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NFPA 69

Standard on
Explosion
Prevention
Systems

2002 Edition

NFPA, 1 Batterymarch Park, PO Box 9101, Quincy, MA 02269-9101


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69–1

Copyright © 2002, National Fire Protection Association, All Rights Reserved

NFPA 69

Standard on
Explosion Prevention Systems

2002 Edition

This edition of NFPA 69, Standard on Explosion Prevention Systems, was prepared by the
Technical Committee on Explosion Protection Systems, and acted on by NFPA at its May
Association Technical Meeting held May 19–23, 2002, in Minneapolis, MN. It was issued by
the Standards Council on July 19, 2002, with an effective date of August 8, 2002, and super-
sedes all previous editions.
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This edition of NFPA 69 was approved as an American National Standard on July 19, 2002.

Origin and Development of NFPA 69


In 1965, an NFPA Committee was appointed to develop standards for explosion protection
systems. These standards would include information on inerting to prevent explosions and on
venting to minimize damage from an explosion.
A tentative draft on explosion prevention systems was presented at the NFPA Annual
Meeting in New York City in May 1969. This tentative document was officially adopted in
May 1970. NFPA 69 was revised in 1973 and reconfirmed in 1978.
In 1982, the Committee on Explosion Protection Systems began a thorough review of
NFPA 69, including the development of a chapter on the technique of deflagration pressure
containment. The results of that effort became the 1986 edition.
The 1992 edition of NFPA 69 incorporated a new chapter, on deflagration isolation sys-
tems. Partial amendments were made to refine definitions, improve descriptions of oxidant
concentration reduction techniques, improve material on deflagration suppression, and fine-
tune deflagration pressure containment material.
The 1997 edition of this standard included some reorganization and updating of the
technical material to improve its usability. New material was added on enrichment to operate
above the upper flammable limit as a means of explosion protection with minimum oxidant
concentrations for preventing explosions. Material was added for provisions on reliability of
explosion protection control systems and deflagration suppression systems for consistency
with other NFPA standards.
The 2002 edition of NFPA 69 includes new information on spark detection and extinguish-
ment system design. A reorganization of the protection methods now reflects a hierarchy
based upon the degree of explosion prevention. The LOC values for gases and vapors in
Annex C have been updated based upon recent research. The standard has been revised to
reflect NFPA Manual of Style requirements.

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69–2 EXPLOSION PREVENTION SYSTEMS

Technical Committee on Explosion Protection Systems

David C. Kirby, Chair


Dow Corporation, WV [U]

Richard F. Schwab, Vice Chair


Honeywell, Inc., NJ [U]

Luke S. Morrison, Secretary


Professional Loss Control Inc., Canada [SE]

Joe R. Barton, Fountaintown, IN [SE] George Lobay, Canada Department of Natural


William J. Bradford, Brookfield, CT [SE] Resources, Canada [E]
Reinhard E. Bruderer, Pred-Engineering Inc., FL [U] R. A. Mancini, BP Amoco Corporation, IL [U]
Rep. Ciba-Geigy Corporation Rep. American Petroleum Institute
Kenneth L. Cashdollar, U.S. National Institute of Steven A. McCoy, National Starch & Chemical Co., IN [U]
Occupational Safety & Health, PA [RT] Rep. NFPA Industrial Fire Protection Section
Kris Chatrathi, Fike Corporation, MO [M] Robert W. Nelson, Pocasset, MA [I]
Henry L. Febo, Jr., FM Global, MA [I] Rep. Industrial Risk Insurers
John Joseph Plunkett, U.S. Coast Guard, DC [E]
Mark A. Fry, Mark A. Fry & Associates, Inc., NJ [SE]
Mitchel L. Rooker, BS&B Safety Systems, OK [M]
Joseph P. Gillis, Westboro, MA [SE]
Kevin Sheddrick, Engineered Storage Products Co., KS
Stanley S. Grossel, Process Safety & Design, Inc., NJ [SE] [M]
Dan A. Guaricci, ATEX Explosion Protection L.P., FL [M] Timothy F. Simmons, Eastman Kodak Company, NY [U]
Michael D. Hard, Hard Fire Suppression Systems, Inc., Bill Stevenson, Cv Technology, Inc., FL [M]
OH [IM] Stephen M. Stuart, Marsh USA, Inc., MI [I]
Rep. Fire Suppression Systems Association Erdem A. Ural, Fenwal Safety Systems, MA [M]
David D. Herrmann, E.I. duPont de Nemours & Co., DE Roy A. Winkler, Solutia Inc., MO [U]
[U] Robert G. Zalosh, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, MA
Walter B. Howard, Omaha, NE [SE] [SE]

Alternates

Laurence G. Britton, Union Carbide Corporation, WV [U] Paul F. Hart, Industrial Risk Insurers, IL [I]
(Alt. to D. C. Kirby) (Alt. to R. W. Nelson)
Gary A. Chubb, Chubb Engineering, KS [M] George A. Krabbe, Automatic Fire Controls, Inc., AZ [IM]
(Alt. to K. Sheddrick) (Alt. to M. D. Hard)
David G. Clark, E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co., DE [U] Arnold L. Mundt, BS&B Safety Systems, OK [M]
(Alt. to D. D. Herrmann) (Alt. to M. L. Rooker)
Ettore Contestabile, Canadian Explosives Research Samuel A. Rodgers, Honeywell, Inc., VA [U]
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Laboratory/CANMET, Canada [E] (Alt. to R. F. Schwab)


(Alt. to G. Lobay) Joseph A. Senecal, Fenwal Safety Systems, MA [M]
Thomas A. Gray, Akzo Nobel Inc., IL [U]
(Alt. to E. A. Ural)
(Alt. to S. A. McCoy)
Edward J. Haas, Jr., Marsh USA, Inc., NY [I]
(Alt. to S. M. Stuart)

Nonvoting
Vladimir Molkov, University of Ulster at Jordanstown, Harry Verakis, U.S. Dept. of Labor, WV
United Kingdom [SE]

Guy R. Colonna, NFPA Staff Liaison

Committee Scope: This Committee shall have primary responsibility for documents on explosion protection
systems for all types of equipment and for buildings, except pressure venting devices designed to protect
against overpressure of vessels such as those containing flammable liquids, liquefied gases, and compressed
gases under fire exposure conditions, as now covered in existing NFPA standards.
This list represents the membership at the time the Committee was balloted on the final text of this edition. Since that time,
changes in the membership may have occurred. A key to classifications is found at the back of the document.
NOTE: Membership on a committee shall not in and of itself constitute an endorsement of the Association or
any document developed by the committee on which the member serves.

2002 Edition

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CONTENTS 69–3

Contents
Chapter 1 Administration ................................. 69– 4 7.5 Spark Detection and Spark
1.1 Scope. (Reserved) ................................ 69– 4 Extinguishing System Inspection
1.2 Purpose .............................................. 69– 4 and Maintenance ................................. 69–10
1.3 Application ......................................... 69– 4
Chapter 8 Deflagration Control by Suppression ..... 69–10
1.4 Retroactivity ........................................ 69– 4
8.1 Application ......................................... 69–10
1.5 Equivalency ......................................... 69– 4
8.2 Limitations ......................................... 69–10
Chapter 2 Referenced Publications .................... 69– 4 8.3 Personnel Safety ................................... 69–11
2.1 General .............................................. 69– 4 8.4 Basic Design Considerations ................... 69–11
2.2 NFPA Publications ................................ 69– 4 8.5 Power/Control Units ............................. 69–11
2.3 Other Publications ................................ 69– 4 8.6 Detectors ............................................ 69–11
8.7 Electrically Fired Initiators ...................... 69–11
Chapter 3 Definitions ...................................... 69– 5 8.8 Suppressant and Suppressant Storage
3.1 General .............................................. 69– 5 Containers .......................................... 69–11
3.2 NFPA Official Definitions ....................... 69– 5 8.9 Installation .......................................... 69–11
3.3 General Definitions ............................... 69– 5 8.10 Electrical ............................................ 69–12
8.11 Inspection and Maintenance of
Chapter 4 General Requirements ....................... 69– 6 Deflagration Suppression Systems ............ 69–12
4.1 Methods ............................................. 69– 6 8.12 Procedures After System Actuation ........... 69–12
4.2 Limitations ......................................... 69– 6
4.3 Factors to Be Considered ....................... 69– 6 Chapter 9 Deflagration Control by Isolation ......... 69–12
4.4 Plans ................................................. 69– 6 9.1 Application ......................................... 69–12
4.5 Acceptance Test ................................... 69– 7 9.2 Rotary Valves ....................................... 69–12
4.6 Inspection and Maintenance ................... 69– 7 9.3 Flame Arresters .................................... 69–12
9.4 Automatic Fast-Acting Valve Systems ......... 69–13
Chapter 5 Deflagration Prevention by Oxidant 9.5 Flame Front Diverters ............................ 69–14
Concentration Reduction ................... 69– 7 9.6 Chemical Isolation Systems ..................... 69–14
5.1 Application ......................................... 69– 7 9.7 Liquid Seals ........................................ 69–15
5.2 Design and Operating Requirements ........ 69– 7
5.3 Purge Gas Sources ................................ 69– 7 Chapter 10 Deflagration Control by Pressure
5.4 Purge Gas Conditioning ......................... 69– 7 Containment .................................. 69–15
5.5 Piping Systems ..................................... 69– 8 10.1 Application ......................................... 69–15
5.6 Application of Purge Gas at Points of 10.2 Design Limitations ................................ 69–15
Use ................................................... 69– 8 10.3 Design Bases ....................................... 69–16
5.7 Instrumentation ................................... 69– 8 10.4 Maintenance ....................................... 69–17
10.5 Threaded Fasteners .............................. 69–17
Chapter 6 Deflagration Prevention by 10.6 Inspection After a Deflagration ................ 69–17
Combustible Concentration
Reduction ....................................... 69– 9 Annex A Explanatory Material ........................... 69–17
6.1 Application ......................................... 69– 9
6.2 Basic Design Considerations ................... 69– 9 Annex B Control of Flammable Gas Mixtures
6.3 Design and Operating Requirements ........ 69– 9 by Oxidant Concentration
6.4 Instrumentation ................................... 69– 9 Reduction and Combustible
Concentration Reduction ..................... 69–22
Chapter 7 Deflagration Prevention by Hot
Particle Detection and Annex C Limiting Oxidant Concentrations ........... 69–23
Intervention Systems ......................... 69– 9
Annex D Ventilation Calculations ....................... 69–27
7.1 Application ......................................... 69– 9
7.2 Limitations ......................................... 69– 9 Annex E Purging Methods ................................ 69–29
7.3 Spark Detection and Spark
Extinguishing System Design Annex F Informational References ..................... 69–31
Considerations ..................................... 69– 9
7.4 Testing ............................................... 69–10 Index ............................................................. 69–32

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69–4 EXPLOSION PREVENTION SYSTEMS

NFPA 69 (c) NFPA 86D, Standard for Industrial Furnaces Using


Vacuum as an Atmosphere
Standard on (10) Marine vapor control systems regulated by 33 CFR 154
(11) Marine vessel tanks regulated by 46 CFR 30, 32, 35,
Explosion Prevention Systems and 39
1.4 Retroactivity. The provisions of this standard reflect a con-
2002 Edition sensus of what is necessary to provide an acceptable degree of
NOTICE: An asterisk (*) following the number or letter desig- protection from the hazards addressed in this standard at the
nating a paragraph indicates that explanatory material on the time the standard was issued.
paragraph can be found in Annex A.
1.4.1 Unless otherwise specified, the provisions of this stan-
A reference in brackets [ ] following a section or paragraph
dard shall not apply to facilities, equipment, structures, or in-
indicates material that has been extracted from another NFPA
stallations that existed or were approved for construction or
document. As an aid to the user, Annex F lists the complete
installation prior to the effective date of the standard. Where
title and edition of the source documents for both mandatory
specified, the provisions of this standard shall be retroactive.
and nonmandatory extracts. Editorial changes to extracted
material consist of revising references to an appropriate divi- 1.4.2 In those cases where the authority having jurisdiction
sion in this document or the inclusion of the document num- determines that the existing situation presents an unaccept-
ber with the division number when the reference is to the able degree of risk, the authority having jurisdiction shall be
original document. Requests for interpretations or revisions permitted to apply retroactively any portions of this standard
of extracted text shall be sent to the appropriate technical deemed appropriate.
committee.
Information on referenced publications can be found in 1.4.3 The retroactive requirements of this standard shall be
Chapter 2 and Annex F. permitted to be modified if their application clearly would be
impractical in the judgment of the authority having jurisdic-
tion, and only where it is clearly evident that a reasonable
degree of safety is provided.
Chapter 1 Administration
1.5 Equivalency. Nothing in the standard is intended to pre-
1.1 Scope. (Reserved) vent the use of systems, methods, or devices of equivalent or
superior quality, strength, fire resistance, effectiveness, dura-
1.2 Purpose. bility, and safety over those prescribed by this standard.
1.2.1 This standard shall cover the minimum requirements 1.5.1 Technical documentation shall be submitted to the au-
for installing systems for the prevention of explosions in en- thority having jurisdiction to demonstrate equivalency.
closures that contain flammable concentrations of flammable
gases, vapors, mists, dusts, or hybrid mixtures. 1.5.2 The system, method, or device shall be approved for the
intended purpose by the authority having jurisdiction.
1.2.2 This standard shall provide basic information for de-
sign engineers, operating personnel, and authorities having
jurisdiction.
Chapter 2 Referenced Publications
1.3 Application.
1.3.1 This standard shall apply to systems and equipment 2.1 General. The documents or portions thereof listed in this
used for the prevention of explosions by the prevention or chapter are referenced within this standard and shall be con-
control of deflagrations. sidered part of the requirements of this document.

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1.3.2 This standard shall not apply to following: 2.2 NFPA Publications. National Fire Protection Association,
1 Batterymarch Park, P.O. Box 9101, Quincy, MA 02269-9101.
(1) Devices or systems designed to protect against detona-
tions NFPA 70, National Electrical Code®, 2001 edition.
(2)*Design, construction, and installation of deflagration NFPA 72®, National Fire Alarm Code®, 1999 edition.
vents NFPA 86, Standard for Ovens and Furnaces, 1999 edition.
(3) Protection against overpressure due to phenomena NFPA 86C, Standard for Industrial Furnaces Using a Special
other than internal deflagrations Processing Atmosphere, 1999 edition.
(4) Chemical reactions other than combustion processes NFPA 86D, Standard for Industrial Furnaces Using Vacuum as
(5) Unconfined deflagrations, such as open-air or vapor an Atmosphere, 1999 edition.
cloud explosions NFPA 651, Standard for the Machining and Finishing of Alumi-
(6) Rock dusting of coal mines, as covered by 30 CFR 75 num and the Production and Handling of Aluminum Powders, 1998
(7) General use of inert gas for fire extinguishment edition.
(8)*Preparation of tanks, piping, or other enclosures for hot 2.3 Other Publications.
work, such as cutting and welding
(9) Ovens or furnaces handling flammable or combustible 2.3.1 ASME Publications. American Society of Mechanical
atmospheres, as covered by the following: Engineers, Three Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5990.
(a) NFPA 86, Standard for Ovens and Furnaces ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, 1998.
(b) NFPA 86C, Standard for Industrial Furnaces Using a Spe-
cial Processing Atmosphere ASME B31.3, Process Piping, 1999.

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DEFINITIONS 69–5

2.3.2 ASTM Publication. American Society for Testing and 3.3.2 Burning Velocity.
Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA
3.3.2.1 Flame Burning Velocity. The burning velocity of a
19428-2959.
laminar flame under specified conditions of composition,
ASTM E 2079, Standard Test Method for Limiting Oxygen (Oxi- temperature, and pressure for unburned gas.
dant) Concentration for Gases and Vapors, 2000.
3.3.2.2 Fundamental Burning Velocity. The burning velocity
2.3.3 U.S. Government Publications. U.S. Government Print- of a laminar flame under stated conditions of composition,
ing Office, Washington, DC 20402. temperature, and pressure of the unburned gas. [68:3.3]
Title 30, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 75.
3.3.3 Combustible. Capable of undergoing combustion.
Title 33, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 154, “Waterfront
Facilities.” 3.3.4 Combustible Dust. Any finely divided solid material,
420 microns or smaller in diameter (material passing a U.S.
Title 46, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 30. No. 40 standard sieve), that presents a fire or deflagration
Title 46, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 32, “Shipping.” hazard. [654:1.5]
Title 46, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 35. 3.3.5* Combustible Particulate Solid. A combustible solid
Title 46, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 39. material comprised of distinct particles or pieces, regardless of
size, shape, or chemical composition, that is capable of being
pneumatically conveyed.
Chapter 3 Definitions
3.3.6 Combustion. A chemical process of oxidation that oc-
3.1 General. The definitions contained in this chapter shall curs at a rate fast enough to produce heat and usually light in
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apply to the terms used in this standard. Where terms are not the form of either a glow or flame.
included, common usage of the terms shall apply.
3.3.7 Concentration Reduction.
3.2 NFPA Official Definitions.
3.3.7.1 Combustible Concentration Reduction. The tech-
3.2.1* Approved. Acceptable to the authority having jurisdic- nique of maintaining the concentration of combustible mate-
tion. rial in a closed space below the lower flammable limit.
3.2.2* Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ). The organiza- 3.3.7.2 Oxidant Concentration Reduction. The technique of
tion, office, or individual responsible for approving equip- maintaining the concentration of an oxidant in a closed space
ment, materials, an installation, or a procedure. below the concentration required for ignition to occur.
3.2.3 Labeled. Equipment or materials to which has been 3.3.8 Deflagration. Propagation of a combustion zone at a
attached a label, symbol, or other identifying mark of an orga-
velocity that is less than the speed of sound in the unreacted
nization that is acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction
medium. [68:3.3]
and concerned with product evaluation, that maintains peri-
odic inspection of production of labeled equipment or mate- 3.3.9 Deflagration Pressure Containment. The technique of
rials, and by whose labeling the manufacturer indicates com- specifying the design pressure of a vessel and its appurte-
pliance with appropriate standards or performance in a nances so they are capable of withstanding the maximum pres-
specified manner. sures resulting from an internal deflagration.
3.2.4* Listed. Equipment, materials, or services included in a 3.3.10 Deflagration Suppression. The technique of detect-
list published by an organization that is acceptable to the au- ing and arresting combustion in a confined space while the
thority having jurisdiction and concerned with evaluation of combustion is still in its incipient stage, thus preventing the
products or services, that maintains periodic inspection of development of pressures that could result in an explosion.
production of listed equipment or materials or periodic evalu-
ation of services, and whose listing states that either the equip- 3.3.11 Detonation. Propagation of a combustion zone at a
ment, material, or service meets appropriate designated stan- velocity that is greater than the speed of sound in the unre-
dards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified acted medium. [68:3.3]
purpose. 3.3.12 Explosion. The bursting or rupture of an enclosure
3.2.5 Shall. Indicates a mandatory requirement. or a container due to the development of internal pressure
from a deflagration.
3.2.6 Should. Indicates a recommendation or that which is
advised but not required. 3.3.13 Fast-Acting Valve. A valve that closes a path of defla-
gration propagation in a pipe or duct in response to upstream
3.2.7 Standard. A document, the main text of which contains detection of a deflagration.
only mandatory provisions using the word “shall” to indicate
requirements and which is in a form generally suitable for 3.3.14* Flame Arrester. A device that prevents the transmis-
mandatory reference by another standard or code or for adop- sion of a flame through a flammable gas/air mixture by
tion into law. Nonmandatory provisions shall be located in an quenching the flame on the surfaces of an array of small pas-
appendix or annex, footnote, or fine-print note and are not to sages through which the flame must pass.
be considered a part of the requirements of a standard. 3.3.15 Flame Front Diverter. A device that opens in response
3.3 General Definitions. to the pressure wave preceding the flame front of the deflagra-
tion, thereby venting the pressure wave and flame front.
3.3.1 Blanketing (or Padding). The technique of maintain-
ing an atmosphere that is either inert or fuel-enriched in the 3.3.16 Flame Speed. The speed of a flame front relative to a
vapor space of a container or vessel. fixed reference point. Flame speed is dependent on turbu-

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69–6 EXPLOSION PREVENTION SYSTEMS

lence, the equipment geometry, and the fundamental burning 3.3.29 Pressure Piling. A condition during deflagration in
velocity. [68:3.3] which pressure increases in the unreacted medium ahead of
the propagating combustion zone.
3.3.17* Flammable Limits. The minimum and maximum
concentrations of a combustible material in a homogeneous 3.3.30 Spark Extinguishing System. An extinguishing system
mixture with a gaseous oxidizer that will propagate a flame. in which the radiant energy of a spark or an ember is detected
and the spark or ember is quenched.
3.3.17.1 Lower Flammable Limit (LFL). The lower flam-
mable limit is the lowest concentration of a combustible sub- 3.3.31 Suppressant. The chemical agent used in a deflagra-
stance in an oxidizing medium that will propagate a flame. tion suppression system to extinguish the deflagration.
3.3.17.2 Upper Flammable Limit (UFL). The upper flam- 3.3.32 Vapor. See 3.3.19.
mable limit is the highest concentration of a combustible sub-
3.3.33 Ventilation. The changing of an atmosphere of any
stance in an oxidizing medium that will propagate a flame.
space by natural or mechanical means.
3.3.18 Flammable Range. The range of concentrations be-
tween the lower and upper flammable limits. [68:3.3]
3.3.19 Gas. The state of matter characterized by complete Chapter 4 General Requirements
molecular mobility and unlimited expansion; used synony-
mously with the term vapor. [68:3.3] 4.1* Methods. The methods recognized in this standard shall
be grouped based on the prevention of combustion or on the
3.3.19.1 Inert Gas. A gas that is noncombustible and nonre-
prevention or limitation of damage after combustion occurs.
active.
4.1.1 Methods Based on the Prevention of Combustion. The
3.3.19.2 Purge Gas. An inert or a combustible gas that is con-
following shall be considered methods based on preventing
tinuously or intermittently added to a system to render the
combustion:
atmosphere nonignitible.
(1) Oxidant concentration reduction
3.3.20 Hybrid Mixture. A mixture of a flammable gas with
(2) Combustible concentration reduction
either a combustible dust or combustible mist. [68:3.3]
4.1.2 Methods Based on the Prevention or Limitation of Dam-
3.3.21 Inerting. A technique by which a combustible mixture
age. The following shall be considered methods based on pre-
is rendered nonignitible by adding an inert gas or a noncom-
venting or limiting damage:
bustible dust. (See also Blanketing.)
(1) Spark extinguishing systems
3.3.22* Isolation. A means of preventing certain stream prop-
(2) Deflagration suppression
erties from being conveyed past a predefined point.
(3) Isolation methods
3.3.22.1 Chemical Isolation. A means of preventing flame (4) Deflagration pressure containment
front and ignition from being conveyed past a predetermined
4.2 Limitations. The limitations specific to each method shall
point by injection of a chemical suppressant.
be considered and are specified in the corresponding chapter
3.3.22.2 Deflagration Isolation. A method employing equip- for each method.
ment and procedures that interrupts the propagation of a de-
4.3 Factors to Be Considered. The following factors shall be
flagration flame front past a predetermined point.
considered in the selection of one of the methods and the
3.3.22.3 Flow Isolation. A method employing equipment design of the system:
and procedures that interrupts flow and prevents pressure rise
(1) Effectiveness of each method
beyond a predetermined point.
(2) Reliability of the system
3.3.22.4 Ignition Source Isolation. A method employing (3) Personnel hazards inherent in each method
equipment and procedures that interrupts the propagation of
4.3.1 The reliability of the system chosen shall be assessed
an igniting medium past a predetermined point.
using the following factors:
3.3.23* Limiting Oxidant Concentration (LOC). The concen-
(1) System design basis
tration of oxidant below which a deflagration cannot occur. Ma-
(2) Possibility of electrical and mechanical malfunction
terials other than oxygen can act as the oxidants. [86:2.2]
(3) Dependence on sophisticated activating systems
3.3.24 Liquid Seal. A device that prevents the passage of (4) Need for special installation, training, operating, testing,
flame by passing the gas mixture through a noncombustible and maintenance procedures
liquid. (5) Further limitations as presented in each chapter
3.3.25 Maximum Pressure (Pmax). The maximum pressure 4.3.2 In general, explosion prevention systems shall be used to
developed in a contained deflagration for an optimum mix- protect processing, storage, and materials handling equipment.
ture. [68:3.3]
4.3.3 When explosion prevention techniques are applied
3.3.26 Mist. A dispersion of fine liquid droplets in a gaseous to rooms, buildings, or other enclosures where personnel
medium. [68:3.3] are present, consideration shall be given to the safety of the
personnel.
3.3.27 Oxidant. Any gaseous material that can react with a
fuel (either gas, dust, or mist) to produce combustion. Oxy- 4.4 Plans.
gen in air is the most common oxidant. [68:3.3]
4.4.1 Plans, system specifications, and manufacturer’s rec-
3.3.28 Padding. See 3.3.1. ommendations for testing and maintenance shall contain

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DEFLAGRATION PREVENTION BY OXIDANT CONCENTRATION REDUCTION 69–7

information that enables the authority having jurisdiction dant concentrations of flammable gases or suspensions of
to evaluate the explosion hazard and the effectiveness of combustible dusts.
the system.
5.2.2.2 For fuel/inert/oxidant combinations not listed in
4.4.2 Details of the plans shall include the following: Table C.1(a), Table C.1(b), and Table C.1(c) or for situations
when the process conditions differ from the conditions under
(1) Pertinent chemical and physical characteristics of the ma-
which the existing data were obtained, the test methods de-
terials involved
scribed in ASTM E 2079, Standard Test Method for Limiting Oxy-
(2) Location of hazards
gen (Oxidant) Concentration for Gases and Vapors, shall be permit-
(3) Enclosures or limits and isolation of the hazards
ted to be used.
(4) Exposures to the hazards
5.2.2.3 The extent of oxidant reduction shall be determined
4.5 Acceptance Test. All new system installations and modifi-
by testing where conditions vary significantly from the test
cations shall be tested or otherwise evaluated to confirm the
conditions under which the data were obtained.
operational integrity of the system.
4.5.1 Tests shall be in accordance with the manufacturer’s 5.2.3 Use of Purge Gas Systems.
recommendations. 5.2.3.1 An additional backflash prevention or protection sys-
4.5.2 A written report of the tests shall be provided to the users. tem shall be installed if a purge gas system is used for lines
collecting flammable mixtures and the collection system ter-
4.6* Inspection and Maintenance. minates at a flare or incinerator.
4.6.1* All systems shall be inspected for operability in accor- 5.2.3.2 Hard-piped vapor control systems shall not require
dance with the manufacturer’s recommendations. flame arresters at each source connection to the system, pro-
vided that the system is designed to operate outside the flam-
4.6.2 An inspection and preventive maintenance schedule
mable range.
shall be established in accordance with the manufacturer’s
recommendations. 5.2.3.3 Systems requiring hookups prior to vapor transfer,
such as vapor collection from mobile vehicles, shall be purged
to a level below the LOC prior to transfer, or backflash protec-
tion shall be provided near the point of connection.
Chapter 5 Deflagration Prevention by Oxidant
Concentration Reduction 5.2.3.4* Where oxygen-deficient atmospheres are maintained
in equipment operating under conditions that might form py-
5.1 Application. The technique for oxidant concentration re- rophoric iron sulfides or other pyrophoric materials, a proce-
duction for deflagration prevention shall be permitted to be dure shall be developed to prevent uncontrolled oxidation of
considered where a mixture of oxidant and flammable mate- the sulfides or other pyrophoric materials.
rial is confined to an enclosure within which the oxidant con-
5.3 Purge Gas Sources.
centration can be controlled.
5.3.1 The purge gas shall be obtained from a source that is
5.1.1* The system shall be maintained at an oxidant concen-
capable of continuously supplying the required amount of purge
tration that is low enough to prevent a deflagration.
gas to maintain the necessary degree of oxidant deficiency.
5.1.2 Oxidant concentration reduction shall be permitted to be
applied to rooms or buildings, but one of the following shall ap- 5.3.2 Possible sources of purge gas shall include, but shall not
ply, since oxygen-deficient atmospheres cannot sustain life: be limited to, the following:

(1) Operations in such areas shall be remotely controlled. (1) Commercially available inert gas, such as nitrogen, car-
(2) Operating personnel shall be provided with breathing ap- bon dioxide, argon, or helium, supplied from high-
paratus, as well as other safeguards. pressure tanks or cylinders or from air separation plants
(2) Inert gas supplied from a gas generator that burns or cata-
5.2 Design and Operating Requirements. lytically oxidizes a hydrocarbon to produce an oxygen-
deficient purge gas
5.2.1* Design Considerations. The following factors shall be
(3) Products of combustion from process furnaces or boiler
considered in the design of a system intended to reduce the
furnaces for which purification or cooling could be neces-
oxidant concentration:
sary to avoid contamination
(1) Required reduction in oxidant concentration (4)*Steam, if it can be supplied at a rate that raises and main-
(2) Variations in the process, process temperature and pres- tains the protected vessel or system at a temperature high
sure, and materials being processed enough to prevent condensation of the steam
(3) Source purge gas supply and equipment installation (5) High-purity nitrogen supplied by air oxidation of ammonia
(4) Compatibility of the purge gas with the process (6) Inert gas supplied by removal of oxygen from air by ab-
(5) Operating controls sorption, adsorption, chemical reaction, or membrane
(6) Maintenance, inspection, and testing permeation
(7) Leakage of purge gas to surrounding areas (7) Fuel gases such as methane or natural gas
(8) Need for breathing apparatus by personnel
5.4 Purge Gas Conditioning.
5.2.2 Limiting Oxidant Concentrations (LOC).
5.4.1 Purge gas shall be conditioned to minimize contami-
5.2.2.1* Table C.1(a), Table C.1(b), and Table C.1(c) shall be nants that might be harmful to the gas distribution system or
permitted to be used as a basis for determining limiting oxi- that might interfere with the operation of the system.

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69–8 EXPLOSION PREVENTION SYSTEMS

5.4.2 Before introduction, the purge gas shall be at a tem- 5.7 Instrumentation.
perature compatible with the process being protected to mini- 5.7.1* General. Instrumentation shall be provided to monitor
mize the chance of thermal ignition or condensation. the purge gas being supplied to the distribution system.
5.4.3 Purge gas that is distributed in a system subject to freez- 5.7.1.1 Instrumentation shall be calibrated at scheduled
ing temperatures shall have a dew point such that water con- intervals.
densation cannot occur at the minimum ambient tempera-
ture to which the system will be exposed. 5.7.1.2 When the conditions being measured are critical to
the safety of personnel, alarms shall be provided to indicate
5.5 Piping Systems. Purge gas distribution systems shall be abnormal operation of the system.
designed and installed in accordance with recognized engi- 5.7.2 Systems Operated Below the Limiting Oxidant Concen-
neering practices. tration (LOC).
5.5.1 Where purge gas exceeds a gauge pressure of 15 psi 5.7.2.1* Instrumentation shall be installed in as many points
(103 kPa), the piping system shall be designed in accordance as necessary to ensure the desired oxidant concentration re-
with ANSI/ASME B31.3, Process Piping. duction within the protected system.
5.5.2 Where required, piping systems shall be provided with 5.7.2.2 The determination of the LOC for the system shall be
filters, screens, or other means of preventing foreign material based on the worst credible case gas mixture yielding the
from entering critical parts of the system, such as pressure smallest LOC.
regulators, valves, and instrumentation.
5.7.2.3 A safety margin shall be maintained between the LOC
5.5.3 Where required, moisture traps shall be provided and and the normal working concentration in the system.
lines shall drain toward the traps. 5.7.2.4* The safety margin shall take into account all of the
5.5.3.1 Blowdown connections for moisture traps shall be following:
provided. (1) Fluctuations occurring in the system
5.5.3.2 Moisture traps shall be protected from freezing. (2) Sensitivity and reliability of monitoring and control
equipment
5.5.4 When flue gas or combustion gas is used, means shall (3) Probability and consequences of an explosion
be provided to prevent propagation of flame into the sys-
5.7.2.5 One of the following requirements shall be met
tem being protected.
where the oxygen concentration is continually monitored:
5.5.5* Manual shutoff valves shall be provided at each major (1) A safety margin of at least 2 volume percent below the
division point in the distribution system. worst credible case LOC shall be maintained.
5.5.6 The inert gas distribution system shall be designed to (2) The LOC shall be less than 5 percent, in which case, the
prevent contamination by hazardous process materials. equipment shall be operated at no more than 60 percent
of the LOC.
5.5.6.1 Where required, check valves or other design features
shall be incorporated to prevent the potential for contamina- 5.7.2.6 The requirement of 5.7.2.5 shall not apply to partial
tion due to loss of purge gas supply or to excessive pressure in oxidation processes.
the process unit being protected. 5.7.2.7 Where the oxygen concentration is not continuously
monitored, all of the following requirements shall be met:
5.5.6.2 A single check valve shall not be considered a positive
backflow connection. (1) The oxygen concentration shall be designed to operate at
no more than 60 percent of the LOC, or 40 percent of the
5.5.7* Cross-connections between the purge gas distribution LOC if the LOC is below 5 percent.
system and any other system shall be prohibited unless one of (2) The oxygen concentration shall be checked on a regularly
the following criteria is met: scheduled basis.
(1) Positive measures shall be taken to prevent backflow from 5.7.2.7.1* The vapor space in low-pressure field storage tanks
the other system into the purge gas system. that have padding shall not require checking of the oxygen
(2) Cross-connections to backup purge gas systems shall be concentration.
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permitted without backflow prevention unless backflow


5.7.2.7.2 The procedure of pulling a partial vacuum and then
could create a hazard.
breaking the vacuum with inert gas shall be permitted without
5.5.8 The entire distribution system shall be cleaned and measuring the oxygen concentration if all of the following apply:
functionally tested prior to being placed in service. (1) The vacuum condition is held for a time to check for leak-
5.5.9 The gases from an enclosure or vessel being purged age.
shall be vented to a safe location. (2) The vacuum level is monitored.
(3) The vacuum-creating medium is compatible with the pro-
5.6 Application of Purge Gas at Points of Use. Purge gas shall cess chemistry.
be introduced and exhausted so that distribution is ensured (4) The residual oxygen partial pressure is calculated or dem-
and the desired reduction in oxidant concentration is main- onstrated by test to be at least 40 percent below the LOC.
tained throughout the system being protected.
5.7.3 Systems Operated Above the Upper Flammable Limit
5.6.1 Multiple inlets and outlets shall be permitted. (UFL).
5.6.2 Connections between the purge gas distribution piping 5.7.3.1* Systems operating above the UFL shall be permitted
and the protected enclosure or system shall be designed for to be used, and the UFL shall be determined at the conditions
maximum purge gas pressure. applicable to the system.

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DEFLAGRATION PREVENTION BY HOT PARTICLE DETECTION AND INTERVENTION SYSTEMS 69–9

5.7.3.2 Vent headers operated near atmospheric pressure 6.3.3.2 Air intakes shall meet one of the following require-
shall be permitted to be rendered nonflammable by the addi- ments:
tion of at least 25 volume percent of natural gas or methane
(1) They shall be located so that combustible material cannot
where both of the following criteria are met:
enter the air-handling system, even in the event of spills or
(1) The vent headers shall not contain any vapor with a UFL leaks.
greater than that of hydrogen in air (75 percent). (2) They shall be provided with gas detectors that automati-
(2) The vent headers shall not contain oxygen in concentra- cally interlock to stop air intake.
tions greater than can be derived from ambient air.
6.3.3.3 Filters, dryers, or precipitators in the air intakes
5.7.3.3 Instrumentation to control methane flow shall be ac- shall be located such that they are accessible for cleaning
ceptable to the authority having jurisdiction. and maintenance.
6.4 Instrumentation.

Chapter 6 Deflagration Prevention by Combustible 6.4.1 Instrumentation shall be provided to monitor the con-
trol of the concentration of combustible components.
Concentration Reduction
6.4.2 Instrumentation shall be calibrated at scheduled intervals.
6.1* Application. The technique for combustible concentration
6.4.3 Where the enclosure being protected presents a per-
reduction shall be permitted to be considered where a mixture of
sonnel hazard, alarms shall be provided to indicate abnormal
a combustible material and an oxidant is confined to an enclo-
operation of the system.
sure and where the concentration of the combustible can be
maintained below the lower flammable limit (LFL).
Chapter 7 Deflagration Prevention by Hot Particle
6.2 Basic Design Considerations.
Detection and Intervention Systems
6.2.1 All of the following factors shall be considered in the
design of a system intended to reduce the combustible con- 7.1 Application. Spark extinguishing systems shall be permit-
centration below the lower flammable limit (LFL): ted to be considered for reducing the frequency of deflagra-
tions in transport and receiving systems that handle combus-
(1) Required reduction in combustible concentration
tible particulate solids.
(2) Variations in the process, process temperature and pres-
sure, and materials being processed 7.1.1 Spark detection and extinguishing shall be used in con-
(3) Operating controls junction with other explosion prevention or explosion protec-
(4) Maintenance, inspection, and testing tion measures, such as deflagration suppression or deflagra-
tion venting, for those systems posing a dust explosion hazard.
6.2.2* The lower flammable limits of the combustible compo-
nents shall be determined at all operating conditions, includ- 7.1.2 Spark extinguishing systems shall be used for the detec-
ing startup and shutdown. tion and extinguishment of sparks or embers as they pass
through ducts that transport combustible dusts or solids.
6.3 Design and Operating Requirements.
7.1.3 The spark extinguishing system shall operate by means
6.3.1 Combustible Concentration Limit. The combustible
of detectors that sense the radiation from a hot or glowing
concentration shall be maintained at or below 25 percent of
particle and actuate a special extinguishing system that
the lower flammable limit (LFL), unless the following condi-
quenches the particle.
tions apply:
7.1.4 Because the detection is by means of radiation, spark
(1) Where automatic instrumentation with safety interlocks is
detection systems shall not be used in duct systems that have
provided, the combustible concentration shall be permit-
openings through which incident light could affect the detec-
ted to be maintained at or below 60 percent of the lower
tors, unless the detectors are designed to be insensitive to vis-
flammable limit.
ible light.
(2) Aluminum powder production systems designed and oper-
ated in accordance with NFPA 651, Standard for the Machining 7.2 Limitations.
and Finishing of Aluminum and the Production and Handling of
7.2.1 Spark extinguishing systems shall not be used for ducts
Aluminum Powders, shall be permitted to be maintained at or
designed to transport flammable gases.
below 50 percent of the lower flammable limit.
7.2.2 Spark extinguishing systems shall not be used where the
6.3.2* Catalytic Oxidation. Where catalytic oxidation is used
extinguishing agent creates a hazard.
for combustible concentration reduction, flame arresters shall
be provided and the following requirements shall apply: 7.2.3* Spark detection and spark extinguishing systems shall
be limited to the detection and extinguishment of sparks or
(1) Flame arresters shall be provided in all inlets to the cata-
embers traveling at the system transport velocity.
lytic oxidation unit.
(2) Flame arresters shall be periodically inspected and 7.2.4 Spark detection and spark extinguishing systems shall
maintained. not be used in extinguishing deflagration flame fronts or flow
isolation.
6.3.3 Ventilation or Air Dilution.
7.3 Spark Detection and Spark Extinguishing System Design
6.3.3.1 If ventilation is used, the outlets from the protected
Considerations.
enclosures shall be located so that hazardous concentrations
of the exhausted air cannot enter or be drawn into the fresh 7.3.1* General. Spark detection and spark extinguishing sys-
air intakes of environmental air–handling systems. tems shall be listed or approved.

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69–10 EXPLOSION PREVENTION SYSTEMS

7.3.2 Detectors. 7.3.4.5 An alarm shall sound when the pressure of the extin-
guishing agent falls below the minimum supply pressure speci-
7.3.2.1 Spacing between a detector and the extinguishing fied by the manufacturer.
agent injection point shall be based on all of the following:
(1) Linear velocity of the material in the duct 7.3.4.6 Auxiliary heating systems for extinguishing agent
(2) Response time of the detector storage shall be provided, when necessary, and shall comply
(3) Actuator circuitry with all of the following:

7.3.2.2 The number of detectors shall be sufficient to detect a (1) The temperature of the extinguishing agent shall be su-
glowing particle at any location in the cross-sectional area of pervised.
the duct. (2) An alarm shall sound at both the low and high tempera-
ture limits.
7.3.2.3 Provisions shall be made to prevent obscuration of
radiant energy detectors. 7.3.5 Other Intervention Systems. Other intervention sys-
tems, including the following, shall be permitted to be actu-
7.3.2.4 Detectors shall be protected from the accumulation ated by the optical detection system:
of foreign material that would prevent functioning.
(1) Water deluge
7.3.3 Power/Control Units.
(2) Carbon dioxide flooding
7.3.3.1 A power/control unit with a minimum 24-hour (3) Automatic fast-acting valves
standby battery backup shall be provided with each suppres- (4) Diverting valves
sion system and shall supply energy to accomplish all of the (5) Steam snuffing
following:
7.4 Testing. A functional test of the extinguishing portion of
(1) Power all detection devices the system shall be conducted in accordance with the manu-
(2) Energize all electrically actuated extinguishing systems facturer’s specifications.
(3) Energize visual and audible alarms
(4) Transfer all auxiliary control and alarm contacts 7.5 Spark Detection and Spark Extinguishing System Inspec-
(5) Control system-disabling interlock and process shutdown tion and Maintenance. Spark extinguishing systems shall be
circuits inspected and maintained in accordance with the manufactur-
er’s recommendations.
7.3.3.2 The power/control unit shall meet the applicable re-
quirements of 1.5.2 and Chapter 3 of NFPA 72, National Fire 7.5.1 A written report on the most recent inspection shall be
Alarm Code®. kept on file for review.
7.3.3.3 The power/control unit shall, as a minimum, fully 7.5.2 The report shall include test and calibration data on all
and continuously supervise all of the following: system components.
(1) Wiring circuits for opens and other faults
(2) AC power supply (primary)
(3) Battery voltage, presence, and polarity Chapter 8 Deflagration Control by Suppression
(4) System safety interlock circuitry
(5) System-disabling interlock circuitry 8.1 Application.
(6) Releasing outputs
(7) Electrical extinguishing actuators 8.1.1 The technique for deflagration suppression shall be
(8) Detectors permitted to be considered for most flammable gases, com-
(9) Visible and audible alarms bustible mists, or combustible dusts that are subject to defla-
(10) Circuit ground fault gration in a gas phase oxidant.
7.3.3.4 In addition to noncritical trouble alarms, the power/ 8.1.2 Enclosures that can be protected by a deflagration sup-
control unit shall have separate contacts capable of initiating pression system shall include, but shall not be limited to, the
an orderly shutdown of the protected process upon receipt of following:
any trouble signal that indicates a disabled protection system.
(1) Processing equipment, such as reactor vessels, mixers,
7.3.3.5 The supervisory signal circuits shall be provided with blenders, pulverizers, mills, dryers, ovens, filters, screens,
a visual and audible trouble signal. and dust collectors
7.3.4 Extinguishing System. (2) Storage equipment, such as atmospheric or low-pressure
tanks, pressure tanks, and mobile facilities
7.3.4.1 Discharge nozzles shall be located and arranged so (3) Material-handling equipment, such as pneumatic and
that solid particles cannot obstruct the nozzles. screw conveyors and bucket elevators
7.3.4.2 If water is used as the extinguishing agent, the water (4) Laboratory and pilot plant equipment, including hoods,
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supply system shall be equipped with an in-line strainer. glove boxes, test cells, and other equipment
(5) Aerosol filling rooms
7.3.4.3 The extinguishing agent supply system shall be ca-
pable of supplying all discharge nozzles at the rated volume 8.2 Limitations.
and pressure.
8.2.1 Deflagration suppression is successful only where the
7.3.4.4 The system shall contain enough extinguishing agent suppressant can be distributed during the early stages of flame
to provide for no less than 100 operations of the system. development.

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DEFLAGRATION CONTROL BY SUPPRESSION 69–11

8.2.2 Deflagration suppression is limited by the physical and (2) Energize all electrically fired initiators
chemical properties of the reactants in the system, as well as (3) Energize visual and audible alarms
the design and construction of the enclosure. (4) Transfer all auxiliary control and alarm contacts
(5) Control system-disabling interlock and process shutdown
8.2.3 The strength of the protected enclosure shall be
circuits
greater than the maximum suppressed deflagration pressure
(including effects of suppressant discharge). 8.5.2 The power/control unit shall meet the applicable re-
quirements of 1.5.2 and Chapter 3 of NFPA 72, National Fire
8.3 Personnel Safety.
Alarm Code.
8.3.1* Disarming and Lockout/Tagout Procedures.
8.5.3 The power/control unit shall, as a minimum, fully and
8.3.1.1 Disarming and lockout/tagout procedures shall be continuously supervise the following:
followed prior to entering equipment protected by deflagra-
tion suppression systems. (1) Wiring circuits for opens and other faults
(2) AC power supply (primary)
8.3.1.2 The deflagration suppression system shall be dis- (3) Battery voltage, presence, and polarity
armed prior to performing maintenance operations on the (4) System safety interlock circuitry
protected equipment if discharging the suppressant could re- (5) System-disabling interlock circuitry
sult in injury. (6) Releasing outputs
8.3.1.3 Operation of the protected equipment shall be in- (7) Electrically fired initiators
terlocked through the suppression system control panel so (8) Detectors
that operation cannot be resumed until the suppression (9) Visual and audible alarms
system is armed. (10) Circuit ground fault

8.3.2 Training. Personnel shall be trained in the safety proce- 8.5.4 In addition to noncritical trouble alarms, the power/
dures that are to be carried out prior to, during, and after control unit shall have separate contacts capable of initiating
maintenance. an orderly shutdown of the protected process upon receipt of
any trouble signal that indicates a disabled protection system.
8.4 Basic Design Considerations.
8.5.5 The supervisory signal circuits shall be provided with a
8.4.1 General. The design of a deflagration suppression sys-

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visual and audible trouble signal.
tem shall include, but shall not be limited to, the following:
8.6 Detectors.
(1) Deflagration characteristics of the combustible material
(2) Identification of equipment to be protected and its de- 8.6.1 The deflagration shall be detected by sensing either the
sign specifications pressure increase or the radiant energy from the combustion
(3) Detection technique process.
(4) Suppressant 8.6.2 Provisions shall be made to prevent obscuration of radi-
(5) Installation, operation, and test procedures ant energy detectors.
8.4.2 Process Analysis. 8.6.3 Detectors shall be protected from the accumulation of
8.4.2.1 A thorough analysis of the process shall be conducted foreign material that would prevent functioning.
to determine the type and degree of deflagration hazards in-
8.7 Electrically Fired Initiators.
herent in the process.
8.4.2.2 Factors such as the type of combustible, the internal 8.7.1 Electrically fired initiators shall be mounted so that
geometry and total volume to be protected, and the operating their maximum temperature rating, as specified by the manu-
conditions shall be reviewed in detail. facturer, is not exceeded.

8.4.2.3 The potential malfunctions that could affect the ex- 8.7.2 A source of electrical energy shall be used so that the
tent of the deflagration hazard also shall be determined. firing characteristics of the initiators do not deviate from the
manufacturer’s specifications.
8.4.3 Actuation of Other Devices and Systems. The deflagra-
tion suppression system shall be permitted to actuate other 8.8* Suppressant and Suppressant Storage Containers.
devices and systems such as high-speed isolation valves, rapid 8.8.1 The suppressant shall be compatible with the combus-
pneumatic conveying system shutdowns, or deflagration vents. tible material in the protected enclosure.
8.4.4 Drawings and Design Calculations. 8.8.2 The suppressant shall be effective at the expected ex-
8.4.4.1 Drawings and design calculations shall be developed tremes of temperature encountered in the protected enclosure.
for each system. 8.8.3 Means shall be provided to verify the pressure of the
8.4.4.2 Calculations of the final reduced deflagration pres- pressurized reservoirs.
sures shall be provided. 8.9 Installation.
8.5 Power/Control Units.
8.9.1 All components of the system shall be mounted in the
8.5.1 A power/control unit with a standby battery backup of location and in the manner specified by the system designer.
no less than 24 hours shall be provided with each suppression
8.9.2 Suppressant discharge nozzles shall be mounted in
system and shall supply energy to accomplish the following:
such a way as to prevent damage or failure to any appurte-
(1) Power all detection devices nances or fixtures in the enclosure protected.

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69–12 EXPLOSION PREVENTION SYSTEMS

8.9.3 Means shall be used to protect detectors and suppres- flame, deflagration pressures, pressure piling, and flame-jet
sant discharge devices from accumulating foreign material ignition between equipment that is interconnected by pipes
that would prevent functioning. or ducts.
8.9.4 Terminals and mechanical parts shall be protected 9.1.2 One or more of the technologies described in this chap-
from moisture and other contaminants. ter shall be permitted to be used with other explosion preven-
8.9.5 The temperatures at mounting locations shall not exceed tion systems described in this standard, in addition to, or in
the maximum operating temperatures of system components. conjunction with, deflagration venting.

8.10 Electrical. 9.1.3 Isolation methods shall be used to prevent the passage
of, to arrest, to divert, or to extinguish the deflagration flame
8.10.1 Wiring for the control circuits shall be isolated and front and, in some cases, the combustion-generated pressure.
shielded from all other wiring to prevent possible induced
currents. 9.1.4 Isolation shall be permitted to be used for flammable
gases or combustible dust systems.
8.10.2 Where environmental conditions warrant, conduits
shall be sealed to prevent the entrance of moisture and other 9.1.5* Isolation system design shall be permitted to be based
contaminants. on various techniques that include, but are not limited to, the
8.10.3 Where a conduit is used for wiring multiple installa- use of the following:
tions, the wiring for each suppression system shall be run in (1) Rotary valves
separate conduits or wired with shielded cables run in com- (2) Flame arresters
mon conduits. (3) Automatic fast-acting valves
8.10.4 All wiring shall meet the applicable requirements of (4) Flame front diverters
NFPA 70, National Electrical Code. (5) Flame front extinguishing systems
(6) Liquid seals
8.11 Inspection and Maintenance of Deflagration Suppres- (7) Spark detection and spark extinguishing systems
sion Systems.
9.1.6 The strength of piping, ducts, and enclosures in an isola-
8.11.1* Equipment shall be designed to allow inspection of tion system shall be designed to withstand anticipated pressures.
nozzles and detectors.
9.2* Rotary Valves.
8.11.2 Suppression systems shall be inspected and tested at
3-month intervals by personnel trained by the system’s manu- 9.2.1 Rotary valves shall be used only for systems handling
facturer. combustible dust.
8.11.3* Containers of suppressant shall be checked for pres- 9.2.2 Rotary valves intended for deflagration isolation sys-
sure and loss of agent. tems shall be designed as follows:
8.11.4 A container having a pressure (corrected for tempera-
(1) A clearance that is small enough to prevent the passage of
ture) that is less than the minimum value specified by the
flame shall be provided between the rotor and the valve
manufacturer shall be reconditioned or replaced.
housing.
8.11.5 Detectors shall be tested and calibrated as necessary to (2) At least two vanes on each side of the valve housing shall
meet system specifications. be in a position of minimum clearance at all times.
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8.11.6 System interlocks shall be verified for functioning. 9.2.3 Rotary valves shall be capable of withstanding the maxi-
8.11.7 The control unit shall be tested to ensure that the mum expected pressure.
system functions as required and that all external circuits are 9.2.4* Rotary valves intended for deflagration isolation sys-
supervised. tems shall have metal bodies and vanes unless it is shown by
8.11.8 A written report on the most recent inspection shall be test data that nonmetallic or composite materials prevent
kept on file for review. flame passage.
8.11.9 The report of the most recent inspection shall include 9.3* Flame Arresters.
test and calibration data on all system components.
9.3.1 Section 9.3 shall not apply to the following:
8.11.10 Extinguishing agent cylinders shall be hydrostatically
tested consistent with DOT requirements. (1) Devices that utilize a liquid seal to prevent the passage
of flame
8.12 Procedures After System Actuation. In the event of sys- (2) Devices that rely on gas flow velocity to prevent upstream
tem actuation, inspection and testing as specified in 8.11.2 propagation of flame
shall be performed before the system is returned to service. (3) Systems handling combustible dusts
9.3.2* Flame arresters shall be placed in the potential flame path
between the source of ignition and the system to be protected.
Chapter 9 Deflagration Control by Isolation
9.3.3 Flame arresters shall be installed in accordance with the
9.1 Application. manufacturer’s instructions.
9.1.1* The technique for deflagration isolation shall be per- 9.3.4* Flame arresters for in-line use shall be tested for such
mitted to be considered for interruption or mitigation of an application.

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DEFLAGRATION CONTROL BY ISOLATION 69–13

9.3.5* An in-line arrester that experiences continued burning (4) Transfer all auxiliary control and alarm contacts
for a time longer than that for which it was tested shall meet (5) Control system–disabling interlock and process shutdown
the following criteria: circuits
(1) A means of detecting the burning shall be provided on 9.4.8.1 The power/control unit shall meet the applicable re-
both sides of the arrester along with an alarm or auto- quirements of 1.5.2 and Chapter 3 of NFPA 72, National Fire
matic device to interrupt flow prior to failure. Alarm Code.
(2) If thermocouples are used, they shall not be placed in
thermowells. 9.4.8.2 The power/control unit shall, as a minimum, fully
and continuously supervise the following:
9.3.6* Arresters shall be inspected periodically, based on facil-
ity experience, and after each incident where they have been (1) Wiring circuits for opens and other faults
called upon to function. (2) AC power supply (primary)
(3) Battery voltage, presence, and polarity
9.3.6.1 The inspection shall determine whether any damage (4) System safety interlock circuitry
has occurred that could affect the performance of the device. (5) System-disabling interlock circuitry
9.3.6.2 Damaged components shall be replaced. (6) Releasing outputs
(7) Electrically actuated valves
9.4* Automatic Fast-Acting Valve Systems. (8) Detectors
(9) Visual and audible alarms
9.4.1 Automatic fast-acting valve systems shall be designed to
(10) Circuit ground fault
detect a deflagration and to prevent propagation of flame and
combustion-generated pressure beyond the fast-acting valves 9.4.8.3 The supervisory signal circuits shall be provided with
by providing a positive mechanical seal. a visual and audible trouble signal.
9.4.2 Factors that affect the performance of fast-acting 9.4.8.4 In addition to noncritical trouble alarms, the power/
automatic-closing valves shall be considered in the design and control unit shall have separate contacts capable of initiating
applications and shall include, but not be limited to, the fol- an orderly shutdown of the protected process upon receipt of
lowing: any trouble signal that indicates a disabled protection system.
(1) Deflagration characteristics of the combustible material 9.4.9 The deflagration shall be detected by sensing either the
(2) Volume, configuration, and operating characteristics of pressure increase or the radiant energy from the combustion
the vessel process.
(3) Type of deflagration protection used on the vessel and
piping 9.4.9.1* Provisions shall be made to prevent obscuration of
(4) Volume, length, cross-sectional area, configuration, and radiant energy detectors.
strength of the piping 9.4.9.2 Detectors shall be protected from the accumulation
(5) Velocity of the combustible air mixture in the pipe of foreign material that would prevent functioning.
(6) Location of system components
(7) Closure time of the valve, including control and detection 9.4.10 Electrically fired initiators shall be mounted so that
components their maximum temperature rating, as specified by the manu-
(8) Detection technique facturer, is not exceeded.
9.4.3 Fast-acting valves and deflagration detectors shall be 9.4.11 Pneumatic valve actuator systems shall comply with the
capable of withstanding the maximum expected deflagration following requirements:
pressures, including pressure piling. (1) Pneumatic valve actuators shall be mounted so that their
9.4.4* The fast-acting valve systems shall be of a design that has maximum temperature rating, as specified by the manu-
been tested under deflagration conditions to verify their per- facturer, is not exceeded.
formance. (2) Means shall be provided to verify the pressure of the pres-
surized reservoir for the pneumatic valve actuator.
9.4.5 Spacing between a detector and the fast-acting valve
shall be based on the maximum flame speed expected in the 9.4.12 Wiring for the control circuits shall be isolated and
duct and the response time of the detector, the valve, and the shielded from all other wiring to prevent possible induced
actuator circuitry. currents.
9.4.6 The diameter of the pipe leading to the automatic fast- 9.4.12.1 Where environmental conditions warrant, conduits
acting valve shall not be decreased, unless the automatic fast- shall be sealed to prevent the entrance of moisture and other
acting valve has been specifically tested for the configuration. contaminants.
9.4.7 Personnel shall be trained in the safety procedures 9.4.12.2 Where a conduit is used for wiring multiple installa-
that are to be carried out prior to, during, and after main- tions, the wiring for each automatic fast-acting valve system
tenance. shall be run in a separate conduit. Alternatively, each system
shall be permitted to be wired with shielded cables run in
9.4.8 A power/control unit with a minimum 24-hour standby common conduit.
battery backup shall be provided with each suppression system
and shall supply energy to accomplish the following: 9.4.12.3 All wiring shall meet the applicable requirements of
NFPA 70, National Electrical Code.
(1) Power all detection devices
(2) Energize all electrically actuated valve systems 9.4.13 All components of the system shall be mounted in the
(3) Energize visual and audible alarms location and in the manner specified by the system designer.

2002 Edition
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69–14 EXPLOSION PREVENTION SYSTEMS

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9.4.13.1 Where necessary, measures shall be used to protect 9.6 Chemical Isolation Systems.
detectors and fast-acting valves from accumulating foreign ma-
terial that would prevent operation. 9.6.1 General Requirements.

9.4.13.2 Terminals and mechanical parts shall be protected 9.6.1.1 Chemical isolation systems shall be permitted to be used
from moisture and other contaminants. to isolate interconnected process volumes from the effects of de-
flagration flame passage through interconnecting pipe.
9.4.13.3 The temperatures at mounting locations shall not
exceed the maximum operating temperatures of system com- 9.6.1.2 Chemical isolation systems shall be designed to detect
ponents. a deflagration flame event and to cause discharge of an extin-
guishing agent into a length of pipe sufficient to prevent flame
9.4.14 Inspection and maintenance of automatic fast-acting propagation past the point of agent discharge.
valve systems shall comply with the following requirements:
9.6.1.3 Chemical isolation system components exposed to
(1) Automatic fast-acting valve systems shall be inspected the process environment shall be capable of withstanding the
and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer’s maximum expected deflagration pressure.
recommendations.
(2) Containers of suppressant shall be checked for pressure 9.6.1.4 A chemical isolation system shall be of a design that has
and loss of agent. been tested under deflagration conditions to verify performance.
(3) A container having a pressure (corrected for tempera- 9.6.1.5 The distance between the position of a deflagration
ture) that is less than the minimum value specified by the flame event detector and the associated agent discharge point
manufacturer shall be reconditioned or replaced. shall be based on the following:
(4) A written report on the most recent inspection shall be
kept on file for review. The report shall include test and (1) Maximum deflagration flame speed expected in the pipe
calibration data on all system components. (2) Response time characteristics of the detector
(3) Discharge rate from the agent containers
9.4.15 In the event of system actuation, inspection and test-
ing as specified by the manufacturer shall be performed be- 9.6.1.6 Chemical isolation systems shall be disarmed before
fore the system is returned to service. maintenance operations are performed on the system compo-
nents.
9.5* Flame Front Diverters.
9.6.1.7 Personnel shall be trained in safety procedures to be
9.5.1 Flame front diverters shall be permitted to be used as a
carried out prior to, during, and after maintenance.
deflagration loss control measure.
9.6.2 Detectors.
9.5.2 Flame front diverter system design considerations shall
include, but not be limited to, the following: 9.6.2.1 Deflagration flame event detectors shall be of the
pressure sensing or radiant energy sensing type.
(1) Deflagration characteristics of the combustible material
(2) Volume, configuration, and operating characteristics of 9.6.2.2 Provisions shall be made to prevent obscuration of
the equipment to be protected and the conveying system radiant energy detectors.
(3) Type of deflagration protection used on the vessel
(4) Length, cross-sectional area, configuration, and strength 9.6.2.3 Provisions shall be made to prevent blockage of access
of the piping to the sensing surface of pressure-type detectors.
(5) Velocity of the combustible air mixture in the pipe
(6) Location of the flame front diverter and its associated piping 9.6.3 Extinguishing Agent and Containers.
(7) Turbulence-generating features in the piping such as fit- 9.6.3.1 The extinguishing agent shall be chemically compat-
tings, valves, elbows, and wall roughness ible with the material normally conveyed through the pipe
(8) Location of probable ignition sources system being protected.
9.5.3 The body design shall divert the flame front to atmo- 9.6.3.2 The extinguishing agent shall be of a type that is effec-
sphere and away from the downstream piping. tive at all temperatures to be encountered in the application.
9.5.4 The body shall be capable of withstanding expected 9.6.3.3 Extinguishing agent containers, if used as shipping
deflagration pressure. containers, shall be designed to meet the requirements of the
9.5.5 The closure device shall be either a rupture disc or a U.S. Department of Transportation.
cover plate. 9.6.3.3.1 If not used as shipping containers, extinguishing
9.5.6 Where the closure device could be a missile hazard, it agent containers shall be designed, fabricated, inspected, cer-
shall be either tethered or contained in a cage. tified, and stamped in accordance with Section VIII of the
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.
9.5.7 The hazard of flame discharge from the flame front
diverter shall be considered when designing the placement of 9.6.3.3.2 The design pressure shall be suitable for the maxi-
the device. mum pressure developed at 55°C (130°F) or at the maximum
controlled temperature limit.
9.5.8 The flame front diverter shall discharge to a safe, unre-
stricted, outdoor location. 9.6.4 Electrically Fired Initiators. Electrically fired initiators
shall be mounted so that their maximum temperature rating,
9.5.9* Flame front diverters shall be tested for the application. as specified by the manufacturer, is not exceeded.

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DEFLAGRATION CONTROL BY PRESSURE CONTAINMENT 69–15

9.6.5 Power/Control Units. 9.6.8 Inspection and Maintenance of Chemical Isolation


Systems.
9.6.5.1 A power/control unit with a minimum 24-hour standby
battery backup shall be provided with each chemical isolation 9.6.8.1 Chemical isolation systems shall be inspected and
system and shall supply energy to accomplish the following: maintained in accordance with the manufacturer’s recom-
mendations.
(1) Power all detection devices
(2) Energize all electrically actuated chemical isolation systems 9.6.8.2 Containers of suppressant shall be checked for pres-
(3) Energize visual and audible alarms sure and loss of agents.
(4) Transfer all auxiliary control and alarm contacts 9.6.8.3 A container having a pressure (corrected for tempera-
(5) Control system-disabling interlock and process shutdown ture) that is less than the minimum value specified by the
circuits manufacturer shall be reconditioned or replaced.
9.6.5.2 The power/control unit shall meet the applicable re- 9.6.8.4 A written report on the most recent inspection shall
quirements of 1.5.2 and Chapter 3 of NFPA 72, National Fire be kept on file for review.
Alarm Code.
9.6.8.5 The report shall include test and calibration data on
9.6.5.3 The power/control unit shall, as a minimum, fully all system components.
and continuously supervise the following:
9.6.9 Procedures After System Trouble or Actuation. In the
(1) Wiring circuits for opens and other faults event of system actuation, inspection and maintenance as
(2) AC power supply (primary) specified in 9.6.8 shall be performed before the system is re-
(3) Battery voltage, presence, and polarity turned to service.
(4) System safety interlock circuitry 9.7* Liquid Seals. A liquid seal shall be used for preventing the
(5) System-disabling interlock circuitry passage of flame by passing gas through a liquid.
(6) Releasing outputs
(7) Electrical extinguishing actuators 9.7.1 Liquid seal devices shall be designed for the gases being
(8) Detectors handled at the flow velocities range in the system and to with-
(9) Visual and audible alarms stand the maximum anticipated deflagration pressure.

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(10) Circuit ground fault 9.7.2 Liquid seals shall be designed in accordance with other
9.6.5.4 The supervisory signal circuits shall be provided with recognized practices.
a visual and audible trouble signal. 9.7.3* Means for providing and maintaining the liquid level
9.6.5.5 In addition to noncritical trouble alarms, the power/ shall be provided, as well as an alarm to detect malfunction.
control unit shall have separate contacts capable of initiating
an orderly shutdown of the protected process upon receipt of
any trouble signal that indicates a disabled protection system. Chapter 10 Deflagration Control by Pressure
9.6.5.6 The power and control unit shall meet applicable re- Containment
quirements of NFPA 70, National Electrical Code.
10.1 Application.
9.6.6 Electrical.
10.1.1 The technique for deflagration pressure containment
9.6.6.1 Wiring for the control circuits shall be isolated and shall be permitted to be considered for specifying the design
shielded from all other wiring to prevent possible induced pressure of a vessel and its appurtenances so they are capable
currents. of withstanding the maximum pressures resulting from an in-
ternal deflagration.
9.6.6.2 When a conduit is used for wiring multiple installa-
tions, the wiring for each chemical isolation system shall be 10.1.2 This chapter shall provide the basis for determining
run in separate conduit or wired with shielded cables run in the vessel design pressure required to withstand the pressures
common conduit. resulting from an internal deflagration.

9.6.6.3 All wiring shall meet the applicable requirements of 10.1.3 This chapter shall be limited to systems in which the
NFPA 70, National Electrical Code. oxidant is air.
10.1.4 The design pressure specified by this chapter shall be
9.6.7 Installation of Chemical Isolation Systems.
based on the most severe set of system conditions that can occur.
9.6.7.1 All components of the system shall be mounted in the 10.1.5* Deflagration pressure containment shall be applied to
location and in the manner specified by the system designer. a vessel with attached equipment to protect such equipment
9.6.7.2 Where necessary, measures shall be used to protect from imposed pressure loads that could equal or be greater
detectors and extinguisher components from accumulating than the pressure loads experienced by the protected vessel.
foreign material that would prevent operation. 10.2 Design Limitations.
9.6.7.3 Terminals and mechanical parts shall be protected 10.2.1* Deflagration pressure containment techniques shall
from moisture and other contaminants. not be applied to systems for the purpose of containing a deto-
nation.
9.6.7.4 The temperatures at mounting locations shall not ex-
ceed the maximum operating temperatures of system compo- 10.2.2* Deflagration pressure containment shall not be ap-
nents. plied to systems where two or more vessels are connected by

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69–16 EXPLOSION PREVENTION SYSTEMS

large-diameter pipes or ducts, unless one of the following cri- 10.3.3.1* The dimensionless ratio, R, is the ratio of the maxi-
teria is met: mum deflagration pressure, in absolute pressure units, to the
maximum initial pressure, in consistent absolute pressure units.
(1) Deflagration pressure containment shall be permitted to
be used where interconnected piping is provided with de- 10.3.3.2 For use as a practical design basis (since optimum
flagration isolation. conditions seldom exist in industrial equipment), the value of
(2) Deflagration pressure containment shall be permitted to be R shall be as follows:
used where venting is provided for interconnected piping. (1) For most gas/air mixtures, the value of R shall be 9.
(3) Deflagration pressure containment shall be permitted to (2) For St-1 and St-2 dust/air mixtures, the value of R shall
be used where interconnected vessels are designed to be 11.
contain the increased pressures due to the effects of pre- (3) For St-3 dust/air mixtures, the value of R shall be 13.
pressurization.
(4) Deflagration isolation or venting of one vessel shall be 10.3.3.3 A value for R other than the values specified in
permitted to be used. 10.3.3.2 shall be permitted to be used if such value can be
(5) Deflagration pressure containment shall be permitted to be substantiated by test data or calculations.
used for initial gauge pressures exceeding 2 bar (30 psi) only 10.3.3.4 The vessel design pressure shall be based on the wall
when the maximum deflagration pressure ratio (R) is deter- thickness of the vessel, excluding any allowance for corrosion
mined by test or calculations. or erosion.
10.2.3* The alternative of 10.2.2(5) shall not be permitted 10.3.3.5 For operating temperatures below 25°C (77°F), the
where test data are available. value of R' shall be calculated for use in Equation 10.1 and
Equation 10.2:
10.3 Design Bases.
 298 
10.3.1 Vessels designed for deflagration pressure contain- R′ = R   (10.3)
ment shall be designed and constructed according to Section  273 + Ti 
VIII, Division 1, of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code,
where:
which takes into consideration sources of overpressure other
R = maximum deflagration ratio for the mixture
than deflagration.
measured at 25°C (77°F)
10.3.2 The design pressure of the vessel, as calculated in Ti = operating temperature (°C)
10.3.3, shall be based either on preventing rupture of the ves- 10.3.4 The presence of any pressure relief device on the sys-
sel (the ultimate strength of the vessel) or on preventing per- tem shall not cause the design pressure calculated by the
manent deformation of the vessel (the yield strength of the methods of 10.3.3 to be reduced.
vessel) from internal positive overpressure. Due to the vacuum
that could follow a deflagration, all vessels whose deflagration 10.3.5* The maximum pressure for positive pressure systems
pressure containment design is based on preventing deforma- shall be as follows:
tion also shall be designed to withstand an absolute internal (1) For positive pressure systems handling gases and liquids,
pressure of 68.95 kPa (10 psi), or they shall be provided with the maximum initial pressure, Pi , shall be the maximum
vacuum relief. initial pressure at which a combustible atmosphere is able
to exist, but a pressure not higher than the setting of the
10.3.3* The design pressure shall be calculated according to
pressure relief device plus its accumulation.
the following equations:
(2) For positive pressure systems handling dusts, the maxi-
mum initial pressure shall be the greater of the following
1.5 R ( Pi + 14.7 ) − 14.7  (10.1) two pressure values:
Pf =
--````,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Fu (a) Maximum possible discharge pressure of the com-


pressor or blower that is suspending or transporting
1.5 R ( Pi + 14.7 ) − 14.7  the material
Pd = (10.2) (b) Setting of the pressure relief device on the vessel be-
Fy
ing protected plus its accumulation
(3) For gravity discharge of dusts, the maximum initial pres-
where:
sure shall be the atmospheric gauge pressure (0.0 bar or
Pf = design pressure to prevent rupture due to
0.0 psi).
internal deflagration (psig)
Pd = design pressure to prevent deformation due to 10.3.6 For systems operating under vacuum, the maximum
internal deflagration (psig) initial pressure shall not be less than atmospheric gauge pres-
Pi = maximum initial pressure at which combustible sure (0.0 bar or 0.0 psi).
atmosphere exists (psig) 10.3.7 The vessel design shall take into consideration the
R = ratio of maximum deflagration pressure, in minimum operating temperature at which a deflagration
absolute pressure units, to maximum initial could occur, which shall be compared with the temperature
pressure, inconsistent absolute pressure units characteristics of the vessel’s construction material to ensure
Fu = ratio of the ultimate stress of the vessel to that brittle fracture cannot result from a deflagration.
allowable stress of the vessel
Fy = ratio of the yield stress of the vessel to allowable 10.3.8 Auxiliary equipment such as vent systems, manways,
stress of the vessel fittings, and other openings into the vessel shall be designed
to ensure integrity of the total system and shall be inspected
For U.S. Customary units, 6.89 kPa =1 psi periodically.

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ANNEX A 69–17

10.4 Maintenance. Relief devices shall be inspected periodi- A.3.3.5 Combustible Particulate Solid. Combustible particu-
cally to ensure that they are not plugged, frozen, or corroded. late solids include dusts, fibers, fines, chips, chunks, flakes, or
mixtures of these. A definition of this breadth is necessary be-
10.5 Threaded Fasteners. Threaded fasteners on vessel ap- cause it is crucial to address the fact that there is attrition of
purtenances shall be inspected to ensure that design pressure the material as it is conveyed. Pieces and particles rub against
ratings are maintained. each other and collide with the walls of the duct as they travel
10.6 Inspection After a Deflagration. Any vessel designed to through the system. The rubbing and collision breaks down
contain a deflagration that experiences a deflagration shall be the material and produces a mixture of pieces and much finer
inspected to verify that the vessel is still serviceable for its in- particles, called “dusts.” Consequently, it is expected that every
tended use. conveying system produces dusts, regardless of the starting
size of the material, as an inherent byproduct of the conveying
process.

Annex A Explanatory Material A.3.3.14 Flame Arrester. The emerging gases are sufficiently
cooled to prevent ignition on the protected side.
Annex A is not a part of the requirements of this NFPA document A.3.3.17 Flammable Limits. See NFPA 325, Guide to Fire Hazard
but is included for informational purposes only. This annex contains Properties of Flammable Liquids, Gases, and Volatile Solids. (Note:
explanatory material, numbered to correspond with the applicable text Although NFPA 325 has been officially withdrawn from the
paragraphs. National Fire Codes®, the information is still available in NFPA’s
A.1.3.2(2) For information on deflagration venting, see Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials.)
NFPA 68, Guide for Venting of Deflagrations. A.3.3.22 Isolation. Stream properties include deflagration,
A.1.3.2(8) For information on cutting and welding practices, mass flow, ignition capability.
see NFPA 51B, Standard for Fire Prevention During Welding, Cut- A.3.3.23 Limiting Oxidant Concentration (LOC). Materials
ting, and Other Hot Work. For information on preparation of other than oxygen can act as oxidants.
tanks, piping, or other enclosures for hot work, see NFPA 326,
Standard for the Safeguarding of Tanks and Containers for Entry, A.4.1 It should be recognized that there are other methods
Cleaning, or Repair. for preventing combustion. These include changing the pro-
cess to eliminate combustible material either used or gener-
A.3.2.1 Approved. The National Fire Protection Association ated in the process. (Deflagration venting is not addressed in
does not approve, inspect, or certify any installations, proce- this standard; see NFPA 68, Guide for Venting of Deflagrations.)
dures, equipment, or materials; nor does it approve or evalu-
ate testing laboratories. In determining the acceptability of A.4.6 Inspection, maintenance, and operator training are nec-
installations, procedures, equipment, or materials, the author- essary requirements of any explosion prevention system. Reliabil-
ity having jurisdiction may base acceptance on compliance ity of the system and its instrumentation is only as good as the
with NFPA or other appropriate standards. In the absence of inspection and periodic preventive maintenance they receive.
such standards, said authority may require evidence of proper Operator response and action to correct adverse conditions, as
installation, procedure, or use. The authority having jurisdic- indicated by instrumentation or other means, is only as good as
tion may also refer to the listings or labeling practices of an the frequency and thoroughness of training provided.
organization that is concerned with product evaluations and is A.4.6.1 Analyzers and other system instrumentation can re-
thus in a position to determine compliance with appropriate quire more frequent periodic inspection than that required
standards for the current production of listed items. for other components of the system. Inspections should be
made according to the manufacturer’s recommendations or
A.3.2.2 Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ). The phrase “au-
as required by operating conditions and inspection history.
thority having jurisdiction,” or its acronym AHJ, is used in
NFPA documents in a broad manner, since jurisdictions and A.5.1.1 Operation of a system with an oxidant concentration
approval agencies vary, as do their responsibilities. Where pub- low enough to prevent a deflagration does not mean that in-
lic safety is primary, the authority having jurisdiction may be a cipient fires are prevented. Smoldering can occur in fibrous
federal, state, local, or other regional department or indi- materials or dust layers at very low oxidant concentrations,
vidual such as a fire chief; fire marshal; chief of a fire preven- which can ultimately result in a fire or explosion when ex-
tion bureau, labor department, or health department; build- posed to higher oxidant concentrations. Caution should be
ing official; electrical inspector; or others having statutory exercised when opening such systems to the air. (See Annex B
authority. For insurance purposes, an insurance inspection de- for a discussion of the control of combustible gas mixtures. Also see
partment, rating bureau, or other insurance company repre- Annex C for limiting oxidant concentrations.)
sentative may be the authority having jurisdiction. In many
circumstances, the property owner or his or her designated A.5.2.1 Purge gases generated by any of the acceptable meth-
agent assumes the role of the authority having jurisdiction; at ods described in this standard might not necessarily be com-
government installations, the commanding officer or depart- patible for all applications. In general, the physical and chemi-
mental official may be the authority having jurisdiction. cal properties of the combustible materials involved govern
the type and required purity of the purge gas needed. Chlori-
A.3.2.4 Listed. The means for identifying listed equipment nated and fluorinated hydrocarbons are sometimes used. Al-
may vary for each organization concerned with product evalu- though these gases are more costly than carbon dioxide or
ation; some organizations do not recognize equipment as nitrogen, the allowable oxygen concentration might be
listed unless it is also labeled. The authority having jurisdic- higher. The user is cautioned, however, that some haloge-
tion should utilize the system employed by the listing organi- nated hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, and even nitrogen at el-
zation to identify a listed product. evated temperatures might react violently with certain dusts.

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69–18 EXPLOSION PREVENTION SYSTEMS

Also, such gases might not be effective in providing explosion enrichment gas (natural gas or methane) or an inert gas
protection for certain combustible metal dusts, such as alumi- such as nitrogen. In either case, a safety factor should be main-
num, magnesium, titanium, zirconium, thorium, and ura- tained between the operating condition and the closest point of
nium. Argon, helium, and other rare gases might have to be the flammable region. Instrumentation should have redun-
used for inerting certain systems. dancy, depending on the criticality of the operation.
--````,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

In general, personnel should not enter enclosures where A.5.7.2.1 As shown in Annex B, any system of fuel plus oxi-
the atmosphere is oxygen deficient. If it is necessary to enter dant plus inert gas requires a certain minimum concentration
such an enclosure, personnel should use self-contained of oxidant for combustion. For oxidant concentrations less
breathing apparatus, preferably the positive-pressure type. than the limiting oxidant concentration (LOC), no combina-
Canister-type gas masks should not be used; they do not supply tion of fuel plus diluent can result in a flammable mixture.
oxygen and do not offer any protection. The toxicity of certain
purge gases should be recognized. The potential for acciden- A.5.7.2.4 Calculation of the LOC can result in an overestima-
tal release of purge gases into normally occupied areas should tion of up to at least 2 volume percent oxygen relative to mea-
be recognized and the necessary precautions taken. sured values, and this potential error should be taken into
account when applying the safety margin.
A.5.2.2.1 The values were obtained under the conditions
specified in the Table C.1(a), Table C.1(b), Table C.1(c), and A.5.7.2.7.1 Products with relatively high vapor pressures can,
Table C.2. Higher energy ignition sources, higher tempera- by themselves, maintain an atmosphere above the upper flam-
tures, or higher pressures could reduce the LOC values mability limit of the vapor. Where flammable atmospheres are
shown. LOC values for dusts of a particular chemical compo- predicted, it is common practice to use a padding gas to main-
sition could also differ with variations of physical properties tain the oxygen content at less than the LOC. Because such
such as particle size, shape, and surface characteristics. A par- maintenance typically involves almost complete replacement
ticular dust could have combustion properties that differ from of air, oxygen analysis of the vapor space is not generally
those shown in the tables in Annex C. Tabular data for com- needed. It should be ensured that padding gas capacity main-
bustion characteristics are provided as examples only. tains padding under adverse conditions, such as simultaneous
pump-out of several tanks connected to the same padding sup-
A.5.2.3.4 Under certain conditions of reducing atmospheres
ply, possibly with a contraction of vapor volume caused by a
in the presence of sulfur compounds, pyrophoric iron sulfides
sudden summer rainstorm. Such conditions might cause air to
could form in air-starved atmospheres. When admitting air
be drawn into a container to avoid underpressure damage.
into such an atmosphere, the iron sulfides could ignite. A typi-
Also, some monomer tanks need several percent of oxygen to
cal procedure for controlling such ignition is to thoroughly
activate dissolved inhibitors. Such tanks might need oxygen
wet the iron sulfide deposits with water and maintain a wetted
monitoring.
surface until all deposits are removed and disposed of safely
and properly. Another method is to maintain an inert atmo- A.5.7.3.1 The use of enrichment gas (methane or natural
sphere in the tank or vessel containing pyrophoric iron sul- gas) serves the following three purposes:
fides. ANSI/API 2016, Guidelines and Procedures for Entering and
Cleaning Petroleum Storage Tanks (August 2001), provides infor- (1) It elevates the total fuel concentration and can raise it to
mation covering the control and removal of pyrophoric iron above the upper flammable limit (UFL).
sulfide deposits. (2) It decreases the oxidant concentration in proportion to
Rapid oxidation tends to occur when the deposits dry out. the concentration of enrichment gas.
Thus, even though air is admitted slowly, nothing happens (3) It elevates the LOC due to the better diluent qualities of
until the deposits dry out, a process that could take more time enrichment gas relative to nitrogen in the air.
than used to admit air. A common practice in industries that Where header systems continuously convey vapors to a
deal with such deposits is to keep them wet until they can be combustion device such as a flare, operation above the UFL
removed to a safe location. can greatly reduce the quantity of enrichment gas relative to
Iron sulfide deposits are often thick or are shielded from operation below the LOC.
air by layers of nonreactive materials. When the layers are sub- Marine vent collecting header operation is regulated by
sequently disturbed, the deposits could ignite. Furthermore, 33 CFR 154.
although procedures are often used to neutralize or remove Nonmarine vent collection headers operated near atmo-
such deposits before admitting air, it is often difficult to re- spheric pressure and not containing any vapor with a UFL
move all traces of pyrophoric material. greater than 75 percent in air, or oxygen in concentrations
greater than can be derived from ambient air, can be rendered
A.5.3.2(4) The rate of application for steam inerting should
nonflammable by the addition of 25 volume percent or more of
be sufficient to maintain a steam concentration of at least
natural gas or methane. The use of oxygen analyzers to control
1.13 kg/min/2.83 m3 (2.5 lb/min/100 ft3).
enrichment gas flow is only practical in cases where the nitrogen-
A.5.5.5 This requirement is intended to provide for a suffi- to-oxygen ratio is the same as in the air. Where a container has
cient number of isolation points to facilitate maintenance, been partly inerted with a diluent such as nitrogen, enrichment
while holding the number of isolation valves to a manageable gas should be added using flow control, since control via oxygen
number so that accidental shutoff is minimized. analyzers would otherwise add insufficient enrichment gas to
provide nonflammability. The flow control system can be aug-
A.5.5.7 Consideration should be given to providing a positive mented with gas analyzers to verify correct operation during in-
means of preventing the backflow of purge gas into other sys- stallation and for periodic performance checks.
tems where such flow would present a hazard.
No specific recommendations can be provided, and testing
A.5.7.1 The objective is to maintain operation outside of the is necessary to develop an enrichment method under the fol-
flammable region. This can be achieved by adding either lowing conditions:

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ANNEX A 69–19

(1) Where system temperatures and pressures significantly determined if elevated temperatures or pressures are antici-
exceed atmospheric conditions pated or if the oxidant is a material other than air.
(2) Where gases with UFL above 75 percent in air are involved Water might also be used as a suppressant if it can be dem-
(3) Where oxygen enrichment might occur onstrated to be effective. If ambient temperatures below 0°C
The UFL generally increases with increased temperature (32°F) are expected, freeze protection should be provided.
and pressure; it can be sensitive to the precise gas composition A.8.11.1 Ease of inspection should be taken into account
and test conditions. Special procedures are needed for de- when designing systems.
composable gases, and such procedures can involve inerting,
enrichment, or deflagration isolation systems as described in A.8.11.3 The quantity of agents in containers can be checked
Chapter 9. by weighing or by using a reliable level-measuring device.
The UFL is a continuous function of oxygen concentration. A.9.1.1 It is frequently impossible to design and operate
The greatest UFL corresponds to pure oxygen as the oxidant and equipment without interconnecting pipes or ducts. Uses for
the smallest corresponds to the LOC concentration of oxidant pipes or ducts include conveying, transferring, and ventilat-
(see Figure B.1). Systems containing high concentrations of fuel ing. Where the pipes or ducts contain flammable or combus-
might be safely operated above the LOC, provided that they are tible materials plus an oxidant, ignition can result in the com-
nonflammable with respect to the actual UFL envelope. If the munication of combustion between the interconnected
oxygen concentration in a system is constrained below a value equipment. Such communication of combustion can some-
whose corresponding UFL is U, a safety factor should be applied times increase the violence of the deflagration, resulting in
such that the fuel concentration in the system is maintained pressure piling and accelerated rates of pressure rise in the
at not less than 1.7 U. This is consistent with the method in interconnected equipment from flame-jet ignition. Pressure
33 CFR 154, for enrichment of marine vapor collection piling can increase maximum pressure, Pmax, thus increasing
headers with air as the oxidant. Realistic testing is required the demands of deflagration pressure containment; and
to develop the ULF locus as a function of oxygen concen- flame-jet ignition can increase deflagration venting require-
tration under worst credible case operating conditions. ments (see NFPA 68, Guide for Venting of Deflagrations). In ex-
A.6.1 See Annex B for a discussion of the control of flam- treme cases, the accelerating effect of turbulent combustion
mable gas mixtures. Also, see Annex D for information on through pipes or ducts plus any increased effects from pres-
calculating the time required for ventilation. sure piling can result in detonations.

A.6.2.2 See NFPA 325, Guide to Fire Hazard Properties of Flammable A.9.1.5 See Table A.9.1.5.
Liquids, Gases, and Volatile Solids. (Note: Although NFPA 325 has
been officially withdrawn from the National Fire Codes®, the infor- Table A.9.1.5 Isolation Features of Pipe and Duct Protection
mation is still available in NFPA’s Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Systems
Materials.)
A.6.3.2 The combustible concentration can be reduced by Ignition
recirculating the atmosphere in which it is contained through Deflagration Source Flow
a catalytic oxidation unit where the combustible material and System Isolation Isolation Isolation
oxidant undergo catalytic oxidation at concentrations below
the lower flammable limit. Rotary valves* Yes Note Yes
Flame Yes Yes No
A.7.2.3 The effectiveness of spark detection and spark extin- arresters
guishing systems is limited by detection of radiant energy emit- Automatic Yes Yes Yes
ted from sparks or embers in the material being conveyed and fast-acting
by the ability to deliver extinguishment medium (usually wa- valves
ter) in a timely manner. For pneumatic conveying systems, Flame front No No Yes
detection of sparks or embers is a function of the following: diverters
(1) Pipe diameter Flame front Yes Yes No
(2) Material-to-air ratio extinguishing
--````,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

(3) Conveying velocity systems


(4) Material density and particle size distribution Liquid seals Yes Yes No
(5) Radiant energy absorption characteristic of the material *
Rotary valves are capable of preventing flame front passage under
Manufacturers should be consulted for the applicability of certain conditions but do not always prevent the passage of burning
spark detection and spark extinguishing systems for specific embers.
applications. In some cases, testing could be required.
A.7.3.1 Optical detectors operating in the infrared and near- A.9.2 The acceptance of a rotary valve for use as a deflagra-
infrared wavelength can be used for this technology. For infor- tion isolation device should consider the minimum ignition
mation on detectors, see NFPA 72, National Fire Alarm Code. energy and the minimum ignition temperature of the dust.
Additionally, the width and the length of the gap should be
A.8.3.1 Experience has shown that performing maintenance
related to these dust characteristics. Information on testing
operations without disarming a suppression system could re-
techniques and the relationship of the factors is found in “Ro-
sult in inadvertent discharge of the suppression system.
tary Valves for Explosion Isolation” by G. Schuber.
A.8.8 Halogenated hydrocarbons, such as bromochloro- The passage of a flame front through the rotary valve is not
methane, or dry chemical agents might be used with most the only mechanism by which ignition can occur downstream
combustibles. The suitability of the suppressant should be of a rotary valve. The passage of smoldering embers through

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69–20 EXPLOSION PREVENTION SYSTEMS

the valve might be a source of ignition on the downstream side (a) Arresting element
of the valve. (b) Case where it is contained
(c) Hardware for mounting the element in its case
A.9.2.4 The use of plastics, elastomers, or other synthetic ma-
(d) Gaskets or seals required
terial for the full vane or as wear strips might allow the flame
(e) Flange or other connector used to attach the arrester
front to pass through the valve. The flame might pass through
to the system
the valve because of a lack of mass and low specific heat that is
(f) Materials of construction
not sufficient to cool the flame during its passage.
(5) The maximum temperature and pressure likely to exist at
A.9.3 Flame arresters are manufactured in several mechani- the arrester at the moment of ignition should be used.
cal configurations, which include, but are not limited to, the (6) Where appropriate for the specific application, testing
following: with ignition both upstream and downstream (relative to
(1) Banks of closely spaced parallel plates the gas flow direction) should be performed.
(2) Banks of small-diameter tubes (7) The device should be tested over the range of flow veloci-
(3) Wire screens ties that could be encountered.
(4) Elements consisting of alternating flat and crimped plates (8) If continuous burning can occur at the arrester, the test
that are spirally wound together to produce the equiva- procedure should include a continuous burn test.
lent of small-diameter tubes A.9.3.5 The functionality of a flame arrester can be destroyed
(5) Porous or sintered metal elements if it is heated to an excessively high temperature by the com-
A.9.3.2 The ignition source might be outside the protected bustion gases that reach it or by exposure to an external
system, as in the case of a flame arrester on a tank vent. Alter- source of heat such as a flame.
natively, the ignition source might be within the system, as in The functionality-limiting temperature is dependent on
the case of a flame arrester installed in a pipe that connects the design, mass, and material of construction of the flame
two or more tank vents. arrester and is unique to the design. The functionality-limiting
temperature should be determined by test and should be be-
A.9.3.4 A deflagration flame front propagating in piping sys- low the autoignition temperature.
tems can transition to detonation velocities. In such situations,
in-line flame arresters can be ineffective and detonation ar- A.9.3.6 If the arrester is used in a service where freezing or
resters should be considered. Flame arresters are reliable only plugging might occur, some means of detecting the onset of
where installed within the parameters for which they have plugging, such as a differential pressure switch, should be
been tested. Such parameters include the following: provided.
(1) The fuel mixture used in the test should be the same as, or A.9.4 See Figure A.9.4.
have flame propagation characteristics similar to, those
--````,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

A.9.4.4 Fast-acting valve systems are reliable only when de-


encountered in the application.
signed and installed within the parameters for which they have
(2) The length of pipe between the arrester and the likely
been tested. Such parameters include, but are not limited to,
ignition source should be less than or equal to the maxi-
the following:
mum length for which it was successfully tested.
(3) The smallest and largest size of a particular type of ar- (1) The flame propagation characteristics used in the place-
rester should be tested. ment design should be representative of the fuel mixture
(4) The arrester should be tested in the same configuration that provides the highest flame speed and the maximum
in which it will be installed, including the following: conveying velocities to be encountered in the application.

Combustible
dust-vapor
source
Electric
initiator Automatic
fast-acting
valve system
Pneumatic controller
actuator Pneumatic Incinerator or
Pressurized conveying combustible
reservoir separation Fan

Rupture
Knife gate Flame path membrane
valve
Deflagration
Fast-acting detector
Automatic Fast-Acting isolation valve
Valve System

FIGURE A.9.4 Typical Application and Design of Fast-Acting Automatic-Closing Valve Assembly.

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ANNEX A 69–21

(2) The response time of the fast-acting valve system should (4) For upstream ignition, the diverter should be tested over
be established by testing. This response time is used in the the range of flow velocities that could be encountered at
placement design to calculate the required length of pipe the time of ignition or that might develop as a result of
between the fast-acting valve and the detector. ignition.
(5) Installation and maintenance should be as follows:
A.9.4.9.1 Detectors that respond to radiant energy might be
used, provided that the application environment does not in- (a) Flame front diverters should be installed and main-
hibit their proper operation. Airborne dust particles, dust tained according to manufacturer’s instructions.
coating of the detector viewing window, certain gases, and the (b) Flame front diverters should be inspected periodically,
distance to the ignition source might inhibit sufficiently rapid based on facility experience, and after each operation.
response to the hazard. (c) Inspection should determine whether any damage
that could affect the performance of the device has
A.9.5 A flame front diverter is composed of a body and a occurred.
closure device. The pressure wave that precedes the flame (d) Damaged components should be repaired or
front opens the closure and the body diverts the flame front to replaced.
the atmosphere. Some flame front diverters are equipped with
an internal closure that, upon activation, creates a physical A.9.7 For most systems, API Recommended Practice 521,
barrier to downstream flame propagation. Flame front divert- Guide for Pressure-Relieving and Depressuring Systems, should be
ers have demonstrated the ability to divert deflagration flames used when designing liquid seals. For systems where the
by directing them to the atmosphere. However, in some cases, oxidant/flammable gas might approach a stoichiometric mix-
tests have indicated that some diverters have been ineffective ture, tests should be performed to determine the design of
in completely diverting a deflagration; but, where this has oc- liquid seals.
curred, the deflagration severity in the system has been re- A.9.7.3 Where the inlet gas is a combustible mixture, addi-
duced. See Figure A.9.5. tional precautions should be taken to prevent overheating of
A.9.5.9 The testing of flame front diverters should include, inlet piping within the liquid seal device by a continuous fire
but not be limited to, the following: in the seal enclosure.

(1) The test fuel mixture should be the same as, or have flame A.10.1.5 Pressure piling and flame-jet ignition can signifi-
propagation characteristics similar to, those encountered. cantly increase deflagration pressures in attached equipment.
(2) The length of pipe between the installed flame front di- Techniques such as isolation or venting should be considered.
verter and the ignition source should be less than or equal A.10.2.1 Deflagration pressure containment is not adequate
to the maximum length for which the diverter was tested. for detonable systems because the maximum pressure rise is
(3) Ignition source location (upstream, downstream, or both much greater than the factors established in 10.3.3.1 through
locations) should be tested in the same configuration as 10.3.3.4. It should be recognized that some systems might be
the protection application. capable of deflagration or detonation. For example, systems
containing a substantial proportion of hydrogen are prone to

Flame front diversion

Restraint cable Closure dome


Hinged closure
--````,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Positive shutoff flap


Pipe flanges
Flame front diversion
Backflash Process flow Backflash Process flow

Pipe flanges

Fan

Combustion Flame front


source diverter
Rupture membrane

Pneumatic Combustible
conveying dust-vapor
source

FIGURE A.9.5 Typical Application and Design of Flame Front Diverters.

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69–22 EXPLOSION PREVENTION SYSTEMS

detonation, as are systems containing acetylene or acetylenic D


compounds. Saturated organic compounds such as propane, Combustible gas
100%
ethane, and alcohols generally do not detonate in vessels but
might do so in pipework. Internals in equipment can promote
the transition from deflagration to detonation.
A.10.2.2 When two vessels connected by a large-diameter
pipe both contain a combustible mixture, a deflagration in
one vessel can precompress the unburned mixture in the Nonflammable
range
other vessel. The maximum deflagration pressure that can be
developed in the second vessel might be substantially greater G
than would normally happen in a single vessel. (See W. Bart-
knecht, Explosions: Course, Prevention, Protection, pp. 18–23.)
A.10.2.3 Only limited information is available for deflagra- Flammable A
tion containment of systems with initial gauge pressures ex- X C
ceeding 2 bar (30 psi). Increased initial pressure might in- F Nitrogen
crease the potential for detonation. For this reason it is Oxygen B (inert)

--````,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
100% 100%
recommended that, for systems that might operate at an initial E
gauge pressure of 2 bar (30 psi) or higher, deflagration pres- 21%
sure containment should be used only where applicable test
data are available. The testing should be carefully designed FIGURE B.1 Typical Flammability Diagram.
because the detonation potential of a system is affected by
vessel dimensions.
Any point within the area bounded by FBCAGF is in the flam-
A.10.3.3 For vessels fabricated of low-carbon steel and low-alloy mable range and can be ignited. Any point outside this area rep-
stainless steel, Fu equals approximately 4.0 and Fy equals approxi- resents a mixture that cannot be ignited. Point C represents the
mately 2.0. The formulas are based on a paper by Noronha et al., limiting oxidant concentration to prevent ignition; any mixture
“Deflagration Pressure Containment for Vessel Safety Contain- containing less oxygen cannot be ignited. (See Annex C.)
ment for Vessel Safety Design, Plant/Operations Progress.” Any mixture of oxygen and combustible gas alone (that is
A.10.3.3.1 The maximum deflagration pressures for several without nitrogen) is represented by the left side of the triangle.
dusts can be found in Annex D of NFPA 68, Guide for Venting of Any mixture of nitrogen and combustible gas alone (that is with-
Deflagrations. out oxygen) is represented by the right side of the triangle.
A.10.3.5 The maximum initial pressure depends on the ori- B.2 Effect of Pressure and Temperature. As shown in Figure
gin of the pressure. In some cases, the maximum initial pres- B.2, pressure and temperature can have an effect on the flamma-
sure is determined by the setting of a relief device on the sys- bility diagram. An increase in pressure results in an increase in
tem. In such cases, the maximum initial pressure is the sum of the upper flammable limit and a decrease in the limiting oxidant
the relief device set pressure and the relief device accumula- concentration points C, C', and C ″, to prevent ignition. There is a
tion pressure. Overpressure due to boiling of the vessel con- slight decrease on the lower flammable limit, but the effect is not
tents (for example, from external fire exposure) might raise as pronounced as that of the upper limit.
the concentration of fuel in the vapor phase above its upper
flammable limit and does not constitute a deflagration hazard.

Annex B Control of Flammable Gas Mixtures by Combustible gas


D
Oxidant Concentration Reduction and Combustible 100%
Concentration Reduction
This annex is not a part of the requirements of this NFPA document
but is included for informational purposes only.
B.1 General. As covered in Chapters 5 and 6, a flammable
gas/oxidant mixture might be controlled by reducing the con-
centration of oxidant or by adding an inert constituent to the
G″
mixture. Both processes can be explained most easily by refer-
ring to a flammability diagram. Figure B.1 shows a typical flam- G′
mability diagram that represents a mixture of a combustible G
gas, an inert gas, nitrogen, and an oxidant, oxygen, at a given C
temperature and pressure. F C′
F′ A B C″
A mixture of air (79 percent N2 and 21 percent O2, by F″
volume) and combustible gas is represented by the line Oxygen Nitrogen
formed by points DABE. A given mixture of the combustible 100% 100%
E
gas and air, whether ignitible or not, is specified by a point on
this line. Point A indicates the upper flammable limit of this
mixture, and point B represents its lower flammable limit. FIGURE B.2 Effect of Pressure on Flammability Diagram.

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ANNEX C 69–23

An increase in temperature has a similar effect on the flam- flammable gas apex and eventually drops below the lower
mability diagram. flammability line FBC.
The exact effects on a system, produced by changes in pres- B.6 Mixtures of Gases. Where mixtures of two or more flam-
sure or temperature, should be determined for each system. mable gases are encountered, the limits of flammability of the
B.3 Effect of Inert Diluents. The addition of an inert diluent mixture can often be reliably predicted by using the following
to a mixture of combustible material and oxidant affects the formulas suggested by Le Chatelier:
lower and upper flammable limits and the limiting oxidant
concentration. Figure B.3 illustrates the effect of some typical P1 + P2 +  + Pn
LFL = (B.1)
diluents on the flammability limits of methane. Figure B.3 P1 P P
+ 2 + + n
shows that nitrogen is more effective than helium and that LFL1 LFL2 LFLn
carbon dioxide is more effective than nitrogen.

--````,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
P1 + P2 +  + Pn
UFL = (B.2)
P1 P P
16 + 2 + + n
UFL1 UFL2 UFLn
% air = 100% — % methane — % inert
where:
14 P1 . . . Pn = volume fractions of components
1, 2, 3, . . . , n of the mixture
LFL1… LFLn = lower flammable limits of components
1, 2, 3,…, n of the mixture
12 UFL1… UFLn = upper flammable limits of components
1, 2, 3,… , n of the mixture

MeBr
Methane (volume percent)

10 Annex C Limiting Oxidant Concentrations


CCI4
This annex is not a part of the requirements of this NFPA document
CO2 but is included for informational purposes only.
8
Flammable C.1 General. The Table C.1(a), Table C.1(b), and Table
mixtures
H2O He C.1(c) provide values for limiting oxidant concentration
(LOC) using nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and inert dust as the
6 diluent. Table C.1(a) provides LOC values for flammable
N2
gases, and Table C.1(b) and Table C.1(c), provide data for
combustible dust suspensions.
4
Table C.1(a) Limiting Oxidant Concentrations for
Flammable Gases When Using Nitrogen or Carbon Dioxide
2
as Diluents

Limiting Oxidant
Concentration
0 (Volume % O2 Above Which
0 10 20 30 40 50
Deflagration Can Take Place)
Added inert (volume percent)
Gas/Vapor N2/Air CO2/Air Reference
FIGURE B.3 Limits of Flammability of Methane-Inert Gas-
Air Mixtures at 25°C (77°F) and Atmospheric Pressure. Methane 12.0 14.5 1
(Source: J. F. Coward and G. W. Jones, “Limits of Flammability Ethane 11.0 13.5 1
of Gases and Vapors.”) Propane 11.5 14.5 1
n-Butane 12.0 14.5 1
B.4 Oxidant Concentration Reduction. In Figure B.1, point X n-Butyl acetate 9.0 — 9
represents an arbitrary mixture of flammable gas, oxygen, and Isobutane 12.0 15.0 1
nitrogen that lies well within the flammable range. If the com- n-Pentane 12.0 14.5 1
position of the mixture is to be changed so that it lies outside Isopentane 12.0 14.5 2
the flammable range, one method that can be used is to re- n-Hexane 12.0 14.5 1
duce the concentration of oxidant. As the concentration of n-Heptane 11.5 14.5 2
oxygen decreases, the concentration of nitrogen increases. Ethanol 8.7 — 9
Point X, in effect, moves toward the inert gas apex. Ethylene 10.0 11.5 1
Propylene 11.5 14.0 1
B.5 Combustible Concentration Reduction. In Figure B.1, 1-Butene 11.5 14.0 1
with point X in the flammable range, the composition of the Isobutylene 12.0 15.0 4
mixture might be altered by reducing the concentration of Butadiene 10.5 13.0 1
flammable gas. In simpler terms, point X moves away from the

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69–24 EXPLOSION PREVENTION SYSTEMS

Table C.1(a) Continued Table C.1(a) Continued

Limiting Oxidant Limiting Oxidant


Concentration Concentration
(Volume % O2 Above Which (Volume % O2 Above Which
Deflagration Can Take Place) Deflagration Can Take Place)

Gas/Vapor N2/Air CO2/Air Reference Gas/Vapor N2/Air CO2/Air Reference

3-Methyl-1- 11.5 14.0 4 Vinyl chloride 13.4 — 7


butene Vinylidiene 15.0 — 7
Benzene 11.4 14.0 1, 7 chloride
Toluene 9.5 — 7, 9
Styrene 9.0 — 7 Notes:
Ethylbenzene 9.0 — 7 1. See 5.7.2 for the required oxygen level in equipment.
Vinyltoluene 9.0 — 7 2. Data were determined by laboratory experiment conducted at atmo-
Divinylbenzene 8.5 — 7 spheric temperature and pressure. Vapor-air-inert gas samples were
Diethylbenzene 8.5 — 7 placed in explosion tubes and ignited by electric spark or pilot flame.
Cyclopropane 11.5 14.0 1 References for Table C.1(a).
Gasoline 1. J. F. Coward and G. W. Jones (1952).
(73/100) 12.0 15.0 2 2. G. W. Jones, M. G. Zabetakis, J. K. Richmond, G. S. Scott, and A. L.
Furno (1954).
(100/130) 12.0 15.0 2
3. J. M. Kuchta, A. L. Furno, A. Bartkowiak, and G. H. Martindill (1968).
(115/145) 12.0 14.5 2
4. M. G. Zabetakis (1965).
Kerosene 10.0 (150°C) 13.0 (150°C) 5
5. M. G. Zabetakis and B. H. Rosen (1957).
JP-1 fuel 10.5 (150°C) 14.0 (150°C) 2
6. Unpublished data, U.S. Bureau of Mines.
JP-3 fuel 12.0 14.5 2
7. Unpublished data, Dow Chemical Co.
JP-4 fuel 11.5 14.5 2
8. U.S. Bureau of Mines.
Natural gas 12.0 14.5 1
9. L.G. Britton (2002).
(Pittsburgh)
10. Unpublished, Dow Chemical Co. (2002).
n-Butyl chloride 14.0 — 3
12.0 (100°C) — 3
Methylene 19.0 (30°C) — 3 Table C.1(b) Limiting Oxidant Concentrations for
chloride 17.0 (100°C) — 3 Combustible Dust Suspensions When Using Nitrogen or
Ethylene 13.0 — 3

--````,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Carbon Dioxide as Diluents
dichloride 11.5 (100°C) — 3
1,1,1-trichlor- 14.0 — 3
oethane Limiting Oxidant Concentration
Trichlor- 9.0 (100°C) — 3 (Volume % O2
oethylene Above Which Deflagration
Acetone 11.5 14.0 4 Can Take Place)
n-Butanol NA 16.5 (150°C) 4
Dust N2/Air CO2/Air
Carbon disulfide 5.0 7.5 4
Carbon monoxide 5.5 5.5 4 Agricultural
Ethanol 10.5 13.0 4 Coffee 17
2-Ethyl butanol 9.5 (150°C) — 4 Cornstarch 11
Ethyl ether 10.5 13.0 4 Dextrin 11 14
Hydrogen 5.0 5.2 4 Soy flour 15
Hydrogen sulfide 7.5 11.5 4 Starch 12
Isobutyl acetate 9.1 — 9 Sucrose 10 14
Isobutyl alcohol 9.1 — 9 Chemical
Isobutyl formate 12.5 15.0 4 Ethylene diamine 13
Isopropyl acetate 8.8 — 9 tetra-acetic acid
Isopropyl alcohol 9.5 — 10 Isatoic anhydride 13
Methanol 10.0 12.0 4 Methionine 15
Methyl acetate 11.0 13.5 4 Ortazol 19
Propylene oxide 7.8 — 8 Phenothiazine 17
Methyl ether 10.5 13.0 4 Phosphorus pentasulfide 12
Methyl formate 10.0 12.5 4 Salicylic acid 15 17
Methyl ethyl 11.0 13.5 4 Sodium lignosulfate 17
ketone Stearic acid & metal 10.6 13
n-Propyl acetate 10.1 — 10 stearates
n-Propyl alcohol 8.6 — 9 Carbonaceous
UDMH (dimethyl- 7.0 — 6 Charcoal 17
hydrazine) Coal, bituminous 17

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ANNEX C 69–25

Table C.1(b) Continued Table C.1(b) Continued

Limiting Oxidant Concentration Limiting Oxidant Concentration


(Volume % O2 (Volume % O2
Above Which Deflagration Above Which Deflagration
Can Take Place) Can Take Place)

Dust N2/Air CO2/Air Dust N2/Air CO2/Air

Coal, sub-bituminous 15 Cellulose acetate 14


Lignite 15 butyrate
Metal Ethyl cellulose 11
Aluminum 2 Methyl cellulose 13
Antimony 16 Methyl methacrylate 11
Chromium 14 Nylon 13
Iron 10 Polycarbonate 15
Magnesium 0 0 Polyethylene 12
Manganese 14 Polystyrene 14
Silicon 11 12 Polyvinyl acetate 17
Thorium 2 0 Polyvinyl butyrate 14
Titanium 4 0 Plastics — Thermosetting
Uranium 1 0 Resins
Vanadium 14 Allyl alcohol 13
Zinc 9 10 Dimethyl isophthalate 13
Zirconium 0 0 Dimethyl terephthalate 12
Miscellaneous Epoxy 12
Cellulose 13 Melamine formaldehyde 15
Paper 13 Polyethylene 13
Pitch 11 terephthalate
Sewage sludge 14 Urea formaldehyde 16
Sulfur 12
Wood flour 16 Notes:
Plastics Ingredients 1. Data in this table were obtained by laboratory tests conducted at
Azelaic acid 14 room temperature and pressure, using a 24-watt continuous-spark ig-
Bisphenol A 12 nition source and were reported in U.S. Bureau of Mines, Report of
Casein, rennet 17 Investigation 6543.
Hexamethylene 13 14 2. Where nitrogen is used as the diluent and no data are listed in the
tetramine table, the following equation should be used to calculate the oxygen
Isophthalic acid 14 value for carbonaceous dusts:
Paraform- 8 12
aldehyde On = 1.3 (Oc − 6.3) (C.1)
Pentaerythritol 13 14
Phthalic anhydride 14 where:
Terephthalic acid 15 On = limiting oxygen concentration for dilution by nitrogen
Plastics — Special Resins (N)
Coumarone- 14 Oc = limiting oxygen concentration for dilution by carbon
indene resin dioxide(CO2)
Lignin 17 3. See 5.7.2 for the required oxygen level in equipment.
Phenol, chlorinated 16 4. Data on the use of dry powders or water as inerting materials and on
Pinewood residue 13 the effects of inerting on pressure development in a closed vessel are
Rosin, DK 14 given in U.S. Bureau of Mines, Reports of Investigations 6549, 6561,
Rubber, hard 15 and 6811.
Shellac 14 5. The values in this table can differ from those in Table C.1(c) be-
Sodium resinate 13 14 cause of differences in test methods and dust characteristics, such as
Plastics — Thermoplastic particle size, and other factors.
Resins
Acetal 11
Acrylonitrile 13
Butadiene- 13
styrene
Carboxymethyl cellulose 16
Cellulose acetate 9 11
Cellulose triacetate 12

--````,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
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69–26 EXPLOSION PREVENTION SYSTEMS

Table C.1(c) Limiting Oxidant Concentrations for Table C.1(c) Continued


Combustible Dust Suspensions When Using Nitrogen as a
Diluent Limiting Oxidant
Concentration
Limiting Oxidant (Volume % O2
Concentration Above Which
(Volume % O2 Median Particle Deflagration Can
Above Which Diameter by Mass Take Place)
Median Particle Deflagration Can Dust (µ m) N2/Air
Diameter by Mass Take Place)
Dust (µ m) N2/Air Metals, Alloys
Aluminum 22 5
Cellulosic Materials Calcium/ 22 6
Cellulose 22 9 aluminum alloy
Cellulose 51 11 Ferrosilicon 17 7
Wood flour 27 10 magnesium alloy
Food and Feed Ferrosilicon alloy 21 12
Pea flour 25 15 Magnesium alloy 21 3
Corn starch 17 9 Other Inorganic
Waste from malted 25 11 Products
barley Soot <10 12
Rye flour 29 13 Soot 13 12
Starch derivative 24 14 Soot 16 12
Wheat flour 60 11 Others
Coals Bentonite 43 12
Brown coal 42 12 derivative
Brown coal 63 12
Brown coal 66 12 Source: R. K. Eckhoff, Dust Explosions in the Process Industries, 1991.
Brown coal 51 15 Note: The data came from 1-m3 and 20-L chambers using strong
briquette dust chemical igniters.
Bituminous coal 17 14
Plastics, Resins, Rubber
--````,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Resin <63 10 C.2 General. Table C.2 provides data on the concentration of
Rubber powder 95 11 inert dust required to inert selected combustible dusts.
Polyacrylonitrile 26 10
Polyethylene, h.p. 26 10 Table C.2 Inerting of Dust Clouds by Mixing the
Pharmaceuticals, Combustible Dust with Inert Dust
Pesticides
Amino- <10 9 Combustible Dust Inert Dust
phenazone
Methionine <10 12 Minimum
Intermediate Products, Mass %
Additives Median Median Inert of
Barium stearate <63 13 Particle Particle Total Mass
Benzoyl peroxide 59 10 Size by Size by Required
Bisphenol A 34 9 Mass Type of Mass for
Cadmium laurate <63 14 Dust (µ m) Dust (µ m) Inerting
Cadmium stearate <63 12
Calcium stearate <63 12 Methyl 70 CaSO4 <15 70
Methyl cellulose 70 10 cellulose
Dimethyl 27 9 Organic <10 NH4H2PO4 29 65
terephthalate pigment
Ferrocene 95 7 Bituminous 20 14 65
Bistrimethyl- 65 9 coal
silyl-urea Bituminous 20 NaHCO3 35 65
Naphthalic acid 16 12 coal
anhydride Sugar 30 NaHCO3 35 50
2-Naphthol <30 9
Paraform- 23 6 Source: R. K. Eckhoff, Dust Explosions in the Process Industries, 1991.
aldehyde Note: Data were obtained from tests conducted in 1-m3 Standard ISO
Pentaerythritol <10 11 (1985) vessel with a 10-kJ chemical igniter.

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ANNEX D 69–27

Annex D Ventilation Calculations Table D.1 Mixing Efficiency for Various Ventilation
Arrangements
This annex is not a part of the requirements of this NFPA document
but is included for informational purposes only. Efficiency (K) Values
D.1 Time Required for Ventilation. An estimate of the time
Single Exhaust Multiple Exhaust
required to reduce the concentration of a flammable gas to a
Method of Supply Opening Openings
safe limit by purging with fresh air can be calculated using the
method that follows. No Positive Supply
For an enclosed volume, V, the change in concentration, Infiltration 0.2 0.3
dC, over a given time, dt, using a fixed flow rate of fresh air, Q, through cracks
--````,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

is given by Equation D.1: Infiltration 0.2 0.4


through open
(V )dC = Q (C )dt (D.1)
doors or windows
By rearranging, Forced Air Supply
c Grilles and 0.3 0.5
dC Qt

c0 C
=
V0 ∫
dt (D.2) registers
Diffusers 0.5 0.7
Perforated ceiling 0.8 0.9
where:
C0 = initial concentration of gas
t = time required to reach the desired
concentration
Integrating Equation D.2 yields the following: For K = 1, t = 0.49 min. For K = 0.2, t = 2.5 min.

C   1.4   −2000 
 −Q  ln  =  K (t )
ln   =  (D.3)  20.0   1000 
 V 
t (D.7)
 C0 
ln 0.07 = − 2K (t )
Equation D.3 assumes perfect mixing. Because this is not
the case in actual practice, a correction factor, K, should be ln 0.07 −2.66 1.33
introduced as follows: t = = = (D.8)
−2K −2K K
C   −Q  For K = 1, t = 1.33 min. For K = 0.2, t = 6.65 min.
ln   =  K (t ) (D.4)
 C0   V 
 0.35   −2000 
ln  =  K (t )
In perfect mixing, K equals 1.0. Table D.1 lists values of K for  20.0   1000  (D.9)
certain conditions. Few data exist on defining the degree of
mixing. Most authorities recommend a K-value of not greater ln 0.018 = − 2K (t )
than 0.25.
ln 0.018 − 4.02 2.01
Consider the problem of reducing the gasoline vapor concen- t = = = (D.10)
tration of an enclosure of 28 m3 (1000 ft3), using a 56 m3/min − 2K − 2K K
(2000 ft3/min) ventilation rate, from 20 volume percent to the For K = 1, t = 2 min. For K = 0.2, t = 10 min.
following:
D.2 Number of Air Changes Required for Inerting. The calcu-
(1) The upper flammable limit, or 7.6 percent lation method described in Section D.1 provides a solution
(2) The lower flammable limit, or 1.4 percent expressed directly in terms of time. To develop a solution in
(3) Twenty-five percent of the lower flammable limit, or terms of required number of air changes, the equation is writ-
0.35 percent ten as follows:
The difference between K = 1.0 (perfect mixing) and K = 0.2
in calculating the time needed to reduce the concentration to the C
= e − KN (D.11)
levels specified can be shown using Equation D.3 as follows: C0

 7.6   −2000  where N = the required number of air changes. Equation


ln  =  K (t )
 20.0   1000  (D.5) D.11 can be rewritten as follows:

ln 0.38 = − 2K (t ) C 
ln   = − KN (D.12)
ln 0.38 − 0.97 0.485  C0 
t = = = (D.6)
−2K −2K K

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69–28 EXPLOSION PREVENTION SYSTEMS

Using the example in Section D.1, the number of air


changes required to reach the upper flammable limit, 7.6 per- C0
C – Concentration
cent, at K = 0.2, is as follows: C 0 – Initial concentration
K – Mixing efficiency factor
 7.6  N – Number of theoretical air changes
 = − 0.2N
ln  (D.13)
 20.0 

C (ppm)
--````,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

C = C 0 e – KN
ln 0.38 − 0.97
N = = = 4.8 (D.14)
¹⁄₃ C 0
− 0.2 − 0.2
Because the airflow rate is 56 m3/min (2000 ft3/min)
and the volume of the enclosure is 28 m3 (1000 ft3), a com- ¹⁄₁₀₀ C 0
plete air change takes 0.5 minute. Equation D.14 indicates
that 4.8 air changes are needed. This translates to a re- 0 5 10
quired time of 2.4 minutes, or exactly that calculated in Number of effective air changes (KN )
Section D.1.
D.3 Buildup of Combustible Concentration in Enclosed Area. FIGURE D.3(a) Combustible Decay Curve. General Ventila-
If a constant source of a flammable gas, such as a leak, is intro- tion: Instantaneous Release.
duced into an enclosed volume, Equation D.12 should be
modified as follows:

C=
G
Q
(1 − e −KN ) (D.15)

G
where: C = – (1– e – KN )
Q
C = concentration
C (ppm)

G = release rate [m3/min (ft3/min)]


Q = airflow rate (m3/min) [ft3/min]
K = mixing efficiency factor C – Concentration
N = number of theoretical air changes G – Combustible (cu ft/min)
Q – Fresh air (cu ft/min)
As an example, consider a leak of 2.8 m3/min (100 ft3/min) K – Mixing efficiency factor
of a 15 percent flammable gas/air mixture in a room of 28 m3 N – Number of theoretical air
(1000 ft3). How long would it take to reach a concentration of
5 percent throughout the enclosure, assuming a mixing coeffi-
0 5 10
cient, K, equal to 0.2? Thus,
Number of effective air changes (KN)
C = 0.05
G = 15 ft3/min (100 × 0.15) FIGURE D.3(b) Combustible Buildup Curve. General Venti-
lation: Continuous Release.
Q = 85 ft3/min (100 – 15)
K = 0.2
Equation D.15 can be rewritten into a more convenient begins, the combustible concentration increases rapidly until
logarithmic form as follows: three air changes occur. After three air changes, the bracketed
term in Equation D.15 approaches unity and concentration
 CQ 
ln 1 − = − KN (D.16) does not change much. Thus, steady-state concentration is in-
 G  dependent of air-change rate and actually depends on the
 0.05 (85)  volumetric flow of fresh air. For design purposes, it is best to
ln 1 − = − 0.2N
15 
specify in terms of cubic meters per minute (cubic feet per
 minute) and avoid specifying in terms of air changes per hour.
ln (0.71667 ) = − 0.2N Although general ventilation is helpful in removing airborne
−0.33314 = − 0.2N combustibles, better control can be achieved in many cases by
supplementing general ventilation with local ventilation. Local
1.67 = N ventilation can be used when the source of emission can be pre-
Because the volume is 100 ft3/min and the leak is at dicted. For example, local ventilation rather than general venti-
1000 ft3, lation is recommended in the following situations:
(1) The operator or ignition sources might be very close to
 1000 ft 3 
 3  (1.67 ) = 16.7 min (D.17) the point of flammable release.
 100 ft /min  (2) The flammable escape rate is uncertain.
A concentration of 5 percent is reached in 16.7 minutes. (3) Local ventilation is used to control combustible dusts.
Equation D.12 and Equation D.15 can be plotted as shown in Local exhaust ventilation captures the combustible at its
Figure D.3(a) and Figure D.3(b). source, and a properly designed system can achieve almost
With respect to Figure D.3(b), which illustrates a continu- 100 percent effectiveness, provided that the local exhaust
ous release in an enclosed volume, once a continuous release pickup can be placed close to the point of release.

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ANNEX E 69–29

Annex E Purging Methods purging method might be impractical, and pressure or


vacuum purging might be more appropriate.
This annex is not a part of the requirements of this NFPA document The relationship between the number of volumes of purge
but is included for informational purposes only. gas circulated and the reduction in concentration of the criti-
E.1 General. Any of several methods might be used to ensure cal component in original tank contents, assuming complete
the formation and maintenance of a noncombustible atmo- mixing, is shown on the graph in Figure E.2.6.
sphere in an enclosure to be protected. These include “batch”
methods for one-time or occasional use, as in purging equip-
1.0
ment during shutdown, and “continuous” methods intended
to ensure safe conditions during normal operations. The fol-

Fraction of original concentration


lowing is an outline of various purging methods.
0.8
E.2 Purging Methods.
E.2.1 Batch Purging. This method includes siphon, vacuum, 0.6
pressure, and venting to atmosphere.
E.2.2 Continuous Purging. This method includes fixed-rate
application and variable-rate or demand application. 0.4

E.2.3 Siphon Purging. In this method, equipment might be


purged by filling with liquid and introducing purge gas into 0.2
the vapor space to replace the liquid as it is drained from the
enclosure. The volume of purge gas required is equal to the
volume of the vessel, and the rate of application can be made 0
to correspond to the rate of draining. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Number of volumes of purge gas injected
E.2.4 Vacuum Purging. In this method, equipment that nor-
mally operates at reduced pressure, or in which it is practical to
develop reduced pressure, might be purged during shutdown by FIGURE E.2.6 Dilution Ratio — Purging at Atmospheric
breaking the vacuum with purge gas. If the initial pressure is not Pressure (Complete Mixing Assumed).
low enough to ensure the desired low oxidant concentration, it
might be necessary to re-evacuate and repeat the process. The The following points should be noted:
amount of purge gas required is determined by the number of
applications required to develop the desired oxidant concentra- (1) The total quantity required might be less than that for a
tion. Where two or more containers or tanks are joined by a series of steps of pressure purging.
manifold and should be purged as a group, the vapor content of (2) Four to five volumes of purge gas are sufficient to almost
each container or tank should be checked to determine that completely displace the original mixture, assuming com-
complete purging has been accomplished. plete mixing.
E.2.5 Pressure Purging. In this method, enclosures might be E.2.7 Fixed-Rate Purging. This method involves the continu-
purged by increasing the pressure within the enclosure by in- ous introduction of purge gas into the enclosure at a constant
troducing purge gas under pressure and, after the gas has dif- rate, which should be sufficient to supply the peak require-
fused, venting the enclosure to the atmosphere. More than ment in order that complete protection is provided, and a
one pressure cycle might be necessary to reduce the oxidant corresponding release of purge gas and whatever gas, mist, or
content to the desired percentage. Where two or more con- dust has been picked up in the equipment.
tainers or tanks are joined by a manifold and should be The following information regarding the fixed-rate purg-
purged as a group, the vapor content of each container or ing method should be noted:
tank should be checked to determine that the desired purging (1) The advantages are simplicity, lack of dependence on de-
has been accomplished. Where a container filled with com- vices such as pressure regulators, and possible reduced
bustible material is to be emptied and then purged, purge gas maintenance.
might be applied to the vapor space at a pressure consistent (2) The disadvantages are as follows:
with equipment design limitations, thus accomplishing both
the emptying of the vessel and the purging of the vapor space (a) Continuous loss of product where the space contains
in the same process. a volatile liquid, due to constant “sweeping” of the
vapor space by the purge gas
E.2.6 Sweep-Through Purging. This method involves intro- (b) Increased total quantity of purge gas, since it is sup-
ducing a purge gas into the equipment at one opening and plied regardless of whether it is needed
letting the enclosure content escape to the atmosphere (c) Possible disposal problems (toxic and other effects)
through another opening, thus sweeping out residual vapor. for the mixture continuously released
The quantity of purge gas required depends on the physical
arrangement. A pipeline can be effectively purged with only a Figure E.2.7 shows a method of flow control that can be
little more than one volume of purge gas if the gas can be used with fixed-rate purging.
introduced at one end and the mixture can be released at the E.2.8 Variable-Rate or Demand Purging. This method in-
other. However, vessels require quantities of purge gas much volves the introduction of purge gas into an enclosure at a
in excess of their volume. variable rate that is dependent on demand and is usually
If the system is complex, involving side branches through based on maintaining within the protected enclosure an arbi-
which circulation cannot be established, the sweep-through trarily selected pressure slightly above that of the surrounding

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69–30 EXPLOSION PREVENTION SYSTEMS

From distribution To purged


header enclosure To vessel
From distribution vapor space To purged
Check valve header enclosure
(most suitable
location)
Check valve
Union Union
Strainer Union Union

Strainer

Orifice plate size


based on peak demand
Drain

FIGURE E.2.7 Method of Flow Control for Use with Fixed- Flow control valve size
Rate Purging. based on peak demand
Drain

atmosphere. Peak supply rate should be computed as described FIGURE E.2.8(a) Method of Flow Control for Use with
under “Calculation of Peak Purge Gas Rates,” which follows. Variable-Rate Purging.
The following information regarding the variable-rate or
demand purging should be noted:
(1) The advantages are that purge gas is supplied only when
actually needed and that it is possible, when desirable, to From distribution To purged
completely prevent influx of air. header enclosure
(2) A disadvantage is that operation depends on the function-
ing of pressure control valves that operate at sometimes Check valve
very low pressure differentials, which are sometimes diffi-
cult to maintain.
Union Union
Figure E.2.8(a) shows a method of flow control that can be Continuous
Strainer low-volume bleed
used with variable-rate purging. Figure E.2.8(b) shows an alterna-
tive method that is applicable where the purge gas requirement
during out-pumping is a large part of the peak demand.
E.3 Calculation of Peak Purge Gas Rates. Peak demand is de- Orifice plate
scribed in Section 5.6 as the total expected system requirements.
For any one element of the system, the peak demand is
controlled by factors such as the following:
Solenoid valve
(1) Maximum withdrawal rate operated by pump
motor switch
(2) Temperature change Drain
(3) Leaks
(4) Rapid atmospheric pressure changes
FIGURE E.2.8(b) Alternative Method of Flow Control for
Cooling of the contents of a vessel containing a vapor or Use with Variable-Rate Purging.
hot liquid presents a special and frequent case of vacuum
purging. Condensation of vapor to a liquid or reduction in
pressure of the gas phase can rapidly produce partial vacuum, For a vessel that contains a liquid, the purge gas demand
which could result in the following: from liquid withdrawal, change of liquid composition from
mixing, or increasing solubility of purge gas in the liquid is the
(1) Imposition of excessive stresses on equipment or collapse
greater of one of the following:
of the vessel
(2) Sucking in of air from joints that might not leak under (1) The volume equivalent of the capacity of the largest pump
internal pressure that can withdraw liquid
(3) Creation of a need for high supply rates of inert gas (2) The maximum possible gravity outflow rate
Every situation should be treated individually. The peak Where two tanks are manifolded together so that one can
supply rate should be computed for each case, with consider- flow by gravity into the other, a vapor space interconnection is
ation given to cooling rate, vessel size, and configuration, sometimes used to reduce the required purge gas supply from
which determine the rate of condensation. outside sources.
If neither the reducing valve nor the source gas can be For outdoor tanks operating at or near atmospheric pres-
relied on to supply the amount of inert gas required to pre- sure, the maximum demand from temperature change occurs
vent reduction of pressure below atmospheric, the vessel in outdoor tanks operating at near atmospheric pressure as a
might have to be designed for full vacuum. result of sudden cooling by a summer thunderstorm. The rate

2002 Edition --````,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright National Fire Protection Association


Provided by IHS under license with NFPA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
ANNEX F 69–31

of purge gas supply necessary to prevent vessel pressure falling F.2 Informational References. The following documents or
significantly below atmospheric pressure can be calculated as portions thereof are listed here as informational resources only.
follows: They are not a part of the requirements of this document.
Bartknecht, W., Explosions: Course, Prevention, Protection,
(1) For tanks over 3.028 million L (800,000 gal) capacity,
Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1981.
0.056 m3 (2 ft3) of purge gas per hour for each square foot
of total shell and roof area L. G. Britton, “Using Heats of Oxidation to Evaluate Flam-
(2) For smaller tanks, 0.028 m3 (1 ft3) purge gas per hour for mability Hazards,” March 2002, Process Safety Progress.
each 151 L (40 gal) of tank capacity, or the rate corre- Coward, J. F., and G. W. Jones, “Limits of Flammability of
sponding to a mean rate of the change of the vapor space Gases and Vapors,” Bulletin 503, U.S. Bureau of Mines, Pitts-
temperature of 38°C (100°F) per hour burgh, PA, 1952.
Eckhoff, R. K., Dust Explosions in the Process Industries,
See API Standard 2000, Venting Atmospheric and Low-Pressure Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, England, 1991.
Storage Tanks Nonrefrigerated and Refrigerated, for further infor- Jones, G. W., M. G. Zabetakis, J. K. Richmond, G. S. Scott,
mation on the calculation of rate of purge gas supply. and A. L. Furno, “Research on the Flammability Characteris-
The rates for temperature change and liquid withdrawal tics of Aircraft Fuels,” Wright Air Development Center, Wright-
should be added unless a special circumstance exists that pre- Patterson AFB, OH, Technical Report 52-35, Supplement I,
vents them from occurring simultaneously. 1954, 57 pp.
In some equipment, such as pulverizers, the rate of purge Kuchta, J. M., A. L. Furno, A. Bartkowiak, and G. H. Martin-
gas supply necessary to exclude air might be dominated by dill, “Effect of Pressure and Temperature on Flammability
leakage, and temperature change can be ignored. Limits of Chlorinated Combustibles in Oxygen-Nitrogen and
Nitrogen Tetroxide-Nitrogen Atmospheres,” Journal of Chemi-
cal and Engineering Data, Vol. 13, No. 3, July 1968 (American
Chemical Society, Washington, D.C.) p. 421.
Annex F Informational References Noronha, J. A., J. T. Merry, and W.C. Reid, “Deflagration
Pressure Containment for Vessel Safety Design, Plant/
F.1 Referenced Publications. The following documents or Operations Progress,” Vol. 1, No. 1, American Institute of
portions thereof are referenced within this standard for infor- Chemical Engineers, New York, NY, Jan., 1982.
mational purposes only and are thus not part of the require- Schuber, G., “Rotary Valves for Explosion Isolation: Ap-
ments of this document unless also listed in Chapter 2. proval Without Testing,” European Information Centre for
F.1.1 NFPA Publications. National Fire Protection Association, Explosion Protection—International Symposium, Antwerp,
1 Batterymarch Park, P.O. Box 9101, Quincy, MA 02269-9101. Belgium, September, 1989.
NFPA 51B, Standard for Fire Prevention During Welding, Cut- Zabetakis, M. G., “Flammability Characteristics of Combus-
ting, and Other Hot Work, 1999 edition. tible Gases and Vapors,” Bulletin 627, U.S. Bureau of Mines,
NFPA 68, Guide for Venting of Deflagrations, 2002 edition. Pittsburgh, PA, 1965.
Zabetakis, M. G., and B. H. Rosen, “Considerations In-
NFPA 72®, National Fire Alarm Code®, 2002 edition.
volved in Handling Kerosine,” Proceedings, API, Vol. 37, Sec. III,
NFPA 326, Standard for the Safeguarding of Tanks and Contain- 1957, p. 296.
ers for Entry, Cleaning, or Repair, 1999 edition.
F.3 References for Extracts. The following documents are
Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials, 1997 edition.
listed here to provide reference information, including title
F.1.2 Other Publications. and edition, for extracts given throughout this standard as
indicated by a reference in brackets [ ] following a section or
F.1.2.1 API Publications. American Petroleum Institute, 1220 paragraph. These documents are not a part of the require-
L Street, NW, Washington, DC 20005. ments of this document unless also listed in Chapter 2 for
API RP 521, Guide for Pressure-Relieving and Depressuring Sys- other reasons.
tems, Third Edition, 1990. NFPA 68, Guide for Venting of Deflagrations, 2002 edition.
API STD 2000, Venting Atmospheric and Low-Pressure Storage NFPA 86, Standard for Ovens and Furnaces, 1999 edition.
Tanks Nonrefrigerated and Refrigerated, Fourth Edition, 1992. NFPA 220, Standard on Types of Building Construction, 1999
API 2016, Guidlelines and Procedures for Entering and Cleaning edition.
Petroleum Storage Tanks, 2001. NFPA 654, Prevention of Fire and Dust Explosions from the
F.1.2.2 USBM Publications. U.S. Bureau of Mines, Columbia Manufacturing, Processing and Handling of Combustible Particulate
Plaza, 2401 E Street, NW, Washington, DC 20241. Solids, 2000 editions.
Nagy, J., H. G. Dorsett, Jr., and M. Jacobson, Preventing Ignition F.4 Additional References. Brenn-und Explosions-Kenngrossen
of Dust Dispersions by Inerting, Report of Investigations 6543, 1964. von Stauben, Berufsgenossenschaftliches Institut fur Arbeits-
Nagy, J., A. R. Cooper, and J. M. Stupar, Pressure Development in sicherheit (BIA) Bergbau-Versuchsstrecke, Institut fur Explosion-
Laboratory Dust Explosions, Report of Investigations 6561, 1964. sschutz und Sprengtechnik, Sonderdruck der sicherheitstechnis-
Nagy, J. and D. J. Surincik, Thermal Phenomena During Ignition chen.
of a Heated Dust Dispersion, Report of Investigation 6811, 1966. VDI Richtlinie 3673, Verein Deutscher Ingenieure-
Kommission Reinhalting der Luft, Dusseldorf, VDI Verlag
F.1.2.3 U.S. Government Publications. U.S. Government GmbH, Dusseldorf, 1979 and 1983.
Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402. Zabetakis, M.G., Gasfreeing of Cargo Tanks, Information Cir-
Title 33, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 154. cular 7994, U.S. Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh, PA, 1961.

2002 Edition
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Copyright National Fire Protection Association


Provided by IHS under license with NFPA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
69–32 EXPLOSION PREVENTION SYSTEMS

Index

© 2002 National Fire Protection Association. All Rights Reserved.


The copyright in this index is separate and distinct from the copyright in the document that it indexes. The licensing provisions set forth for the
document are not applicable to this index. This index may not be reproduced in whole or in part by any means without the express written
permission of NFPA.

-A- Continuous purging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E.2.2


Acceptance test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5 Control units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .see Power/control units
Aerosol filling rooms, Cross connections, purge gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5.7, A.5.5.7
deflagration suppression systems for . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1.2(5) Cutting and welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.2(8), A.1.3.2(8)
Air
Dilution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.3 -D-
As oxidant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1.3
Alarms Damage, limiting or preventing . . . . . . . . 4.1, 4.1.2; see also Deflagration
Combustible concentration reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.3 isolation, control by; Deflagration suppression;
Isolation methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4.8, 9.4.8.4 Pressure containment, deflagration control by; Spark
Spark detection and extinguishing systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.3.1(3), detection and extinguishing systems
7.3.3.1(4), 7.3.3.2, 7.3.3.3(9), 7.3.3.4, 7.3.3.5, 7.3.4.5 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chap. 3
Suppression system power/control unit for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5 Deflagration (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.8
Analyzers, inspection of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.4.6.1 Deflagration isolation, control by . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chap. 9
Application of standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3, A.1.3.2(2), A.1.3.2(8) Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1, A.9.1.1, A.9.1.5
Approved (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1, A.3.2.1 Automatic fast-acting valve systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4, A.9.4
Authority having jurisdiction (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.2, A.3.2.2 Chemical isolation systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6
Flame arresters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3, A.9.3
Flame front diverters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.5, A.9.5
-B- Liquid seals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.7, A.9.7
Backflash prevention/protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.3.1, 5.2.3.3 Power/control units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4.8
Backflow prevention, purge gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5.7, A.5.5.7 Rotary valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2, A.9.2
Batch purging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E.2.1 Deflagration isolation (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.24.2
Blanketing (padding) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7.2.7.1, A.5.7.2.7.1 Deflagration pressure containment . . . . . . . . .see Pressure containment,
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.1 deflagration control by
Burning velocity Deflagration suppression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chap. 8
Flame burning (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.2.1 Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1
Fundamental burning (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.2.2 Basic design considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.4
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.10
-C- Detectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .see Detectors
Electrically fired initiators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5.1(2), 8.5.3(7), 8.7
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Catalytic oxidation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.2, A.6.3.2 Electrical wiring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.10


Check valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5.6.1, 5.5.6.2 Enclosures protected by . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1.2
Chemical isolation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6 Inspection and maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.11, A.8.11.1, A.8.11.3
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.24.1
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.9
Combustible concentration reduction . . .see Concentration reduction
Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2
Combustible (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.3
Personnel safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3, A.8.3.1
Combustible dust
Post-actuation procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.12
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.4
Power/control units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5, 8.11.7
Deflagration suppression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1.1
Suppressant and suppressant storage containers . . . . . . . . . 8.8, A.8.8
Design pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3.3.2
Inerting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table C.2 Deflagration venting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.2(2), A.1.3.2(2)
Isolation systems for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1.4, 9.2.1, 9.3.1(3) Demand purging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E.2.8
Limiting oxidant concentration (LOC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.2.1, Design pressure, vessel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1.1, 10.1.2, 10.1.4,
A.5.2.2.1, Tables C.1(b) and C.1(c) 10.3, A.10.3.3, A.10.3.5
Positive pressure systems handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3.5(2), 10.3.5(3) Detectors
Spark detection and extinguishing systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1.1 Isolation systems
Combustible liquids, positive pressure systems handling . . . 10.3.5(1) Automatic fast-acting valves systems . . . . . . . . . 9.4.8(1), 9.4.8.2(8),
Combustible particulate solid (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.5, A.3.3.5 9.4.9, 9.4.13.1, A.9.4.9.1
Combustion Chemical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6.2
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.6 Flame arresters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3.5(1)
Prevention of . . . . . . . . . . 4.1, A.4.1; see also Concentration reduction Spark detection . . . . .see Spark detection and extinguishing systems
Concentration reduction Suppression systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.4.1(3), 8.6, 8.9.3
Combustible concentration reduction . . . . . . . . . . . Chap. 6, Annex B Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.11.1
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.7.1 Power/control unit for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5.1(1), 8.5.3(8)
Oxidant concentration reduction . . . . . . . Chap. 5, Annex B; see also Testing and calibrating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.11.5
Limiting oxidant concentrations (LOC); Purge gas Detonation, systems to contain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2.1, A.10.2.1
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.7.2 Detonation arresters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.9.3.4
Design and operating requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2, A.5.2 Detonation (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.11
Instrumentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7, A.5.7 Diluents, inert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B.3
Containers Disarming procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3.1, A.8.3.1
Automatic fast-acting valve systems for . . . . . . . . 9.4.14(2), 9.4.14(3) Ducts
Suppressant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .see Suppressants Deflagration protection systems, limitations on . . . 10.2.2, A.10.2.2

2002 Edition

Copyright National Fire Protection Association


Provided by IHS under license with NFPA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
INDEX 69–33

Isolation methods for . . . . . . . . .see Deflagration isolation, control by Inert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .see Inert gas
Spark detection and extinguishing systems for . . . . . . . . . . . . .see Spark Positive pressure systems handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3.5(1)
detection and extinguishing systems Purge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .see Purge gas
Dust, combustible . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .see Combustible dust Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.3.3

-E- -H-
Electrically fired initiators . . . . . . . . . . . . . .see Initiators, electrically fired Hot particle detection and intervention systems, deflagration
Electrical wiring prevention by . . . . . . Chap. 7; see also Spark detection and
Deflagration suppression systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.10 extinguishing system
Isolation methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4.12, 9.6.6 Hybrid mixture (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.22
Enclosures
Buildup of combustible concentrations in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.3
Oxygen deficient atmosphere, personnel in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.5.2.1 -I-
Protected by deflagration suppression systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1.2 Ignition source isolation (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.22.4;
Equivalency to standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 see also Deflagration isolation, control by
Explosion (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.12 Incinerators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.3.1
Extinguishing agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .see Suppressants Incipient fires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.5.1.1
Extinguishing systems, flame front . . . . .see Flame front extinguishing Inert gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.2(1), 5.3.2(2), 5.3.2(6),
systems 5.7.2.7.2; see also Purge gas
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.20
Distribution system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5.6
-F- Use of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B.3
Fast-acting valves Inerting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .see also Blanketing (padding)
Automatic systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1.5(3), 9.4, Table A.9.1.5, A.9.4 Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.23
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.13 Dust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table C.2
Fasteners, threaded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.5 Number of air changes required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.2
Fires, incipient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.5.1.1 Initiators, electrically fired
Fixed-rate purging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E.2.7 Deflagration isolation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4.10, 9.6.4
Flame arresters . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.3.2, 9.1.5(2), 9.3, Table A.9.1.5, A.9.3 Deflagration suppression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5.1(2), 8.5.3(7), 8.7
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.14, A.3.3.14 Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6, A.4.6
Flame burning velocity (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.2.1 Automatic fast-acting valve systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4.14, 9.4.15
Flame front diverters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1.3, 9.1.5(4), 9.5, Chemical isolation systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6.8
Table A.9.1.5, A.9.5 Deflagration pressure containment systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.6
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.15 Deflagration suppression systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.11, 8.12,
Flame front extinguishing systems . . . . . . 9.1.3, 9.1.5(5), Table A.9.1.5 A.8.11.1, A.8.11.3
Flame speed (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.16 Flame arresters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3.6, A.9.3.6
Flammability diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B.1, B.2 Spark detection and extinguishing systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5
Flammable limits Instrumentation
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.17, A.3.3.17 Combustible concentration reduction systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4
Lower flammable limit (LFL) Inspection of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.4.6.1
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.17.1 Purge gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7, A.5.7
Reducing combustible Isolation
concentration below . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2, 6.3.1, A.6.2.2 Chemical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6
Upper flammable limit (UFL) Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.22.1
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.17.2 Deflagration (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.22.2
Oxidant concentration reduction system see also Deflagration isolation, control by
operating above . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7.3, A.5.7.3.1 Flow (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.24.3
Oxidant concentration reduction systems Ignition source (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.24.4
operating below LOC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.5.7.2.7.1 Isolation (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.24, A.3.3.24;
Flammable range (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.18 see also Deflagration isolation, control by
Flares . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.3.1
Flow isolation (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.22.3
Flue gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5.4 -L-
Fuel gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.2(7) Labeled (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.3
Fundamental burning velocity (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.2.2 Laboratory equipment, deflagration
suppression systems for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1.2(4)
Limiting oxidant concentrations (LOC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1, 5.2.2,
-G- 5.2.3.3, A.5.2.1, A.5.2.2.1, App. C
Gas Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.23, A.3.3.23
Combustible, limiting oxidant Systems operated below . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7.2, A.5.7.2
concentrations (LOC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .see Limiting Liquid seals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1.5(6), 9.3.1(1), 9.7,
oxidant concentrations (LOC) Table A.9.1.5, A.9.7
Combustion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5.4 Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.24
Control systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.3.2 Listed (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.4, A.3.2.4
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.19 Lockout/tagout procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3.1
Flammability diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B.1, B.2 Lower flammable limit (LFL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .see Flammable limits
Flammable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2.1, 8.1.1, 9.1.4
Combustible concentration reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annex B
Limiting oxidant concentrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.2.1, A.5.2.2.1, -M-
Table C.1(a) Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6, A.4.6
Mixtures of gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B.6 Automatic fast-acting valve systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4.14
Oxidant concentration reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annex B Chemical isolation systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6.8

2002 Edition
--````,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright National Fire Protection Association


Provided by IHS under license with NFPA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
69–34 EXPLOSION PREVENTION SYSTEMS

Deflagration pressure containment systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.4 Purge gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1(4), 5.2.1(7), A.5.2.1
Deflagration suppression systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3.1.2, 8.11 Application methods at points of use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.6
Spark detection and extinguishing systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5 Backflow prevention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5.7, A.5.5.7
Material-handling equipment, Conditioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4
deflagration suppression systems for . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1.2(3) Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.21
Maximum pressure (Pmax) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1.1, 10.2.2(5), 10.3.3, Instrumentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7.1, A.5.7.1
10.3.3.1, A.10.2.2, A.10.3.3 Piping systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5, A.5.5.5
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.25 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3, A.5.3.2(4)
Positive pressure systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3.5, A.10.3.5 Use of systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.3, A.5.2.3.4
Purge gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.6.2 Purging methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annex E
Rotary valves withstanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2.3 Batch purging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E.2.1
Suppressed deflagration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.3 Continuous purging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E.2.2
Methane, use for vent headers of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7.3.2, 5.7.3.3 Fixed-rate purging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E.2.7
Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .see also Purging methods Peak purge gas rates, calculation of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E.3
Combustion, preventing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1, A.4.1; Pressure purging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E.2.5
see also Concentration reduction Siphon purging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E.2.3
Damage, limiting or preventing . . . . 4.1, 4.1.2; see also Deflagration Sweep-through purging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E.2.6
isolation, control by; Deflagration suppression; Vacuum purging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E.2.4
Pressure containment, deflagration control by; Spark Variable-rate or demand purging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E.2.8
detection and extinguishing systems Purpose of standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2
Factors in selection of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Pyrophoric materials, preventing
Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2, 7.2, 8.2, 10.2, A.7.2.3, A.10.2 uncontrolled oxidation of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.3.4, A.5.2.3.4
Mists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1.1
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.26
Moisture traps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5.3 -R-
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chap. 2, Annex F
Retroactivity of standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4
-N- Rotary valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1.5(1), 9.2, Table A.9.1.5, A.9.2
Natural gas, use for vent headers of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7.3.2
Nozzles, suppressant discharge . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.4.1, 8.9.2, 8.9.3, 8.11.1
-S-
Scope of standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1
-O- Seals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .see Liquid seals
Oxidant Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1(8), A.5.2.1
Air as . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1.3 Shall (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.5
Concentration reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . .see Concentration reduction Should (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.6
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.27 Shutdown, of protected system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5.4
Oxidation, catalytic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.2, A.6.3.2 Shutoff valves, manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5.5, A.5.5.5
Siphon purging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E.2.3
Smoldering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.5.1.1
-P- Spark detection and extinguishing systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1.5(7)
Padding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .see Blanketing (padding) Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1
Personnel safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1(8), 6.4.3, 8.3, Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.30
9.4.7, A.5.2.1, A.8.3.1 Design considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3, A.7.3.1
Pilot plant equipment, Inspection and maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5
deflagration suppression systems for . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1.2(4) Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2, A.7.2.3
Pipes and piping systems Power/control units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.3
Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.6.2 Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4
Deflagration protection systems, limitations on . . . 10.2.2, A.10.2.2 Standard (definition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.7
Isolation methods for . . . . . . . . .see Deflagration isolation, control by Steam, for purging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.2(4), A.5.3.2(4)
Purge gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5, A.5.5.5 Storage tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7.2.7.1, 8.1.2(2), A.5.7.2.1
Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4 Suppressants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.1, 8.4.1(4), 8.8, 9.6.1.2, 9.6.3, A.8.8;
Pneumatic valve actuator systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4.11 see also Deflagration suppression
Positive pressure systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3.5, A.10.3.5 Containers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.8.3, 8.11.3, 8.11.4, 8.11.10,
Power/control units 9.6.3.3, 9.6.8.2, 9.6.8.3
Deflagration suppression systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5, 8.11.7 Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.31
Isolation methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4.8, 9.6.5 Discharge nozzles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.4.1, 8.9.2, 8.9.3, 8.11.1
Spark detection and extinguishing systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.3 Sweep-through purging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E.2.6
Pressure containment, deflagration control by
Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1, A.10.1.5
Attached equipment, protection of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1.5, A.10.1.5 -T-
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.9 Tagout procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .see Lockout/tagout procedures
Design bases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3, A.10.3.3, A.10.3.5 Tanks, storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7.2.7.1, 8.1.2(2), A.5.7.2.7.1
Design limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2, A.10.2 Testing
Inspection after deflagration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.6 Acceptance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5
Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.4 Automatic fast-acting valve systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4.15
Threaded fasteners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.5 Chemical isolation systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6.8.5
Pressure piling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.10.1.5 Deflagration suppression systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.11, 8.12
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.39 Limiting oxidant concentrations (LOC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.2.2
Pressure purging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E.2.5 Purge gas piping system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5.8
Processing equipment, Spark detection and extinguishing systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4
deflagration suppression systems for . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1.2(1) Training, employee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3.2, 8.11.2, 9.4.7, A.4.6

2002 Edition
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Copyright National Fire Protection Association


Provided by IHS under license with NFPA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale
INDEX 69–35

-U- Variable-rate purging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E.2.8


Upper flammable limit (UFL) Vent headers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7.3.2
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.17.2 Ventilation
Oxidant concentration reduction systems Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annex D
operating above . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7.3, A.5.7.3.1 Combustible concentration reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.3
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.33
Time required for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D.1
-V- Venting
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Vacuum method of oxidant concentration reduction, Deflagration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1.2


inert gas use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7.2.7.2 Purge gas piping system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5.9
Vacuum purging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E.2.4 Vessels, deflagration control for . . . . . . . . . . . . .see Pressure containment,
Vacuum systems, pressure containment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3.6 deflagration control by
Valve actuator systems, pneumatic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4.11
Valves
Automatic fast-acting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .see Fast-acting valves -W-
Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5.6.1, 5.5.6.2 Welding and cutting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.2(8), A.1.3.2(8)
Rotary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .see Rotary valves Wiring
Shutoff, manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5.5, A.5.5.5 Deflagration suppression systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.10
Vapor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .see Gas Isolation methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4.12, 9.6.6

Cou/W 1 2 3 4 5 6 06 05 04 03 02 2002 Edition

Copyright National Fire Protection Association


Provided by IHS under license with NFPA
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale