmental impact and the associated competence required.
 The revised wording in paragraph two allows flexibility for the
organization to develop the skills and competence to fulfill EMS
functions, rather than simply requiring training.
4.4.3 Communication
Revision:
 The requirement now is for an organization to decide whether or not
to communicate externally about its significant environmental aspects
and to document its decision. If the decision is to communicate, the
organization shall establish and implement a method(s) instead of
“processes” as required by the 1996 standard for this external
communication.

Implication:
 If the organization decides to communicate about its environmental
aspects it needs to establish methods of communication in its EMS.
The decision regarding this matter must be documented by the
organization. Most organizations do communicate about their
environmental aspects: sometimes actively to all the public, e.g.
through an environmental report or by the use of an environmental
mark/logo on their product; sometimes selectively requirements, e.g.
monitoring returns to environmental regulators. In all these cases the
organization will need to establish its methods for communicating. It
is probable that only very few organizations do not communicate in
some way and hence do not need a method of communication.
4.4.4 Documentation
Revision:
This clause has not changed in intent but has been updated to align it more
with ISO 9001:2000.
The listed EMS documentation now includes the environmental policy,
objectives and targets, a description of the scope of the EMS, a description
of the main elements of the EMS and their interaction and reference to
related documents, documents and records required by the standard,
documents and planning, operation and control of processes that relate to the
significant environmental aspects.
Implication:
The organization will be required to demonstrate that the above documents
are in place to ensure the effective planning, operation and control of
processes, which relate to significant environmental aspects. The extended
requirements are in accordance with the requirement of ISO 9000:2000.

ISO 14001:2004 requires documentation to include:


 The environmental policy, objectives, and targets
 The scope of the EMS
 A description of the main elements of the EMS, their interaction, and
reference to related documents
 Documents, including records, required by ISO 14002:2004
 Documents, including records, determined as necessary by the
organization to its significant environmental aspects
4.4.5 Control of documents
Revision:
Formatting changes help align this cause of ISO 14001:2004 with ISO
9001:2000. An additional clarification has been made to define records
as a special type of document requiring control. A new addition to the
requirements aims to ensure documents of external origin, (i.e. MSDS,
Permits) that are necessary to the system, are identified and their
distribution controlled.
 The revised standard requires documents required by the EMS and
the standard to be controlled. Documents must be controlled in
accordance with the requirements in 4.5.4.
 Organizations will need to establish and maintain procedures to
approve documents for adequacy prior to issue, review and update
as necessary and re-approve documents, ensure that documents
remain legible, ensure that documents of external origin determined
by the organization to be necessary for planning and operation of
the EMS are identified and their distribution controlled (and
prevent the unintended use of obsolete documents, and apply
suitable identification to them if they are retained for any purpose).
Implication:
 Title and wording has been changed to again with ISO 9001:2000.
 The organization will need to demonstrate, in addition to the existing
requirements, how documents are approved for adequacy prior to issue
and how documents of external origin, such as licenses, are identified
and their distribution is controlled.

4.4.6 Operational Control


Revision:
No significant changes have been made to this clause. As in many other
cases, “implementing” has been added to establishing and maintaining
procedures to clarify actions required for conformance with ISO
14001:2001.
 The organization needs to identify and plan those operations associated
with identified significant environmental aspects and ensure that they
are consistent with the environmental policy, objectives and targets. To
ensure operations are carried out under specified conditions, the
additional requirements are to establish and maintain documented
procedures to control situations where absence of documented
procedures could lead to deviations from the environmental policy,
objectives and targets.

4.4.7 Emergency Preparedness and Response


Revision:
No significant changes have been made to this clause. The revised standard
clarifies one requirement by stating that in the actual event of an emergency,
the organization shall respond in such a way to prevent or mitigate
associated adverse environmental impacts.
 The requirements have been re-specified, stating explicitly that the
organization shall establish and maintain procedures to identify
potential emergency situation and potential accidents that can have an
impacts on the environment.
 In addition, procedures must be established and maintained to respond
to actual emergency situation and accidents.
 The organization is required to periodically review and, where
necessary, revise its emergency preparedness and response procedures.
Implication:
 Organization should check that their existing procedure covers the
‘identification of potential emergency situations and potential
accidents that can have an impact on the environment and how it will
respond to them’.
 Procedures must also cover actual emergency situations.
 Organizations will also be required to demonstrated that the procedure
have been periodically reviewed.
4.5.1 Monitoring and Measurement
Revision:
This clause does not include any substantial additional requirements. The
requirement to ensure that calibrated monitoring and measurement
equipment is used and maintained has been extended to include calibrated or
“verified” monitoring and measurement equipment.
 The requirements for periodic evaluations of legal compliance have
been moved from section 4.5.1 ISO 14001:1996 and form the basis of
new clause (4.5.2 see below). The additional requirement for this
clause is for the monitoring and measurement procedure to include a
requirement to document information to monitor performance and
applicable operational controls.
Requirements:
 Applicable has replaced relevant when referring to operational
controls. Organizations will need to update their procedures to reflect
this change.
4.5.2 Evaluation of Compliance
Revision:
This clause has been separated from 4.5.1 to become its own clause. This
achieves clarification, while adding additional requirements. Included in
4.5.1 of ISO 14001:1996 was a requirement for the organization to
periodically evaluate compliance with relevant environmental legislation
and regulations. This requirement has become sub clause 4.5.2.1 in the 2004
standard. Sub clause 4.5.2.2 of the 2004 standard calls for evaluation of
compliance with other requirements to which it subscribes. A new
requirement has been added that requires an organization to keep records of
periodic evaluations of compliance.
 This is new section and is split into two parts (4.5.2.1 and 4.5.2.2)
 4.5.2.1 requires the organization to establish, implement and maintain
a procedure(s) for periodically evaluation compliance with applicable
legal requirements and keep records.
 4.5.2.2 requires the organization to evaluate compliance with other
requirements to which it subscribes and keep records. This can be
combined with the evaluation of legal compliance noted above.

Organization must record the results (and maintain the records) of the
periodic evaluation of compliance and these will need to be considered at
the management review.
Implication:
 Organizations will be required to retain records of the periodic
evaluation of legal compliance undertaken. Note should be made that
this clause requires organizations to undertaken an evaluation of
compliance against all legal and other requirements and that this will
be a pre-requisite of accredited certification. This means that
compliance against each and every piece of legislation/regulation
relating to an organization’s environmental aspects will need to be
evaluated before it can be considered to be in conformity with ISO
14001:2004. It will not be acceptable for organizations to claim that
the periodic evaluation will be covered by their internal EMS audit
programme at some future date.

4.5.3 Nonconformity, Corrective action and Preventative action


Revision:
The revision to this clause aligns the requirements for identifying and
correcting Nonconformity with similar requirements in ISO 9001:2000.
Clearer definations are provided for actions needed to prevent, investigate,
identify, evaluate, review and record Nonconformity, corrective actions and
preventive actions.
 The requirement is for organizations to establish, implement and
maintain a procedure(s) for dealing with actual and potential Non-
conformities and for taking corrective and preventative action.
 The procedure needs to define requirements for identifying and
correcting Non-conformities and taking actions to mitigate their
environmental impacts. Investigate Non-conformities, determine their
cause and take actions(s) to avoid their recurrence. Evaluated the need
for actions to prevent Non-conformities and implement appropriate
actions designed to avoid their occurrence. Record the results of
corrective and preventative actions taken, and review the effectiveness
of corrective and preventative actions take.
 Actions taken need to be appropriate to the magnitude of the problem
and environmental impact encountered and ensure that any necessary
changes to the EMS documentation are made.
Implication:
 Organization need to review and update their procedures as appropriate
and ensure that they incorporate, in particular, the prevent of re-
occurrence of Non-conformities and the prevention of potential Non-
conformities.
 The organizations processes must also be reviewed to ensure that it
evaluates the need for action to prevent Non-conformities and
implement appropriate actions to avoid their occurrence.

4.5.4 Control of records


Revision:
Control of records has been simplified, reworded, and reformatted to
align its content with ISO 9001:2000. Record must demonstrate
conformity to the EMS. In keeping with the focus on continual
improvement, a new requirement has been added for records to
demonstrate “results achieved”. Results are understood to mean outcomes
of audits, corrective actions, operation control, programs to achieve
objectives, and monitoring.
 The organization shall establish and maintain records as necessary
to demonstrate conformity to the requirements of the EMS and the
standard.
 A procedure must be implemented for the identification, storage,
protection, retrieval, retention and disposal of records.
 Records must remain legible identifiable and traceable.
Implication:
 Organizations need to ensure that all records used to support the
EMS and the standard, demonstrate compliance with the EMS,
procedures and results.
 Record retention times are no longer required by the standard,
although record retention is still required.

4.5.5 Internal audit


Revision:
There are two key additions to this clause. First, the revision adds that the
internal audit process must address the retention of associated records.
Second, the revision considers the selection of auditors and states that the
selected auditors shall ensure objectivity and impartiality in the audit
process. This statement is important when choosing an internal auditor. The
organization must ensure that the auditor has freedom from bias or other
influences that could affect their objectivity.
 The organization is required to conduct EMS audits at planned
intervals and the audit programme shall be planned.
 The revised standard requires the audit procedures to address retaining
associated records from audits. This was in the records clause in the
1996 edition.
 The selection of auditors and the conduct of audits must be objective
and impartial.

Implication:
 The organization will need to demonstrate that audits have been
planned and an audit programme is in place- this may be done through
the organization’s audit procedure.
 Organizations must also retain records from audits and provision for
this must be included in the procedure.

4.6 Management review


Revision:
Clause 4.6 in ISO 14001:2004 includes some important changes that align it
closer to ISO 9001:2000. The aim of the clause is the same, but the revision
is more prescriptive. The prescriptive language details inputs to the
management review process (not all of which are in ISO 14001:1996)
including:
 Results of internal audits and evaluations of compliance with legal
and other requirements
 Communication from external interested parties including complaints
 The environmental performance of the organization
 The extent to which objectives and the targets have been met
 The status of preventive and corrective actions
 Follow-up actions from previous management reviews
 Changing circumstances including developments legal and other
requirements
 Recommendations for improvement
Specific outputs of the management review include continual improvement
and decisions and actions for possible changes to:
 The environmental policy
 Objectives
 Targets
 Other elements of the system
The key changes can be summarized as
 The top management of the organization is required to the EMS at
planned intervals.
 The results of the management review must be documented
 The review must also include assign opportunities for improvement
 The input into the management review will additionally include
communications from external parties, performance of the EMS, extent
to which objectives and targets have been met, status of corrective and
preventative actions, follow-up actions from previous management
reviews, changing circumstances including developments in legal and
other requirements related to its environmental aspects and
recommendations for improvement.
 The outputs from the management review shall include any decisions
and actions related to possible changes to environmental policy,
objectives, targets and other elements of the EMS, consistent with the
commitment to continual improvement.
Implication:
 The input and output of the management review is now prescribed in
detail (as listed above) and each of the identified inputs/ outputs will
need to be incorporated into the organization’s management review
processes. Note that the management review is not limited to the of
items and may cover other issues as well as reach decisions and
recommendations beyond the listed items but which are of relevance to
the EMS
 As with audits, management reviews must be conducted at planned
intervals, rather than intervals the organization determines.
 Explicitly document decisions from the management review.

IAF Transition plan for Accredited EMS certification from ISO


14001:1996 to ISO 14001:2004

1. Preparation time (up to 6 months after the publication of the new


standard)
When the certification/ registration bodies (CRBs) agree with the
existing and new client organizations on whether ISO 14001:1996 or
ISO 14001:2004 is to be used as the audit criteria, the standard being
used shall be identified in the audit plan for initial audit, surveillance
or reassessment. If ISO 14001:2004 is to be used, the CRBs shall
ensure that procedures for assessment and certification to the new
EMS standard are in place.
2. Implementation date (from 6 months after the publication of the
new standard)
From six months after the publication of the new standard, all audit
plans prepared for existing and new client organizations should include
ISO 14001:2004
3. Extra visits by the CRBs
Additional visits by CRBs to assess solely against revision to the
standard are not required.
4. Nonconformities (during a further 12 months after the
implementation date defined in clause 2)
For existing organizations that are certified/ registered to ISO
14001:1996, nonconformities against changes made in the new EMS
standard may be raised. These nonconformities will not adversely
affect certification until the end of the transition period.
5. Certificates
The EMS standard indicated on any certificate shall be consistent with
the standard identified on the audit plan. For existing organizations it is
expected that EMS certificates will be renewed based on the outcome
of the periodic visit in applying the new standard. This renewal should
not change the previous certification cycle unless a complete
reassessment audit takes place. All existing certificates shall be
renewed as conforming to the new EMS standard before the end of
transition (see clause 6).
6. End of transition (18 month after publication of the new standard)
Eighteen months after publication of the standard, any existing
accredited certificates issued to ISO 14001:1996 will become active
and will affect certification/ Registration.
7. Accreditation body assessment
Accreditation body assessment visits will cover the CRB plans for
effectively managing the transition.
TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE
(TPM)

Purpose:

TPM is promoted by Japan Institute of Plant Maintenance (JIPM) with


following aims:

 Get the maximum production from the plant by maximizing overall


equipment effectiveness (OEE)

 Prevent every kind of loss, mainly through Zero Breakdown, Zero


Defect and Zero Accident.

 Involvement of all functions and all levels.

 Reduce cost and time of production.

TPM POLICY:

In our pursuit towards Organizational Excellence through practice of “Total


Productive Maintenance”, we are committed to
 Maximize Overall Plant Effectiveness;

 Achieve Zero Breakdown, Zero Defect and Zero Accident;

 Involve all employees in Systems and Process Improvements;

 Create a Clean and Lively Working Environment.


EIGHT PILARS OF TPM

Losses are eliminated by actions under 8 heads, called pillars of TPM

Autonomous Maintenance
Develop equipment competent operators to maintain basic
conditions of equipment & shop floor and eliminate forced deterioration.

Planned Maintenance
Improve Reliability & Maintainability of equipments.

Focused Improvement
Improve overall plant effectiveness by systematic elimination of
losses through Kaizens.

Education and Training


Develop operation and maintenance skills for Zero Breakdown,
Zero Defect and Zero Accident.

Quality Maintenance
Develop perfect equipments to ensure perfect quality of outputs.

Safety, Health and Environment


Maintain Zero pollution and achieve Zero Breakdown, Zero Defect
and Zero Accident.

Office TPM
Improve efficiency of office activities to provide excellent support
for manufacturing.

Development Management
Redesign and/or select equipments for “high equipment
effectiveness”.
16 MAJOR LOSSES

TPM aims for “Zero Loss”. Overall Plant effectiveness can be improved by
eliminating 16 major losses described below:

Losses affecting Equipment Effectiveness


1. Equipment failure loss
2. Start-up loss i.e. loss incurred till process stabilizes.
3. Set-up and adjustment loss.
4. Tool change loss.
5. Minor stoppage & idling loss.
6. Speed loss i.e. operation less than rated capacity.
7. Shutdown loss.
8. Defects and rework loss.

Losses affecting worker efficiency


9. Management loss i.e. waiting for instructions, materials.
10. Idle time losses due to unbalanced work.
11. Logistics loss i.e. material transfers delay etc.
12. Low speed operation due to difference in skills.
13. Loss due to frequent measurement and adjustment.

Losses affecting resources


14. Yield loss i.e. material loss.
15. Energy loss i.e. poor utilization of energy.
16. Tool loss i.e. losses due to damage to tools.