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About laboratory

MECH466: Automatic Control


ƒ Each Lab group consists of about 4 students.
ƒ By Jan. 12 (Mon):
(Mon): The instructor will decide the
groups, and post tentative groups on Vista.
Lecture 3
ƒ By Jan. 13 (Tue): Contact the instructor in case of
Solution to ODEs via Laplace transform inconvenience.
ƒ By Jan. 16 (Fri): Lab groups will be finalized and
posted on Vista.
Dr. Ryozo Nagamune ƒ Lab groups can be modified during this week.
Department of Mechanical Engineering Please check it regularly.
University of British Columbia ƒ Jan. 19 (Mon): Lab starts. See the files
MECH466_LabInfo_0809.pdf
MECH466_LabSchedule_0809.pdf
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Course roadmap Laplace transform (review)


Modeling Analysis Design ƒ One of most important math tools in the course!
Laplace transform Time response ƒ Definition: For a function f(t)
f(t) (f(t
(f(t)=0
)=0 for t<0),
Design specs
• Transient
Transfer function • Steady state
Root locus
Models for systems Frequency response
Frequency domain
• electrical • Bode plot (s: complex variable)
• mechanical
• electromechanical Stability
PID & Lead-
Lead-lag f(t)
f(t)
• Routh-
Routh-Hurwitz
Design examples F(s)
Linearization • Nyquist t F(s)
0

ƒ We denote Laplace transform of f(t)


f(t) by F(s).
F(s).
Matlab simulations & laboratories
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Laplace transform table (review) Advantages of s-domain (review)
ƒ We can transform an ordinary differential
equation into an algebraic equation which is
easy to solve. (This lecture)
Inverse Laplace ƒ It is easy to analyze and design interconnected
Transform
(series, feedback etc.) systems. (Throughout the
course)
ƒ Frequency domain information of signals can be
dealt with. (Lectures for frequency responses:
after midterm)
(u(t)
u(t) is often omitted.)

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An advantage of Laplace transform Example 1 (distinct roots)


ƒ We can transform an ordinary differential ODE with initial conditions (ICs)
equation (ODE) into an algebraic equation (AE).
t-domain s-domain

1. Laplace transform
ODE AE
1
2

Partial fraction
Solution to ODE expansion
3 distinct roots

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2
Properties of Laplace transform Example 1 (cont’d)
Differentiation (review) unknowns
2. Partial fraction expansion

t-domain Multiply both sides by s & let s go to zero:

Similarly,

s-domain
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Example 1 (cont’d) Example 2 (repeated roots)


3. Inverse Laplace transform ODE with initial conditions (ICs)

1. Laplace transform

If we are interested in only the final value of y(t),


y(t), apply
Final Value Theorem:
Repeated roots

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Example 2 (cont’d) Example 2 (cont’d)
unknowns unknowns
2. Partial fraction expansion 2. Partial fraction expansion

To obtain A: To obtain C:

To obtain B:
Take derivative

Let s go to -2.

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Example 2 (cont’d) Properties of Laplace transform


8. Frequency shift theorem (review)
3. Inverse Laplace transform

t-domain
Proof.

If we are interested in only the final value of y(t),


y(t), apply s-domain
Final Value Theorem: Ex.

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Example 3 (complex roots) Example 3 (cont’d)
unknowns
ODE with zero initial conditions (ICs) 2. Partial fraction expansion

1. Laplace transform
To obtain A, B & C:

Complex roots

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Example 3 (cont’d) Example: Newton’s law


3. Inverse Laplace transform
M

We want to know the trajectory of x(t).


x(t). By Laplace transform,

(Total response) = (Forced response) + (Initial condition response)

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Ex: Mechanical accelerometer Ex: Accelerometer (cont’d)
ƒ Taken from Dorf & Bishop book ƒ We would like to know how y(t) y(t) moves when unit
step f(t)
f(t) is applied with zero ICs.
ƒ By Newton’
Newton’s law

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Ex: Mechanical accelerometer (cont’d) Summary & Exercises


ƒ Suppose that b/M=3, k/M=2 and Ms=1. ƒ Solution procedure to ODEs
ƒ Partial fraction expansion 1. Laplace transform
2. Partial fraction expansion
3. Inverse Laplace transform

ƒ Inverse Laplace transform


0
ƒ Next, modeling of physical systems using
-0.1 Laplace transform
ƒ Exercises
Amplitude

-0.2

ƒ Read Sections 2-
2-2 up to page 42.
-0.3
ƒ Solve Problems 3 & 4 in page 94 (or page 28).
-0.4

-0.5
0 2 4 6 8 10
Time [sec]
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